National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water temperature setting

  1. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burke, William F. (Crest Hill, IL); Winiecki, Alan L. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  2. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  3. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats

  4. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Ridge, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  5. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  6. Managing water temperatures below hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.L.; Vermeyen, T.B.; O`Haver, G.G.

    1995-05-01

    Due to drought-related water temperature problems in the Bureau of Reclamation`s California Central Valley Project in the early 1990`s, engineers were forced to bypass water from the plants during critical periods. This was done at considerable cost in the form of lost revenue. As a result, an alternative method of lowering water temperature was developed and it has successfully lowered water temperatures downstream from hydroelectric facilities by using flexible rubber curtains. This innovative technology is aiding the survival of endangered fish populations. This article outlines the efforts and discusses the implementation of this method at several hydroelectric facilities in the area.

  7. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? December 11, 2008 - 8:45am Addthis ...

  8. Fire Water Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fire Water Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fire Water Lodge...

  9. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  10. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Winter? | Department of Energy At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? December 11, 2008 - 8:45am Addthis Did you know that you can save energy in the winter by setting the thermostat to 68°F while you're awake and setting it lower while you're asleep or away from home? By turning your thermostat back 10°-15° for 8 hours, you can save about 5%-15% a year on your heating bill-a savings

  11. At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    You can save 5%15% on your cooling bills by raising the temperature setting on your thermostat when you are away and don't need cooling. Only lower the setting to 78F when you are home and need...

  12. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratorys Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  13. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  14. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  15. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The method is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.

  17. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The methodmore » is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.« less

  18. Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water No abstract prepared. Authors: Didenko, Yuri T. ; McNamara, William B. ; Suslick, Kenneth S. Publication Date: 1999-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 850473 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Physical Chemistry A; Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: 50 Publisher: American Chemical Society Research

  19. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  20. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  1. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  2. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin; Davenport, Roger; Talbot, Jan; Herz, Richard; Genders, David; Symons, Peter; Brown, Lloyd

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  3. Analysis of temperatures and water levels in wells to estimatealluvial aquifer hydraulic conductivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Grace W.; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2003-06-19

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.28C in two wells to {approx}88C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  4. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  5. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES...

  6. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant ?-O-4 cleavage, ?-? deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight ?-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during hot water and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment.

  7. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  8. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  9. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  10. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  11. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  12. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  13. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  14. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  15. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  16. Water-level sensor and temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A temperature profile detector is described which comprises a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material are positioned at spaced locations along a length of the conductors. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  17. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  18. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  19. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  20. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00 The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding

  1. Low-Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data for Thermal Wells and Springs Through 1993 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  2. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  3. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  4. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Menicucci, David; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  5. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure ?-iron (?Fe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an ?Fe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of ?Fe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptake in ?Fe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in ?Fe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/?Fe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.

  6. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  7. Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking for iron-based alloys in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.Y.; Congleton, J.; Bahraloloom, A.

    1998-11-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities of a series of iron-based alloys (IBA), including some high-purity irons, were evaluated in lithiated water at temperatures up to 300 C. Inclusion distributions in each material were established using quantitative metallography and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). Electrochemical measurements were performed to investigate film formation kinetics. Results showed the minimum potential for SCC was a function of the inclusion content. Reducing the inclusion content in IBA moved the minimum potential for SCC in the anodic direction and/or increased the temperature for the onset of cracking but did not eliminate SCC.

  8. One-Dimensional Ceria as Catalyst for the Low-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.; Wen, W; Hanson, J; Teng, X; Marinkovic, N; Rodriguez, J

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study pure ceria and Pd-loaded ceria nanotubes and nanorods (1D-ceria) as catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. While bulk ceria is very poor as WGS catalysts, pure 1D-ceria displayed catalytic activity at a temperature as low as 300 C. The reduction of the pure 1D-ceria in pure hydrogen started at 150 C, which is a much lower temperature than those previously reported for the reduction of 3D ceria nanoparticles. This low reduction temperature reflects the novel morphology of the oxide systems and may be responsible for the low-temperature WGS catalytic activity seen for the 1D-ceria. Pd-loaded 1D ceria displayed significant WGS activity starting at 200 C. During pretreatment in H{sub 2}, the ceria lattice parameter increased significantly around 60 C, which indicates that Pd-oxygen interactions may facilitate the reduction of Pd-loaded 1D-ceria. Pd and ceria both participate in the formation of the active sites for the catalytic reactions. The low-temperature hydrogen pretreatment results in higher WGS activity for Pd-loaded 1D-ceria.

  9. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  10. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamone, Salvatore Concistr, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  11. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  12. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  13. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  14. Low temperature, sulfur tolerant homogeneous catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, R.M.

    1986-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to update and reorganize our recent review on homogeneous catalysis of the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) based on recent literature publications and patents. This updated version will serve as a means of selecting 10 candidate catalyst systems for use in developing effective, sulfur-tolerant, low temperature WGSR catalysts. This report discusses the variations possible in the basic chemistry associated with WGSR catalytic cycles, including basic, acidic, and neutral conditions. Then individual mechanism for specific WGSR catalyst systems are discussed. Finally, on the basis of the literature reports, a list is presented of candidate catalysts and basic systems we have chosen for study in Task 3.

  15. The melting temperature of liquid water with the effective fragment potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Willow, Soohaeng Y.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2015-09-17

    Direct simulation of the solid-liquid water interface with the effective fragment potential (EFP) via the constant enthalpy and pressure (NPH) ensemble was used to estimate the melting temperature (Tm) of ice-Ih. Initial configurations and velocities, taken from equilibrated constant pressure and temperature (NPT) simulations at T = 300 K, 350 K and 400 K, respectively, yielded corresponding Tm values of 37816 K, 38214 K and 38415 K. These estimates are consistently higher than experiment, albeit to the same degree with previously reported estimates using density functional theory (DFT)-based Born-Oppenheimer simulations with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional plus dispersion corrections (BLYP-D). KRB was supported by a Computational Science Graduate Fellowship from the Department of Energy. MSG was supported by a U.S. National Science Foundation Software Infrastructure (SI2) grant (ACI 1047772). SSX acknowledges support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  16. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  17. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  18. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  19. Identification of mixing effects in stratified chilled-water storage tanks by analysis of time series temperature data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, J.S.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    Several one-dimensional models of mixing in stratified chilled-water thermal energy storage tanks have been proposed. In the simplest models, mixing is assumed to be uniform throughout the tank. Other models permit spatial variation of mixing intensity. Published models were developed by adjusting model parameters to achieve qualitative agreement with measured profiles. The literature does not describe quantitative criteria for evaluating the performance of mixing models. This paper describes a method that can be used to determine the relative spatial distribution of mixing effects directly from experimental data. It also illustrates a method for quantitative comparison of experimental and modeled temperature profiles. The mixing calculation procedure may be applied to instantaneous spatial temperature data if temperature sensor spacing is sufficiently small. When sensors are widely spaced, time series data taken at individual sensors provide better accuracy. A criterion for maximum sensor spacing is proposed. The application of these procedures to time series charge-cycle operating data from a full-scale chilled-water thermal storage system serving a large medical center is described. Results of this analysis indicate that mixing is localized near the inlet diffuser and that one-dimensional flow with streamwise conduction predominates in most of the tank.

  20. Evolution of temperature distributions in a full-scale stratified chilled-water storage tank with radial diffusers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-10-01

    Temperature profiles in a full-scale, naturally stratified, chilled-water thermal storage tank are described. Tests were performed using a 1.4 million gallon (5,300 m{sup 3}), 44.5 ft (13.56 m) water depth cylindrical tank with radial diffusers. Nine charge and discharge cycle tests were performed for various flow rates, covering and extending beyond the normal operating range of the system. A method for obtaining thermocline thickness from field data was derived, and a relationship between inlet flow rate and initial thermocline thickness was established. Significant differences between profiles obtained for charge and discharge cycles at similar flow rates suggest that the free surface at the top of the tank allows more mixing to occur near the upper diffuser. A study of thermocline growth compares measured temperature profiles with those predicted by a numerical conduction model that uses temperature profiles measured early in the cycle as an initial condition. Comparison with the numerical study shows that, for high flow rate tests, large-scale mixing induced by the inlet diffuser can have significant effects on thermocline development, even after the thermocline has moved away from the inlet diffuser.

  1. Photochemical reaction of sulfur hexafluoride with water in low-temperature xenon matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Daisuke

    2011-03-14

    Sulfur hexafluoride SF{sub 6} is a very stable molecule with which very few reactions with other molecules have been reported. Here, we report a photochemical reaction of SF{sub 6} with water molecules using a matrix-isolation technique, where SF{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O were co-condensed in Xe matrices, and the products were observed using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 193 nm from an ArF excimer laser caused the simultaneous decomposition of SF{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O, which resulted in the production of novel species. Infrared spectra and molecular orbital calculations of the species showed that the product was a SF{sub 4}{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}HF{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}HOF complex, which consists of hydrogen bonds and charge transfer interaction between S and F atoms. The assignment of the species was confirmed by isotope shifts using D and {sup 18}O isotope substitutions.

  2. Low temperature, sulfur tolerant homogeneous catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction. Task 1, Topical report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, R.M.

    1986-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to update and reorganize our recent review on homogeneous catalysis of the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) based on recent literature publications and patents. This updated version will serve as a means of selecting 10 candidate catalyst systems for use in developing effective, sulfur-tolerant, low temperature WGSR catalysts. This report discusses the variations possible in the basic chemistry associated with WGSR catalytic cycles, including basic, acidic, and neutral conditions. Then individual mechanism for specific WGSR catalyst systems are discussed. Finally, on the basis of the literature reports, a list is presented of candidate catalysts and basic systems we have chosen for study in Task 3.

  3. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  4. Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Coso, a simple set of surface conditions. It is concluded that making useful shallow temperature measurements where there is a modest amount of ground water flow need not be a...

  5. Characterization of Surface Water/Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport Using Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee D. Slater; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Fred Day-Lewis; Kisa Mwakanyamale; Roelof J Versteeg; Andy Ward; Christopher Strickland; Carole D. Johnson; John Lane

    2010-10-01

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the river corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted CWEI (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The FO- DTS data recorded along a 1.5 km of cable with a 1-m spatial resolution and 5-minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and, (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water/groundwater exchange. The FO-DTS datasets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the CWEI and reveal a pattern of highly focused exchange, with exchange concentrated at springs where the Hanford formation is thick, and coinciding with a paleochannel identified in ground penetrating radar surveys at one location. No evidence for focused exchange is observed in the FO-DTS data where the Ringold unit is in contact with the riverbed or the Hanford formation is thin. Our findings illustrate how the combination of CWEI and FO-DTS technologies can characterize surface water/groundwater exchange in a complex, coupled river-aquifer system.

  6. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  7. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System  SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil

  8. Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore C. Hsiao

    1998-08-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.

  10. An apparatus for the study of high temperature water radiolysis in a nuclear reactor: Calibration of dose in a mixed neutron/gamma radiation field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Eric J.; Wilson, Paul P. H.; Anderson, Mark H.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Bartels, David M.

    2007-12-15

    The cooling water of nuclear reactors undergoes radiolytic decomposition induced by gamma, fast electron, and neutron radiation in the core. To model the process, recombination reaction rates and radiolytic yields for the water radical fragments need to be measured at high temperature and pressure. Yields for the action of neutron radiation are particularly hard to determine independently because of the beta/gamma field also present in any reactor. In this paper we report the design of an apparatus intended to measure neutron radiolysis yields as a function of temperature and pressure. A new methodology for separation of neutron and beta/gamma radiolysis yields in a mixed radiation field is proposed and demonstrated.

