National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water temperature setting

  1. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burke, William F.; Winiecki, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of an electrical system for varying the temperature with strain, the instrument including opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  2. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  3. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  4. Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water No abstract prepared. Authors: ...

  5. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings 12-30 annually for each 10F reduction Time to ...

  6. Hawaii Water Well Temperature and Hydraulic Head

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2014-12-01

    .csv file consisting of the water well temperature and water table elevation for wells in the State of Hawaii. Data source, Hawaii Commission of Water Resources Management.

  7. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Horn, William H.

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  8. Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

  9. Managing water temperatures below hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.L.; Vermeyen, T.B.; O`Haver, G.G.

    1995-05-01

    Due to drought-related water temperature problems in the Bureau of Reclamation`s California Central Valley Project in the early 1990`s, engineers were forced to bypass water from the plants during critical periods. This was done at considerable cost in the form of lost revenue. As a result, an alternative method of lowering water temperature was developed and it has successfully lowered water temperatures downstream from hydroelectric facilities by using flexible rubber curtains. This innovative technology is aiding the survival of endangered fish populations. This article outlines the efforts and discusses the implementation of this method at several hydroelectric facilities in the area.

  10. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  11. Fire Water Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fire Water Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fire Water Lodge...

  12. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  13. Temperature and pore water chemistry profiles of sediments in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature and pore water chemistry profiles of sediments in the equatorial Pacific: incompatible results Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature and pore water ...

  14. At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? June 25, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis You can save 5%-15% on your cooling bills by raising the temperature setting on your thermostat when you are away and don't need cooling. Only lower the setting to 78°F when you are home and need cooling. A programmable thermostat can make it easy to adjust the temperature on a regular schedule. At what temperature do you set

  15. {sup 1}H NMR relaxometry as an indicator of setting and water depletion during cement hydration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Biyun; Faure, Paméla; Thiéry, Mickaël; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique

    2013-03-15

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry has been used to detect setting and microstructure evolution during cement hydration. NMR measurements were performed since casting, during setting and until hardening (from 0 to 3 days). The mobility of water molecules was assessed by an analysis focused on the diagram of longitudinal relaxation time T{sub 1} generated by an Inversion Recovery sequence. The initial stiffening of the solid network was identified by an analysis of the relaxation rate 1/T{sub 1}. The kinetics of water depletion was investigated by using a simple one-pulse acquisition sequence. In parallel, conventional techniques (Vicat needle and temperature monitoring), as well as numerical simulations of hydration, were used to complement and validate these NMR results. Cement pastes and mortars with different water-to-cement ratios made of grey or white OPCs were tested. Furthermore, the effects of the addition of sand, super-plasticizer and silica fume on the hydration kinetics were investigated.

  16. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the winter? How about when you're asleep or away?

  17. Potential Vulnerability of US Petroleum Refineries to Increasing Water Temperature and/or Reduced Water Availability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report discusses potential impacts of increased water temperature and reductions in water availability on petroleum refining and presents case studies related to refinery water use. Report...

  18. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the winter? How about when you're asleep or away? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at ...

  19. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratorys Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  20. Sensitivity of Vadose Zone Water Fluxes to Climate Shifts in Arid Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfletschinger, Heike; Prommel, K.; Schuth, C.; Herbst, M.; Engelhardt, I.

    2014-01-13

    Vadose zone water fluxes in arid settings are investigated regarding their sensitivity to hydraulic soil parameters and meteorological data. The study is based on the inverse modeling of highly defined soil column experiments and subsequent scenario modeling comparing different climate projections for a defined arid region. In arid regions, groundwater resources are prone to depletion due to excessive water use and little recharge potential. Especially in sand dune areas, groundwater recharge is highly dependent on vadose zone properties and corresponding water fluxes. Nevertheless, vadose zone water fluxes under arid conditions are hard to determine owing to, among other reasons, deep vadose zones with generally low fluxes and only sporadic high infiltration events. In this study, we present an inverse model of infiltration experiments accounting for variable saturated nonisothermal water fluxes to estimate effective hydraulic and thermal parameters of dune sands. A subsequent scenario modeling links the results of the inverse model with projections of a global climate model until 2100. The scenario modeling clearly showed the high dependency of groundwater recharge on precipitation amounts and intensities, whereas temperature increases are only of minor importance for deep infiltration. However, simulated precipitation rates are still affected by high uncertainties in the response to the hydrological input data of the climate model. Thus, higher certainty in the prediction of precipitation pattern is a major future goal for climate modeling to constrain future groundwater management strategies in arid regions.

  1. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  2. Water level sensor and temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature profile detector comprising a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material is electrically connected to the interior electrical conductor and positioned within the length of metal tubing. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  3. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drouet, Emeline; Poyet, Stéphane; Torrenti, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  4. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  5. Temperature and pore water chemistry profiles of sediments in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    equatorial Pacific: incompatible results (Conference) | SciTech Connect Temperature and pore water chemistry profiles of sediments in the equatorial Pacific: incompatible results Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature and pore water chemistry profiles of sediments in the equatorial Pacific: incompatible results Authors: Crowe, J. ; McDuff, R.E. Publication Date: 1979-11-13 OSTI Identifier: 6388797 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Journal Name: EOS, Trans., Am.

  6. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The method is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.

  8. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The methodmore » is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.« less

  9. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  10. Optimum hot water temperature for absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecuona, A.; Ventas, R.; Venegas, M.; Salgado, R.; Zacarias, A.

    2009-10-15

    The hot water temperature that maximizes the overall instantaneous efficiency of a solar cooling facility is determined. A modified characteristic equation model is used and applied to single-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chillers. This model is based on the characteristic temperature difference and serves to empirically calculate the performance of real chillers. This paper provides an explicit equation for the optimum temperature of vapor generation, in terms of only the external temperatures of the chiller. The additional data required are the four performance parameters of the chiller and essentially a modified stagnation temperature from the detailed model of the thermal collector operation. This paper presents and discusses the results for small capacity machines for air conditioning of homes and small buildings. The discussion highlights the influence of the relevant parameters. (author)

  11. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  12. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M.; Basurto, E.; Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-07-07

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered.

  13. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  14. High-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciocco, M.V.; Iyoha, O.; Enick, R.M.; Killmeyer, R.P.

    2007-06-01

    NETL’s Office of Research and Development is exploring the integration of membrane reactors into coal gasification plants as a way of increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Water-Gas Shift Reaction experiments were conducted in membrane reactors at conditions similar to those encountered at the outlet of a coal gasifier. The changes in reactant conversion and product selectivity due to the removal of hydrogen via the membrane reactor were quantified. Research was conducted to determine the influence of residence time and H2S on CO conversion in both Pd and Pd80wt%Cu membrane reactors. Effects of the hydrogen sulfide-to-hydrogen ratio on palladium and a palladium-copper alloy at high-temperature were also investigated. These results were compared to thermodynamic calculations for the stability of palladium sulfides.

  15. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Congleton, J.; Parkins, R.N.; Hemsworth, B.

    1987-01-01

    Slow strain rate stress corrosion tests have been performed on specimens cut from four separate heats of alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Material was tested in the mill annealed and thermally stabilized conditions and after various low temperature aging treatments. Only limited cracking was observed, even for tests at 340/sup 0/C, but the initiation of intergranular cracking was easier on the inner than on the outer surfaces of the tubing. Polarization data has been obtained in high temperature water and in saturated boric acid and saturated lithium hydroxide at the atmospheric boiling points, and slow strain tests were performed at controlled potentials in these environments. Again, only very short cracks formed during the slow strain rate tests which were performed at a strain rate of about 10/sup -6/ s/sup -1/. The data is discussed in terms of the probable crack tip strain rates that would exist in these tests and at other strain rates. It is argued that if cracking occurs, the main role of very low strain rate tests is to provide time for initiation and crack growth, so that cyclic loading or intermittent loading long tests are likely to be more successful in sustaining crack growth in this alloy.

  16. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin; Davenport, Roger; Talbot, Jan; Herz, Richard; Genders, David; Symons, Peter; Brown, Lloyd

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are

  17. Analysis of temperatures and water levels in wells to estimatealluvial aquifer hydraulic conductivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Grace W.; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2003-06-19

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.28C in two wells to {approx}88C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  18. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells | Department of Energy Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005. htmwg05_kerr.pdf (158.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells

  19. Temperature and pore water chemistry profiles of sediments in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; PACIFIC OCEAN; SEDIMENTS; TEMPERATURE ...

  20. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES...