  11. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  12. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  13. Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary alloy exposed to high-temperature water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-10-30

    Intergranular oxidation of a Ni-4Al alloy exposed to hydrogenated, high-temperature water was characterized using directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. These combined analyses revealed that discrete, well-separated oxides (NiAl2O4) precipitated along grain boundaries in the metal. Aluminum was depleted from the grain boundary between oxides and also from one side of the boundary as a result of grain boundary migration. The discrete oxide morphology, disconnected from the continuous surface oxidation, suggests intergranular solid-state internal oxidation of Al. Keywords: oxidation; grain boundaries; nickel alloys; atom probe tomography; transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  14. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 ?m in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  15. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  16. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  18. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  19. Setting up File Permissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Setting up File Permissions Setting up File Permissions Recommendations for Setting up "Shared" Directories This section shows the recommended commands for setting up shared directories. Please read the full page to get an understanding of what these commands are doing. These recommendations are based on the common use-case at the JGI for user/group read/write and global read access. Creating a New Shared Directory dmj@genepool04:~$ umask 002 # or have this set in .bashrc.ext

  20. ARM - Related Data Sets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govDataRelated Data Sets Related Data Sets Numerous ARM collaborators compile and share similar types of data from their own research efforts. The links below provide a lengthy selection of these related data sets. AmeriFlux network, 120 sites-including ACRF-operating across North, Central, and South America CAGEX Database, from the cooperative program between CERES, ARM, and GEWEX CEPEX Integrated Data System (CIDS), from the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate (C4). An interactive access

  1. set1.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Water-Heating Energy Sources (more than one may apply) Electricity ...... 1,546 24,171 33,505 15.6 721 62 Natural Gas ...

  2. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  3. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.

  4. Geographic Setting M

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Geographic Setting M . I , . Merritt Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico Amchitka Island lies at latitude 51.5ON and longi- tude 17g0E. I t is one of the Rat Island Group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, which comprise the emergent part of a long submarine ridge connecting North America and Asia and separating the Bering Sea fro111 the North Pacific Ocean (Fig. 1). Am- chitka is allnost the souther~llnost Aleutian Island, only nearby Amatignak being farther south. I t is thus almost the

  5. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  6. set5.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil District Heat District Chilled Water Propane Other a All Buildings ............................................... 67,338 65,753 65,716 45,525 13,285 5,891 2,750 6,290 2,322 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 6,774 6,309 6,280 3,566 620 Q Q 635 292 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 8,238 7,721 7,721 5,088 583 Q Q 986 Q 10,001 to 25,000

  7. Temperature effects on airgun signatures (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Temperature effects on airgun signatures Experiments in an 850 liter water tank were performed in order to study temperature effects on airgun signatures, and to...

  8. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

  9. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  10. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower. The introduction of some quantity of deuterium into the gaseous flow before the hot tower lowers the tritium separation factor in that column. One possible variant of deuterium introduction to the hot tower of the first stage was modelled. The decontamination capacity increases by a 2.5 factor.

  11. SHM Data Sets and Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SHM Data Sets and Software SHM Data Sets and Software SHM Data Sets and Software Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Executive Administrator Ellie Vigil (505) 667-2818 Email Administrative Assistant Rebecca Duran (505) 665-8899 Email SHMTools Software (0.2.0 Beta) SHMTools is a MATLAB package that facilitates the construction of structural health monitoring (SHM) processes. The package provides a set of functions organized

  12. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  13. Use of Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods to Characterize Surface Water-Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-10-31

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of waterborne geoelectrical imaging, in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the hyporheic corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted waterborne geoelectrical (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). The spatial variability captured in the geoelectrical datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and point probing overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The DTS data recorded on 1. 5 km of cable with a 1 m spatial resolution and 5 minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) high temperature anomalies and, (2) a strong negative correlation between temperature and river stage, both indicative of groundwater influxes during winter months. The DTS datasets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the geoelectrical imaging and reveal a pattern of highly focused hyporheic exchange, with exchange concentrated at springs where the Hanford formation is thick, and coinciding with a paleochannel identified in ground penetrating radar surveys at one location. No evidence for focused hyporheic exchange is observed in the DTS data where the Ringold unit is in contact with the riverbed. Our findings illustrate how the combination of waterborne geoelectrical imaging and DTS technologies can characterize hyporheic exchange in a complex, coupled river-aquifer system.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to

  15. Set the PACE St. Louis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial property owners, community associations (e.g., Home Owners Associations), and some residential property owners are eligible for Set the PACE St. Louis. Currently, only residential prop...

  16. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  17. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  18. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  19. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  20. Potential Vulnerability of US Petroleum Refineries to Increasing Water

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Temperature and/or Reduced Water Availability | Department of Energy Potential Vulnerability of US Petroleum Refineries to Increasing Water Temperature and/or Reduced Water Availability Potential Vulnerability of US Petroleum Refineries to Increasing Water Temperature and/or Reduced Water Availability This report discusses potential impacts of increased water temperature and reductions in water availability on petroleum refining and presents case studies related to refinery water use. Report

  1. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  2. Moderate Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature level. Thus, reservoirs in the 190 to 230C range should have liquid water as the mobile fluid phase, and as such, this class is reasonably well constrained....

  3. Setting Up Your User Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PDSF Defined Environment When new users are added to the PDSF machines, the login shell is set according to the user's request. You can choose between csh, tcsh, or bash. You...

  4. Sunrayce 97 Finish Sets Records

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finish Sets Records For more information contact: Patrick Booher, Sunrayce Program Manager (202) 586-0713 Colorado Springs, Colo. -- Under sunny skies that have followed the race since its beginning in Indianapolis,, Sunrayce 97 roared to a record finish in Colorado Springs. Winning the event overall was California State University - Los Angeles with a record setting pace averaging 43:29 mph over the entire distance. Cal State - L.A. had a total elapsed time of 28:41:24 hours. Massachusetts

  5. Water in protoplanetary disks: Deuteration and turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-12-10

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in a vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and is destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r ? 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water ice from ?2 10{sup 2}, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 2} in 10{sup 6} yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the strength of mixing and the radial distance from the central star. Our finding suggests that the D/H ratio of cometary water (?10{sup 4}) could be established (i.e., cometary water could be formed) in the solar nebula, even if the D/H ratio of water ice delivered to the disk was very high (?10{sup 2}).

  6. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 495.5347 mA Date: 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 495.5 mA 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 LN:MainTankLevel 112.0...

  7. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  8. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  9. Fluid-inclusion evidence for past temperature fluctuations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the inclusion fluids range from dilute meteoric water to highly modified sea water concentrated by boiling. Comparison of measured drill-hole temperatures with...

  10. Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and 2775 feet. Temperature logs indicate a negative thermal gradient below 3000 feet. Water chemistry indicates that this geothermal resource is a hot-water rather than a...

  11. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  12. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  13. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  14. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  15. High-Temperature Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Materials - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  16. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  17. Optical set-reset latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  18. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  19. What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Set Your Thermostat to? What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? June 29, 2012 - 6:29pm Addthis Earlier this week, Kristin was telling us how you can use a programmable thermostat to save money when you're not at home. This is an easy trick that's useful in the winter as well as the summer, and can always help save you some money. Why heat or cool your house when you're not there? So this week, we'd like to know: What temperature do you set your thermostat to in the summer? You have the chance to

  20. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  1. Temperature sensors for OTEC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seren, L.; Panchal, C.B.; Rote, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applications require accurate measurement of temperatures in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. This report documents an experimental examination of commercially available quartz-crystal thermometers and thermistors. Three fixed-point baths were used for temperature measurements: the distilled-water/distilled-ice-water slurry, the triple-point-of-water cell, and the gallium melting-point cell. The temperature of carefully prepared ice-water slurries was verified routinely as 0.001 +- 0.003/sup 0/C. Quartz-crystal probes proved accurate to about 1 to 2 mK, with drift errors of the same order over a few days. Bead- and disk-type thermistor probes were found to be about equally stable with time in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. The overall probable error of using thermistors was found to be +-4 mK. A solid-block temperature bath suitable for on-site calibrations in OTEC work was used in the temperature-sweeping mode. Various polynomial fits were examined for the purpose of thermistor calibration; fits of order two and higher yielded about equally accurate calculated temperatures.

  2. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  3. 1998 Priority Setting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    998 Priority Setting 1998 Priority Setting Draft of the 1998 Priority Setting for Standards and Test Procedure Rulemakings, June 27, 1997 PDF icon priority_setting_fy98.pdf More Documents & Publications Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix B Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings 9th

  4. Electrolysis - High Temperature - Hydrogen - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolysis - High Temperature - Hydrogen Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a high-temperature process the utilizes solid oxide fuel cells that are operated in the electrolytic mode. The first process includes combining a high-temperature heat source (e.g. nuclear reactor) with a hydrogen production facility by taking a stream of water and heating it and then splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen product streams. A

  5. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within 30 C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  6. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 200 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  7. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the outer part of the self-consistent potential in such a way that in the final state after photoexcitation or photoionization the newly occupied orbital sees the hole left in the initial state. This is very important to account for the large number of Rydberg states in the case of low densities. In the next Section we show calculated photoabsorptions compared with experimental data in figures with some rudimentary explanations.

  8. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2014-05-21

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  9. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  10. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  11. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  12. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  13. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  14. World's Largest Laser Sets New Records | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The National Ignition Facility in California fired a shot of 300 trillion neutrons -- one step closer to the amount of neutrons needed to reach fusion ignition. Scientists also used the laser to create a temperature of six million degrees Fahernheit. The world's largest laser, located at the National Ignition Facility (or NIF) in California, set new records on October 31 and

  15. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of ...

  16. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  17. SetSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SetSolar Jump to: navigation, search Name: SetSolar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Zip: 7460 Sector: Solar Product: South African company that specialises in the manufacture of PV...

  18. Widget:SetTitle | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Parameters include: title - title text to display Usage: Widget:SetTitle |titleHello World Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWidget:SetTitle&oldid...

  19. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  20. Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

  1. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  2. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  3. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birthdeath points (a birthdeath point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  4. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  5. Title 40 CFR 230 Definitions - Clean Water Act | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RegulationRegulation: Title 40 CFR 230 Definitions - Clean Water ActLegal Abstract Sets forth regulatory definitions under the Clean Water Act including the definition of waters of...

  6. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  7. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security Home/Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, Energy-Water Nexus, Global, Global,

  8. Low-temperature geothermal database for Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.

    1994-11-01

    The goals of the low-temperature assessment project, performed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) is aimed primarily at updating the inventory of the nation's low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. The study has begun in Oregon, where the areas of Paisley, Lakeview, Burns/Hines, Lagrande, and Vale were identified over 40 sites as having potential for direct heat utilization. Specifics sites are outlined, detailing water temperature, flow, and current uses of the sites.

  9. The Final Countdown: 10 Schools Set to Face Off at Collegiate Wind

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Competition | Department of Energy The Final Countdown: 10 Schools Set to Face Off at Collegiate Wind Competition The Final Countdown: 10 Schools Set to Face Off at Collegiate Wind Competition April 14, 2014 - 11:33am Addthis The Final Countdown: 10 Schools Set to Face Off at Collegiate Wind Competition Brie Van Cleve Former Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach Manager, Wind and Water Power Technologies Office The champions of both the men's and women's college basketball tournaments were

  10. LANL sets TRU waste hauling record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sets TRU waste hauling record LANL sets TRU waste hauling record TRU waste consists of clothing, tools, rags, debris, soil, and other items contaminated with radioactive elements, mostly plutonium. October 4, 2011 TRU waste from LANL to WIPP TRU waste from LANL to WIPP Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, October 4, 2011-Los Alamos National Laboratory has set a new LANL record for the amount of transuranic (TRU) waste from past

  11. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  12. Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Diesel Combustion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  13. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  14. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security Home/Tag:Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis,

  15. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL * Kate McMordie Stoughton - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * kate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water efficiency

  16. Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency The water temperature you desire for your swimming pool not only affects the size of the pool's heater, but also your heating costs if use a gas or heat pump pool heater. Pool water temperatures typically range from 78ºF to 82ºF. The American Red Cross recommends a temperature of 78ºF for competitive swimming.

  17. Transient temperature measurements of a plume in a confined space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.H.; Hsieh, C.F.; Teng, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the present study is to measure the transient temperature profiles of a plume in a confined space and to develop an empirical formula relating heat transfer and buoyancy. The transient natural convective phenomenon, resulting from the buoyant effect, exists in confined spaces. This phenomenon is of practical importance in many fields, such as the formation process of material, cooling of electronic parts, design of solar collectors, cooling of fins, physics of space, fire plume in a compartment and movement of ocean current, etc. The present work is to study the transient natural convection phenomenon of a thermal plume. The plume is generated by locating a constant heat flux annular cylinder heater at the bottom of a confined cubic enclosure filled with water. The temperature profiles in the plume are measured and collected by six T-type thermocouples and a set of data acquisition system. Each test run lasts about 200 minutes and the measurement time step is 1 minute. The results indicate that the heat transfer mechanism in the plume is characterized by up-moving buoyancy-driven energy envelopes. Stratified temperature structure, which is caused by the retarding motion of the plume near the top surface, is also observed. An empirical correlation along local Nusselt number, Fourier number and modified Rayleigh number is obtained and written as Nu{sub x}/Ra{sub x}*{sup 1/4} = 0.00422Fo{sub L}{sup {minus}0.893}.

  18. An accurate and efficient computational protocol for obtaining the complete basis set limits of the binding energies of water clusters at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory: Application to (H?O)m, m=2-6, 8, 11, 16 and 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2015-06-21

    We report MP2 and CCSD(T) binding energies with basis sets up to pentuple zeta quality for the m = 2-6, 8 clusters. Or best CCSD(T)/CBS estimates are -4.99 kcal/mol (dimer), -15.77 kcal/mol (trimer), -27.39 kcal/mol (tetramer), -35.9 0.3 kcal/mol (pentamer), -46.2 0.3 kcal/mol (prism hexamer), -45.9 0.3 kcal/mol (cage hexamer), -45.4 0.3 kcal/mol (book hexamer), -44.3 0.3 kcal/mol (ring hexamer), -73.0 0.5 kcal/mol (D2d octamer) and -72.9 0.5 kcal/mol (S4 octamer). We have found that the percentage of both the uncorrected (dimer) and BSSE-corrected (dimerCPe) binding energies recovered with respect to the CBS limit falls into a narrow range for each basis set for all clusters and in addition this range was found to decrease upon increasing the basis set. Relatively accurate estimates (within < 0.5%) of the CBS limits can be obtained when using the 2/3, 1/3 (for the AVDZ set) or the , (for the AVTZ, AVQZ and AV5Z sets) mixing ratio between dimere and dimerCPe. Based on those findings we propose an accurate and efficient computational protocol that can be used to estimate accurate binding energies of clusters at the MP2 (for up to 100 molecules) and CCSD(T) (for up to 30 molecules) levels of theory. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multi program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. This research also used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. AC02-05CH11231.

  19. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  20. Exhibit Set Up | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications, Exhibits, & Logos » Exhibit Set Up Exhibit Set Up Follow these step-by step instructions in order to set up your exhibit. 1. The exhibit case. Photo of a man opening an exhibit case. 2. Inside the top of the case, you will find shipping labels, extra bulbs, and contact information. Photo of an open exhibit case. 3. Expand the display frame by pulling the center piece apart gently. Red feet should be at bottom front. Photo of a man unfolding an exhibit display frame. 4. Fully

  1. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  2. Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-09-01

    Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7.5{angstrom} and 5.5{angstrom} to give two different time resolutions. All the spectra have been measure at room temperature. The spectra were corrected for the sample holder contribution and normalized using the vanadium standard. The resulting data were analyzed with DAVE programs (http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/). The AMBER force field and SPCE water model were used for modeling the NALMA solute and water, respectively. For the analysis of the water dynamics in the NALMA aqueous solutions, we performed simulations of a dispersed solute configuration consistent with our previous structural analysis, where we had primarily focused on the structural organization of these peptide solutions and their connection to protein folding. Further details of the QENS experiment and molecular dynamics simulations are reported elsewhere.

  3. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  4. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  5. Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record Simulations at NERSC Help Validate Experimental Laser-Plasma Design December 9, 2014 Contact: Kate Greene, kgreene@lbl.gov, 510-486-4404 particleaccelerator A 9 cm-long capillary discharge waveguide used in BELLA experiments to generate multi-GeV electron beams. The plasma plume has been made more prominent with the use of HDR photography. Image: Roy Kaltschmidt Using one of the most powerful

  6. GrndWaterFlow.book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 8.3 Flow Model Sensitivity to Steady-State Temperature Distribution 8.3.1 Introduction The Pahute Mesa CAU flow model spans an area 50 by 53 km with elevations between 3.5 km bmsl to 1.5 km amsl. Within the domain, there are three volcanic caldera complexes and extensive extra-caldera zones as well. Temperatures are not the same everywhere in this model domain. In the flow model, spatial variations in temperature are set by specifying a steady-state, 3-D temperature distribution. The FEHM code

  7. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  8. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  9. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  10. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossi, Tuomas P. Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J.; Lehtola, Susi; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2015-03-07

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations and beyond.

  11. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  12. EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2013-05-21

    The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property analysis of the three samples, there is no clear conclusion about transporting the samples before they are set; however, experience with saltstone grout indicates the samples should sit and develop some structure before being transported to SRNL for curing.

  13. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; Morozovska, A. N.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Eliseev, E. A.; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Tebano, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  14. Core File Settings | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Core File Settings About Core Files By default, a rank that aborts will dump core, and the control system will signal the other ranks to quit (without dumping core). Multiple core files will be generated only when several ranks abort almost simultaneously. The ranks that do not dump core are those that received the system signal to quit before anything bad happened on that rank. The settings listed below can modify this behaviour in various ways. The core files generated will be in a lightweight

  15. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power - NearyFig1 Permalink Gallery University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Water Power University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Sandia Labs Water Power Technologies Department promotes open-source marine hydrokinetic research by disseminating information on MHK technology designs

  16. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Water Power - Water PowerTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-16T18:27:48+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower Optimization Developing tools for optimizing the U.S. hydropower fleet's performance with minimal environmental impact. Technology Development Improving the power performance and reliability of marine hydrokinetic technologies. Market Acceleration & Deployment Addressing barriers to development, deployment, and evaluation of

  17. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  18. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment

  19. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  20. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  1. Temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  2. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  3. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  4. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  5. Nevada Division of Environmental Protection - New Public Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Division of Environmental Protection - New Public Water Systems Abstract This website sets forth the...

  6. Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Projects Poster | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Geothermal Projects Poster Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Projects Poster This map poster illustrates low-temperature and co-produced geothermal projects across the U.S. funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office. PDF icon low-temperature projects More Documents & Publications Geothermal waters bubble up to the surface in a natural hot spring. Source: Ted Clutter Low-Temperature and Coproduced Resources Fact Sheet SMU Geothermal Conference

  7. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  8. Colorado Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Colorado Water Quality Control ActLegal Abstract Statute setting forth laws for water quality control...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Cycle Pilot Study Intensive Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sets, see below. Abstract The U.S. DOE Water Cycle Pilot Study (WCPS) is a 3-year feasibility investigation focused on accurately evaluating the water cycle components and using...

  10. NAC 445A - Water Controls | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RegulationRegulation: NAC 445A - Water ControlsLegal Abstract This regulation sets forth the rules governing water controls in Nevada. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  11. NRS 445A - Water Controls | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Document- StatuteStatute: NRS 445A - Water ControlsLegal Abstract This chapter sets forth the rules governing water controls in Nevada. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  12. Lab sets new record for waste shipments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New record for waste shipments Lab sets new record for waste shipments LANL completing its 132nd transuranic (TRU) waste shipment of fiscal year 2010 to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. August 20, 2010 LANL's shipment of transuranic waste leaves Los Alamos. LANL's shipment of transuranic waste leaves Los Alamos. Contact Fred deSousa Communications Office (505) 500-5672 Email "Removing this waste from Los Alamos is crucial to our plans for overall

  13. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering andmore » rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.« less

  14. OCILOW-Wheeled Platform Controls Executable Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-11-30

    The OCILOW Controls Executable Set is the complete set of machine executable instructions to control the motion of wheeled platforms that incorporate Off-Centered In-Line Omni-directional Wheels (OCILOW). The controls utilize command signals for the desired motion of the platform (X, Y and Theta) and calculate and control the steering and rolling motion required of each OCILOW wheels to achieve the desired translational and rotational platform motion. The controls utilize signals from the wheel steering and rolling resolvers, and from three load cells located at each wheels, to coordinate the motion of all wheels, while respecting their non-holonomic constraints (i.e., keeping internal stresses and slippage due to possible errors, uneven floors, bumps, misalignment, etc. bounded). The OCILOW Controls Executable Set, which is copyrighted here, is an embodiment of the generic OCILOW algorithms (patented separately) developed specifically for controls of the Proof-of-Principle-Transporter (POP-T) system that has been developed to demonstrate the overall OCILOW controls feasibility and capabilities.

  15. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  16. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  17. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  18. System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.

    2006-06-06

    A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point T.sub.inset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point F.sub.set, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point T.sub.opset.

  19. Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Developments and Issues

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Order Code RS20672 Updated May 1, 2007 Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Developments and Issues Mary Tiemann Specialist in Environmental Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division Summary In 2001, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated a new regulation for arsenic in drinking water, as required by 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. The rule set the legal limit for arsenic in tap water at 10 parts per billion (ppb), replacing a 50 ppb standard set in 1975, before

  20. GrndWaterFlow.book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 THERMAL SENSITIVITY AND VERIFICATION 8.1 Introduction The flow model calibration described in earlier sections utilizes a thermal field based upon calibration of the heat flux at the base of the model domain (Appendix C). In calibrating the heat fluxes with a conduction-only model to minimize residuals between observed and simulated temperatures in boreholes, certain anomalies were identified indicating convective flow. These anomalies indicate that cooler water from near the water table is

  1. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  2. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  4. Effect of processor temperature on film dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.

    2012-07-01

    Optical density (OD) of a radiographic film plays an important role in radiation dosimetry, which depends on various parameters, including beam energy, depth, field size, film batch, dose, dose rate, air film interface, postexposure processing time, and temperature of the processor. Most of these parameters have been studied for Kodak XV and extended dose range (EDR) films used in radiation oncology. There is very limited information on processor temperature, which is investigated in this study. Multiple XV and EDR films were exposed in the reference condition (d{sub max.}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2}, 100 cm) to a given dose. An automatic film processor (X-Omat 5000) was used for processing films. The temperature of the processor was adjusted manually with increasing temperature. At each temperature, a set of films was processed to evaluate OD at a given dose. For both films, OD is a linear function of processor temperature in the range of 29.4-40.6 Degree-Sign C (85-105 Degree-Sign F) for various dose ranges. The changes in processor temperature are directly related to the dose by a quadratic function. A simple linear equation is provided for the changes in OD vs. processor temperature, which could be used for correcting dose in radiation dosimetry when film is used.

  5. IWTU Construction Workers Set Largest Process Vessel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IWTU Construction Workers Set Largest Process Vessel Click on image to enlarge Construction of the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) took a major step forward on Sept. 2, 2009 as crews lifted into place the largest of the six process vessels that will be used to treat radioactive liquid waste stored at the site. The IWTU will use a steam reforming process to solidify the waste for eventual shipment out of Idaho. The vessel and its skid, or framework, were constructed at Premier Technologies

  6. Off-set stabilizer for comparator output

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

  7. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  9. Setting clear expectations for safety basis development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORENO, M.R.

    2003-05-03

    DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA).

  10. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  11. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list

  13. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  14. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Trenton, NJ); Knox, Lerry (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising hydrng a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO.sub.3 of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  15. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck

    2010-07-15

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  16. Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck

    During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

  17. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  18. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  19. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  20. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  1. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  2. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore »of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  3. Implementation of a near-optimal global set point control method in a DDC controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cascia, M.A.

    2000-07-01

    A near-optimal global set point control method that can be implemented in an energy management system's (EMS) DDC controller is described in this paper. Mathematical models are presented for the power consumption of electric chillers, hot water boilers, chilled and hot water pumps, and air handler fans, which allow the calculation of near-optimal chilled water, hot water, and coil discharge air set points to minimize power consumption, based on data collected by the EMS. Also optimized are the differential and static pressure set points for the variable speed pumps and fans. A pilot test of this control methodology was implemented for a cooling plant at a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility near Dallas, Texas. Data collected at this site showed good agreement between the actual power consumed by the chillers, chilled water pumps, and air handlers and that predicted by the models. An approximate model was developed to calculate real-time power savings in the DDC controller. A third-party energy accounting program was used to track savings due to the near-optimal control, and results show a monthly KWH reduction ranging from 3% to 14%.