  1. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  2. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during

  3. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  4. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  5. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  6. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  7. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  8. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  9. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  10. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  11. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure

  12. Water-level sensor and temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A temperature profile detector is described which comprises a surrounding length of metal tubing and an interior electrical conductor both constructed of high temperature high electrical resistance materials. A plurality of gas-filled expandable bellows made of electrically conductive material are positioned at spaced locations along a length of the conductors. The bellows are sealed and contain a predetermined volume of a gas designed to effect movement of the bellows from an open circuit condition to a closed circuit condition in response to monitored temperature changes sensed by each bellows.

  13. Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer J. C. Liljegren Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Radiometrics Corporation has developed a twelve-channel microwave radiometer capable of providing continuous, real-time vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor, and limited-resolution cloud liquid water from the surface to 10 km in nearly all weather conditions (Solheim et al. 1998a). Since

  14. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  15. Novel room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics for stabilizing combustion products and low-level mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1994-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from the Office of Technology in the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a new process employing novel, chemically bonded ceramic materials to stabilize secondary waste streams. Such waste streams result from the thermal processes used to stabilize low-level, mixed wastes. The process will help the electric power industry treat its combustion and low-level mixed wastes. The ceramic materials are strong, dense, leach-resistant, and inexpensive to fabricate. The room-temperature-setting process allows stabilization of volatile components containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. The process also provides effective stabilization of fossil fuel combustion products. It is most suitable for treating fly and bottom ashes.

  16. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  17. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01

    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  18. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00 The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding

  19. Low-Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data for Thermal Wells and Springs Through 1993 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  20. Stress-corrosion cracking of Inconel alloy 600 in high-temperature water: an update. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Inconel 600 has been tested in high-temperature aqueous media (without oxygen) in several tests. Data are presented to relate failure times to periods of crack initiation and propagation. Quantitative relationships have been developed from tests in which variations were made in temperature, applied load, strain rate, water chemistry, and the condition of the test alloy.

  1. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  2. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  3. Temperature distributions of radio-frequency plasma in water by spectroscopic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukasa, Shinobu; Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Abe, Fumiaki; Kawashima, Ayato

    2009-12-01

    Distributions of emission intensity from radicals, electron temperature, and rotational temperature at a radio frequency of 27.12 MHz plasma in water are clarified by detailed spectroscopy measurement. Through this investigation, the following were observed. The points of maximum emission intensity of Halpha, Hbeta, O (777 nm), and O (845 nm) are almost the same, while that of OH shifts upward. The electron temperature decreases, while the rotational temperature increases with pressure. The distribution of the electron temperature changes at a threshold pressure, which is concerned with a change in the electron discharge mechanism. The self-bias of the electrode changes from a negative to positive at a threshold pressure. The point of the maximum rotational temperature of OH radicals shifts to approximately 1 mm above that for the maximum intensity of OH emission.

  4. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    2013-10-07

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  5. Dependence of Tritium Release from Stainless Steel on Temperature and Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shmayda, W. T.; Sharpe, M.; Boyce, A. M.; Shea, R.; Petroski, B.; Schroeder, W. U.

    2015-09-15

    The impact of water vapor and temperature on the release of tritium from stainless steel was studied. Degreased stainless steel samples loaded with tritium at room temperature following a 24-h degassing in vacuum at room temperature were subjected to increasing temperatures or humidity. In general, increasing either the sample temperature or the humidity causes an increased quantity of tritium to be removed. Increasing the temperature to 300°C in a dry gas stream results in a significant release of tritium and is therefore an effective means for reducing the tritium inventory in steel. For humid purges at 30°C, a sixfold increase in humidity results in a tenfold increase in the peak outgassing rate. Increasing the humidity from 4 parts per million (ppm) to 1000 ppm when the sample temperature is 100°C causes a significant increase in the tritium outgassing rate. Finally, a simple calculation shows that only 15% of the activity present in the sample was removed in these experiments, suggesting that the surface layer of adsorbed water participates in regulating tritium desorption from the surface.

  6. Dependence of Tritium Release from Stainless Steel on Temperature and Water Vapor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shmayda, W. T.; Sharpe, M.; Boyce, A. M.; Shea, R.; Petroski, B.; Schroeder, W. U.

    2015-09-15

    The impact of water vapor and temperature on the release of tritium from stainless steel was studied. Degreased stainless steel samples loaded with tritium at room temperature following a 24-h degassing in vacuum at room temperature were subjected to increasing temperatures or humidity. In general, increasing either the sample temperature or the humidity causes an increased quantity of tritium to be removed. Increasing the temperature to 300°C in a dry gas stream results in a significant release of tritium and is therefore an effective means for reducing the tritium inventory in steel. For humid purges at 30°C, a sixfold increasemore » in humidity results in a tenfold increase in the peak outgassing rate. Increasing the humidity from 4 parts per million (ppm) to 1000 ppm when the sample temperature is 100°C causes a significant increase in the tritium outgassing rate. Finally, a simple calculation shows that only 15% of the activity present in the sample was removed in these experiments, suggesting that the surface layer of adsorbed water participates in regulating tritium desorption from the surface.« less

  7. Observed and simulated temperature dependence of the liquid water path of low clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Genio, A.D.; Wolf, A.B.

    1996-04-01

    Data being acquired at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site can be used to examine the factors determining the temperature dependence of cloud optical thickness. We focus on cloud liquid water and physical thickness variations which can be derived from existing ARM measurements.

  8. Stress-corrosion cracking of Inconel alloy 600 in high-temperature water - an update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; Van Rooyen, D.

    1984-08-01

    An experimental program on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) aimed at the development of a quantitative model for predicting the behavior of Inconel 600 tubing in high temperature water is described. Empirical data are gathered to relate factors that influence SCC. Work involves U-bends, constant extension rate tests (CERT), and constant load. Plots are made of failure time and crack velocity vs temperature, and also of SCC time vs stress, using a variety of environments related to the ingredients of primary or secondary water. Cold work of Alloy 600 is also included. The effect of temperature is found to yield-semi-log (Arrhenius) curves, and log-log plots of failure time vs stress are presented. Curves of this type are being evaluated for use in extrapolating accelerated test data to operating conditions for predictive purposes. 5 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Menicucci, David; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific

  10. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or storage tank made of metals which dissolve some T evolved by water corrosion. In order to understand behaviors of hydrogen uptake and permeation in pure α-iron (αFe) during water corrosion around room temperature, hydrogen permeation experiments for an αFe membrane have been conducted by means of tritium tracer techniques. The present study suggests that hydrogen produced by water corrosion of αFe is trapped in product oxide layers to delay hydrogen uptake in αFe for a moment. However, the oxide layers do not work as a sufficient barrier for hydrogen uptake. Some of hydrogen dissolved in αFe normally diffuses and permeates through the bulk in the early stage of permeation. In a later stage, hydrogen permeation could be apparently stopped by the disappearance of concentration difference of tritium. Hydrogen partial pressure at the water/αFe interface could be ranged from 0.7 to 9.5 kPa around room temperature.

  11. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  12. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  13. Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking for iron-based alloys in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.Y.; Congleton, J.; Bahraloloom, A.

    1998-11-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities of a series of iron-based alloys (IBA), including some high-purity irons, were evaluated in lithiated water at temperatures up to 300 C. Inclusion distributions in each material were established using quantitative metallography and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). Electrochemical measurements were performed to investigate film formation kinetics. Results showed the minimum potential for SCC was a function of the inclusion content. Reducing the inclusion content in IBA moved the minimum potential for SCC in the anodic direction and/or increased the temperature for the onset of cracking but did not eliminate SCC.

  14. Stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, G.L.; Burke, M.G.

    1995-07-01

    SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in deaerated water at 360 C (statically loaded U-bend specimens) is dependent on microstructure and whether the material was cold-worked and annealed (CWA) or hot-worked and annealed (HWA). All cracking was intergranular, and materials lacking grain boundary carbides were most susceptible to SCC initiation. CWA tubing materials are more susceptible to SCC initiation than HWA ring-rolled forging materials with similar microstructures (optical metallography). In CWA tubing materials, one crack dominated and grew to a visible size. HWA materials with a low hot-working finishing temperature (<925 C) and final anneals at 1010-1065 C developed both large cracks (similar to those in CWA materials) and small intergranular microcracks detectable only by destructive metallography. HWA materials with a high hot-working finishing temperature (>980 C) and a high-temperature final anneal (>1040 C), with grain boundaries that are fully decorated, developed only microcracks in all specimens. These materials did not develop large, visually detectable cracks, even after more than 300 weeks exposure. A low-temperature thermal treatment (610 C for 7h), which reduces or eliminates SCC in Alloy 600, did not eliminate microcrack formation in high temperature processed HWA materials. Conventional metallographic and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) were done on selected materials to identify the factors responsible for the observed differences in cracking behavior. Major difference between high-temperature HWA and low-temperature HWA and CWA materials was that the high temperature processing and final annealing produced predominantly ``semi-continuous`` dendritic M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides along grain boundaries with a minimal amount of intragranular carbides. Lower temperature processing produced intragranular M7C3 carbides, with less intergranular carbides.