  4. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field....

  5. Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    affects the size of the pool's heater, but also your heating costs if use a gas or heat pump pool heater. Pool water temperatures typically range from 78F to 82F. The...

  6. Hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H at high temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this study, hydrogen permeation behavior through F82H was investigated in the temperature range from 500 to 800 C. degrees. In some cases, water vapor was added in a sample gas ...

  7. Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    only affects the size of the pool's heater, but also your heating costs if use a gas or heat pump pool heater. Pool water temperatures typically range from 78F to 82F. The...

  8. Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Water uptake results from PSS-PMBs as a function of temperature at RH = 98%. Water uptake results from PSS-PMBs as a function of temperature at RH = 98%. Technology Marketing SummaryWhile polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer promising power alternatives, the performance of current state-of-the-art PEMs is hindered by water loss

  9. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  10. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  11. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Temperature

  12. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  13. Florida products pipeline set to double capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1995-11-13

    Directional drilling has begun this fall for a $68.5 million, approximately 110,000 b/d expansion of Central Florida Pipeline Co.`s refined products line from Tampa to Orlando. The drilling started in August and is scheduled to conclude this month, crossing under seven water bodies in Hillsborough, Polk, and Osceola counties. The current 6 and 10-in. system provides more than 90% of the petroleum products used in Central Florida, according to Central Florida Pipeline. Its additional capacity will meet the growing region`s demand for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The new pipeline, along with the existing 10-in. system, will increase total annual capacity from 30 million bbl (82,192 b/d) to approximately 70 million bbl (191,781 b/d). The older 6-in. line will be shutdown when the new line is operating fully. The steps of pipeline installation are described.

  14. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

  15. Franklin retirement date is set: 04/30/2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announcements Franklin retirement date is set: 04302012 Franklin retirement date is set: 04302012 March 6, 2012 by Helen He The Franklin (and its external login node...

  16. EERE Success Story-Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell EERE Success Story-Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell ...

  17. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell April 18, 2013 - ...

  18. EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ConsumerCharging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior EV Everywhere ConsumerCharging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior Presentation ...

  19. EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery...

  20. EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Setting the Stage for the EV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Workshop: Setting the Stage for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Setting the Stage for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Presentation given...

  1. Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Congress, published in August 2006, focuses on the methodologies used by the DOE Hydrogen Program for goal-setting. Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to...

  2. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #04 Setting Effective Date for New...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    04 Setting Effective Date for New Hires POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 04 Setting Effective Date for New Hires The purpose of this memorandum is to establish the Department of...

  3. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy...

  4. Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency ToolSet Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Fuel Economy Initiative Auto Fuel Efficiency ToolSet AgencyCompany Organization: FIA...

  5. DOE Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment RFI DOE Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment ...

  6. Request for Information: Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment at the State and Regional Level Request for Information: Assistance in Target Setting and ...

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Palmer, Carl D.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 61 C/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 C) to over 175 C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  8. Occurrence of Low-Temperature Geothermal Waters in the United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    790:86-131. Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Sammel, 1978) Areas (1) Lightning Dock...

  9. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight...

  10. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1997-04-29

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising mixing a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring. 2 figs.

  11. FORMATION OF CALCIUM AND SILICA FROM PERCOLATION IN A HYDROLOGICALLY UNSATURATED SETTING, Y.M.,NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Paces; J.F. Whelan; Z.E. Peterman; B.D. Marshall

    2000-07-27

    Geological, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic evidence from coatings of calcite and silica on open fractures and lithophysal cavities within welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain indicate an origin from meteoric water percolating through a thick (500 to 700 m) unsaturated zone (UZ) rather than from pulses of ascending ground water. Geologic evidence for a UZ setting includes the presence of coatings in only a small percentage of cavities, the restriction of coatings to fracture footwalls and cavity floors, and an absence of mineral high-water marks indicative of water ponding. Systematic mineral sequences (early calcite, followed by chalcedony with minor quartz and fluorite, and finally calcite with intercalated opal forming the bulk of the coatings) indicate progressive changes in UZ conditions through time, rather than repeated saturation by flooding. Percolation under the influence of gravity also results in mineral textures that vary between steeply dipping sites (thinner coatings of blocky calcite) and shallowly dipping sites (thicker coatings of coarse, commonly bladed calcite, with globules and sheets of opal). Micrometer-scale growth banding in both calcite and opal reflects slow average growth rates (scale of mm/m.y.) over millions of years rather than only a few rapidly deposited growth episodes. Isotopic compositions of C, O, Sr, and U from calcite and opal indicate a percolation-modified meteoric water source, and collectively refute a deeper ground-water source. Chemical and isotopic variations in coatings also indicate long-term evolution of water compositions. Although some compositional changes are related to shifts in climate, growth rates in the deeper UZ are buffered from large changes in meteoric input. Coatings most likely formed from films of water flowing down connected fracture pathways. Mineral precipitation is consistent with water vapor and carbon dioxide loss from films at very slow rates. Data collectively indicate that mineral coatings formed in a UZ setting that has been hydrologically stable over million-year time scales.

  12. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

  13. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  14. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ener-Gee Whiz would like to offer a hearty thanks to all of you who've written in for your great efficiency and renewables related questions. Now, on to some answers!

  15. Comprehensive aerological reference data set (CARDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eskridge, R.E.; Polansky, A.C.; Alduchov, O.A.

    1997-11-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change has reached the attention of Government officials and researchers. However, one cannot study climate change without climate data. The CARDS project will produce high-quality upper-air data for the research community and for policy-makers. The authors intend to produce a dataset which is: easy to use, as complete as possible, as free of random errors as possible. They will also attempt to identify biases and remove them whenever possible. In this report, they relate progress toward their goal. They created a robust new format for archiving upper-air data, and designed a relational database structure to hold them. The authors have converted 13 datasets to the new format and have archived over 10,000,000 individual soundings from 10 separate data sources. They produce and archive a metadata summary of each sounding they load. They have researched station histories, and have built a preliminary upper-air station history database. They have converted station-sorted data from their primary database into synoptic-sorted data in a parallel database. They have tested and will soon implement an advanced quality-control procedure, capable of detecting and often repairing errors in geopotential height, temperature, humidity, and wind. This unique quality-control method uses simultaneous vertical, horizontal, and temporal checks of several meteorological variables. It can detect errors other methods cannot.

  16. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Property:Combustion Intake Air Temperature F Property:FirstWellTemp G Property:GeochemReservoirTemp Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R...

  17. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  18. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  19. Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heating and cooling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized heating and cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized heating and cooling Preliminary experimental results are reported for a temperature distribution inside a water filled cubicle enclosure. The enclosure is subjected to a localized heating and cooling of the same wall where a heater

  20. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  1. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  2. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  3. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate knowledge of aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures is important in many applications including nuclear waste disposal and energy extraction. Sandia's Defense Waste Management Programs is equipped with a state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system that allows us to obtain high quality kinetic and equilibrium data at temperatures and pressures of interest up to 600 o C and 1,000 bars (100 MPa). This state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system includes the

  4. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  5. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infrastructure - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  6. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savings - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  7. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scarcity - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  8. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  9. Set the PACE St. Louis (Missouri) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Insulation, Windows, Doors, Comprehensive MeasuresWhole Building, Solar Water Heat, Photovoltaics, Pool Pumps, Tankless Water Heaters Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector...

  10. Some thermodynamical aspects of protein hydration water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-06-07

    We study by means of nuclear magnetic resonance the self-diffusion of protein hydration water at different hydration levels across a large temperature range that includes the deeply supercooled regime. Starting with a single hydration shell (h = 0.3), we consider different hydrations up to h = 0.65. Our experimental evidence indicates that two phenomena play a significant role in the dynamics of protein hydration water: (i) the measured fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover temperature is unaffected by the hydration level and (ii) the first hydration shell remains liquid at all hydrations, even at the lowest temperature.

  11. understanding the low-temperature combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-temperature combustion chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  12. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  13. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  14. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Wade, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  15. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  16. Crystallization Temperature of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions at Low Evaporation Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisari, Padmaja; Wang, Kai; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2010-01-01

    Water- aqueous Lithium Bromide (LiBr) solutions have shown superior performance as working fluid pairs for absorption refrigeration cycles. Most of the available literature (e.g. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, etc.) provide crystallization behavior down to only 10 C. The typical evaporating temperature for an absorption chiller system is usually lower than 10 C. Hence, it is essential to have an accurate prediction of the crystallization temperature in this range in order to avoid crystallization during the design phase. We have therefore conducted a systematic study to explore the crystallization temperatures of LiBr/Water solutions that fall below an evaporating temperature of 10 C. Our preliminary studies revealed that the rate of cooling of the sample solution influences the crystallization temperature; therefore we have performed a quasi steady test where the sample was cooled gradually by reducing the sample temperature in small steps. Results from this study are reported in this paper and can be used to extend the data available in open literature.

  17. Energy use and domestic hot water consumption - Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, F.S.

    1994-11-01

    New York State Energy Research & Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop comprehensive operating data on combined domestic hot water (DHW) and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications. The new, more precise DHW flow data (broken down on a per capita basis) result in a better foundation for sizing decisions. Thirty New York City multifamily buildings with combined steam heating and DHW plants were instrumented to monitor apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures, and burner on-off times. In nine buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil and boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing valve and on the return line. The data set collected for 14 months amounts to a data base of over 110 megabytes. This report presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15-, 60-, 120-, and 180- minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels, as well as figures for energy to generate DHW. The format of guidelines presented in this report differs from those currently in use. The {open_quotes}Low - Medium - High{close_quotes} (LMH) users set of guidelines provide a range, rather than a specific, singular gallonage standard. By providing LMH tables and guidelines for their application the design engineer or contractor can then use these as a tool from which to select the appropriate level that matches the site being served. Values are presented for both New York sizing guidelines (developed from this study), as well as a set of {open_quote}National{close_quote} figures (derived from a compilation of studies conducted in other cities). The LMH approach and {open_quote}National{close_quote} guidelines were adopted for inclusion in the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook revision.

  18. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  19. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  20. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  1. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  2. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  3. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  4. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  5. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  6. Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report: Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation...

  7. Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

  8. CMOS Integrated Single Electron Transistor Electrometry (CMOS-SET) circuit design for nanosecond quantum-bit read-out.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurrieri, Thomas M.; Lilly, Michael Patrick; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Levy, James E.

    2008-08-01

    Novel single electron transistor (SET) read-out circuit designs are described. The circuits use a silicon SET interfaced to a CMOS voltage mode or current mode comparator to obtain a digital read-out of the state of the qubit. The design assumes standard submicron (0.35 um) CMOS SOI technology using room temperature SPICE models. Implications and uncertainties related to the temperature scaling of these models to 100mK operation are discussed. Using this technology, the simulations predict a read-out operation speed of approximately Ins and a power dissipation per cell as low as 2nW for single-shot read-out, which is a significant advantage over currently used radio frequency SET (RF-SET) approaches.

  9. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  10. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  11. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  12. Users Manual for TMY3 Data Sets (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, S.; Marion, W.

    2008-05-01

    This users manual describes how to obtain and interpret the data in the Typical Meteorological Year version 3 (TMY3) data sets. These data sets are an update to the TMY2 data released by NREL in 1994.

  13. Satellite Television Industry Meeting Regarding DOE Set-Top Box...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Satellite Television Industry Meeting Regarding DOE Set-Top Box Rulemaking Satellite Television Industry Meeting Regarding DOE Set-Top Box Rulemaking On April 3, 2012 at 11:00 AM,...

  14. Hydrogen Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    DOE's Hydrogen Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress summarizes the processes used to set Hydrogen Program goals and milestones. Published in August 2006, it fulfills the requirement under se

  15. Solar Energy Trading GmbH SET | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH SET Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Energy Trading GmbH (SET) Place: Mnster, Germany Zip: 48157 Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based solar project developer and...

  16. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #04 Setting Effective Date for New Hires |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4 Setting Effective Date for New Hires POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #04 Setting Effective Date for New Hires The purpose of this memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE) policy for setting effective dates for newly hired employees and to ensure uniform application among DOE Headquarters, Elements and Field Human Resources Offices. PDF icon POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #4 Setting Effective Date for New Hires Responsible Contacts Tiffany Wheeler Human

  17. EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL. PDF icon 4_ward_b.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior EV

  18. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  19. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  20. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  1. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmospheres effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmospheres effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  2. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

    2005-09-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  3. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  4. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  5. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range {minus}100 to 100{degree}C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Resistance of a water spark.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-11-01

    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  7. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  8. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  9. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  10. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Phillip, Bradley L. (Shaker Heights, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100.degree. C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  11. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Phillip, Bradley L. (20976 Fairmount Blvd., Shaker Heights, Cuyahoga County, OH 44120)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  12. Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water-Splitting Cycles | Department of Energy Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles While hydrogen and fuel cells represent a promising pathway to reduce the environmental footprint of the United States transportation on road transportation system, in order to fully achieve these benefits, the hydrogen needs to be sourced through

  13. AAPG Low-Temperature Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Name or Ancillary Text eere.energy.gov Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Tim Reinhardt Low Temperature and Coproduced Resources Team Lead Geothermal Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy AAPG's Low Temperature Webinar November 18, 2010 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov Presentation Overview * What are Low Temperature Geothermal Resources? * Where do low temperature geothermal resources fit within petroleum exploration and production? * What is

  14. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  15. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  16. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  17. High temperature detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  18. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  19. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  20. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, F. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Ku?k, L. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Bereznai, J. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Zvodn, Z. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Mukt, P. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk

    2014-08-06

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  1. Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Actions Proposed - Appendix B | Department of Energy Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix B Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix B This appendix contains data sheets for existing appliance standards program rulemaking priorities PDF icon fy03_priority_setting_app_b.pdf More Documents & Publications 2006 Draft Rulemaking Activities Data Sheets Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report and

  2. Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Actions Proposed - Appendix C | Department of Energy Appendix C Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix C This appendix contains data sheets for new products that will be covered under appliance standards program rulemaking priorities PDF icon fy03_priority_setting_app_c.pdf More Documents & Publications Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report and Actions Proposed -Appendix A 2006 Draft Rulemaking

  3. Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report and

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Actions Proposed -Appendix A | Department of Energy Appendix A Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting Report and Actions Proposed -Appendix A This appendix identifies products with substantial energy savings potential warranting further analysis. It also describes the derivation of energy consumption and saving estimates for those products PDF icon fy03_priority_setting_app_a.pdf More Documents & Publications Appliance Standards Program - The FY 2003 Priority Setting

  4. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  5. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  6. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Goals for Industry | Department of Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry February 17, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis PORTLAND, OR - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northwest Food Processors Association today set ambitious goals to reduce energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial sector. DOE Industrial Technologies

  7. A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids A set of implicit methods are proposed for a third-order hierarchical WENO

  8. Department Sets Aggressive Schedule for New Appliance Standards |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Sets Aggressive Schedule for New Appliance Standards Department Sets Aggressive Schedule for New Appliance Standards February 1, 2006 - 8:52am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) today released a schedule for setting new appliance efficiency standards. The five-year plan outlines how DOE will work with all of its partners to address the appliance standards rulemaking backlog and meet all of the statutory requirements established in the Energy Policy

  9. Adobe Acrobat Settings for Creating PDFs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDFs » Adobe Acrobat Settings for Creating PDFs Adobe Acrobat Settings for Creating PDFs Use these best practices for configuring Adobe Acrobat when creating PDFs for the Web. PDFs should be created with Adobe Acrobat version 9 or higher. The instructions below are for Acrobat XI. For instructions for Acrobat X, contact Shauna Fjeld. Acrobat XI Configuration There are several parameters that need to be set in Acrobat to create standard PDFs. Rather than define each parameter on a case-by-case

  10. LANL sets waste shipping record for fourth consecutive year

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste shipping record LANL sets waste shipping record for fourth consecutive year The Laboratory's 172nd shipment of TRU waste this year left Los Alamos bound for WIPP on August 2. August 6, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory has set another record for shipments of transuranic waste in a single fiscal year. Los Alamos National Laboratory has set another record for shipments of transuranic waste in a single fiscal year. Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email Lab has

  11. Lab Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Cavities Lab Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavities April 24, 2012 - 2:34pm Addthis At Jefferson Lab, researchers have fabricated a niobium cavity for particle accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the Jefferson Lab developed the technology, and how it will be used to impact the energy industry. Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications

  12. EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Electric Drive (Power Electronics and Electric Machines) Workshop on July 24, 2012 held at the Doubletree O'Hare, Chicago, IL. PDF icon 3_ward_ed.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Battery Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework EV Everywhere

  13. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  14. Request for Information: Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment at the State and Regional Level | Department of Energy Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment at the State and Regional Level Request for Information: Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment at the State and Regional Level Solicitation Title: Request for Information: Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment at the State

  15. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Cell | Department of Energy Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with Solar Junction of San Jose, EERE supported the development of the company's concentrated photovoltaic technology that also set a world record for conversion efficiency. The company's cell technology relies on inexpensive lenses to magnify the amount of

  16. EERE Success Story-Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell | Department of Energy Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell EERE Success Story-Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic Solar Cell April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with Solar Junction of San Jose, EERE supported the development of the company's concentrated photovoltaic technology that also set a world record for conversion efficiency. The company's cell technology relies on

  17. Wet Chemical Compositional and Near IR Spectra Data Sets for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Like This Return to Search Wet Chemical Compositional and Near IR Spectra Data Sets for Biomass National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology...

  18. A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A set of parallel, implicit methods for a reconstructed discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible flows on 3D hybrid grids Citation Details In-Document Search...

  19. Media Advisory: Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Set For March...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Set For March 5 at Jefferson Lab What: The Department of Energy's 2011 Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 5,...

  20. The implications of working set analysis on supercomputing memory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    analysis on supercomputing memory hierarchy design. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The implications of working set analysis on supercomputing memory hierarchy design. ...

  1. Livermore Field Office sets core values as part of continuous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sets core values as part of continuous improvement process | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  2. EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    setting EV Everywhere technical targets for these vehicles. Levelized Cost of Driving (LCD) vehicle purchase price + fuel expenditure over 5 years, expressed per mile traveled...

  3. Assessment of Favorable Structural Settings of Geothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are characterized by multiple, commonly overlapping fault strands, increased fracture density, and thus enhanced permeability. Other common settings include a) intersections...

  4. Solar Junction Develops World Record Setting Concentrated Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the company's concentrated photovoltaic technology that also set a world record for conversion efficiency. The company's cell technology relies on inexpensive lenses to magnify...

  5. EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework Jacob Ward, Vehicle Technologies Senior Analyst July 24, 2012 Doubletree-Rosemont, Chicago, IL For this Analysis, Three "EV "...

  6. NREL Helps Greensburg Set the Model for Green Communities (Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NREL Helps Greensburg Set the Model for Green Communities (Fact Sheet), Innovation: The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) NREL Helps...

  7. EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Electric Drive (Power Electronics and Electric ...

  8. Record-Setting Year for Nuclear Weapon Dismantlement Achieved...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Record-Setting Year for Nuclear Weapon Dismantlement Achieved at the Y-12 National Security Complex | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS...

  9. NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set - News Releases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL NREL Releases Updated Typical Meteorological Year Data Set May 1, 2008 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today released an updated typical meteorological year (TMY) data set derived from the 1991-2005 National Solar Radiation Data Base update. The TMY3 data and user's manual are available at http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/tmy3. The new data sets update and expand the TMY2 data sets released by NREL in 1994. The TMY3 data

  10. BELLA World Record Sets Stage for Laser Experiments in Novel...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... The stage is set for the future development of compact particle accelerators for high energy physics and table-top free electron lasers to investigate materials and biological ...

  11. Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Report to Congress, published in August 2006, focuses on the methodologies used by the DOE Hydrogen Program for goal-setting.

  12. Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant - NNSA...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Date Set for Closure of Russian Nuclear Weapons Plant - NNSA Is Helping Make It Happen | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission ...

  13. Where Water is Oxidized to Dioxygen: Structure of the Photosynthetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Where Water is Oxidized to Dioxygen: Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Cluster Experimental set-up on 9-3 Figure 1. Single crystal experimental setup on BL 9-3 at SSRL....

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the Challenge Home program and here to set this up for you. Today's session on hot water distribution is one of a continuing series of tech training webinars to support our...

  15. High temperature expanding cement composition and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Erik B. (Tulsa County, OK); Eilers, Louis H. (Rogers County, OK)

    1982-01-01

    A hydratable cement composition useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expanding cement at temperatures above about 150.degree. C. comprising a water soluble sodium salt of a weak acid, a 0.1 molar aqueous solution of which salt has a pH of between about 7.5 and about 11.5, a calcium source, and a silicon source, where the atomic ratio of sodium to calcium to silicon ranges from about 0.3:0.6:1 to about 0.03:1:1; aqueous slurries prepared therefrom and the use of such slurries for plugging subterranean cavities at a temperature of at least about 150.degree. C. The invention composition is useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expansive cement having about 0.2 to about 2 percent expansion, by volume, when cured at at least 150.degree. C.

  16. Low temperature route to uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Darien, IL); Yeamans, Charles (Berkeley, CA); Hartmann, Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID); Silva, G. W. Chinthaka (Las Vegas, NV); Cerefice, Gary (Henderson, NV); Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (Henderson, NV)

    2009-09-01

    A method of preparing an actinide nitride fuel for nuclear reactors is provided. The method comprises the steps of a) providing at least one actinide oxide and optionally zirconium oxide; b) mixing the oxide with a source of hydrogen fluoride for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the oxide to a fluoride salt; c) heating the fluoride salt to remove water; d) heating the fluoride salt in a nitrogen atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the fluorides to nitrides; and e) heating the nitrides under vacuum and/or inert atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to convert the nitrides to mononitrides.

  17. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Anderson, David W.

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  18. Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics Conventional Storage Water Heater Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:39pm Addthis Illustration showing the components of a storage water heater. On top of the tank are two thin pipes; one pipe is the hot water outlet, and the other is the cold water inlet. A large pipe in the middle is called a vent pipe. A pressure/temperature relief valve is also on top of the tank and is connected to an open pipe that runs down the side of the tank. Another

  19. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  20. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  2. Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Santa Clara and Virgin River Valleys, Washington County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budding, K.E.; Sommer, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.

  3. Limitations and requirements of using the chemical speciation code, MINTEQA2, to predict water quality impacts at fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danzig, A.J.; McEntyre, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    The chemical speciation model, MINTEQA2, was used to simulate the effects of proposed waste process changes on the final waste water effluent at coal-fired power plants. The chemistry of the waste water system at the plants was extremely complex, involving factors such as temperature, redox couples, ionic strength, adsorption, and gas phase equilibria. MINTEQA2 is capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting. This paper focuses on the limitations and requirements of using the model for these purposes. Specifics include sampling protocols, biological factors, and knowledge of how MINTEQA2 works. This approach could be used to aid in modeling treatment systems for a variety of power generated wastes.

  4. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  5. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    around room temperature (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or

  6. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  7. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  8. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  9. Sensitivity of the Properties of Ruthenium Blue Dimer to Method, Basis Set, and Continuum Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Clark, Aurora E.

    2012-05-23

    The ruthenium blue dimer [(bpy)2RuIIIOH2]2O4+ is best known as the first well-defined molecular catalyst for water oxidation. It has been subject to numerous computational studies primarily employing density functional theory. However, those studies have been limited in the functionals, basis sets, and continuum models employed. The controversy in the calculated electronic structure and the reaction energetics of this catalyst highlights the necessity of benchmark calculations that explore the role of density functionals, basis sets, and continuum models upon the essential features of blue-dimer reactivity. In this paper, we report Kohn-Sham complete basis set (KS-CBS) limit extrapolations of the electronic structure of blue dimer using GGA (BPW91 and BP86), hybrid-GGA (B3LYP), and meta-GGA (M06-L) density functionals. The dependence of solvation free energy corrections on the different cavity types (UFF, UA0, UAHF, UAKS, Bondi, and Pauling) within polarizable and conductor-like polarizable continuum model has also been investigated. The most common basis sets of double-zeta quality are shown to yield results close to the KS-CBS limit; however, large variations are observed in the reaction energetics as a function of density functional and continuum cavity model employed.