  15. About the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Alloy 600 is a material commonly used to construct the tubing in the steam generators (SG) of pressurized light water reactors (PWR) and of CANDU heavy water reactors. It is well established which variables and to which extent they influence the crack growth rate (CGR) in Alloy 600 exposed to high temperature (deaerated) water (HTW), especially in very aggressive conditions. There is evidence that the same variables that influence CGR also control the crack induction time. However, there are only a few data on crack induction time and no detailed explanation of the events that lead to the nucleation of a crack on an apparent smooth tube surface. In this paper, a critical review of the mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is given and, an interpretation of the events occurring during the long ({approx} 15 y) induction times observed in plant is postulated.

  16. One-Dimensional Ceria as Catalyst for the Low-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.; Wen, W; Hanson, J; Teng, X; Marinkovic, N; Rodriguez, J

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study pure ceria and Pd-loaded ceria nanotubes and nanorods (1D-ceria) as catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. While bulk ceria is very poor as WGS catalysts, pure 1D-ceria displayed catalytic activity at a temperature as low as 300 C. The reduction of the pure 1D-ceria in pure hydrogen started at 150 C, which is a much lower temperature than those previously reported for the reduction of 3D ceria nanoparticles. This low reduction temperature reflects the novel morphology of the oxide systems and may be responsible for the low-temperature WGS catalytic activity seen for the 1D-ceria. Pd-loaded 1D ceria displayed significant WGS activity starting at 200 C. During pretreatment in H{sub 2}, the ceria lattice parameter increased significantly around 60 C, which indicates that Pd-oxygen interactions may facilitate the reduction of Pd-loaded 1D-ceria. Pd and ceria both participate in the formation of the active sites for the catalytic reactions. The low-temperature hydrogen pretreatment results in higher WGS activity for Pd-loaded 1D-ceria.

  17. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  18. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  19. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamone, Salvatore Concistr, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  20. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  1. The Effects of Water Vapor and Hydrogen on the High-Temperature Oxidation of Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, N.; Jung, K.; Yanar, N. M.; Pettit, F. S; Holcomb, G. R.; Howard, B. H.; Meier, G. H.

    2013-06-01

    Essentially all alloys and coatings that are resistant to corrosion at high temperature require the formation of a protective (slowly-growing and adherent) oxide layer by a process known as selective oxidation. The fundamental understanding of this process has been developed over the years for exposure in pure oxygen or air. However, the atmospheres in most applications contain significant amounts of water vapor which can greatly modify the behavior of protective oxides. The development of oxy-fuel combustion systems in which fossil fuels are burned in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air, has caused renewed interest in the effects of water vapor and steam on alloy oxidation. The focus of this paper is on the ways the presence of water vapor can directly alter the selective oxidation process. The paper begins with a brief review of the fundamentals of selective oxidation followed by a description of recent experimental results regarding the effect of water vapor on the oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming alloys (Fe- and Ni-base) in the temperature range 600 to 700 °C. The atmospheres include air, air-H{sub 2}O, Ar-H{sub 2}O and Ar-H{sub 2}O-O{sub 2}. Then the behavior of alumina-forming alloys in H{sub 2}O-containing atmospheres is briefly described. As hydrogen is produced during oxidation of alloys in H{sub 2}O, it can be released back into the gas phase or injected into the metal (where it can diffuse through to the other side). Experiments in which hydrogen concentrations have been measured on both sides of thin specimens during oxidation by H{sub 2}O on only one side are described. Finally, it is attempted to catalogue the various experimental observations under a few general principles.

  2. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  3. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  4. Cooling performance of a water-cooling panel system for modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takada, Shoji; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Sudo, Yukio

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on a water cooling panel system were performed to investigate its heat removal performance and the temperature distribution of components for a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR). The analytical code THANPACST2 was applied to analyze the experimental results to verify the validity of the analytical method and the model.

  5. Low temperature, sulfur tolerant homogeneous catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, R.M.

    1986-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to update and reorganize our recent review on homogeneous catalysis of the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) based on recent literature publications and patents. This updated version will serve as a means of selecting 10 candidate catalyst systems for use in developing effective, sulfur-tolerant, low temperature WGSR catalysts. This report discusses the variations possible in the basic chemistry associated with WGSR catalytic cycles, including basic, acidic, and neutral conditions. Then individual mechanism for specific WGSR catalyst systems are discussed. Finally, on the basis of the literature reports, a list is presented of candidate catalysts and basic systems we have chosen for study in Task 3.

  6. The melting temperature of liquid water with the effective fragment potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brorsen, Kurt R.; Willow, Soohaeng Y.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2015-09-17

    Direct simulation of the solid-liquid water interface with the effective fragment potential (EFP) via the constant enthalpy and pressure (NPH) ensemble was used to estimate the melting temperature (Tm) of ice-Ih. Initial configurations and velocities, taken from equilibrated constant pressure and temperature (NPT) simulations at T = 300 K, 350 K and 400 K, respectively, yielded corresponding Tm values of 37816 K, 38214 K and 38415 K. These estimates are consistently higher than experiment, albeit to the same degree with previously reported estimates using density functional theory (DFT)-based Born-Oppenheimer simulations with the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional plus dispersion corrections (BLYP-D). KRB was supported by a Computational Science Graduate Fellowship from the Department of Energy. MSG was supported by a U.S. National Science Foundation Software Infrastructure (SI2) grant (ACI 1047772). SSX acknowledges support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  7. Effects of carbides on susceptibility of alloy 600 to stress corrosion cracking in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Xia, Z.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z. . Fontana Corrosion Center)

    1993-11-01

    The electrochemical behavior of sensitized, carburized, and mill-annealed alloy 600 (UNS N06600) was studied in hydrogenated, aerated, and high-temperature (250 to 350 C) dilute aqueous solutions. In high-temperature water at high anodic potentials, the current density (DC) from carbide dissolution was higher than DC from matrix dissolution. In oxidizing environments, intergranular stress corrosion cracking propagated in alloy 600 by dissolution of continuous or semicontinuous carbides at the grain boundary, in sensitized and non-sensitized materials. These studies have been conducted in environments similar to those in the steam generators of pressurized water reactors (PWR) in nuclear power plants.

  8. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, E.V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

  9. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  10. Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in all volatile treated water at elevated temperatures. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theus, G.J.; Emanuelson, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes a continuing study of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Inconel alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile treated (AVT) water. Specimens of alloys 600 and 690 are being exposed to AVT water at 288/sup 0/, 332/sup 0/, 343/sup 0/, and 360/sup 0/C. Alloy 600 generally resists SCC in high-purity water under normal service conditions but is susceptible under other specific conditions. In general, mill-annealed alloy 600 is more susceptible than stress-relieved material. Susceptibility to SCC increases rapidly with increasing exposure temperature. Very high stresses (near or above yield) are required to induce cracking in AVT or other high-purity waters. Most of the data presented in this report are for alloy 600; alloy 690 has not yet cracked. However, the program is being continued and will subsequently characterize the high-purity water cracking behavior, if any, of alloy 690.

  11. Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack in Alloy 600 in high temperature caustic and pure water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have been conducted on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular attack (IGA) of Alloy 600. A combination of SCC and IGA has been observed in Alloy 600 tubing on the hot leg of some operating steam generators in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, and sodium hydroxide along with several other chemical species have been implicated in the tube degradations. SCC has been observed above and within the tube sheet, whereas IGA is generally localized within the tube sheet. Alloy 600 is also susceptible to SCC in pure and primary water. Various factors that influence SCC and IGA include metallurgical conditions of the alloy, concentrations of alkaline species, impurity content of the environment, temperature and stress. The mechanisms of these intergranular failures, however, are not well understood. Some of the possible mechanisms of the SCC and IGA in high temperature water and caustic are described in this paper.

  12. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  13. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, ... An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located ...

  14. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  15. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

  16. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  17. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as a function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.