  10. Sandia Energy Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doe-eere-technologist-in-residence-pilotfeed 0 Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm http:energy.sandia.govsandia-team-attends-world-water-week-in-sto...

  11. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  12. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  13. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  14. Bioenergy Impacts … Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  15. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  16. A review of selected energy-related data sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholls, A.K.; Elliott, D.B.; Jones, M.L.; Hannifan, J.M.; Degroat, K.J.; Eichner, M.J.; King, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    DOE`s Office of Planning and Assessment (OPA) performs crosscutting technical, policy, and environmental assessments of energy technologies and markets. To support these efforts, OPA is in the process of creating a data base management system (DBMS) that will include relevant data compiled from other sources. One of the first steps is a review of selected data sets that may be considered for inclusion in the DBMS. The review covered data sets in five categories: buildings-specific data, industry-specific data, transportation-specific data, utilities-specific data, and crosscutting/general data. Reviewed data sets covered a broad array of energy efficiency, renewable, and/or benchmark technologies. Most data sets reviewed in this report are sponsored by Federal government entities and major industry organizations. Additional data sets reviewed are sponsored by the states of California and New York and regional entities in the Pacific Northwest. Prior to full review, candidate data sets were screened for their utility to OPA. Screening criteria included requirements that a data set be particularly applicable to OPA`s data needs, documented, current, and obtainable. To fully implement its DBMS, OPA will need to expand the review to other data sources, and must carefully consider the implications of differing assumptions and methodologies when comparing data.

  17. MAVTgsa: An R Package for Gene Set (Enrichment) Analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chien, Chih-Yi; Chang, Ching-Wei; Tsai, Chen-An; Chen, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Gene semore » t analysis methods aim to determine whether an a priori defined set of genes shows statistically significant difference in expression on either categorical or continuous outcomes. Although many methods for gene set analysis have been proposed, a systematic analysis tool for identification of different types of gene set significance modules has not been developed previously. This work presents an R package, called MAVTgsa, which includes three different methods for integrated gene set enrichment analysis. (1) The one-sided OLS (ordinary least squares) test detects coordinated changes of genes in gene set in one direction, either up- or downregulation. (2) The two-sided MANOVA (multivariate analysis variance) detects changes both up- and downregulation for studying two or more experimental conditions. (3) A random forests-based procedure is to identify gene sets that can accurately predict samples from different experimental conditions or are associated with the continuous phenotypes. MAVTgsa computes the P values and FDR (false discovery rate) q -value for all gene sets in the study. Furthermore, MAVTgsa provides several visualization outputs to support and interpret the enrichment results. This package is available online.« less

  18. A review of selected energy-related data sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholls, A.K.; Elliott, D.B.; Jones, M.L. ); Hannifan, J.M.; Degroat, K.J.; Eichner, M.J.; King, J.E. )

    1992-09-01

    DOE's Office of Planning and Assessment (OPA) performs crosscutting technical, policy, and environmental assessments of energy technologies and markets. To support these efforts, OPA is in the process of creating a data base management system (DBMS) that will include relevant data compiled from other sources. One of the first steps is a review of selected data sets that may be considered for inclusion in the DBMS. The review covered data sets in five categories: buildings-specific data, industry-specific data, transportation-specific data, utilities-specific data, and crosscutting/general data. Reviewed data sets covered a broad array of energy efficiency, renewable, and/or benchmark technologies. Most data sets reviewed in this report are sponsored by Federal government entities and major industry organizations. Additional data sets reviewed are sponsored by the states of California and New York and regional entities in the Pacific Northwest. Prior to full review, candidate data sets were screened for their utility to OPA. Screening criteria included requirements that a data set be particularly applicable to OPA's data needs, documented, current, and obtainable. To fully implement its DBMS, OPA will need to expand the review to other data sources, and must carefully consider the implications of differing assumptions and methodologies when comparing data.

  19. An Empirical Na-K-Ca Geothermometer For Natural Waters | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature environments ranging from 4 to 340C. The data for most geothermal waters cluster near a straight line when plotted as the function vs reciprocal of absolute...

  20. Catalytic Behavior of Dense Hot Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C J; Fried, L E; Yang, L H; Goldman, N; Bastea, S

    2008-06-05

    Water is known to exhibit fascinating physical properties at high pressures and temperatures. Its remarkable structural and phase complexity suggest the possibility of exotic chemical reactivity under extreme conditions, though this remains largely unstudied. Detonations of high explosives containing oxygen and hydrogen produce water at thousands of K and tens of GPa, similar to conditions of giant planetary interiors. These systems thus provide a unique means to elucidate the chemistry of 'extreme water'. Here we show that water plays an unexpected role in catalyzing complex explosive reactions - contrary to the current view that it is simply a stable detonation product. Using first-principles atomistic simulations of the detonation of high explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), we discovered that H{sub 2}O (source), H (reducer) and OH (oxidizer) act as a dynamic team that transports oxygen between reaction centers. Our finding suggests that water may catalyze reactions in other explosives and in planetary interiors.

  1. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  2. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  3. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  4. Franklin retirement date is set: 04/30/2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announcements » Franklin retirement date is set: 04/30/2012 Franklin retirement date is set: 04/30/2012 March 6, 2012 by Helen He The Franklin (and its external login node Freedom) retirement date has been set to April 30, 2012. Below are the related schedules: Effective immediately: Software frozen except for critical updates Mon Apr 2: No new accounts will be created Thurs Apr 26, 23:59: Batch system is drained, batch queues are stopped (no jobs will be running at this point) Mon Apr 30: Last

  5. Feeling the Heat... From My TV Set | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Feeling the Heat... From My TV Set Feeling the Heat... From My TV Set August 8, 2011 - 2:32pm Addthis Andrea Spikes Former Communicator at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory How many light bulbs does it take to equal the power output of a TV set? Or is it the other way around? The answer: It depends on the bulb and the TV. There are a few factors that determine the answer such as the wattage of the standard light bulb and the wattage of the TV. I was curious about the energy usage of my

  6. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Sets Massive Protective Shield door in

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pretreatment Facility | Department of Energy Waste Treatment Plant Sets Massive Protective Shield door in Pretreatment Facility Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Sets Massive Protective Shield door in Pretreatment Facility January 12, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis The carbon steel doors come together to form an upside-down L-shape. The 102-ton door was set on top of the 85-ton door that was installed at the end of December. The carbon steel doors come together to form an upside-down L-shape. The

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM-FIRE Water Vapor Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were the airborne NASA LaRC LASE water vapor lidar and Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH), the ground-based Vaisala RS-80H (after application of corrections for time-lag, temperature...

  8. Reduce Hot Water Use for Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    with shut-off valves that allow you to stop the flow of water without affecting the temperature. When replacing an aerator, bring the one you're replacing to the store with you to...

  9. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Soil Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Measurements in the Southern Great Plains Bond, Don OU-CIMMS Will show current setup of instrument system and examples of data from recent...

  10. US DOE Refinery Water Study 01-19-16 PublicE_docx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Potential Vulnerability of US Petroleum Refineries to Increasing Water Temperature and/or Reduced Water Availability Executive Summary of Final Report Prepared for US Department of Energy January 2016 For Jacobs Consultancy Laura E. Weaver Rob Henderson John Blieszner January 2016 Potential Vulnerability of US Petroleum Refineries to Increasing Water Temperature and/or Reduced Water Availability Prepared For US Department of Energy 525 West Monroe Chicago, Illinois 60661 Phone: +312.655.9207

  11. Thermodynamic properties of bulk and confined water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Vasi, Cirino; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-11-14

    The thermodynamic response functions of water display anomalous behaviors. We study these anomalous behaviors in bulk and confined water. We use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to examine the configurational specific heat and the transport parameters in both the thermal stable and the metastable supercooled phases. The data we obtain suggest that there is a behavior common to both phases: that the dynamics of water exhibit two singular temperatures belonging to the supercooled and the stable phase, respectively. One is the dynamic fragile-to-strong crossover temperature (T{sub L} ? 225K). The second, T{sup *} ? 315 5K, is a special locus of the isothermal compressibility K{sub T}(T, P) and the thermal expansion coefficient ?{sub P}(T, P) in the PT plane. In the case of water confined inside a protein, we observe that these two temperatures mark, respectively, the onset of protein flexibility from its low temperature glass state (T{sub L}) and the onset of the unfolding process (T{sup *})

  12. SolarTech: Sun Sets on Yesterday's Solar Permitting Practices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolarTech: Sun Sets on Yesterday's Solar Permitting Practices October 1, 2012 - 3:26pm Addthis Lengthy reviews, high costs, and inconsistent procedures are a thing of the past for ...

  13. Media Advisory - The Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Is Set...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Virginia Middle School Science Bowl Is Set For March 6 at Jefferson Lab What: The 2010 Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl When: Saturday, March 6, 2010. Round-robin...

  14. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-10-24

    RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

  15. Ex Parte Memorandum on Set Top Boxes and Network Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Memorandum for the Record provides a summary of a May 1, 2012, meeting with DOE officials concerning potential test procedures and energy conservation standards for set-top boxes and network...

  16. Wind power on BPA system sets another new record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE Tuesday, March 20, 2012 CONTACT: Mike Hansen, BPA 503-230-4328 or 503-230-5131 Wind power on BPA system sets another new record The renewable resource passes 4,000...

  17. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with...

  18. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Federal Energy Management Program case study focuses on Patrick Air Force Base's use of a utility energy services contract...

  19. Please use "gres" settings in your batch scripts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    jobs won't start (thus won't fail) during a scheduled file system maintenance. The syntax for the "gres" setting is: PBS -l gresfilesystem1%filesystem2%filesystem3... (new...

  20. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications October 15, 2015 Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners This publication is a final report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants project. October 9, 2015 Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and R&D

  1. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  2. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics.

  3. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  4. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  6. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  7. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  8. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  9. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  10. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  11. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  12. Setting the Stage for Greater Renewable Energy Penetration | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Setting the Stage for Greater Renewable Energy Penetration Setting the Stage for Greater Renewable Energy Penetration January 10, 2013 - 2:27pm Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. With the advent of supercomputing networks and advances in high-speed data processing, new opportunities to simulate and test the complicated business of integrating renewable energy into the grid will soon enable utilities to accurately

  13. Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Authors: Patel, M ; Chinn, S C ; Maxwell, R S ; Wilson, T S ; Birdsell, S A Publication Date: 2010-06-28 OSTI Identifier: 1124817 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-439176 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Polymer

  14. A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers A mesoscopic computational model for polymer networks and composites is developed as a coarse-grained representation of the composite microstructure. Unlike more complex molecular dynamics simulations, the model only considers the effects of crosslinks on

  15. A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A mesoscopic network model for permanent set in crosslinked elastomers × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  16. NREL's Record-Setting Year Highlights Clean Energy Innovation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization at National Labs | Department of Energy NREL's Record-Setting Year Highlights Clean Energy Innovation and Commercialization at National Labs NREL's Record-Setting Year Highlights Clean Energy Innovation and Commercialization at National Labs May 11, 2015 - 11:00am Addthis Dr. David Danielson, the Energy Department's Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), speaks at the annual Innovation and Technology Transfer Awards on Thursday, May 7 at the

  17. Clean Energy Investment Center sets sights on ambitious year | Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Clean Energy Investment Center sets sights on ambitious year Clean Energy Investment Center sets sights on ambitious year January 27, 2016 - 9:42am Addthis Sanjiv Malhotra Sanjiv Malhotra Director, Clean Energy Investment Center In June 2015, the Department of Energy announced it was creating the Clean Energy Investment Center to help achieve the Administration's ambitious Clean Energy Investment Initiative. Now, we are proud to announce that the center is operational and has a

  18. Environmental Management Scientist Sets His Sights on Mars | Department of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Environmental Management Scientist Sets His Sights on Mars Environmental Management Scientist Sets His Sights on Mars September 4, 2012 - 3:29pm Addthis Curiosity, left, at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, in late November 2011. Shown here is the flight hardware that was being assembled prior to shipment to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida for the launch. | Photo Credit Dr. Robert C. Nelson Curiosity, left, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  19. LANL sets waste shipping record for fourth consecutive year

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL Sets Waste Shipping Record Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit LANL sets waste shipping record for fourth consecutive year The Laboratory has transported more than 1,000 shipments to WIPP since that facility opened in 1999. September 1, 2012 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Our goal this fiscal year

  20. Lab sets new record for waste volume removed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Sets New Record for Waste Volume Removed Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:Mar. 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Lab sets new record for waste volume removed The Transuranic Waste Program has met its commitment to ship 800 cubic meters of TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during fiscal year 2012. November 1, 2012 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office

  1. The implications of working set analysis on supercomputing memory hierarchy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    design. (Conference) | SciTech Connect working set analysis on supercomputing memory hierarchy design. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The implications of working set analysis on supercomputing memory hierarchy design. Supercomputer architects strive to maximize the performance of scientific applications. Unfortunately, the large, unwieldy nature of most scientific applications has lead to the creation of artificial benchmarks, such as SPEC-FP, for architecture research. Given the

  2. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  3. Slideshow: Ready, Set, NASCAR Green at Richmond International Raceway |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Slideshow: Ready, Set, NASCAR Green at Richmond International Raceway Slideshow: Ready, Set, NASCAR Green at Richmond International Raceway April 28, 2014 - 3:54pm Addthis 1 of 9 Secretary Ernest Moniz displays the green flag prior to the NASCAR race at the Richmond International Raceway. | Photo courtesy of Jeff Zelevansky, NASCAR via Getty Images. 2 of 9 NASCAR drivers use some of the most advanced fuel technologies, helping educate fans about new technology. Before

  4. DOE Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Deployment RFI | Department of Energy DOE Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment RFI DOE Assistance in Target Setting and Strategic Planning for Renewable Energy Deployment RFI January 13, 2016 5:00PM EST The U.S. Department of Energy released a request for information (RFI) to include renewable energy deployment, including solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal technologies, into state and regional entities strategic plans. Learn more

  5. Complete Set of all Reporting Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Complete Set of all Reporting Forms Complete Set of all Reporting Forms Federal Register Notice for Agency Information Collection Extension Office spreadsheet icon PROPOSED REVISED FORMS FOR MONTHLY REPORTING File Excel Version of All Reporting Forms.xlsx PDF icon PDF Version of All Reporting Forms More Documents & Publications LNG Exports by Truck out of the U.S. Form CNG Exports by Truck out of the U.S. Form LNG Imports by Truck into the U.S. Form

  6. NIST Finalizes Initial Set of Smart Grid Cyber Security Guidelines |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Finalizes Initial Set of Smart Grid Cyber Security Guidelines NIST Finalizes Initial Set of Smart Grid Cyber Security Guidelines September 2, 2010 - 3:15pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) issued today its first Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security, which includes high-level security requirements, a framework for assessing risks, an evaluation of privacy issues at personal residences, and additional information for

  7. DOE Guidance-Setting Effective Date for New Hires

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HUMAN RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: SARA I. BONIL HUMAN CAPITAL OFFICER GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM#4: SETTING EFFECTIVE DATE FOR NEW HIRES The purpose of this memorandum is to establish the Department of Energy's (DOE) policy for setting effective dates for newly hired employees and to ensure uniform appli-cation among DOE Headquarters, ~lements and ~ i e l d Human Resources Offices. As of the date of this memorandum, the effective date of employment for all new employees or reinstated employees (first

  8. Ultrafast Core-Hole Induced Dynamics in Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Core-Hole Induced Dynamics in Water Ultrafast Core-Hole Induced Dynamics in Water Print Wednesday, 22 February 2006 00:00 A thorough understanding of the chemical processes that are initiated when radiation interacts with aqueous systems is essential for many diverse fields, from condensed matter physics to medicine to environmental science. An incoming photon with enough energy to produce a core hole in a water molecule sets off motions that can affect bonding configurations, which in

  9. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance for residential electric resistance water heaters. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. This product overview offers

  10. Factors controlling physico-chemical characteristics in the coastal waters off Mangalore-A multivariate approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirodkar, P.V. Mesquita, A.; Pradhan, U.K.; Verlekar, X.N.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    2009-04-15

    Water quality parameters (temperature, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, suspended solids, nutrients, PHc, phenols, trace metals-Pb, Cd and Hg, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phaeopigments) and the sediment quality parameters (total phosphorous, total nitrogen, organic carbon and trace metals) were analysed from samples collected at 15 stations along 3 transects off Karnataka coast (Mangalore harbour in the south to Suratkal in the north), west coast of India during 2007. The analyses showed high ammonia off Suratkal, high nitrite (NO{sub 2}-N) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) in the nearshore waters off Kulai and high nitrite (NO{sub 2}-N) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}-N) in the harbour area. Similarly, high petroleum hydrocarbon (PHc) values were observed near the harbour, while phenols remained high in the nearshore waters of Kulai and Suratkal. Significantly, high concentrations of cadmium and mercury with respect to the earlier studies were observed off Kulai and harbour regions, respectively. R-mode varimax factor analyses were applied separately to surface and bottom water data sets due to existing stratification in the water column caused by riverine inflow and to sediment data. This helped to understand the interrelationships between the variables and to identify probable source components for explaining the environmental status of the area. Six factors (each for surface and bottom waters) were found responsible for variance (86.9% in surface and 82.4% in bottom) in the coastal waters between Mangalore and Suratkal. In sediments, 4 factors explained 86.8% of the observed total variance. The variances indicated addition of nutrients and suspended solids to the coastal waters due to weathering and riverine transport and are categorized as natural sources. The observed contamination of coastal waters indicated anthropogenic inputs of Cd and phenol from industrial effluent sources at Kulai and Suratkal, ammonia from wastewater discharges off Kulai and harbour, PHc and Hg from boat traffic and harbour activities of New Mangalore harbour. However, the strong seasonal currents and the seasonal winds keep the coastal waters well mixed and aerated, which help to disperse the contaminants, without significantly affecting chlorophyll-a concentrations. The interrelationship between the stations as shown by cluster analyses and depicted in dendograms, categorize the contamination levels sector-wise.

  11. Strontium sorption on hematite at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasyova, O.N.; Ivanova, L.I.; Lakshtanov, L.Z.; Loevgren, L.

    1999-12-15

    Acid-base reactions and surface complexation of Sr(II) at the hematite/water interface have been studied by means of potentiometric titrations at three different temperatures: 25, 50, and 75 C. Equilibrium measurements were performed in 0.1 M NaCl. In the evaluation of equilibrium models for the acid-base reactions and complexation reactions in the three-component system H{sup +} -({triple{underscore}bond}FeOH)-Sr{sup 2+}, the constant capacitance model was applied. During the titrations with Sr, aliquots of the suspension were sampled at in several points. The aqueous concentrations of Sr were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Treatment of data included tests for formation of both inner-sphere and outer-sphere complexes of different stoichiometric composition. The proposed equilibrium model consists of the following surface complexes of inner sphere type: {triple{underscore}bond}FeOHSr{sup 2+} and {triple{underscore}bond}FeOSrOH. Besides the stability constants for the surface complexes, the thermodynamic parameters {Delta}H and {Delta}S were evaluated. The combined effect of a decrease in pH{sub pzc} with increasing temperature and positive enthalpies of surface complex formation favors adsorption of Sr at elevated temperatures.

  12. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  13. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  14. Energy-Water Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and

  15. Sensors for low temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for low temperature sensing which uses gas filled micro-size hollow glass spheres that are exposed in a confined observation area to a low temperature range (Kelvin) and observed microscopically to determine change of state, i.e., change from gaseous state of the contained gas to condensed state. By suitable indicia and classification of the spheres in the observation area, the temperature can be determined very accurately.

  16. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  17. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  18. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  19. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  20. Chilled Water Thermal Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granderson, Jessica; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-10-08

    The University of California at Merced is a unique campus that has benefited from intensive efforts to maximize energy efficiency, and has participated in a demand response program for the past two years. Campus demand response evaluations are often difficult because of the complexities introduced by central heating and cooling, non-coincident and diverse building loads, and existence of a single electrical meter for the entire campus. At the University of California at Merced, a two million gallon chilled water storage system is charged daily during off-peak price periods and used to flatten the load profile during peak demand periods. This makes demand response more subtle and challenges typical evaluation protocols. The goal of this research is to study demand response savings in the presence of storage systems in a campus setting. First, University of California at Merced summer electric loads are characterized; second, its participation in two demand response events is detailed. In each event a set of strategies were pre-programmed into the campus control system to enable semi-automated response. Finally, demand savings results are applied to the utility's DR incentives structure to calculate the financial savings under various DR programs and tariffs. A key conclusion to this research is that there is significant demand reduction using a zone temperature set point change event with the full off peak storage cooling in use.

  1. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating » Heat Pump Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water

  2. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water treatment gas for ...

  3. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  4. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  5. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  6. Low Temperature/Coproduced/Geopressured Subprogram Overview ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low TemperatureCoproducedGeopressured Subprogram Overview Low TemperatureCoproducedGeopressured Subprogram Overview This overview of GTP's Low TemperatureCoproduced...

  7. Ultra High Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ultra High Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Ultra High Temperature Dictionary.png Ultra High...

  8. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  9. Pion dynamics at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toublan, D.

    1997-11-01

    The pion decay constant and mass are computed at low temperature within chiral perturbation theory to two loops. The effects of the breaking of Lorentz symmetry by the thermal equilibrium state are discussed. The validity of the Gell-Mann{endash}Oakes{endash}Renner relation at finite temperature is examined. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Low-Temperature and Coproduced Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Fact Sheet Low-Temperature and Coproduced Resources Fact Sheet Geothermal waters bubble up to the surface in a natural hot spring. Source: Ted Clutter Geothermal waters bubble up to the surface in a natural hot spring. Source: Ted Clutter Low-temperature and coproduced resources represent a growing sector of development in the geothermal industry. These underutilized resources, considered unconventional below 300°F, are bringing valuable returns on investment in the near-term through

  11. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of measuring water vapor, making it a prime location for research of this type. The first water vapor IOP, conducted in September 1996, focused on using instruments to measure water vapor and determining the accuracy and calibration of each instrument. The second water vapor IOP, held in September and October of 1997,

  12. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitable water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  13. Silver-bearing, high-temperature, superconducting (HTS) paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrando, W.A.

    1990-02-15

    A substantial set of device applications awaits development of a workable, durable, high-temperature superconducting (HTS) paint. Such a paint should be truly superconducting with its critical temperature T sub c>77K. For most of these applications, a high critical current (J sub c) is not required, although probably desirable. A process is described which can be used to produce silver-bearing HTS paint coatings on many engineering materials. Preliminary tests have shown good adherence to several ceramics and the ability to meet the superconducting criteria. Moreover, the coatings withstand multiple thermal cycling and stability under laboratory ambient storage conditions for periods of at least several months.

  14. Challenges in the Development of High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Carl Stoots

    2013-10-01

    Advanced reactor designs offer potentially significant improvements over currently operating light water reactors including improved fuel utilization, increased efficiency, higher temperature operation (enabling a new suite of non-electric industrial process heat applications), and increased safety. As with most technologies, these potential performance improvements come with a variety of challenges to bringing advanced designs to the marketplace. There are technical challenges in material selection and thermal hydraulic and power conversion design that arise particularly for higher temperature, long life operation (possibly >60 years). The process of licensing a new reactor design is also daunting, requiring significant data collection for model verification and validation to provide confidence in safety margins associated with operating a new reactor design under normal and off-normal conditions. This paper focuses on the key technical challenges associated with two proposed advanced reactor concepts: the helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the molten salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR).