  18. A validated model to predict microalgae growth in outdoor pond cultures subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Crowe, Braden J.; Waller, Peter; Chavis, Aaron R.; Hobbs, Samuel J.; Edmundson, Scott J.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2015-12-11

    Here, a microalgae biomass growth model was developed for screening novel strains for their potential to exhibit high biomass productivities under nutrient-replete conditions in outdoor ponds subjected to fluctuating light intensities and water temperatures. Growth is modeled by first estimating the light attenuation by biomass according to a scatter-corrected Beer-Lambert Law, and then calculating the specific growth rate in discretized culture volume slices that receive declining light intensities due to attenuation. The model requires the following experimentally determined strain-specific input parameters: specific growth rate as a function of light intensity and temperature, biomass loss rate in the dark as amore » function of temperature and average light intensity during the preceding light period, and the scatter-corrected biomass light absorption coefficient. The model was successful in predicting the growth performance and biomass productivity of three different microalgae species (Chlorella sorokiniana, Nannochloropsis salina, and Picochlorum sp.) in raceway pond cultures (batch and semi-continuous) subjected to diurnal sunlight intensity and water temperature variations. Model predictions were moderately sensitive to minor deviations in input parameters. To increase the predictive power of this and other microalgae biomass growth models, a better understanding of the effects of mixing-induced rapid light dark cycles on photo-inhibition and short-term biomass losses due to dark respiration in the aphotic zone of the pond is needed.« less

  19. Identification of mixing effects in stratified chilled-water storage tanks by analysis of time series temperature data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, J.S.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    Several one-dimensional models of mixing in stratified chilled-water thermal energy storage tanks have been proposed. In the simplest models, mixing is assumed to be uniform throughout the tank. Other models permit spatial variation of mixing intensity. Published models were developed by adjusting model parameters to achieve qualitative agreement with measured profiles. The literature does not describe quantitative criteria for evaluating the performance of mixing models. This paper describes a method that can be used to determine the relative spatial distribution of mixing effects directly from experimental data. It also illustrates a method for quantitative comparison of experimental and modeled temperature profiles. The mixing calculation procedure may be applied to instantaneous spatial temperature data if temperature sensor spacing is sufficiently small. When sensors are widely spaced, time series data taken at individual sensors provide better accuracy. A criterion for maximum sensor spacing is proposed. The application of these procedures to time series charge-cycle operating data from a full-scale chilled-water thermal storage system serving a large medical center is described. Results of this analysis indicate that mixing is localized near the inlet diffuser and that one-dimensional flow with streamwise conduction predominates in most of the tank.

  20. Evolution of temperature distributions in a full-scale stratified chilled-water storage tank with radial diffusers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-10-01

    Temperature profiles in a full-scale, naturally stratified, chilled-water thermal storage tank are described. Tests were performed using a 1.4 million gallon (5,300 m{sup 3}), 44.5 ft (13.56 m) water depth cylindrical tank with radial diffusers. Nine charge and discharge cycle tests were performed for various flow rates, covering and extending beyond the normal operating range of the system. A method for obtaining thermocline thickness from field data was derived, and a relationship between inlet flow rate and initial thermocline thickness was established. Significant differences between profiles obtained for charge and discharge cycles at similar flow rates suggest that the free surface at the top of the tank allows more mixing to occur near the upper diffuser. A study of thermocline growth compares measured temperature profiles with those predicted by a numerical conduction model that uses temperature profiles measured early in the cycle as an initial condition. Comparison with the numerical study shows that, for high flow rate tests, large-scale mixing induced by the inlet diffuser can have significant effects on thermocline development, even after the thermocline has moved away from the inlet diffuser.

  1. Grain Boundary Character Along Intergranular Stress Corrosion Crack Paths in Austenitic Stainless Alloys Removed from High-Temperature Water Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gertsman, Valerii Y.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    Stress-corrosion cracks produced in high-temperature water environments were examined in alloy 600 and stainless steel samples. The alloy 600 samples were removed from pressurized-water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing after exhibiting cracking in service or after model-boiler stress corrosion cracking tests. The 304 and 316 stainless steel samples also experienced intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-temperature-water environments similar to a PWR steam generator. Grain boundary misorientations were measured along IG crack paths as well as in the bulk. In general, only twin Sigma 3 boundaries exhibited improved resistance to crack propagation. If the Sigma 3 were factored out, the fractions of grain boundary types of cracked boundaries corresponded to their frequency of occurrence in the bulk alloy. Other boundaries with coincident site lattice misorientations, including Sigma 9 and Sigma 27, were observed to crack. The cracks were often (but not always) arrested at grain boundary junctions containing Sigma 3 boundaries. The results obtained indicate that grain boundary crystallography does not fully determine its susceptibility to IGSCC in typical commercial alloys. Other factors must be taken into account when assessing material?s propensity to IG failure.

  2. The influence of dissolved hydrogen on primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 at PWR steam generator operating temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacko, R.J.; Economy, G.; Pement, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    PWR primary coolant chemistry uses an intentional dissolved hydrogen concentration of 20 to 50 ml (STP)/kg of water to effect a net suppression of oxygen-producing radiolysis, to minimize corrosion in primary loop materials and to maintain a low redox potential. Speculation has attended a possible influence of dissolved hydrogen on the kinetics of initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Three series of experiments are presented for conditions in which the level of dissolved hydrogen was intentionally varied over the hydrogen and temperature ranges of interest for steam generator operation. No significant effect of dissolved hydrogen was found on PWSCC of Alloy 600.

  3. Stress corrosion cracking of alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile-treated water at elevated temperatures: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miglin, B.P.; Theus, G.J.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes stress corrosion (SCC) tests of Inconnel alloys 600 and 690 in all-volatile treated (AVT) water. Specimens of alloys 600 and 690 were exposed to AVT water at 288/degree/, 332/degree/, 343/degree/, and 360/degree/C. Alloy 660 generally resists SCC in high-purity water at normal sevice temperatures, but is susceptible to SCC at higher temperatures. In general, mill-annealed alloy 600 is more susceptible than high-treated material with fine lacy grain boundary carbides. Very high stresses (near or above yield) are required to induce cracking of alloy 600 in AVT or other high-purity waters. For alloy 600, 78 of 520 alloy 600 specimens eventually cracked. Although exposed for less total time than alloy 600 specimens, no alloy 690 specimens cracked. Three alloy 600 specimens cracked in the same autoclave tests in less time than those accumulated by the alloy 690 specimens. Longitudinally-oriented ID cracks became evident on alloy 690 split-tube U-bend specimens after autoclave exposures. These cracks on the 690 specimens were from three to ten times longer after exposure than similar defects found on unexposed alloy 690 specimens. The longitudinal crack lengthening on the alloy 690 split-tube U-bend specimens may have been a stress relaxation process or possibly a crack opening process of pre-existing, partially closed, longitudinal defects. Similar cracks were present in alloy 600 specimens, but in at least one case SCC did initiate from these shallow, blunt cracks.

  4. Effects of Compaction and Temperature on Sorption and Diffusion of Cs and HTO in Compacted Bentonite Saturated with Saline Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoru Suzuki; Masashi Haginuma; Kazunori Suzuki

    2007-07-01

    The sorption and diffusion of Cs and tritiated water (HTO) in compacted bentonite was investigated at temperatures from 30 to 60 deg. C. The apparent (D{sub a}) and effective (D{sub e}) diffusion coefficients were determined by in-diffusion and through-diffusion experiments with a constant boundary concentration maintained. The temperature dependence of De and Da obeyed an Arrhenius-type equation, allowing determination of the activation energy for diffusion of Cs and HTO. The D{sub e} value of Cs was three times the D{sub e} of HTO, which is considered to be a result of surface-excess diffusion. Cs may be concentrated near the surface of the negatively charged clay, thus giving a large diffusive flux. The activation energies for Cs diffusion were 21.4{+-}2.8 kJ/mol and 37.3{+-}1.5 kJ/mol as determined based on D{sub e} and D{sub a}, respectively. This difference was due to the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} of Cs. (authors)

  5. Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai

    2009-04-15

    Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

  6. Lead-induced stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, T.; Senjuh, T.; Aoki, K.; Shigemitsu, T.; Kishi, Y.

    1992-12-31

    Lead is one of the potential contributing impurities to the degradation of PWR steam generator tubing. Recent laboratory testing has shown that lead is a corrosive material for Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. However, it is still unknown how lead influences the corrosion of steam generator tubing, including the effect of lead concentration, solution pH, stress level and material characteristics. In this study, two kinds of experiments were performed. One was to investigate the thin film characteristic and selectively dissolved base metal elements of Alloy 600MA in high temperature solutions of different lead concentrations and pH. The other investigated the dependency of degradation of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT on lead concentration and stress level in mild acidic environment, at 340{degrees}C for 2500 hrs. It was firstly demonstrated that lead-enhanced selective dissolution of nickel from alloy base metal, as a result of electrochemical reaction between lead and nickel, might cause the initiation and propagation of corrosion. Secondly, we showed that Alloy 690TT, generally very corrosion resistant material, also suffered from Pb-induced corrosion. The difference of the lead-induced stress corrosion morphology of Alloy 600MA and Alloy 690TT was also clarified.

  7. Photochemical reaction of sulfur hexafluoride with water in low-temperature xenon matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Daisuke

    2011-03-14

    Sulfur hexafluoride SF{sub 6} is a very stable molecule with which very few reactions with other molecules have been reported. Here, we report a photochemical reaction of SF{sub 6} with water molecules using a matrix-isolation technique, where SF{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O were co-condensed in Xe matrices, and the products were observed using infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation at 193 nm from an ArF excimer laser caused the simultaneous decomposition of SF{sub 6} and H{sub 2}O, which resulted in the production of novel species. Infrared spectra and molecular orbital calculations of the species showed that the product was a SF{sub 4}{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}HF{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}HOF complex, which consists of hydrogen bonds and charge transfer interaction between S and F atoms. The assignment of the species was confirmed by isotope shifts using D and {sup 18}O isotope substitutions.

  8. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  9. Initiation and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature water. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, R.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-01-01

    Results of stress-corrosion cracking data are presented for Inconel 600 steam-generator tubing. U-bend, constant-load, and slow extension-rate tests are included. Arrhenius plots are presented for failure times vs inverse temperature for crack initiation and propagation. Effect of applied load is expressed in terms of log-log curves for failure times vs stress, and variations in environment and cold work are included. Microstructure and composition of oxide films on Inconel 600 surfaces were examined after exposure to pure water at 365/sup 0/C, and stripping with the bromine-methanol method. Results are discussed in terms of transient creep, film rupture and a mass-transport-limited anodic process.

  10. Low temperature, sulfur tolerant homogeneous catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction. Task 1, Topical report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laine, R.M.

    1986-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to update and reorganize our recent review on homogeneous catalysis of the water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) based on recent literature publications and patents. This updated version will serve as a means of selecting 10 candidate catalyst systems for use in developing effective, sulfur-tolerant, low temperature WGSR catalysts. This report discusses the variations possible in the basic chemistry associated with WGSR catalytic cycles, including basic, acidic, and neutral conditions. Then individual mechanism for specific WGSR catalyst systems are discussed. Finally, on the basis of the literature reports, a list is presented of candidate catalysts and basic systems we have chosen for study in Task 3.

  11. Microbial water diversion technique-designed for near well treatment in low temperature sandstone reservoirs in the North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsen, J.E.; Vatland, A.; Sorheim, R.

    1995-12-31

    A Norwegian Research Program on Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) in North Sea reservoirs was launched in 1992. Microbial methods, applied in this context, is a part of this program. The scope, the methodological approach, and results from the three first years are presented. Water profile control, using biomass to block high permeable zones of a reservoir, has been investigated using nitrate-reducing bacteria in the injected sea water as plugging agents. Emphasis has been put on developing a process that does not have disadvantages secondary to the process itself, such as souring and impairment of the overall injectivity of the field. Data from continuous culture studies indicate that souring may successfully be mitigated by adding nitrite to the injected seawater. The morphology and size of generic-nitrate-reducing seawater bacteria have been investigated. Screening of growth-promoting nutrients has been carried out, and some sources were detected as favorable. Transport and penetration of bacteria in porous media have been given special attention. Investigations with sand packs, core models, and pore micromodels have been carried out. The inherent problems connected with permeability contrasts and flow patterns, versus bacterial behavior, are believed to be critical for the success of this technology. Data from the transport and blocking experiments with the porous matrices confirm this concern. The technology is primarily being developed for temperatures less than 40{degrees}C.

  12. Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Coso, a simple set of surface conditions. It is concluded that making useful shallow temperature measurements where there is a modest amount of ground water flow need not be a...

  13. Characterization of Surface Water/Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport Using Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee D. Slater; Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis; Fred Day-Lewis; Kisa Mwakanyamale; Roelof J Versteeg; Andy Ward; Christopher Strickland; Carole D. Johnson; John Lane

    2010-10-01

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the river corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted CWEI (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The FO- DTS data recorded along a 1.5 km of cable with a 1-m spatial resolution and 5-minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and, (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water/groundwater exchange. The FO-DTS datasets confirm the

  14. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  15. Mechanisms of hydrogen-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high-temperature water/steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, C.H.

    1989-01-01

    Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in high-temperature deaerated water or steam has been termed Hydrogen Induced IGSCC. It is suggested here that these cracks are initiated by the nucleation of a high density of bubbles on the grain boundary under the combined action of the applied stress and high-pressure methane formed from carbon in solution reacting with hydrogen injected by corrosion. The bubbles then grow together by grain-boundary diffusion to give local failure. This agrees with the observations made using the electron microscope and two-stage replicas, namely the subsurface formation of closely spaced (0.2 {mu}m) bubbles along boundaries, and the growth of these into fine cracks before they open up to communicate with the corroding atmosphere. The kinetics of this process are examined and shown to be in quantitative agreement with several experimental observations. This mechanism involves no dissolution of the metal, the only role of corrosion being the injection of hydrogen at a high fugacity. It also predicts an activation energy essentially equal to that for grain-boundary diffusion of nickel in the Alloy 600 grain boundary. The activation energy for grain-boundary self-diffusion in nickel is 115 kJ/mol.

  16. Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effect of Corrosion Film Composition and Structure on the Corrosion Kinetics of Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys in High Temperature Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.M. Rosecrans; N. Lewis; D.J. Duquette

    2002-02-27

    Nickel alloys such as Alloy 600 undergo Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in pure water at temperatures between about 260 C and the critical point. Increasing the level of Cr in Ni-Fe-Cr alloys increases SCC resistance in aerated and deaerated water. The mechanism is not understood. The effect of Cr composition on oxide microstructure and corrosion kinetics of Ni-Fe-Cr alloys was determined experimentally, to evaluate whether the anodic dissolution model for SCC can account for the effect of Cr on SCC. The alloy corrosion rate and corrosion product oxide microstructure is strongly influenced by the Cr composition. Corrosion kinetics are parabolic and influenced by chromium concentration, with the parabolic constant first increasing then decreasing as Cr increases from 5 to 39%. Surface analyses using Analytical Electron microscopy (AEM) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) show that the corrosion product film that forms initially on all alloys exposed to high purity high temperature water is a nickel rich oxide. With time, the amount of chromium in the oxide film increases and corrosion proceeds toward the formation of the more thermodynamically stable spinel or hexagonal Cr-rich oxides, similar to high temperature gaseous oxidation. Due to the slower diffusion kinetics at the temperatures of water corrosion compared to those in high temperature gaseous oxidation, however, the films remain as a mixture of NiO, mixed Ni, Fe and Cr spinels, NiCrO{sub 3} and FeCrO{sub 3}. As the amount of Cr in the film increases and the nature of the film changes from NiO to spinel or hexagonal oxides, cation diffusion through the films slows, slowing the corrosion rate. These observations are qualitatively consistent with an anodic dissolution SCC mechanism. However, parametric modeling of the SCC growth process, applying available creep, oxide rupture strain and corrosion kinetics data, indicates that the anodic dissolution mechanism accounts for only a fraction of the effect of Cr

  18. Effects of water temperature on the toxicity of 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to developing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Boogaard, M.A. . National Fisheries Research Center); Mayer, F.L. Jr. . Environmental Protection Agency)

    1994-01-01

    Early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effect of selected water temperature on the toxicity of 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). NOECs were determined for growth and mortality at selected time intervals and water temperatures of 7, 12, and 17 C. As tests progressed, NOECs leveled to constant time-independent values that were similar for tests at each temperature. In 4-nitrophenol tests, the time-independent NOEC values at 7, 12, and 17 C, respectively, were 1.16, 1.20, and 1.16 mg/L for growth and 3.40, 3.38, and 2.20 mg/L for mortality. For 2,4-dinitrophenol, time-independent NOEC values at 7, 12, and 17 C, respectively, were 1.07, 0.50, and 0.80 mg/L for growth and 1.30, 1.89, and 1.60 mg/L for mortality. Temperature did, however, affect the rate at which time-independent NOECs were reached. More time was required to reach time-independent NOECs as temperature decreased. For example, the time-independent NOEC in 4-nitrophenol tests at 17 C was reached in 14 d, whereas it required 42 d at 7 C. The effect of temperature on toxicity must be considered in hazard assessment protocols to assess risk accurately and protect aquatic organisms adequately. Chronic toxicity tests are necessary to assess risk because acute toxicity tests cannot provide the information necessary to predict the long-term effects of factors such as temperature in natural environments.

  19. An apparatus for the study of high temperature water radiolysis in a nuclear reactor: Calibration of dose in a mixed neutron/gamma radiation field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Eric J.; Wilson, Paul P. H.; Anderson, Mark H.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Pimblott, Simon M.; Bartels, David M.

    2007-12-15

    The cooling water of nuclear reactors undergoes radiolytic decomposition induced by gamma, fast electron, and neutron radiation in the core. To model the process, recombination reaction rates and radiolytic yields for the water radical fragments need to be measured at high temperature and pressure. Yields for the action of neutron radiation are particularly hard to determine independently because of the beta/gamma field also present in any reactor. In this paper we report the design of an apparatus intended to measure neutron radiolysis yields as a function of temperature and pressure. A new methodology for separation of neutron and beta/gamma radiolysis yields in a mixed radiation field is proposed and demonstrated.

  20. Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore C. Hsiao

    1998-08-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.

  1. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  2. Strain rate and temperature effects on the stress corrosion cracking of Inconel 600 steam generator tubing in the primary water conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, U.C.; van Rooyen, D.

    1985-01-01

    A single heat of Inconel Alloy 600 was examined in this work, using slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in simulated primary water at temperatures of 325/sup 0/-345/sup 0/-365/sup 0/C. The best measure of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was percent SCC present on the fracture surface. Strain rate did not seem to affect crack growth rate significantly, but there is some question about the accuracy of calculating these values in the absence of a direct indication of when a crack initiates. Demarcation was determined between domains of temperature/strain rate where SCC either did, or did not, occur. Slower extension rates were needed to produce SCC as the temperature was lowered. 10 figs.

  3. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  4. Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, M.M. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates.

  5. Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary alloy exposed to high-temperature water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-10-30

    Intergranular oxidation of a Ni-4Al alloy exposed to hydrogenated, high-temperature water was characterized using directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. These combined analyses revealed that discrete, well-separated oxides (NiAl2O4) precipitated along grain boundaries in the metal. Aluminum was depleted from the grain boundary between oxides and also from one side of the boundary as a result of grain boundary migration. The discrete oxide morphology, disconnected from the continuous surface oxidation, suggests intergranular solid-state internal oxidation of Al. Keywords: oxidation; grain boundaries; nickel alloys; atom probe tomography; transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  6. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  7. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  8. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  9. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, M. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.

    2015-07-15

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni{sub 59}Zr{sub 20}Ti{sub 16}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 3} metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO{sub 3}, ZrTiO{sub 4} and ZrSnO{sub 4} ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  10. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  11. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters June 23, 2009 - 12:54pm Addthis Amy Foster Parish ...

  12. Mechanism of lead-induced stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloys in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakai, T.; Nakagomi, N.; Kikuchi, T.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F.; Yamakawa, K.

    1998-07-01

    A study was undertaken to better understand the lead-induced corrosion mechanism of nickel-based alloys used for steam generator tubing materials (alloys 600 and 690 [UNS N06600 and N06690]) in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) plants. Electrochemical measurements (corrosion potential and polarization measurements) and constant extension rate tests (CERT) of tubing materials were performed in lead-contaminated environments. Results of electrochemical measurements showed lead did not raise the corrosion potential but did increase the anodic polarization current in the passivity region, which indicated degradation of the passive oxide film. CERT results showed alloy 690 had better corrosion resistance than alloy 600, which was in good agreement with the lower intensity of the anodic current. The mechanism of lead-induced corrosion was proposed as disruption of the oxide film of the alloys as a result of the incorporation of lead.

  13. High-Resolution Characterization of Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 in High-Temperature Primary Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2000-06-01

    Intergranular (IG) attack regions and stress-corrosion cracks in alloy 600 U-bend samples tested in 330C, pressurized-water-reactor water have been characterized by analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM). Observations of cross-sectional samples revealed short oxidized zones preceding crack tips and narrow (10-nm wide), deeply penetrated, oxidized zones along grain boundaries exposed along open cracks. High-resolution TEM imaging and fine-probe analysis were used to determine the local chemistries and structures in these corrosion-affected zones. Matrix areas surrounding the crack tips appeared highly strained, whereas the IG penetrations generally did not. The predominant oxide structure found along crack walls and just ahead of crack tips was NiO with metal-atom ratios similar to the alloy. The attacked grain boundaries off open cracks contained similar fine-grained NiO-structure oxide together with local areas of Cr-rich oxide and Ni-rich metal. In contrast, Cr-rich oxide identified as Cr2O3 predominated at the leading edges of the IG attack. Stereoscopic imaging of these tip structures revealed nm-scale porosity and tunnels within the oxide and pores along the grain-boundary plane ahead of the oxide. The general interpretation of these results is that IG attack and cracking follows local dissolution or oxidation and the formation of pores at grain boundaries. This degradation occurs at the nanometer scale and therefore requires high-resolution ATEM methods to reveal detailed characteristics. Experimental support for several possible IG degradation mechanisms is considered.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  15. Inhibitory effect of boric acid on intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, H.; Hirano, H.; Koike, M.; Suda, M.

    1995-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of boric acid on the Intergranular Attack and Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGA/SCC) propagation behavior of steam generator (SG) tubing was studied under accelerated test conditions. Based on the analysis results of stress intensity factors at IGA/SCC crack tips, the notched C-ring tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of stress intensity and boric acid on the IGA/SCC crack propagation. The A.C. impedance measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were also conducted to clarify the inhibitory effect of boric acid. Notched C-ring test results indicated that IGA/SCC crack velocity of alloy 600 increased gradually with increasing stress intensity factor in the range 4 to about 26 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, which might be loaded on the IGA/SCC crack tips of actual SG tubes under PWR secondary conditions. Adding boric acid slightly retarded the crack velocity in both all volatile treatment (AVT) water and caustic solutions. IGA/SCC crack velocities were lower in nearly neutral solutions than in alkali or acidic solutions. Furthermore, A.C. impedance studies showed that the polarization resistances of oxide films formed in boric acid solutions were higher than those of films formed in acidic and alkali solutions. AES analysis revealed that boron content in the oxide films formed in acidic solution containing boric acid was lowest. Good agreement was obtained between the IGA/SCC inhibitory effect of boric acid and the formation of the stable oxide films containing boron.

  16. Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

  17. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  18. Setting up File Permissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Setting up File Permissions Setting up File Permissions Recommendations for Setting up "Shared" Directories This section shows the recommended commands for setting up shared directories. Please read the full page to get an understanding of what these commands are doing. These recommendations are based on the common use-case at the JGI for user/group read/write and global read access. Creating a New Shared Directory dmj@genepool04:~$ umask 002 # or have this set in .bashrc.ext

  19. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  20. Setting up File Permissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Since you are the only user who has access to your personal filegroup (named the same as your username), there is little value in setting the group permission bits unless you also ...

  1. Low Temperature Proton Conductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0 o C *Transport processes/motions slow down: questions re: lower conductivity,water mobility etc *Residual water will have various physical effects in different portions of the MEA questions re: durability of components 3 3 'States' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed based

  2. New CREW Database Receives First Set of Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CREW Database Receives First Set of Data - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  3. Set Equation Transformation System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-03-22

    Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less

  4. Effects of water temperature and pH on toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Rach, J.J. . National Fisheries Research Center); Mayer, F.L. Jr. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1994-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos to rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.

  5. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds The ...

  6. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November

  7. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  8. Temperature effects on airgun signatures (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Temperature effects on airgun signatures Experiments in an 850 liter water tank were performed in order to study temperature effects on airgun signatures, and to...

  9. understanding the low-temperature combustion chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low-temperature combustion chemistry - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... EnergyWater History Water Monitoring & Treatment Technology Decision Models for ...

  10. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-04-01

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

  11. set5.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil District Heat District Chilled Water Propane Other a All Buildings ............................................... 67,338 65,753 65,716 45,525 13,285 5,891 2,750 6,290 2,322 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 6,774 6,309 6,280 3,566 620 Q Q 635 292 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 8,238 7,721 7,721 5,088 583 Q Q 986 Q 10,001 to 25,000

  12. Tool setting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention relates to a tool setting device for use with numerically controlled machine tools, such as lathes and milling machines. A reference position of the machine tool relative to the workpiece along both the X and Y axes is utilized by the control circuit for driving the tool through its program. This reference position is determined for both axes by displacing a single linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) with the machine tool through a T-shaped pivotal bar. The use of the T-shaped bar allows the cutting tool to be moved sequentially in the X or Y direction for indicating the actual position of the machine tool relative to the predetermined desired position in the numerical control circuit by using a single LVDT.

  13. SHM Data Sets and Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SHM Data Sets and Software SHM Data Sets and Software SHM Data Sets and Software Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) ...

  14. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length

  15. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  16. Light water detritiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorchenko, O.A.; Aleksee, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Vasyanina, T.V.

    2015-03-15

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of tritiated light water have been accumulating from the enterprises of nuclear fuel cycles around the world. The Dual-Temperature Water-Hydrogen (DTWH) process looks like the only practical alternative to Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE). In DTWH power-consuming lower reflux device (electrolytic cell) is replaced by a so-called 'hot tower' (LPCE column operating at conditions which ensure relatively small value of elementary separation factor α(hot)). In the upper, cold tower, the tritium transfers from hydrogen to water while in the lower, hot tower - in the opposite direction - from water to hydrogen. The DTWH process is much more complicated compared to CECE; it must be thoroughly computed and strictly controlled by an automatic control system. The use of a simulation code for DTWH is absolutely important. The simulation code EVIO-5 deals with 3 flows inside a column (hydrogen gas, water vapour and liquid water) and 2 simultaneous isotope exchange sub-processes (counter-current phase exchange and co-current catalytic exchange). EVIO-5 takes into account the strong dependence of process performance on given conditions (temperature and pressure). It calculates steady-state isotope concentration profiles considering a full set of reversible exchange reactions between different isotope modifications of water and hydrogen (12 molecular species). So the code can be used for simulation of LPCE column operation for detritiation of hydrogen and water feed, which contains H and D not only at low concentrations but above 10 at.% also. EVIO-5 code is used to model a Tritium Removal Facility with a throughput capacity of about 400 m{sup 3}/day. Simulation results show that a huge amount of wet-proofed catalyst is required (about 6000 m{sup 3}), mainly (90%) in the first stage. One reason for these large expenses (apart from a big scale of the problem itself) is the relatively high tritium separation factor in the hot tower

  17. Stress-corrosion cracking of Alloys 600 and 690 and weld metals No. 82 and No. 182 in high-temperature water. Interim report. [BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    The relative susceptibilities of Alloys 600 and 690 base metals and I-82 and 182 weld metals to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in pure water at 288/sup 0/C were evaluated. A combination of creviced and non-creviced slow-strain-rate, smooth sustained-load, and precracked fracture mechanics tests were employed in the evaluation. Susceptibility was determined as a function of dissolved oxygen content, degree of sensitization, and crevice condition. The results indicated that Alloy 600, and I-182 and I-82 weld metals were susceptible to various degrees of IGSCC in oxygen containing pure water when creviced, and immune to IGSCC when uncreviced. Alloy 690 was immune to IGSCC under all conditions examined. No correlation was found between the location of IGSCC and the location of maximum grain boundary corrosion in a boiling 25% nitric acid test.

  18. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  19. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  20. SHM Data Sets and Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SHM Data Sets and Software SHM Data Sets and Software SHM Data Sets and Software Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Executive Administrator Ellie Vigil (505) 667-2818 Email Administrative Assistant Rebecca Duran (505) 665-8899 Email SHMTools Software (0.2.0 Beta) SHMTools is a MATLAB package that facilitates the construction of structural health monitoring (SHM) processes. The package provides a set of functions organized

  1. Use of Electrical Imaging and Distributed Temperature Sensing Methods to Characterize Surface Water-Groundwater Exchange Regulating Uranium Transport at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-10-31

    A critical challenge in advancing prediction of solute transport between contaminated aquifers and rivers is improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along river corridors. Here, we explored the use of waterborne geoelectrical imaging, in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the hyporheic corridor at the Hanford 300 Area. We first inverted waterborne geoelectrical (resistivity and induced polarization) datasets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). The spatial variability captured in the geoelectrical datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and point probing overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. The DTS data recorded on 1. 5 km of cable with a 1 m spatial resolution and 5 minute sampling interval revealed sub-reaches showing (1) high temperature anomalies and, (2) a strong negative correlation between temperature and river stage, both indicative of groundwater influxes during winter months. The DTS datasets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the geoelectrical imaging and reveal a pattern of highly focused hyporheic exchange, with

  2. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to

  3. Effects of pH and stress intensity on crack growth rate in Alloy 600 in lithiated + borated water at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R.B.; Szklarska-Smialowska, Z.; McIlree, A.R.

    1992-12-31

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking studies were performed on Alloy 600. Constant load tests were conducted at 330 and 350{degrees}C in solutions containing dissolved hydrogen, boric acid (0 < B < 1200 ppm) and lithium hydroxide (0 < Li < 10 ppm). In the PWR working conditions range, that is, 6.9 < pH < 7.4 (or 0.5 ppm < Li < 3.5), there is little effect of the solution pH on the intergranular crack growth rate (IGSCC). However, there is a strong influence of the stress intensity on the IGSCC. K{sub ISCC} {approx} 5-10 MPa{radical}m. Dissolution plays an important role in the IGSCC process.

  4. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  5. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  6. Vital area analysis using sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, D.W.; Francis, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    This report describes the use of the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) for vital area analysis. Several concepts are introduced which enable the analyst to construct more efficient SETS user programs to perform vital area analysis. The advantages of performing the transformation of variables without first determining the minimal cut sets of the fault tree are discussed. A ''bottom-up'' approach to solving a fault tree is presented. The techniques described for vital area analysis are also suitable and efficient for many kinds of common cause analysis.

  7. Set the PACE St. Louis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial property owners, community associations (e.g., Home Owners Associations), and some residential property owners are eligible for Set the PACE St. Louis. Currently, only residential prop...

  8. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  9. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  10. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  11. Moderate Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature level. Thus, reservoirs in the 190 to 230C range should have liquid water as the mobile fluid phase, and as such, this class is reasonably well constrained....

  12. Water in protoplanetary disks: Deuteration and turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-12-10

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in a vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and is destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r ? 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water ice from ?2 10{sup 2}, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10{sup 4}-10{sup 2} in 10{sup 6} yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the strength of mixing and the radial distance from the central star. Our finding suggests that the D/H ratio of cometary water (?10{sup 4}) could be established (i.e., cometary water could be formed) in the solar nebula, even if the D/H ratio of water ice delivered to the disk was very high (?10{sup 2}).

  13. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  14. Penrose Well Temperatures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  15. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 495.5347 mA Date: 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 495.5 mA 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 LN:MainTankLevel 112.0...

  16. Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and 2775 feet. Temperature logs indicate a negative thermal gradient below 3000 feet. Water chemistry indicates that this geothermal resource is a hot-water rather than a...

  17. Fluid-inclusion evidence for past temperature fluctuations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the inclusion fluids range from dilute meteoric water to highly modified sea water concentrated by boiling. Comparison of measured drill-hole temperatures with...

  18. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  19. Low Temperature Projects | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Generate Electricity Using Geothermal Water Resources, Brian Brown, Brian Brown ... Power Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature ...

  20. Setting Up Your User Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Setting Up Your User Environment Setting Up Your User Environment PDSF Defined Environment When new users are added to the PDSF machines, the login shell is set according to the user's request. You can choose between csh, tcsh, or bash. You can change your startup shell by logging into NIM. Paths and environment variables are controlled by startup files (also known as dot files). On PDSF the startup files are symbolic links to read-only files that NERSC controls (if they are not, see the

  1. Sunrayce 97 Finish Sets Records

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finish Sets Records For more information contact: Patrick Booher, Sunrayce Program Manager (202) 586-0713 Colorado Springs, Colo. -- Under sunny skies that have followed the race since its beginning in Indianapolis,, Sunrayce 97 roared to a record finish in Colorado Springs. Winning the event overall was California State University - Los Angeles with a record setting pace averaging 43:29 mph over the entire distance. Cal State - L.A. had a total elapsed time of 28:41:24 hours. Massachusetts

  2. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  3. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  4. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  5. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  6. WHAM: Simplified tool for calculating water heater energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Whitehead, C.D.; Lekov, A.B.; Rosenquist, G.J.; Winiarski, D.W.

    1999-07-01

    Water heating comprises a significant portion of residential energy consumption--17% in the US, according to the residential energy consumption survey (RECS) (EIA 1995). For such a significant energy end use, energy analysts need a method to quickly and reliably assess current and future energy requirements for a variety of conservation policies and programs. To fill this need, the water heater analysis model (WHAM) was developed as a simple energy equation that accounts for different operating conditions and water heater characteristics when calculating energy consumption. The results of WHAM are compared to the results of detailed water heater simulation programs and show a high level of accuracy in estimating energy consumption. WHAM energy calculations are based on assumptions that account for a variety of field conditions and water heater types. By including seven parameters--recovery efficiency (RE), standby heat loss coefficient (UA), rated input power (Pon), average daily hot water draw volume, inlet water temperature, thermostat setting, and air temperature around the water heater--WHAM provides an accurate estimate of energy consumption in the majority of cases.

  7. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  8. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  9. Temperature sensors for OTEC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seren, L.; Panchal, C.B.; Rote, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applications require accurate measurement of temperatures in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. This report documents an experimental examination of commercially available quartz-crystal thermometers and thermistors. Three fixed-point baths were used for temperature measurements: the distilled-water/distilled-ice-water slurry, the triple-point-of-water cell, and the gallium melting-point cell. The temperature of carefully prepared ice-water slurries was verified routinely as 0.001 +- 0.003/sup 0/C. Quartz-crystal probes proved accurate to about 1 to 2 mK, with drift errors of the same order over a few days. Bead- and disk-type thermistor probes were found to be about equally stable with time in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. The overall probable error of using thermistors was found to be +-4 mK. A solid-block temperature bath suitable for on-site calibrations in OTEC work was used in the temperature-sweeping mode. Various polynomial fits were examined for the purpose of thermistor calibration; fits of order two and higher yielded about equally accurate calculated temperatures.

  10. Optical set-reset latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  11. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  12. Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

    2004-08-01

    The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

  13. Electrolysis - High Temperature - Hydrogen - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolysis - High Temperature - Hydrogen Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a high-temperature process the utilizes solid oxide fuel cells that are operated in the electrolytic mode. The first process includes combining a high-temperature heat source (e.g. nuclear reactor) with a hydrogen production facility by taking a stream of water and heating it and then splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen product streams. A

  14. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  15. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  16. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  17. 1998 Priority Setting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    998 Priority Setting 1998 Priority Setting Draft of the 1998 Priority Setting for Standards and Test Procedure Rulemakings, June 27, 1997 priority_setting_fy98.pdf (4.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Appliance Standard Program - The FY 2003 Priority -Setting Summary Report and Actions Proposed - Appendix B Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings 9th

  18. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  19. Modeling a set of heavy oil aqueous pyrolysis experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Reynolds, J.G.

    1996-11-01

    Aqueous pyrolysis experiments, aimed at mild upgrading of heavy oil, were analyzed using various computer models. The primary focus of the analysis was the pressure history of the closed autoclave reactors obtained during the heating of the autoclave to desired reaction temperatures. The models used included a means of estimating nonideal behavior of primary components with regard to vapor liquid equilibrium. The modeling indicated that to match measured autoclave pressures, which often were well below the vapor pressure of water at a given temperature, it was necessary to incorporate water solubility in the oil phase and an activity model for the water in the oil phase which reduced its fugacity below that of pure water. Analysis also indicated that the mild to moderate upgrading of the oil which occurred in experiments that reached 400{degrees}C or more using a FE(III) 2-ethylhexanoate could be reasonably well characterized by a simple first order rate constant of 1.7xl0{sup 8} exp(-20000/T)s{sup {minus}l}. Both gas production and API gravity increase were characterized by this rate constant. Models were able to match the complete pressure history of the autoclave experiments fairly well with relatively simple equilibria models. However, a consistent lower than measured buildup in pressure at peak temperatures was noted in the model calculations. This phenomena was tentatively attributed to an increase in the amount of water entering the vapor phase caused by a change in its activity in the oil phase.

  20. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface ...

  2. Air separation with temperature and pressure swing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A.

    1986-01-01

    A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

  3. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  4. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  5. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 200 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  6. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 500 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  7. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2014-05-21

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  8. Par Pond water balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

    1996-06-01

    A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

  9. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of ...

  10. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  11. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  12. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  13. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  14. Desalination of brackish waters using ion-exchange media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, J.D.; Philips, M.L.F.; Voigt, J.A.; Moore, D.; Axness, M.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Nenoff, T.M.

    2006-06-21

    An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of around 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x}+2yAl{sub x}Si{sub 1}-xO{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of around to 2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = similar to 11 000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

  15. Desalination of brackish waters using ion exchange media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, Jason D.; Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn

    2005-01-01

    An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of {approx} 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x+2y}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of {approx}2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = {approx}11,000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

  16. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  17. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  18. Widget:SetTitle | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Parameters include: title - title text to display Usage: Widget:SetTitle |titleHello World Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWidget:SetTitle&oldid...

  19. SetSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SetSolar Jump to: navigation, search Name: SetSolar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Zip: 7460 Sector: Solar Product: South African company that specialises in the manufacture of PV...

  20. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security HomeTag:Water Security Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) ...

  1. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  2. New Project Set Up | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Project Set Up Version Number: 7 Document Number: Form 58100.010 Effective Date: 11/2014

  3. Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

  4. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures. Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is ...

  5. Title 40 CFR 230 Definitions - Clean Water Act | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RegulationRegulation: Title 40 CFR 230 Definitions - Clean Water ActLegal Abstract Sets forth regulatory definitions under the Clean Water Act including the definition of waters of...

  6. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  7. Low-temperature geothermal database for Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.

    1994-11-01

    The goals of the low-temperature assessment project, performed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) is aimed primarily at updating the inventory of the nation's low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. The study has begun in Oregon, where the areas of Paisley, Lakeview, Burns/Hines, Lagrande, and Vale were identified over 40 sites as having potential for direct heat utilization. Specifics sites are outlined, detailing water temperature, flow, and current uses of the sites.

  8. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  9. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  10. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  11. Water Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  12. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  13. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

  14. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

  15. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  16. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  17. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  18. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore » fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  19. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  20. Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency The water temperature you desire for your swimming pool not only affects the size of the pool's heater, but also your heating costs if use a gas or heat pump pool heater. Pool water temperatures typically range from 78ºF to 82ºF. The American Red Cross recommends a temperature of 78ºF for competitive swimming.

  1. LANL sets TRU waste hauling record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sets TRU waste hauling record LANL sets TRU waste hauling record TRU waste consists of clothing, tools, rags, debris, soil, and other items contaminated with radioactive elements, mostly plutonium. October 4, 2011 TRU waste from LANL to WIPP TRU waste from LANL to WIPP Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, October 4, 2011-Los Alamos National Laboratory has set a new LANL record for the amount of transuranic (TRU) waste from past

  2. Addressing Challenges of Identifying Geometrically Diverse Sets...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Addressing Challenges of Identifying Geometrically Diverse Sets of Crystalline Porous Materials Previous Next List R. L. Martin, B. Smit, and M. Haranczyk, J. Chem Inf. Model. 52...

  3. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  4. Transient temperature measurements of a plume in a confined space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.H.; Hsieh, C.F.; Teng, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the present study is to measure the transient temperature profiles of a plume in a confined space and to develop an empirical formula relating heat transfer and buoyancy. The transient natural convective phenomenon, resulting from the buoyant effect, exists in confined spaces. This phenomenon is of practical importance in many fields, such as the formation process of material, cooling of electronic parts, design of solar collectors, cooling of fins, physics of space, fire plume in a compartment and movement of ocean current, etc. The present work is to study the transient natural convection phenomenon of a thermal plume. The plume is generated by locating a constant heat flux annular cylinder heater at the bottom of a confined cubic enclosure filled with water. The temperature profiles in the plume are measured and collected by six T-type thermocouples and a set of data acquisition system. Each test run lasts about 200 minutes and the measurement time step is 1 minute. The results indicate that the heat transfer mechanism in the plume is characterized by up-moving buoyancy-driven energy envelopes. Stratified temperature structure, which is caused by the retarding motion of the plume near the top surface, is also observed. An empirical correlation along local Nusselt number, Fourier number and modified Rayleigh number is obtained and written as Nu{sub x}/Ra{sub x}*{sup 1/4} = 0.00422Fo{sub L}{sup {minus}0.893}.

  5. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  6. Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-09-01

    Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7

  7. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  8. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  9. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into ...

  10. Water Summit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the ...