  15. Statistical Software for spatial analysis of stratigraphic data sets

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-08

    Stratistics s a tool for statistical analysis of spatially explicit data sets and model output for description and for model-data comparisons. lt is intended for the analysis of data sets commonly used in geology, such as gamma ray logs and lithologic sequences, as well as 2-D data such as maps. Stratistics incorporates a far wider range of spatial analysis methods drawn from multiple disciplines, than are currently available in other packages. These include incorporation ofmore » techniques from spatial and landscape ecology, fractal analysis, and mathematical geology. Its use should substantially reduce the risk associated with the use of predictive models« less

  16. ARM - PI Product - NSA AERI Hatch Correction Data Set

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsNSA AERI Hatch Correction Data Set Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : NSA AERI Hatch Correction Data Set From 2000-2008, the NSA AERI hatch was determined to be indicated as open too frequently. Analysis suggests that the hatch was actually opening and closing properly but that its status was not being correctly reported by the hatch controller to the datastream. An algorithm was written to determine the hatch

  17. ARM - PI Product - Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsNauru Island Effect Detection Data Set ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air

  18. Imperfect World of beta beta-decay Nuclear Data Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritychenko, B.

    2015-01-03

    The precision of double-beta ??-decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for ??-decay T2v1/2 is consistent with large nuclear reaction and structure data sets and provides validation of experimental half-lives. A complementary analysis of the decay uncertainties indicates deficiencies due to small size of statistical samples, and incomplete collection of experimental information. Further experimental and theoretical efforts would lead toward more precise values of-decay half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWater Vapor IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP 1996.09.10 - 1996.09.30 Lead Scientist : Henry Revercomb For data sets, see below. Summary SCHEDULE This IOP will be conducted from September 10 - 30, 1996 (coincident with the Fall ARM-UAV IOP). Instruments that do not require supervision will be operated continuously during this period. Instruments that do

  20. Temperature estimates from the zircaloy oxidation kinetics in the. cap alpha. plus. beta. phase region. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidation rates of zircaloy in steam were measured at temperatures between 961 and 1264 K and for duration times between 25 and 1900 seconds in order to calculate, in conjunction with measurements from postirradiation metallographic examination, the prior peak temperatures of zircaloy fuel rod cladding. These temperature estimates will be used in light water reactor research programs to assess (a) the accuracy of temperature measurements of fuel rod cladding peak temperatures from thermocouples attached to the surface during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), (b) the perturbation of the fuel rod cladding LOCE temperature history caused by the presence of thermocouples, and (c) the measurements of cladding azimuthal temperature gradients near thermocouple locations.

  1. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  2. NDN Water Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NDN Water Summit is a two-day summit to build tribal executive capacity through a strategic series of forums, events, and sharing of documentation and experiences. Speakers will cover topics on water policy, climate change, and more.

  3. Indian Water 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Indian Water is a call to help plan a national water summit. This strategic session consist of a facilitated dialog with tribal leaders on important opportunities, challenges and tactics, which...

  4. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Drewniany, Edward (Bergen, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  5. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, Adam M.; Cunningham, Richard Burns; Fugate, David L.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Kisner, Roger A.; Peretz, Fred J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Wilson, Dane F.; Yoder, Jr, Graydon L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels with 3 cm diameter graphite-based fuel pebbles slowly circulating up through the core. Molten salt coolant (FLiBe) at 700°C flows concurrently (at significantly higher velocity) with the pebbles and is used to remove heat generated in the reactor core (approximately 1280 W/pebble), and supply it to a power conversion system. Refueling equipment continuously sorts spent fuel pebbles and replaces spent or damaged pebbles with fresh fuel. By combining greater or fewer numbers of pebble channel assemblies, multiple reactor designs with varying power levels can be offered. The PB-AHTR design is discussed in detail in Reference [1] and is shown schematically in Fig. 1. Fig. 1. PB-AHTR concept (drawing taken from Peterson et al., Design and Development of the Modular PB-AHTR Proceedings of ICApp 08). Pebble behavior within the core is a key issue in proving the viability of this concept. This includes understanding the behavior of the pebbles thermally, hydraulically, and mechanically (quantifying pebble wear characteristics, flow channel wear, etc). The experiment being developed is an initial step in characterizing the pebble behavior under realistic PB-AHTR operating conditions. It focuses on thermal and hydraulic behavior of a static pebble bed using a convective salt loop to provide prototypic fluid conditions to the bed, and a unique inductive heating technique to provide prototypic heating in the pebbles. The facility design is sufficiently versatile to allow a variety of other experimentation to be performed in the future. The facility can accommodate testing of scaled reactor components or sub-components such as flow diodes, salt-to-salt heat exchangers, and improved pump designs as well as testing of refueling equipment, high temperature instrumentation, and other reactor core designs.

  6. LANL, Sandia, Cray Set to Build Next Generation NNSA Supercomputer |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration LANL, Sandia, Cray Set to Build Next Generation NNSA Supercomputer | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact

  7. Electrolysis of Water

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students observe the electrolysis of water using either photovoltaics or a battery as the electric energy source.

  8. Water | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States Significant opportunities are emerging in the public and private sector to tackle water stewardship: the U.S. Department of Energy has identified the energy-water nexus as an emerging activity that require substantial R&D investment in the coming years, and DOE's Water Energy Nexus report has identified reclaimed

  9. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water Vapor Water vapor is the most effective, fastest changing, and least understood of the greenhouse gases. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas; as a matter of fact, it is the dominant greenhouse gas. But scientists don't

  10. High temperature chemically resistant polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    High temperature chemically resistant, non-aqueous polymer concrete composites consist of about 12 to 20% by weight of a water-insoluble polymer binder. The binder is polymerized in situ from a liquid vinyl-type monomer or mixture of vinyl containing monomers such as triallylcyanurate, styrene, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methyl-methacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and divinyl benzene. About 5 to 40% by weight of a reactive inorganic filler selected from the group consisting of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate and mixtures containing less than 2% free lime, and about 48 to 83% by weight of silica sand/ and a free radical initiator such as di-tert-butyl peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile, benzoyl peroxide, lauryl peroxide, other orgaic peroxides and combinations to initiate polymerization of the monomer in the presence of the inorganic filers are used.

  11. Feedwater temperature control methods and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Noonan, Jack Patrick; Saha, Pradip

    2014-04-22

    A system for controlling the power level of a natural circulation boiling water nuclear reactor (NCBWR) is disclosed. The system, in accordance with an example embodiment of the present invention, may include a controller configured to control a power output level of the NCBWR by controlling a heating subsystem to adjust a temperature of feedwater flowing into an annulus of the NCBWR. The heating subsystem may include a steam diversion line configured to receive steam generated by a core of the NCBWR and a steam bypass valve configured to receive commands from the controller to control a flow of the steam in the steam diversion line, wherein the steam received by the steam diversion line has not passed through a turbine. Additional embodiments of the invention may include a feedwater bypass valve for controlling an amount of flow of the feedwater through a heater bypass line to the annulus.

  12. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  13. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  14. Choice of an equivalent black body solar temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrott, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In the course of modeling the performance of photovoltaic solar cells for space use, it became desirable to set up a black body spectrum equivalent to the standard Air Mass Zero (AMO) solar spectrum. A method of calculating the equivalent black body solar surface temperature, based on irradiance and photon number flux derived from the AMO spectrum, is presented. It does not require knowledge of the angle subtended by the sun at the earth's surface. The value obtained is 5730 +/- 90 K.

  15. Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fish Producers Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fish Producers...

  16. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory: ... Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User ...

  17. Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Biodiesel's Enabling Characteristics in Attaining Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Discusses ...

  18. Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal Electrical Power Generation Systems Using Oilfield Fluids Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature ...

  19. Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and ... Materials Characterization Capabilities at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory and ...

  20. Jackson Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Jackson Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Jackson...

  1. Aqua Farms International Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farms International Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aqua Farms International Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  2. Flint Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Flint Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Flint...

  3. Sunnybrook Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sunnybrook Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunnybrook Farms Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  4. Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bigfork Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  5. Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Crook's Greenhouse Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  6. Duckwater Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Duckwater Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Duckwater Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Duckwater Sector...

  7. Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Castlevalley Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  8. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  9. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  10. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  11. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  12. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  13. Comprehensive, Multi-Source Cyber-Security Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kent, Alexander D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-05-21

    This data set represents 58 consecutive days of de-identified event data collected from five sources within Los Alamos National Laboratorys corporate, internal computer network. The data sources include Windows-based authentication events from both individual computers and centralized Active Directory domain controller servers; process start and stop events from individual Windows computers; Domain Name Service (DNS) lookups as collected on internal DNS servers; network flow data as collected on at several key router locations; and a set of well-defined red teaming events that present bad behavior within the 58 days. In total, the data set is approximately 12 gigabytes compressed across the five data elements and presents 1,648,275,307 events in total for 12,425 users, 17,684 computers, and 62,974 processes. Specific users that are well known system related (SYSTEM, Local Service) were not de-identified though any well-known administrators account were still de-identified. In the network flow data, well-known ports (e.g. 80, 443, etc) were not de-identified. All other users, computers, process, ports, times, and other details were de-identified as a unified set across all the data elements (e.g. U1 is the same U1 in all of the data). The specific timeframe used is not disclosed for security purposes. In addition, no data that allows association outside of LANLs network is included. All data starts with a time epoch of 1 using a time resolution of 1 second. In the authentication data, failed authentication events are only included for users that had a successful authentication event somewhere within the data set.

  14. Comprehensive, Multi-Source Cyber-Security Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kent, Alexander D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    This data set represents 58 consecutive days of de-identified event data collected from five sources within Los Alamos National Laboratorys corporate, internal computer network. The data sources include Windows-based authentication events from both individual computers and centralized Active Directory domain controller servers; process start and stop events from individual Windows computers; Domain Name Service (DNS) lookups as collected on internal DNS servers; network flow data as collected on at several key router locations; and a set of well-defined red teaming events that present bad behavior within the 58 days. In total, the data set is approximately 12 gigabytes compressed across the five data elements and presents 1,648,275,307 events in total for 12,425 users, 17,684 computers, and 62,974 processes. Specific users that are well known system related (SYSTEM, Local Service) were not de-identified though any well-known administrators account were still de-identified. In the network flow data, well-known ports (e.g. 80, 443, etc) were not de-identified. All other users, computers, process, ports, times, and other details were de-identified as a unified set across all the data elements (e.g. U1 is the same U1 in all of the data). The specific timeframe used is not disclosed for security purposes. In addition, no data that allows association outside of LANLs network is included. All data starts with a time epoch of 1 using a time resolution of 1 second. In the authentication data, failed authentication events are only included for users that had a successful authentication event somewhere within the data set.

  15. U.S.DOE Global Monthly Station Temperature and Precipitation, 1738-1980

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The global monthly station temperature and precipitation data from the U.S. Department of Energy, a dataset hosted at, covers the time period from January, 1738 to December, 1980. The air temperature and precipitation levels are platform observations from ground and water surfaces. The data are maintained in the Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  16. Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon weber_lanl_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Fundamental Issues in Subzero PEMFC Startup and Operation Accelerated Testing Validation Water Transport Exploratory Studies

  17. Temperature Effects on seepage Fluid Compositions at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolas Spycher; Eric Sonnenthal

    2001-06-01

    This project investigated the effect of two repository operating temperature modes on coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical processes around potential nuclear waste-emplacement tunnels (drifts) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of fluids (water and gas) that could enter the drifts, because these data directly relate to the performance of waste canisters and other in-drift engineered systems over the life of the potential repository. Multicomponent reactive transport simulations were performed using TOUGHREACT, initially written by T. Xu and K. Pruess at LBNL and modified here to handle high-temperature and boiling environments. Two repository operating temperature modes were investigated: (1) a ''high-temperature'' mode, which considered a short preclosure ventilation period (50 years) and gave rise to above-boiling temperatures in rocks around the drift for hundreds of years, and (2) a ''low-temperature'' mode with a smaller heat load and longer preclosure ventilation (300 years), yielding temperatures at the surface of the waste package below 85 C (a design threshold) and thus below boiling conditions. Simulations under ambient conditions (no heat load) were also conducted to serve as a baseline for comparing results of thermal-loading simulations.

  18. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  19. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  20. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beulow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Sanchez, J.A.; Spontarelli, T.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The reactions produce primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O,CO{sub 2}, and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525{degrees}C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives at low temperatures (<100{degrees}C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented.