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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

High-Temperature Water Splitting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of development.

2

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature are based

3

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Lower Water Heating Temperature Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature are based

4

Rate Setting for Small Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in detail the many resources that are available to help managers of small water systems make wise business decisions....

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

Coutant, C.C.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

Houston, Paul L.

7

Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

Bond, D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RWH systems has become a concern. Water temperature is a parameter of water quality and storage container color and shading affect this temperature. Four different colors and three different shadings were applied to twelve rainwater storage barrels...

Clayton, James Brent

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

9

At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? June 25, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis You can save 5%-15% on your cooling bills by raising the temperature setting on your thermostat when you are away and don't need cooling. Only lower the setting to 78°F when you are home and need cooling. A programmable thermostat can make it easy to adjust the temperature on a regular schedule. At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the summer? How about when you're asleep or away? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a topic related to energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments.

10

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many...

11

Carbon promoted water electrolysis to produce hydrogen at room temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of the work was to conduct water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production. The electrochemical gasification of carbons (more)

Ranganathan, Sukanya.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE RESET CONTROLS ACCEPTANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE RESET CONTROLS ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-9A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-9A NA7.5.8 Supply Water Temperature Reset, under the laws of the State of California, the information provided on this form is true and correct

13

Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Effect of high temperature on fruit set of selected genotypes of Lycopersicon esculentum mill.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON FRUIT SET OF SELECTED GENOTYPES OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. A Thesis by ROBERT KEVAN BARRINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Horticulture EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON FRUIT SET OF SELECTED GENOTYPES OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. A Thes(s by ROBERT KEVAN BARRINGER Approved as to style and content by: Chalrma...

Barringer, Robert Kevan

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl), hence water vapor is the primary constituent of concern. The tower generates a localized water vapor, Office B108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT The atmosphere is a critical factor in remote sensing. Radiance from

Salvaggio, Carl

16

"Phun" with Photoelectrons What Sets the Tc in Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Phun" with Photoelectrons or What Sets the Tc in Cuprate High-Temperature Superconductors? Dan famous and exotic of correlated electron materials are high-temperature cuprate superconductors, which the pair-breaking energy scale . In contrast to conventional superconductors in which the superconducting

Glashausser, Charles

17

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? December 11, 2008 - 8:45am Addthis Did you know that you can save energy in the winter by setting the thermostat to 68°F while you're awake and setting it lower while you're asleep or away from home? By turning your thermostat back 10°-15° for 8 hours, you can save about 5%-15% a year on your heating bill-a savings of as much as 1% for each degree if the setback period is eight hours long. At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the winter? How about when you're asleep or away? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov.

18

Water temperature sensitivity of EOD waveform in Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mechanisms that trigger the onset of the breeding season depend on geographical latitude. At the edge of Gymnotiform distribution in America, variations in day length and water temperature are likely cues...

A. Silva; L. Quintana; M. Galeano; P. Errandonea

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

20

Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

Rana B. Gupta

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs Water District Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Boise, Idaho Coordinates 43.6135002°, -116.2034505° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

22

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

23

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM Observations Cady-Pereira, Karen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Shephard, Mark Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Clough, Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research Mlawer, Eli Atmospheric & Environmental Research, Inc. Turner, David University of Wisconsin-Madison Category: Atmospheric State and Surface The primary objective of the TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) instrument on the Aura spacecraft is the retrieval of trace gases, especially water vapor and ozone. The TES retrievals extremely useful for global monitoring of the atmospheric state, but they must be validated. The ARM sites are well instrumented and provide continuous measurements, which

24

Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters June 23, 2009 - 12:54pm Addthis Amy Foster Parish Ener-Gee Whiz would like to offer a hearty thanks to all of you who've written in for your great efficiency and renewables related questions. Now, on to some answers! Patti writes: Is it efficient to raise the thermostat in a business when the business is closed during air conditioning season? Ener-Gee Whiz: Your business might be able to save energy-and money-by turning your thermostat up during the cooling season. But how much energy and money you save are largely dependent on how much you set your thermostat back and for how long. The Energy Savers website suggests that

25

Thermodynamics of high-temperature, high-pressure water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report on a thermodynamic analysis for water electrolysis from normal conditions (P=0.1MPa, T=298K) up to heretofore unaddressed temperatures of 1000K and pressures of 100MPa. Thermoneutral and reversible potentials are determined using equations-of-state published by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The need for using accurate property models at these elevated temperatures and pressures is exemplified by contrasting results with those obtained via ideal assumptions. The utility of our results is demonstrated by their application in an analysis comparing pressurized electrolysis versus mechanical gas compression. Within the limits of our analysis, pressurized electrolysis demonstrates lower energy requirements albeit with electrical work composing a greater proportion of the total energy input.

Devin Todd; Maximilian Schwager; Walter Mrida

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

Yu, Kai

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

Yu, Kai

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Pitting resistance of Alloy 800 as a function of temperature and prefilming in high temperature water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pitting behavior of Alloy 800 was investigated as a function of temperature and prefilming in high temperature water. The pitting behavior was characterized in terms of the pitting potential and the pit density. The pitting potential decreases with increasing temperature and chloride activity. Prefilming of test coupons over a time period between 100 and 5,000 hours in ammoniated water at 300 C has no apparent influence on the pitting potential at room temperature, 180 C and 300 C. However, the number of pits in prefilmed coupons is much higher than in coupons covered with an air passive layer. The effect of prefilming on pit nucleation was investigated in more detail with regard to a model and test methods developed by Bianchi and co-workers. Density of pits in prefilmed coupons is at least one order of magnitude higher than in air passive coupons. Maximum pit density was measured after a prefilming period of 1 00 hours. The effect is discussed in terms of Bianchi`s model and in terms of features of passive films. It is outlined that the initially amorphous metastable passive film on Alloy 800 becomes crystalline at increased temperatures. Crystallization induces lattice defects, such as dislocations and grain boundaries, in the passive film. The film grows and slowly transforms into a thick oxide layer. The transformation process is associated with enhanced susceptibility to pit nucleation.

Stellwag, B. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Solar energy dissipation and temperature control by water and plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ecosystems use solar energy for self-organisation and cool themselves by exporting entropy to the atmosphere as heat. These energy transformations are achieved through evapotranspiration, with plants as 'heat valves'. In this study, the dissipative process is demonstrated at sites in the Czech Republic and Belgium, using landscape temperature data from thermovision and satellite images. While global warming is commonly attributed to atmospheric CO2, the research shows water vapour has a concentration two orders of magnitude higher than other greenhouse gases. It is critical that landscape management protects the hydrological cycle with its capacity for dissipation of incoming solar energy.

Jan Pokorny; Jakub Brom; Jan Cermak; Petra Hesslerova; Hanna Huryna; Nadia Nadezhdina; Alzbeta Rejskova

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Calculation and Analysis of Temperature and Fluid Fields in Water-Cooled Motor for Coal Cutters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To study the temperature distribution of the water-cooled motor for coal cutters, with the aid of ... the temperature distributions of stators, rotors and water-cooled jackets are worked out. Considering the fact...

Dawei Meng; Liying Wang; Yongming Xu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC...

Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for water-free and high temperature operation. - Measure conductivity, mechanicalthermal properties of Nafion and Polyether polyelectrolytes doped with imidazoles....

33

Improving Managed Environmental Water Use: Shasta River Flow and Temperature Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i Improving Managed Environmental Water Use: Shasta River Flow and Temperature Modeling By SARAH and perhaps reduce some water management conflicts. Additional research for managing environmental water use manage water supplies and demands to increase water use efficiency through conservation, water markets

Lund, Jay R.

34

Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

35

The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... used to detect ice formation in plant tissues by exotherm detection. An electronic device is used to measure the heat released (exotherm) when water freezes. From this information, the freezing and supercooling temperatures of plant tissues can...

Hagar, Christopher Flint

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All the CCM3 runs indicated too much Tropical variability especially in the western Tropical Pacific and Southeast Asia. A EOF analysis of the interannual variations of the zonally averaged precipitable water and the 500 to 300 hPa layer reveals fundamental differences in the structure of the variations. The impact of ENSO and variations of the ITCZ have only a low level of correspondence between the observed data, much less the simulations. It is apparent that an adequate characterization of the climatology of the global water vapor distribution is not yet at hand.

Boyle, J.S.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Numerical Analysis of Water Temperature Distribution in the Tank of ASHPWH it ha Cylindrical Condenser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air source heat pump water heaters (ASHPWH) are becoming increasingly popular for saving energy, protecting the environment and security purposes. The water temperature distribution in the tank is an important parameter for an ASHPWH. This paper...

Wang, D.; Shan, S.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Investigating the Temperature Dependency of Oil and Water Relative Permeabilities for Heavy Oil Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A look into the literature on the temperature dependency of oil and water relative permeabilities reveals contradictory reports. There are some publications reporting shifts in the water saturation range as we...

Mohammad Ashrafi; Yaser Souraki; Ole Torsaeter

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Temperature dependence of IR absorption spectra of water in aromatic hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of the temperature of a medium on the IR absorption spectra of water dissolved in aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. It was found that the ... of the determination of the quantity of dissolved water

Sh. I. Seidov; L. I. Prokhvatilova

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Room temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, reflecting greater occupancy of higher energy vibrational states. In pure water, hydrogen bonding state between 250K and 240K. (Tiny droplets of water have been shown to spontaneously freeze at aboutRoom temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel F

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

42

Collective Hydrogen Bond Reorganization in Water Studied with Temperature-Dependent Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use temperature-dependent ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of dilute HOD in H2O to study the picosecond reorganization of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water. Temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR), ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

43

Hydrogen production via carbon-assisted water electrolysis at room temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of the work was to conduct carbon-assisted water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production and to improve upon (more)

Bollineni, Shilpa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

How Photosynthesis in Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima is Affected by Water Temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this thesis is to give insight into how a short term exposure to higher water temperatures affect photosynthesis in two of (more)

Aamot, Inga Arnesen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Six parameter water temperature model W. Nicholas Beer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and allow comparison of different temperature profiles. A six parameter model is developed as an extension. The example uses 10 years of flow and temperature data from the Snake River near Anatone, Washington with the dashed line in Figure 1. Day of year DegreesC 0 100 200 300 0510152025 Snake River Temperatures

Washington at Seattle, University of

46

Climatology and comparison study of stratosphere and lower mesosphere temperatures using satellite and reanalysis data sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. , 1998b, Temperature climatology of the middle atmosphere28 G.N. Madhavi et al CLIMATOLOGY AND COMPARISON STUDY OFof Middle-Atmosphere Climatologies. J. Climate, 17, 986

Madhavi, G. N.; Kishore, P.; Rao, S. V. B.; Velicogna, I.; Sivakumar, V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Influence of temperature and photoperiod on flowering and seed set in buffelgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat loads and water demands, it is difficult to separate the effects of light levels per se. Moreover, it is very difficult to produce light intensities equivalent to full sun in growth chambers because of the heat burden that light banks impose... heat loads and water demands, it is difficult to separate the effects of light levels per se. Moreover, it is very difficult to produce light intensities equivalent to full sun in growth chambers because of the heat burden that light banks impose...

Ramirez de Leon, Hector

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Water Electrolysis at High Pressure and Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve the performance of water electrolyzers three problems have to be solved: (i) Proper activation of the electrod...

Jrgen Fischer; Hans Hoffmann; Gerhard Luft; Hartmut Wendt

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Solubility of Nitrogen in Water at High Pressures and Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K ... Two recent events allow a more detailed picture of the solubility of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and the noble gases in water to be given, than could have been given even a year ago. ...

John B. Goodman; Norman W. Krase

1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

52

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi mass transport of a water cluster inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with the diameter of about 1.4 nm. The influence of the non-equilibrium thermal environment on the confined water cluster has

Maruyama, Shigeo

53

Working fluid selection based on critical temperature and water temperature in organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines the thermal performance of working fluids in the entire evaporation temperature region up to near-critical temperature of working fluids in the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The variation and t...

XinGuo Li; WenJing Zhao; DieDie Lin; Qiang Zhu

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Raft River area of Idaho contains a geothermal system of intermediate temperatures (approx. = 150 0C) at depths of about 1.5 km. Outside of the geothermal area, temperature measurements in three intermediate-depth drill holes (200 to 400 m) and one deep well (1500 m) indicate that the regional conductive heat flow is about 2.5 mucal/cm 2 sec or slightly higher and that temperature gradients range from 50 0 to 60

55

EFFECTS OF INCREASED WATER TEMPERATURE ON DAPHNIA PULEX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al.2). Cladocerans may be thermally affected by a thermal nuclear power plant where, along. Study methods simulated prolonged exposure to constant high tempera· tures in thermal discharges by industrial and power plants may increase the temperature of certain areas of the river (bays and eddies

56

Development of a standard for calculation and measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity in water-moderated power reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contents of ANS 19.11, the standard for ``Calculation and Measurement of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Water-Moderated Power Reactors,`` are described. The standard addresses the calculation of the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) both at standby conditions and at power. In addition, it describes several methods for the measurement of the at-power MTC and assesses their relative advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it specifies a minimum set of documentation requirements for compliance with the standard.

Mosteller, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hall, R.A. [Virginia Power, Glen Allen, VA (United States). Innsbrook Technical Center; Apperson, C.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Lancaster, D.B. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Young, E.H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Gavin, P.H. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Robertson, S.T. [Framatome/COGEMA Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Optimization of power generation from a set of low-temperature abandoned gas wells, using organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research article deals with the employment of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) to generate electricity from a set of low-temperature abandoned gas wells in Iran. At first a thermodynamic analysis was performed to select an appropriate power cycle; consequently organic Rankine cycle was chosen. Then a comprehensive investigation was carried out to find a typical low-temperature abandoned gas reservoir so an abandoned gas reservoir in the central part of Iran was considered. The next step was selecting the working fluid; in this regard a vast range of common organic fluids were studied and R125 was chosen. Finally the gas well and the power plant were simulated and then a parametric optimization of the ORC plant was performed in order to achieve optimum power generation and also to compute generated power at different operational parameters of gas wells and power cycle.

Mahyar Ebrahimi; Seyed Ebrahim Moussavi Torshizi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Questions and Answers - Does baking soda lower water temperature? If so,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air made of? air made of? Previous Question (What is air made of?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Do liquids freeze at the same temperature? Why doesn't oil freeze?) Do liquids freeze at the sametemperature? Why doesn't oil freeze? Does baking soda lower water temperature? If so, why? Baking soda added to water raises the temperature slightly. Chemical reactions are either endothermic or exothermic. Endothermic means you have to put energy (heat) in to make the reaction go while exothermic means there's energy (heat) left over. Left over heat will raise the temperature. Baking soda and water is exothermic and so the water gets a little warmer. This is because the binding energy of the chemical bonds of the products has an excess over the binding energy of the components. Therefore, energy

59

Experimental Assessment of Water Based Drilling Fluids in High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coming into effect, it becomes necessary to examine and understand the behavior of water based drilling fluids - which are cheaper and less polluting than their oil based counterpart - under extreme temperature and pressure conditions. In most...

Ravi, Ashwin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

60

Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Effects of Catch-and-Release Angling on Salmonids at Elevated Water Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Few studies have assessed catch and release mortality of salmonids at water temperatures ?23C, despite predictions of warming stream temperatures due to climate change. In addition, the effects of diel temperature fluctuations on salmonid mortality have largely been ignored in catch and release angling studies. The primary objective of this study was to measure catch and release mortality of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta, and mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni in three water temperature treatments; when daily maximum water temperatures were cool (<20C), warm (20 to 22.9C), and hot ( 23C). A secondary objective was to assess catch and release mortality of salmonids angled in morning and evening within water-temperature treatments. These objectives were related to Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks Drought Fishing Closure Policy (DFCP). Angling (fly-fishing only) occurred in the Gallatin and Smith rivers. All angled fish were confined to in-stream holding cages and monitored for mortality for 72 h. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the Gallatin River and 9% in the Smith River during the hot treatment. Mortality of brown trout was less than 5% in all water-temperature treatments in both rivers. Mountain whitefish mortality peaked at 28% in the hot treatment in the Smith River. No mortality for any species occurred in either river when daily maximum water temperatures were <20C. Mortality of rainbow trout peaked at 16% in the evening hot treatment in the Smith River. Mortality of brown trout and mountain whitefish was not related to time of day. The catch and release mortality values presented here likely represent fishing mortality given that most anglers in southwest Montana practice catch and release angling. The mortality values we observed were lower than predicted (< 30%), given reports in the literature. The difference is likely related to the in situ nature of the study and periods of cooler water temperatures between peaks facilitating recovery from thermal stress.

Boyd, James W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Horton, Travis; Leathe, Steven A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water and Cecile Langlade2,3 1 FRAMATOME-ANP Technical Center, Avenue B. Marcet, Porte Magenta, 71200 Le Creusot.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research was performed to determine track density as a function of radon exposure in water and exposure temperature for the track etch detectors Kodak LR II 5 Type 2 and CR-39. Films were submerged in water containing a known concentration...

Yasmeen, Nuzhat

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption, and Local Air Temperature in Phoenix, AZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption tradeoffs between vegetation cover, microclimate temperature, and water and energy consumption. References, AZ CONCLUSION · Research Observations: · Water Consumption, Energy Use, Vegetation Cover

Hall, Sharon J.

65

The influence of temperature on lysozyme crystals. Structure and dynamics of protein and water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lysozyme strtictures at six different temperatures in the range 95-295 K have been determined at a resolution of 1.7 . The temperature dependence of the structure of lysozyme together with properties of protein-bound water are analyzed.

Kurinov, I.V.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-94 LAKE ERIE WATER TEMPERATURE DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extends about 1.25 miles offshore from the Chestnut Street plant; the intake depth is 27-30' below temperature data are from Erie, Pennsylvania's Chestnut Street plant. The plant superintendent, Mr. John the peninsula that forms the bay. Water temperatures are taken in the plant six times a week (never on Sunday

67

High temperature chemistry of advanced heavy water reactor fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Department of Atomic Energy envisages the use of thoria based fuel in the third phase of nuclear power generation. The fuel will consist of solid solution of thorium-uranium and thorium-plutonium in the form of their oxides. The former will contain 2.5 mole % UO2 while the latter about 4 mole % PuO2. Since no other country in the world has used such fuel, no data is available on its behavior under long-term irradiation. The high temperature chemistry of fuel can however provide some insight into the behavior of such fuel during irradiation and could be of considerable help in the assessment of its long-term integrity. The high temperature chemistry of the fuel essentially involves the measurement of thermodynamic properties of the compounds formed in the multi-component systems comprising the fuel matrix, the fission products and the clad. The physical integrity of the fuel under long-term irradiation can be predicted with the help of basic thermodynamic data such as the Gibbs energy of formation of various compounds and their thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion derived from experimental measurements. The paper highlights the measurements made on some typical systems relevant to the prediction of thoria based fuel behaviour during long-term irradiation. The experimental problems faced in such measurements are also discussed.

S.R. Dharwadkar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Pitting resistance of alloy 800 as a function of temperature and prefilming in high-temperature water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pitting behavior of alloy 800 was investigated as a function of temperature and prefilming in high-temperature water. The behavior was characterized in terms of pitting potential (U{sub p}) and pit density (n{sub p}). U{sub p} decreased with increasing temperature and chloride activity. Prefilming of test coupons over a period between 100 h and 5,000 h in ammoniated water at 300 C had no apparent influence on U{sub p} at room temperature, 180 C, and 300 C. However, the number of pits in prefilmed coupons was much higher than in coupons covered with an air passive layer. The effect of prefilming on pit nucleation was investigated in detail with regard to a model and test methods developed by Bianchi, et al. Density of pits in prefilmed coupons was at least 1 order of magnitude higher than in air passive coupons. Maximum pit density was measured after a prefilming period of 100 h. The effect was discussed in terms of Bianchi`s model and in terms of features of passive films. The initially amorphous metastable passive film on alloy 800 became crystalline at increased temperatures. Crystallization induced lattice defects, such as dislocations and grain boundaries, in the passive film. The film grew and slowly transformed into a thick oxide layer. The transformation process was associated with enhanced susceptibility to pit nucleation.

Stellwag, B. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

70

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

71

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

72

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

73

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

74

Oil quality in deep-water settings: Concerns, perceptions, observations, and reality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...asphaltene, paraffin (or wax), and scale precipitation...potential risk of flow blockage. Waxes are mixtures of longer chain...n-alkanes, fatty acids, or wax esters present, or through...settings. These hydrates may plug pipelines and require the use of inhibitors...

B. J. Katz; V. D. Robison

75

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The rising cost of warming waters: effects of temperature on the cost of swimming in fishes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Global change biology 1001 25 60 14 The rising cost of warming waters: effects of temperature on the cost of swimming in fishes Andrew M. Hein * Katrina...respond to global climate change. Metabolic cost of transport (COT)-a measure of the energy...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters, R. A. Feely, and R. M. Key (2006), Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity 35)2 + d (SST ? 20) + e (SST ? 20)2 fits surface total alkalinity (AT) data for each of five

78

Viscosity of carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids: Influence of1 concentration and temperature2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Viscosity of carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids: Influence of1 concentration and temperature 0019 Fax: +33 (0) 2 23 23 40 5120 21 Abstract:22 23 Experimental results on the steady state viscosity, the nanofluids are quite Newtonian. It is also observed that the relative viscosity of30 nanofluids at high shear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

HOW WATER TEMPERATURE REALLY LIMITS THE VERTICAL MOVEMENTS OF TUNAS AND BILLFISHES -IT'S THE HEART STUPID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, limitations of catch per unit effort (CPUE) indexes, and the enormous difficulty of producing integrative current tuna and billfish stock assessment methods. Water Temperature Limits the Vertical Movements;muscle and heat loss at the gills. These unique structures thus allow tunas to keep their muscles

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

80

Fire Water Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fire Water Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Fire Water Lodge Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Truth or Consequences, New Mexico Coordinates 33.1284047°, -107.2528069° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Plot size and location within a cotton block: their effects on the canopy temperature function and crop water stress index  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and provided me all the help necessary to attain my research goal. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER 11: LITERATURE REVIEW. Leaf Temperature: Thermocouples and Infrared Thermometry. . . . . Canopy Temperature and Crop Water Stress..., and provided me all the help necessary to attain my research goal. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER 11: LITERATURE REVIEW. Leaf Temperature: Thermocouples and Infrared Thermometry. . . . . Canopy Temperature and Crop Water Stress...

Gaitan, Camilo Alberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

82

Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Pressure, temperature, and dissolved gas dependence of dielectric breakdown in water.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown experimentally that the optical breakdown strength of water is a pressure dependent quantity growing with increasing pressure. The dependence of the breakdown strength on temperature and dissolved gas concentration over a larger range of pressures will be observed. Using a custom fabricated pressure vessel and high?power Nd:YAG laser breakdown events will be generated and observed over a range of pressures from 0 to 25 kpsi. Observations of breakdown events will be made using a high?speed photodetector located behind the pressure vessels optical windows. Dissolved gas concentration will be controlled and varied using a custom water preparation system over a range from waters vapor pressure (?20 torr) to atmospheric pressure.Temperature will be monitored using a thermocouple attached to the pressure vessel and the temperature dependence will be measured over a range from 20 to 35 C. A comparison between current single detector methods and previous imaging methods of using breakdown to determine absolute pressure will then be made. [Work supported by Impulse Devices Inc.

Jonathan Sukovich; R. Glynn Holt

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The D/H Ratio of Water Ice at Low Temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the modeling results of deuterium fractionation of water ice, H2, and the primary deuterium isotopologues of H3+ adopting physical conditions associated with the star and planet formation process. We calculated the deuterium chemistry for a range of gas temperatures (T_gas ~ 10 - 30 K), molecular hydrogen density (n(H2)~ 10^4 - 10^7), and ortho/para ratio (opr) of H2 based on state-to-state reaction rates and explore the resulting fractionation including the formation of a water ice mantle coating grain surfaces. We find that the deuterium fractionation exhibits the expected temperature dependence of large enrichments at low gas temperature. More significantly the inclusion of water ice formation leads to large D/H ratios in water ice (>= 10^-2 at 10 K) but also alters the overall deuterium chemistry. For T < 20 K the implantation of deuterium into ices lowers the overall abundance of HD which reduces the efficiency of deuterium fractionation at high density. In agreement with an earlier study, ...

Lee, Jeong-Eun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Water adsorption at high temperature on core samples from The Geysers geothermal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three wells located in The Geysers geothermal field, California, was measured at 150, 200, and 250 C as a function of steam pressure in the range 0.00 {le} p/p{sub 0} {le} 0.98, where p{sub 0} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption and desorption runs were made in order to investigate the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were made on the same rock samples. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A qualitative correlation was found between the surface properties obtained from nitrogen adsorption and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids. However, there was no direct correlation between BET specific surface areas and the capacity of the rocks for water adsorption at high temperatures. The hysteresis decreased significantly at 250 C. The results indicate that multilayer adsorption, rather than capillary condensation, is the dominant water storage mechanism at high temperatures.

Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Water adsorption at high temperature on core samples from The Geysers geothermal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three wells located in The Geysers geothermal reservoir, California, was measured at 150, 200, and 250 C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {le} p/p{sub 0} {le} 0.98, where p{sub 0} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A qualitative correlation was found between the surface properties obtained from nitrogen adsorption and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids. However, there is in general no proportionality between BET specific surface areas and the capacity of the rocks for water adsorption at high temperatures. The results indicate that multilayer adsorption rather than capillary condensation is the dominant water storage mechanism at high temperatures.

Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Electrochemical polarization measurement on 304 SS in high temperature, high purity water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polarization behavior of the redox reactions of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on 304 stainless steel (SS) in high temperature, high purity water was studied in order to determine the electrochemical kinetic constants, such as Tafel slopes, exchange currents, orders of reaction and other parameters. These values are necessary to develop the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) predictive model for boiling water reactors (BWRs), which is used to monitor the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility of sensitized austenitic SS.

Kim, Y.J.; Niedrach, L.W. [General Electric Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Supraoptimal root-zone temperature effects on water use of three Cercis spp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Horticulture SUPRAOPTIMAL ROOT-ZONE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON WATER USE OF THREE CERCIS SPP. A Thesis BETH JEZ LAWRENCE Approved as to style and content by: yneM. Z i e (C irof Co tt ) Malcolm Drew (Member) J s L..., flowering, and fruiting. When a plant is subjected to supraoptimal root- zone temperature conditions, these responses are typically deleterious (Gur et al. , 1976b; Gur et al, 1976c; Martin et al. , 1989; Nightingale and Blake, 1935; Wong et al. , 1971...

Lawrence, Beth Jez

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and closer temperature control. The heat storage capacity of water per cubic foot is considerably greater than steam at equivalent saturation pressures, as shown in Table No. II (below). This inherent reserve or "fly wheel" effect permits closer... furnace and convection section. Coal ash fouling characteristics will have a bearing on the convection section tube spacing. Low grade coals should be reviewed for their slagging and fouling characteristics. For example, lignite and low grade coals...

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

92

Temperature calibration of Gulf of Mexico corals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for measurement of extension, density, and isotopes ([]?O, []C). The coral oxygen isotope signature was calibrated against high-resolution daily temperature and salinity data sets spanning 1990-1997. Coralline estimates of water temperature demonstrate only...

Smith, Jennifer Mae

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at {approx} 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

95

Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

Mamone, Salvatore, E-mail: s.mamone@soton.ac.uk; Concistr, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H., E-mail: mhl@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

96

Solar-assisted heat pump A sustainable system for low-temperature water heating applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems (DX-SAHP) have been widely used in many applications including water heating. In the DX-SAHP systems the solar collector and the heat pump evaporator are integrated into a single unit in order to transfer the solar energy to the refrigerant. The present work is aimed at studying the use of the DX-SAHP for low temperature water heating applications. The novel aspect of this paper involves a detailed long-term thermo-economic analysis of the energy conservation potential and economic viability of these systems. The thermal performance is simulated using a computer program that incorporates location dependent radiation, collector, economic, heat pump and load data. The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) method. Results indicate that the DX-SAHP water heaters systems when compared to the conventional electrical water heaters are both economical as well as energy conserving. The analysis also reveals that the minimum value of the system life cycle cost is achieved at optimal values of the solar collector area as well as the compressor displacement capacity. Since the cost of SAHP system presents a barrier to mass scale commercialization, the results of the present study indicating that the SAHP life cycle cost can be minimized by optimizing the collector area would certainly be helpful in lowering, if not eliminating, the economic barrier to these systems. Also, at load temperatures higher than 70C, the performance of the single stage heat pump degrades to the extent that its cost and efficiency advantages over the electric only system are lost.

S.K. Chaturvedi; V.D. Gagrani; T.M. Abdel-Salam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Rates of cuticular penetration of 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) as affected by adjuvants, temperature, humidity and water quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When NAA is used for fruit thinning, results can be unpredictable. Problemswith foliar penetration of NAA can contribute to this variability. ... ,temperature, hard water and selected adjvants on rates of cuticul...

J. Schnherr; P. Baur; B.A. Uhlig

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Hydrogen isotopic fractionation factor between brucite and water in the temperature range from 100 to 510 C  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydrogen isotopic fractionation factor between brucite and water has been determined in the temperature range of 100510 C. Brucite is always depleted in deuterium relative to...3In?=8.72106 ...

Hiroshi Satake; Sadao Matsuo

99

Tunable structures and properties of electrospun regenerated silk fibroin mats annealed in water vapor at different times and temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) mats were fabricated using electrospinning technique, followed by mild water vapor annealing to effectively tune the structures and improve the mechanical properties of the mats at different annealing times and temperatures. ...

Xiangyu Huang, Suna Fan, Alhadi Ibrahim Mohammed Altayp, Yaopeng Zhang, Huili Shao, Xuechao Hu, Minkai Xie, Yuemin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Influence of Liquid Water Content and Temperature on the Form and Growth of Branched Planar Snow Crystals in a Cloud  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

How liquid water content (LWC) and temperature affect the growth of branched planar snow crystals is poorly understood. To address this issue, a vertical supercooled cloud tunnel was used to grow 167 individual snow crystals for 10 min under ...

Tsuneya Takahashi

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The effect of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of dissolved organic matter and atrazine on granular activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of water temperature on the adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on activated carbon has not been investigated intensively yet. In this study, batch experiments with granular activated carbon (GAC) F300, from bituminous coal, have been carried out at three temperatures (5, 20, 35{sup o} C) using a humic acid model water and different types of surface water (lake, river, canal). Furthermore, the adsorption of an anthropogenic contaminant, atrazine, was quantified in the absence and presence of DOM. The results indicate a significant influence of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of DOM and atrazine. Contrary to expectations, DOM and atrazine adsorption in surface water tends to be increased with increasing water temperature, whereas the extent of this effect is dependent on the type and concentration of DOM. Furthermore, the temperature effect on atrazine adsorption is controlled by competition of DOM and atrazine on adsorption sites. Some assumptions are proposed and discussed for explaining the temperature effects observed in the batch studies. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Bernd Schreiber; Viktor Schmalz; Thomas Brinkmann; Eckhard Worch [Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Institute of Water Chemistry

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Southern Hemisphere humpback whales wintering off Central America: insights from water temperature into the longest mammalian migration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperature influences their distribution at the basin scale. Our analysis shows that worldwide...Sohouhoue, P. Dossou, C. 2001 The Bight of Benin, a North Atlantic breeding ground...temperature influences whale distribution at the basin scale. Calf development in warm water...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years of research data and cause thousands of dollars of damage to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years. To help prevent this common accident, wire or clamp all hose connections, secure the condenser outlet tubes into the inlet and outlet of the condenser. After fitting the tubes into the condenser (a

Brody, James P.

104

Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYSTEM FOR POTENTIAL SPACE FLIGHT APPLICATION A Thesis by HASAN IMTIAZ CHOWDHURY Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson (Chair of Committee) T. D. Rogers (Member) R. D. pence (Member) W. Bradley (Head of Department) December... 1989 ABSTRACT Reduced Pressure and Temperature Reclamation of Water Using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for Potential Space Flight Application. (December 1989) Hasan Imtiaz Chowdhury, B. S. , Prairie View AlkM University Chair...

Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Characterization and biodegradation of water-soluble biomarkers and organic carbon extracted from low temperature chars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that wildfires/biomass combustion may be an important source of labile pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Py-WSOM) to aquatic systems. Spectroscopic analysis (of the solid char and Py-WSOM) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the Py-WSOM extracted from two low temperature chars (one wood, one grass) was dominated by polar moieties (-OH and C-O) derived from depolymerization and fragmentation of lignocellulose. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions with unsterilized river water suggested that Py-WSOM and associated biomarkers may have turnover rates on the order of weeks to months, consistent with mixing and transport conditions of riverine systems. For example, pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) had a half-life of 30-40 days. Turnover rate for the combustion biomarkers was shorter, with levoglucosan and free lignin phenols having a half-life around 3-4 days and polymeric lignin components 13-14 days. The latter observations contradict earlier studies on the biodegradation of dissolved lignin and point to the need for re-assessment of lignin degradation kinetics in well-mixed riverine systems, particularly when such lignin components are derived from thermally altered plant material that may exist in a form more labile than that in highly processed riverine DOM.

Norwood, Matt J.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Harvey, Omar

2013-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

106

Effect of Water Vapor on the Oxidation Mechanisms of a Commercial Stainless Steel for Interconnect Application in High Temperature Water Vapor Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature water vapor electrolysis is one of the most promising methods...25%H2O) and cathode atmospheres (10%H290%H2O). In cathode atmosphere, ageing tests performed up to 1,000h revealed the format...

Maria Rosa Ardigo; Ioana Popa; Sbastien Chevalier; Sylvain Weber

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

Arntzen, E.V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

109

Experimental and theoretical study of pressure effects on hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system brucite-water at elevated temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed, systematic experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate the effect of pressure on equilibrium D/H fractionation between brucite (Mg(OH)2) and water at temperatures from 200 to 600C and pressures up to 800 MPa. A fine-grained brucite was isotopically exchanged with excess amounts of water, and equilibrium D/H fractionation factors were calculated by means of the partial isotope exchange method. Our experiments unambiguously demonstrated that the D/H fractionation factor between brucite and water increased by 4.4 to 12.4 with increasing pressure to 300 or 800 \\{MPa\\} at all the temperatures investigated. The observed increases are linear with the density of water under experimental conditions. We calculated the pressure effects on the reduced partition function ratios (?-factor) of brucite (300800 K and P ? 800 MPa) and water (400600C and P ? 100 MPa), employing a statistical-mechanical method similar to that developed by Kieffer (1982) and a simple thermodynamic method based on the molar volumes of normal and heavy waters, respectively. Our theoretical calculations showed that the reduced partition function ratio of brucite increases linearly with pressure at a given temperature (as much as 12.6 at 300 K and 800 MPa). The magnitude of the pressure effects rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ?-factor of water decreases 4 to 5 with increasing pressure to 100 \\{MPa\\} at 400 to 600C. Overall D/H isotope pressure effects combined from the separate calculations on brucite and water are in excellent agreement with the experimental results under the same temperature-pressure range. Our calculations also suggest that under the current experimental conditions, the magnitude of the isotope pressure effects is much larger on water than brucite. Thus, the observed pressure effects on D/H fractionation are common to other systems involving water. It is very likely that under some geologic conditions, pressure is an important variable in controlling D/H partitioning.

Juske Horita; David R. Cole; Veniamin B. Polyakov; Thomas Driesner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature ... The low utilization of calcium-based sorbent is caused by the formation of calcium sulfite or sulfate, which have larger molar volumes than CaO or Ca(OH)2. ... ignition?loss ...

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

112

Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water. In some places the pipeline might be quite near the water table and in others it could be 50-100 feet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

113

Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

On the Change in Properties of Water Subjected to Low-Temperature Plasma Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Variation in the pH of water and the formation of hydrogen peroxides during contact electrolysis upon the low-pressure glow-discharge treatment of water were studied. Some physicochemical properties of the produc...

A. V. Kravchenko; S. A. Berlizova; A. F. Nesterenko

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

Belviso, Claudia, E-mail: belviso@imaa.cnr.i [Laboratory of Environmental and Medical Geology, IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo (Italy); Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio [Laboratory of Environmental and Medical Geology, IMAA-CNR, Tito Scalo (Italy)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy-clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of about145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep-rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation-hardened cladding to ensure a 100-yr cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduced the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by about5/sup 0/C. While this lower bound is based on whole-rod data, other types of data on spent fuel behavior in dry storage might support a higher limit. This isothermal temperature limit does not take credit for the decreasing rod temperature during dry storage. High-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400 and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods that are annealed.

Einsiger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

A correlation of water solubility in jet fuels with API gravity: aniline point percent aromatics, and temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A CORRELATION OF WATER SOLUBILITY IN JET FUELS WITH API GRAVITY, ANILINE POINT PERCENT AROMATICS, AND TEMPERATURE A Thesis By ALONZO B YINGTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A CORRELATION OF MATER SOLUBILITT IH JET FUELS WITS API GEAVITT, ANILINE POINT, PERCENT ARONATICS, AND TENPERATURE A Thesis By ALOHZO BYIHGTOH Approved...

Byington, Alonzo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Low-temperature rupture behavior of Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep rupture studies on five well-characterized Zircaloy clad pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods, which were pressurized to a hoop stress of approximately 145 MPa, were conducted for up to 2101 h at 323/sup 0/C. The conditions were chosen for limited annealing of in-reactor irradiation-hardening. No cladding breaches occurred, although significant hydride agglomeration and reorientation took place in rods that cooled under stress. Observations are interpreted in terms of a conservatively modified Larson-Miller curve to provide a lower bound on permissible maximum dry-storage temperatures, assuming creep rupture as the life-limiting mechanism. If hydride reorientation can be ruled out during dry storage, 305/sup 0/C is a conservative lower bound, based on the creep rupture mechanism, for the maximum storage temperature of rods with irradiation hardened cladding to ensure a 100-year cladding lifetime in an inert atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere reduces the lower bound on the maximum permissible storage temperature by approx. 5/sup 0/C. While high-temperature tests based on creep rupture as the limiting mechanism indicate that storage at temperatures between 400/sup 0/C and 440/sup 0/C may be feasible for rods which are annealed, tests to study rod performance in the 305/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/C temperature range have not been conducted. 37 references, 10 figures, 7 tables.

Einziger, R.E.; Kohli, R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

In-Pile SCC Growth Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water at JMTR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In general, IASCC can be reproduced on the materials irradiated over a certain threshold fluence level of fast neutron by the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). It is, however, considered that the reproduced IASCC by PIEs must be carefully compared with the actual IASCC in nuclear power plants, because the actual IASCC occurs in the core under simultaneous effects of radiation, stress and high temperature water environment. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. A high temperature water loop facility was installed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to carry out the in-pile IASCC testing under a framework of cooperative research program between JAERI and the JAPC. In-pile IASCC growth tests have been successfully carried out using the compact tension (CT) type specimens of type 304 stainless steel that had been pre-irradiated up to a neutron fluence level around 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} before the in-pile testing since 2004. The tests were carried out in pure water simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant condition. In the paper, results of the in-pile SCC growth tests will be discussed comparing with the result obtained by PIEs from a viewpoint of the synergistic effects on IASCC. (authors)

Yoshiyuki Kaji; Hirokazu Ugachi; Takashi Tsukada; Yoshinori Matsui; Masao Ohmi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Nobuaki Nagata; Koji Dozaki; Hideki Takiguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Proceedings ASCE EWRI World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005 May 15-19, 2005 Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants Scott A. Wells1 , Dmitriy into receiving waters, there is much interest in providing a model of temperature dynamics in wastewater using detailed temperature data from a Washington County, Oregon, USA wastewater treatment facility

Wells, Scott A.

122

Precipitable water and dew point temperature relationship during the Indian summer monsoon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two years of contrasting monsoon rainfall over the Indian subcontinent are studied with reference to (a ... and (b) the correlation between the dew point temperature at a particular level and the ... that the max...

Subroto Sinha; Sushanta K. Sinha

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

Hu, Lin-Wen

124

Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Infrared imaging of the surface temperature field of water during film spreading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which exists at a perfectly clean gas/liquid interface is considered to be shear- free. Films be significantly affected by the presence of a film.3­7 Such studies are typically conducted in a water tank where in the area of oil slicks and their dispersal,10 the transport of surfactants within the lung,11

Saylor, John R.

126

Model to Predict Temperature and Capillary Pressure Driven Water Transport in PEFCs After Shutdown  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to reduce the residual water, preventing fuel cell degradation. Garzon et al.2 also investigated the impact Manish Khandelwal,a, * Sungho Lee,b and M. M. Mencha, **,z a Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics-912 Korea To enhance durability and cold-start performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs

Mench, Matthew M.

127

Rheological behavior of heavy oil and water mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is divided into two categories. The first part was done by using a mercury capillary viscometer. A heavy oil sample (over 2,000 cp at standard condition) and three synthetic oil samples were analyzed at a range of temperatures up to about 350F. The results...

Setiadarma, Agustinus

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Oxygen isotope analysis of multiple, single ostracod valves as a proxy for combined variability in seasonal temperature and lake water oxygen isotopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Paleoclimate studies in lakes typically use oxygen isotopic ratios in samples that consist of multiple ostracod specimens, to obtain an average ?18O value that reflects the mean temperature and ?18O of lake water...

Yama Dixit; David A. Hodell; Rajiv Sinha; Cameron A. Petrie

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Nanoparticle diffusion probing of the structure of water and aqueous organic solutions near a porous surface and in its bulk in a wide temperature interval  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scattering of laser radiation by nanoparticles (latex balls and silver nanoparticles) is investigated in a wide temperature interval. It is demonstrated that water is structured near the porous surface of a solid...

V. V. Bryukhanov; I. G. Samusev; A. M. Ivanov; N. A. Myslitskaya

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Vibratory cavitation erosion behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel in water at elevated temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The cavitation erosion behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel was investigated using an ultrasonic vibratory apparatus at elevated temperatures and the morphologies of the eroded surface and the cross section were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The results show that the cumulative mass loss increases, shows a peak and then decreases with increase in liquid temperature. The cavitation damage of the eroded surface was relatively uniform at 2060C and at 80C it was localized; the depth of local deeper pit at 80C was about 1.7 times deeper than at 50C. The initial results based on the cumulative mass loss could not predict the degree of cavitation damage, and the depth of local erosion pit may be an effective method for judging erosion damage.

Zhen Li; Jiesheng Han; Jinjun Lu; Jiansong Zhou; Jianmin Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

JOURNAL of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, YOLo 90, NO. C3, PAGES 4907-4910, MAY 20, 1985 The Effect of Water Temperature and Synoptic Winds on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature and Synoptic Winds on the Development of Surface Flows Over Narrow, Elongated Water Bodies M surfacetemperature and of the large-scalesynoptic winds on the devel- opment of surfaceflows over the water created by damming of a river). In these locations, a daytime induced breeze, including its interaction

Pielke, Roger A.

132

Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperatures can be very low, many heat pipes will have the working fluid in an initially frozen state. To insure that the heat pipes will work as desired, it is important to be able to model the frozen startup. Transient modeling of heat pipe operation has... startup. The same sort of measurements are also rare for transients that do not include frozen conditions, and could be equally important in verifying appropriate transient computational models. The objective of the work presented here is to obtain...

Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

133

Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Using Membrane Sets Incorporated into a Crossflow Electrofiltration/Electrodialysis Treatment Module to Treat CMP Wastewater and Simultaneously Generate Electrolytic Ionized Water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this work, membrane set(s) had been incorporated into different crossflow electrofiltration (CEF) /electrodialysis (ED) treatment modules for treating various CMP wastewaters and simultaneously generating (more)

Yang, Tsung-Yin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

External vs. body temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

External vs. body temperature External vs. body temperature Name: jacqui Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If one's internal body temperature is approximately 98.6, WHY when the external temperature is 98.6 do we feel hot? Since both temperatures are "balanced", shouldn't we feel comfortable? I am assuming here that humidity levels are controlled, and play no factor in the external temperature. Replies: First of all, skin temperature is lower than 98.6F; 98.6F is internal body temperature, so air at 98.6F is hotter than skin. But more important, it is the nervous system, and the cells in your skin that your brain uses to detect temperature that determine whether you "feel" hot or not, not whether the air is hotter than your skin. These are set so that you feel hot when the air is actually colder than your skin. Why? They are probably set to make you feel hot whenever the air is warm enough so that your body has some trouble getting rid of the excess heat it produces through metabolism. This insures that you take some actions to help your body cool off. Like drinking cool water, or reducing exercise

136

Zinc Treatment Effects on Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trace levels of soluble zinc(II) ions (30 ppb) maintained in mildly alkaline, hydrogenated water at 260 C were found to lower the corrosion rate of austenitic stainless steel (UNS S30400) by about a factor of five, relative to a non-zinc baseline test after 10,000 hr. Characterizations of the corrosion oxide layer via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with argon ion milling and target factor analysis, confirmed the presence of two spinel oxide phases and minor amounts of recrystallized nickel. Based on the distribution of the three oxidized alloying constituents (Fe, Cr, Ni) with respect to depth and oxidation state, it was concluded that: (a) corrosion occurs in a non-selective manner, but approximately 30% of the oxidized iron is released to the water, and (b) the two spinel oxides exist as a ferrite-based outer layer (Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.3})(Fe{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 4} on top of a chromite-based inner layer (Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.7})(Fe{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.6}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. These results suggest that immiscibility in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} binary may play a role in controlling the zinc content of the outer layer. On the other hand, the lower corrosion rate caused by zinc additions is believed to be a consequence of corrosion oxide film stabilization due to the substitution reaction equilibrium: z Zn{sup 2+}(aq) + FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) {approx} z Fe{sup 2+}(aq) + (Zn{sub z}Fe{sub 1-z})Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s). The liquid-solid distribution coefficient for the reaction, defined by the ratio of total zinc to iron ion concentrations in solution divided by the Zn(II)/Fe(II) ratio in the solid, z/(1-z), was found to be 0.184. This interpretation is consistent with the benefits of zinc treatment being concentration dependent.

S.E. Ziemniak; M. Hanson

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Gigawatt-year nuclear-geothermal energy storage for light-water and high-temperature reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Capital-intensive, low-operating cost nuclear plants are most economical when operated under base-load conditions. However, electricity demand varies on a daily, weekly, and seasonal basis. In deregulated utility markets this implies high prices for electricity at times of high electricity demand and low prices for electricity at times of low electricity demand. We examined coupling nuclear heat sources to geothermal heat storage systems to enable these power sources to meet hourly to seasonal variable electricity demand. At times of low electricity demand the reactor heats a fluid that is then injected a kilometer or more underground to heat rock to high temperatures. The fluid travels through the permeable-rock heat-storage zone, transfers heat to the rock, is returned to the surface to be reheated, and re-injected underground. At times of high electricity demand the cycle is reversed, heat is extracted, and the heat is used to power a geothermal power plant to produce intermediate or peak power. When coupling geothermal heat storage with light-water reactors (LWRs), pressurized water (<300 deg. C) is the preferred heat transfer fluid. When coupling geothermal heat storage with high temperature reactors at higher temperatures, supercritical carbon dioxide is the preferred heat transfer fluid. The non-ideal characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide create the potential for efficient coupling with supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles. Underground rock cannot be insulated, thus small heat storage systems with high surface to volume ratios are not feasible because of excessive heat losses. The minimum heat storage capacity to enable seasonal storage is {approx}0.1 Gigawatt-year. Three technologies can create the required permeable rock: (1) hydro-fracture, (2) cave-block mining, and (3) selective rock dissolution. The economic assessments indicated a potentially competitive system for production of intermediate load electricity. The basis for a nuclear geothermal system with LWRs exists today; but, there is need for added research and development before deployment. There are significantly greater challenges for geothermal heat storage at higher temperatures. Such systems are strongly dependent upon the local geology. (authors)

Forsberg, C. W.; Lee, Y.; Kulhanek, M.; Driscoll, M. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

Quinn, Nigel W.T.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

139

Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion behavior of an austenitic stainless steel (UNS S30400) has been characterized in a 10,000 hour test conducted in hydrogenated, ammoniated water at 260 C. The corrosion kinetics were observed to follow a parabolic rate dependency, the parabolic rate constant being determined by chemical descaling to be 1.16 mg dm{sup -2} hr{sup -1/2}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with argon ion milling and target factor analysis, was applied to provide an independent estimate of the rate constant that agreed with the gravimetric result. Based on the distribution of the three oxidized alloying constituents (Fe, Cr, Ni) with respect to depth and elemental state, it was found that: (a) corrosion occurs in a non-selective manner, and (b) the corrosion film consists of two spinel oxide layers--a ferrite-based outer layer (Ni{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8})(Fe{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 4} on top of a chromite-based inner layer (Ni{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8})(Cr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. These compositions agree closely with the solvi phases created by immiscibility in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} binary, implying that immiscibility plays an important role in the phase separation process.

S.E. Ziemniak; M. Hanson

2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

140

Simulation of supercritical waterhydrocarbon mixing in a cylindrical tee at intermediate Reynolds number: Impact of temperature difference between streams  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The objective of this work is to study the impact of the temperature difference between the streams on the flow dynamics and mixing of supercritical water (SCW) and a model hydrocarbon (n-decane), under fully miscible conditions, in a small-scale cylindrical tee mixer (pipe ID=2.4mm), at an intermediate inlet Reynolds number of 500 using 3-D CFD simulations. When the water and n-decane streams enter the mixer at inlet temperatures of 800K and 700K respectively (?T=100K), the flow remains laminar and the variations of density and viscosity with temperature do not have a significant impact on the flow and mixing dynamics. However, when the water inlet temperature is 1000K (?T=300K), the waterHC shear layer becomes unstable close to x=5D downstream of the mixing joint followed by shear-layer rollup and transition to turbulence. This leads to significant enhancement in the mixing rate. However, in a simulation of SCW n-decane mixing with the same inlet conditions but with the physical properties held fixed at the inlet values (no variation with temperature), the shear layer remains stable and steady state is reached. It was found that, the large variation of temperature of 300K within the mixing layer leads to an increase in the local fluid density and a decrease in the local fluid viscosity within the mixing layer attributed mainly to the cooling of water and the heating of n-decane respectively. These physical property variations result in an increase in the local Reynolds number within the shear layer rendering it unstable to perturbations in the flow. Thus, the variations in mixture density and viscosity with temperature under near-critical conditions were found to have a significant impact on the flow and mixing dynamics in the tee mixer.

Ashwin Raghavan; Ahmed F. Ghoniem

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effects of water temperature and salinity on elimination of Salmonella charity and Escherichia coli from Sydney rock oysters (Crassostrea commercialis).  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...normal salinity range of local waters. Purification was inconsistent and incomplete...suggested a nonuniform re- draw water for purification. Further studies of salinities...facilities during winter and that purification water would require salinity adjustment...

A J Rowse; G H Fleet

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Structure Sensitivity of the Low-temperature Water-gas Shift Reaction on CuCeO2 catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure sensitivity of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction on Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts prepared at the nanoscale by different techniques. On the surface of ceria, different CuO{sub x} structures exist. We show here that only the strongly bound Cu-[O{sub x}]-Ce species, probably associated with the surface oxygen vacancies of ceria, are active for catalyzing the low-temperature WGS reaction. Weakly bound CuO{sub x} clusters and CuO nanoparticles are spectator species in the reaction. Isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions doping the ceria surface are not active themselves, but they are important in that they create oxygen vacancies and can be used as a reservoir of copper to replenish surface Cu removed by leaching or sintering. Accordingly, synthesis techniques such as coprecipitation that allow for extensive solubility of Cu in ceria should be preferred over impregnation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange or another two-step method whereby the copper precursor is added to already made ceria nanocrystals. For the synthesis of different structures, we have used two methods: a homogeneous coprecipitation (CP), involving hexamethylenetetramine as the precipitating agent and the pH buffer; and a deposition-precipitation (DP) technique. In the latter case, the ceria supports were first synthesized at the nanoscale with different shapes (rods, cubes) to investigate any potential shape effect on the reaction. Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts with different copper contents up to ca. 20 at.% were prepared. An indirect shape effect of CeO{sub 2}, manifested by the propensity to form oxygen vacancies and strongly bind copper in the active form, was established; i.e. the water-gas shift reaction is not structure-sensitive. The apparent activation energy of the reaction on all samples was similar, 50 {+-} 10 kJ/mol, in a product-free (2% CO-10% H{sub 2}O) gas mixture.

Si, R.; Zhang, L.; Raitano, J.; Yi, N.; Chan, S.-W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

143

Hydroclimatology Data Set Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality and Water Quality and Spectral Reflectance, Peace-Athabasca Delta, Canada, 2010 - 2011 , prepared by Colleen Long and Tamlin Pavelsky. This data set includes water quality and site characteristics data for June and July 2010 and June and July 2011, and spectral reflectance of the water surface for 2011. Data were originally collected to study the spatial transferability of models that relate suspended sediment concentration to remotely sensed water surface reflectance, and to further understand changes in hydrologic recharge in the Peace-Athabasca Delta. The Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD) is a hydrologically complex and ecologically diverse freshwater delta formed by the confluence of the Peace, Athabasca, and Birch Rivers near the western end of Lake Athabasca,

144

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template A remotely-operated lidar for aerosol, temperature, and water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generated using version 3.0 of the official AMS LATEX template A remotely-operated lidar for aerosol, temperature, and water vapor profiling in the High Arctic. G. J. Nott, T. J. Duck, J. G. Doyle, M. E. W. Coffin, C. Perro, C. P. Thackray, and J. R. Drummond Department of Physics and Atmospheric

Duck, Thomas J.

145

Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPA and temperatures to partial melting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The short-term failure strengths and strains at failure of room-dry and water-saturated, cylindrical specimens (2 by 4 cm) of Charcoal Granodiorite (CG), Mt. Hood Andesite (MHA), and Cuerbio Basalt (CB) at a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting were investigated. Data from water-saturated specimens of the granodiorite and andesite, compared to room-dry counterparts, indicate (1) the pore pressures are essentially communicated throughout each test specimen so that they are fully effective; (2) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 50 MPa the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (3) at these same effective pressures the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (4) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 870 to 900/sup 0/C the andesite's strength averages 20 MPa while the strength of dry specimens at the same P and T exhibit a strength of 100 MPa; (5) at P/sub e/ = 50 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (6) the basalt at P/sub e/ = 0, appears to be water-weakened at 800/sup 0/C; (7) water saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than that of melting exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2% shortening and then work-soften along faults; (8) again as do the dry counterparts, the wet specimens deform primarily by microscopic fracturing that coalesces into one or more macroscopic faults; and (9) the temperature for incipient melting of the andesite is decreased >150/sup 0/C in the water-saturated tests.

Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Effects of Ce, Y and Mo Addition on the Stress Accelerated Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Oxygenated High Temperature Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based upon the recent progress in mechanistic understanding of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water in light water reactor (LWR), the effects of Ce, Y, and Mo addition on oxidation kinetics under a tensile stress condition was investigated. Minor impurity of P was also studied. A kind of circumferentially notched tensile specimen was prepared to simulate the crack tip stress field. The notched specimens of different materials studied were applied with an almost constant load in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water. The oxidation was examined by the specimen cross section. It was shown that these elements have quite clear effects on the metal oxidation and alloying element distribution in the oxide layer. (authors)

Shengchun Wang; Nobuaki Kawaguchi; Tetsuo Shoji [Fracture Research Institute, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 01, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream projects to improve fish habitat. In 1998, the ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. Therefore, ACCD contracted with WDFW's Snake River Lab (SRL) to take pre- and post-construction measurements of the habitat (i.e., pools, LOD, width, depth) at each site, and to evaluate fish use within some of the altered sites. These results have been published annually as progress reports to the ACCD (Bumgarner et al. 1999, Wargo et al. 2000, and Bumgarner and Schuck 2001). The ACCD also contracted with the WDFW SRL to conduct other evaluation and monitoring in the stream such as: (1) conduct snorkel surveys at habitat alteration sites to document fish usage following construction, (2) deploy temperature monitors throughout the basin to document summer water temperatures, and (3) attempt to document adult fish utilization by documenting the number of steelhead redds associated with habitat altered areas. This report provides a summary of pre-construction measurements taken on three proposed Charley Creek habitat sites during 2001, two sites in main Asotin Creek, and one site in George Creek, a tributary that enters in the lower Asotin Creek basin. Further, it provides a comparison of measurements taken pre- and post-construction on three 1999 habitat sites taken two years later, but at similar river flows. It also presents data collected from snorkel surveys, redd counts, and temperature monitoring.

Bumgarner, Joseph D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Savings Project: Insulate Hot Water Pipes for Energy Savings Addthis Project Level Medium Energy Savings $8-$12 annually Time to Complete 3 hours for a small house Overall Cost $10-$15 Insulating water pipes can save you water, energy, and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/nsj-images Insulating water pipes can save you water, energy, and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/nsj-images Insulating your hot water pipes reduces heat loss and can raise water temperature 2°F-4°F hotter than uninsulated pipes can deliver, allowing for a lower water temperature setting. You also won't have to wait as long for hot water when you turn on a faucet or showerhead, which helps conserve water. Paying for someone to insulate your pipes-as a project on its own-may

150

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

151

Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyethylene terephthalate drinking water bottles of China Ying-Ying Fan a , Jian-Lun Zheng a , Jing-Hua Ren Accepted 9 May 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate Antimony Bisphenol A Release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water

Ma, Lena

152

Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump Bin Zheng and Mingsheng Liu Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln Abstract Traditionally, chilled water pump speed is modulated to maintain the water loop... speed to maintain the supply air temperature set point can: 1. save pump electricity energy; 2. improve control valve control performance; 3. reduce control valve initial cost; 4. save maintenance cost. References [1] Zheng B., Liu M. (2004...

Zheng, B.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the quench pH data as a function of temperature in temperature-gradient experiments 38 40 LIST OF PLATES Plate Page Ia Ib I la IIb IIIa IIIb IVa Ivb Va Vb VIa Large euhedral anhydrite crystals surrounded by honeycomb-shaped smectite. Run... circulation. Metabasalts ranging from zeolite to amphibolite facies, with greenstones dominating, have been dredged from the ocean floor (Aumento et al. 1971; Miyashi ro et al. 1971; Melson and van Andel, 1966; Shi do et al. , 1974; Bonatti et al. ; 1975...

Archer, Paul Lawrence

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III, and Kenneth S. Suslick*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

likely due to its own fluorescence. Carbon tetrachloride does not change the intensity of water sonoluminescence but does exhibit C2 emission. This indicates that the dissociation of carbon tetrachloride inside and other incipient emitting species produced during sonolysis. Small concentrations of carbon disulfide do

Suslick, Kenneth S.

155

Features of temperature control of fuel element cladding for pressurized water nuclear reactor WWER-1000 while simulating reactor accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the experiments simulating NPR (nuclear power reactor) accidents with a coolant loss fuel elements behavior in a steam-hydrogen medium was studied at the temperature changed with the rate from 1 to 100K/s within the range of 3001500 C. Indications of the thermocouples fixed on the cladding notably differ from real values of the cladding temperatures in the area of measuring junction due to thermal resistance influence of the transition zones cladding-junction and junction-coolant. The estimating method of a measurement error was considered which can provide adequate accounting of the influence factors. The method is based on thermal probing of a thermocouple by electric current flashing through thermoelements under the coolant presence or absence, a response time registration and processing, calculation of thermal inertia value for a thermocouple junction. A formula was derived for calculation of methodical error under stationary mode and within the stage of linear increase in temperature, which will determine the conditions for the cladding depressurization. Some variants of the formula application were considered, and the values of methodical errors were established which reached ?5% of maximum value by the final moment of the stage of linear increase in the temperature.

Zaytsev, P. A.; Priymak, S. V.; Usachev, V. B.; Oleynikov, P. P.; Soldatkin, D. M. [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

Fuzzy control model and simulation of supply air system in a test rig of low-temperature hot-water radiator system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a typical multi-variable, large time delay and nonlinear system, self-extracting rules fuzzy control (SERFC) method to maintain a stable temperature value in a built environment chamber with supply air system and hot-water system. The parameters of the transfer functions in every control loop were identified by experimental data in a format of time sequences obtained from the experiment of dynamical responding performance. Fuzzy control simulations were implemented based on adjustment of the supply air system and hot-water system by SERFC. The simulation results show that SERFC for environment chamber has satisfied performance. There is no higher overshoot and stable error. The work presented in here can be used to deal with those complex thermal processes with difficulties in modeling of fuzzy control rules and provide a foundation for further application of fuzzy control in HVAC system.

Zhen Lu; Jili Zhang; Yongpan Chen; Tianyi Zhao; Hui Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

The minimum gas temperature at the inlet of regulators in natural gas pressure reduction stations (CGS) for energy saving in water bath heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study a computational procedure for the computation of JouleThomson coefficient of natural gas has been developed using fundamental thermodynamic equations and AGA-8 equation of state, and then the minimum possible temperature of the natural gas entering to the pressure regulator of city gate stations (CGS) is calculated. As a case study, a CGS located in Bistoon (of Iran's CGSs) with nominal capacity of 20,000 SCMH has been considered. A comparison has been made between the calculated results and corresponding collected data from the station within 10 months. Results of this study help to determine the minimum temperature values of entering gas with different pressures to the regulator in order to avoid hydrate formation of the outlet gas, and can be used to design appropriate temperature control systems for water bath heaters and in turn save consumed energy for gas heating. The results show that heating the gas up to calculated minimum temperatures can save energy consumption of heaters by 43%. Also, it is indicated that by applying a control system, based on the result of this study, in the CGS the payback period would be less than a year.

Esmail Ashouri; Farzad Veysi; Ehsan Shojaeizadeh; Maryam Asadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Measurement of the bubble nucleation temperature of water on a pulse-heated thin platinum film supported by a membrane using a low-noise bridge circuit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study describes the performance of stress-minimized platinum (Pt) films supported by thin membranes (200nm thick) to promote bubble nucleation of water near its theoretical superheat limit. The membrane configurations consist of Pt films deposited on 200nm thick SiN films over bulk Si, with membranes being formed by etching Si from the back side of the films. Results are compared with more conventional Pt films supported by SiO2 and Si substrates. The average metal temperature is monitored by a bridge circuit with capacitive and inductive filtering to reduce noise in the output signal. Voltage pulses with durations ranging between 0.5 and 10?s are imposed on the bridge to electrically heat the Pt film. The paper includes discussion of fabrication of the films, their treatment prior to using them as temperature sensors, the bridge circuit design for monitoring the change in electrical resistance during the power pulse, the calibration process of the films, and results of the bubble nucleation temperatures for the range of pulse durations examined. The results show that significantly less power is needed to trigger bubble nucleation on a membrane-supported platinum film compared to a platinum film on a bulk Si substrate. The nucleation temperatures which were closest to the theoretical limit of water were realized at heating rates of nearly 109C/s. The potential for employing back-side etched devices is suggested for fundamental studies of phase transitions of highly superheated liquids and in applications where bubble nucleation is an important process such as for ink-jet printers and microscale bubble pump concepts.

Eric J. Ching; C. Thomas Avedisian; Michael J. Carrier; Richard C. Cavicchi; James R. Young; Bruce R. Land

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thermally activated low temperature creep and primary water stress corrosion cracking of NiCrFe alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A phenomenological SCC-CGR model is developed based on an apriori assumption that the SCC-CGR is controlled by low temperature creep (LTC). This mode of low temperature time dependent deformation occurs at stress levels above the athermal flow stress by a dislocation glide mechanism that is thermally activated and may be environmentally assisted. The SCC-CGR model equations developed contain thermal activation parameters descriptive of the dislocation creep mechanism. Thermal activation parameters are obtained by fitting the CGR model to SCC-CGR data obtained on Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750. These SCC-CGR activation parameters are compared to LTC activation parameters obtained from stress relaxation tests. When the high concentration of hydrogen at the tip of an SCC crack is considered, the SCC-CGR activation energies and rate sensitivities are shown to be quantitatively consistent with hydrogen reducing the activation energy and increasing the strain rate sensitivity in LTC stress relaxation tests. Stress dependence of SCC-CGR activation energy consistent with that found for the LTC activation energy. Comparisons between temperature dependence of the SCC-CGR stress sensitivity and LTC stress sensitivity provide a basis for speculation on effects of hydrogen and solute carbon on SCC crack growth rates.

Hall, M.M. Jr.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Three New Data Sets Available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

New Data Sets On-Line New Data Sets On-Line The ORNL DAAC announces the release of three new data sets. The data set "Global Maps of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, 1860, 1993, and 2050" provides global gridded estimates of atmospheric deposition of total inorganic nitrogen (N), NHx (NH3 and NH4+), and NOy (all oxidized forms of nitrogen other than N2O), in mg N/m2/year, for the years 1860 and 1993 and projections for the year 2050. Please visit the ORNL DAAC's Climate Collections web page for additional information about this data set. In addition, the ORNL DAAC has made available the data set entitled "Leaf Area Index Maps at 30-m Resolution, VALERI Site, Larose, Canada," which provides local LAI maps for the Larose (Ontario) site in Canada. The LAI data are suitable for use in modeling carbon, water, energy, and trace gas

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161

Performance Assessment of Suture Type, Water Temperature, and Surgeon Skill in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assessed performance of seven suture types in subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha implanted with acoustic microtransmitters. Nonabsorbable (Ethilon) and absorbable (Monocryl) monofilament and nonabsorbable (Nurolon, silk) and absorbable (Vicryl, Vicryl Plus, Vicryl Rapide) braided sutures were used to close incisions in Chinook salmon. Monocryl exhibited greater suture retention than all other suture types 7 d after surgery. Both monofilament suture types were retained better than all braided suture types at 14 d. Incision openness and tag retention did not differ among suture types. Wound inflammation was similar for Ethilon, Monocryl, and Nurolon at 7 d. Wound ulceration was lower for Ethilon, Monocryl, and Nurolon than for all other suture types at 14 d post-surgery. Fish held in 12C water had more desirable post-surgery healing characteristics (i.e., higher suture and tag retention and lower incision openness, wound inflammation, and ulceration) at 7 and 14 d after surgery than those held in 17C water. The effect of surgeon was a significant predictor for all response variables at 7 d. This result emphasizes the importance of including surgeon as a variable in telemetry study analyses when multiple surgeons are used. Monocryl performed better with regard to post-surgery healing characteristics in the study fish. The overall results support the conclusion that Monocryl is the best suture material to close incisions created during surgical implantation of acoustic microtransmitters in subyearling Chinook salmon.

Deters, Katherine A.; Brown, Richard S.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Boyd, James W.; Eppard, M. B.; Seaburg, Adam

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

163

Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 0.32 C, and late May: 17.17 0.08 C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A 0 d control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Regenerable MgO-based sorbent for high temperature CO2 removal from syngas: 3. CO2 capture and sorbent enhanced water gas shift reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Regenerable MgO-based sorbent, which was prepared and evaluated in the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in part 1, was also evaluated in high-pressure packed-bed unit in CO2/N2/H2O mixture and simulated pre-combustion syngas environment. In CO2/N2/H2O environment, the CO2 absorption capacity of the sorbent increases with increasing temperatures from 6.7% at 350C to 9.5% 450C. The sorbent is capable of achieving over 95% CO2 capture and 40% conversion in the water gas shift (WGS) reaction, which should be attributed to positive effect of WGS reaction in producing CO2 during the process. The sorbent reactivity and absorption capacity toward CO2, as well as its WGS catalytic activity decreases with increasing temperature. The maximum pre-breakthrough WGS conversion occurs at 350C, which diminishes as the sorbent is carbonated. The variable diffusivity shrinking core reaction model coupled with the two-fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was shown to accurately predict the break-through gas compositions at different operating conditions.

Emadoddin Abbasi; Armin Hassanzadeh; Shahin Zarghami; Hamid Arastoopour; Javad Abbasian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Evidence for two modes of water release in Comet 103P/Hartley 2: Distributions of column density, rotational temperature, and orthopara ratio  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents long-slit spectra of H2O emission from the inner coma of Comet 103P/Hartley 2, acquired with NIRSPEC/Keck 2 during the comets close approach to Earth in 2010. On UT 19.6 October 2010 the slit was oriented nearly orthogonal to the projected (in the plane of the sky) Suncomet line, and the H2O rotational temperature and column density showed similar spatial distributions as a function of projected distance from the nucleus. On UT 22.5 October, the slit was oriented along the Suncomet line, and the rotational temperatures revealed pronounced asymmetry while the column densities were nearly symmetric about the nucleus. We suggest this dichotomy reflects two qualitatively different mechanisms of volatile release, which introduce distinct rotational distributions in the sublimated material. Future modeling can test this hypothesis. We also report new retrievals of water nuclear spin species (ortho, para) in this comet, and we present the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) for various projected nucleocentric distances. Our most precise individual measurement is OPR=2.590.13, corresponding to a nuclear spin temperature (Tspin) of 313K. A weighted mean of five independent measurements provides OPR=2.790.13 ( T spin = 37 - 4 + 8 K ). Hartley 2 is the first comet for which the OPR has been measured in multiple apparitions. Our values (in 2010) are in good agreement with those obtained two apparitions earlier by the Infrared Space Observatory. Since the comet lost a substantial amount of material between 1998 and 2010, we see no evidence for variation of the OPR with depth in the nucleus. Further discussion of the advantages, assumptions, and biases introduced by various approaches when quantifying nuclear spin species (observing techniques, models and model parameters, sources of uncertainty) would likely aid in interpreting the \\{OPRs\\} measured in cometary volatiles.

Boncho P. Bonev; Geronimo L. Villanueva; Lucas Paganini; Michael A. DiSanti; Erika L. Gibb; Jacqueline V. Keane; Karen J. Meech; Michael J. Mumma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Four LBA-ECO Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The research was The research was performed by the Carbon Dynamics Team (CD-02). LBA-ECO CD-02 Oxygen Isotopes of Plant Tissue Water and Atmospheric Water Vapor. Data set prepared by J. Ehleringer, L.A. Martinelli, C. Cook, T.F. Domingues, L. Flanagan, J. Berry, and J.P. Ometto. This data set reports the oxygen isotope signatures of water extracted from plant tissue (xylem from the stems and leaf tissue) and of atmospheric water vapor from twelve different sites (including both pasture and forest). Water vapor from the troposphere was also collected during a series of aircraft flights over the Tapajos National Forest. LBA-ECO CD-02 02 Leaf Level Gas Exchange, Chemistry, and Isotopes, Amazonia, Brazil. Data set prepared by J. Ehleringer, L.A. Martinelli, C. Cook, T.F. Domingues, L. Flanagan, J. Berry, and J.P. Ometto. This data set

167

file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\VM3\\My%20Documents\\hc6-11a  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0.7 1.3 | 9.7 More than 15 Loads... 2.7 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 | 22.8 No Washing Machine... 22.9 6.2 3.1 0.9 2.2 | 12.5 | Water Temperature Setting for | Clothes...

168

file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\VM3\\My%20Documents\\hc6-2a...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

| 11.0 More than 15 Loads... 2.7 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.8 | 22.1 No Washing Machine... 22.9 1.6 3.5 4.9 3.7 2.3 6.9 | 9.5 | Water Temperature Setting for |...

169

file://C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\VM3\\My%20Documents\\hc6-9a...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9.6 1.4 1.0 0.4 | 8.6 More than 15 Loads... 2.7 0.4 0.3 Q | 23.8 No Washing Machine... 22.9 5.5 4.2 1.4 | 8.1 | Water Temperature Setting for | Clothes...

170

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

Seong W. Lee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Experimental study of the density and derived (excess, apparent, and partial molar volumes) properties of binary water+ethanol and ternary water+ethanol+lithium nitrate mixtures at temperatures from 298K to 448K and pressures up to 40MPa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Densities of binary water+ethanol and ternary water+ethanol+LiNO3 mixtures have been measured over the temperature range from 298K to 448K and at pressures up to 40MPa using the constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. The measurements for water+ethanol mixture were made for four compositions of 0.0163, 0.0343, 0.0730, and 0.0946mol fraction of ethanol. The measurements for thernary water+ethanol+LiNO3 mixtures were performed in the same temperature and pressure ranges for twelve concentrations. The combined expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements at the 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k=2 is estimated to be 0.06%, 0.05%, 20mK, and 0.015%, respectively. The derived volumetric properties such as excess ( V m E ), apparent ( V ? ), and partial ( V 2 ? ) molar volumes were calculated using the measured values of density for the binary water+ethanol mixture and for pure water and ethanol. The small and negative values of excess molar volume for the mixtures were found at all experimental temperatures, pressures, and over the entire concentration range. The excess molar volume minimum is found at concentration about 0.4mol fraction of 1-propanol. The concentration minimum of the derived apparent molar volumes V ? near 2molkg?1 (dilute mixture) was observed.

I.M. Abdulagatov; Lala A. Akhmedova-Azizova; N.D. Azizov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: Chemical analysis and potential toxicity Cristina Bach a used for the bottling of drinking water is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since migra- tion can

Short, Daniel

173

Development and testing of non-bonded flexible pipe for high temperature/high pressure/deep water/dynamic sour service applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-bonded flexible risers are a critical element of floating systems for offshore oil and gas production. This paper reviews product innovations and prototype testing of risers developed to cope with severe environments. Full scale dynamic test results with combined tension, bending, internal pressure and heating, and with these structural loads combined with sour production fluids introduced into the bore of the pipe are presented. The loading conditions for the tests were based on floating production systems in North Sea environments. End fittings must assure a leak tight transition to subsea and surface facilities when subjected to the pipe applied loads, thermal cycling during startup and shutdowns, and changing of the fluid barrier material properties over the service life. The results of analyses and tests conducted to verify the integrity of the end fitting with thermal cycling and fluid barrier changes due to the high temperature production fluids is presented. Conventional flexible pipe employs carbon steel for axial and hoop structural reinforcement. In deeper water, the tension loads induced by pipe weight increase stress levels in the pipe structure and deck and installation loads. As pipe stresses increase, larger cross sectional areas of the steel members are required, further increasing the weight. To reduce the unit weight, while retaining the required strength levels, composite materials have been developed to replace the steel tensile armor. The composite consists of carbon fibers in a thermoplastic matrix. Tests to verify the suitability of the material in the flexible pipe annulus environment and to evaluate the performance of the composite pipe structure are presented.

Kalman, M.; Belcher, J.; Chen, B.; Fraser, D.; Ethridge, A.; Loper, C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Monotonic Answer Set Programming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Answer set programming (ASP) does not allow for incrementally constructing...calculi and implementations. In. In: Handbook of Automated Reasoning-Robinson J...Abstract Answer set programming (ASP) does not allow for incrementally constructing......

Martin Gebser; Mona Gharib; Robert Mercer; Torsten Schaub

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set forth requirements for the registration of water withdrawals and reporting of water losses from the Great Lakes Basin. The regulations apply to water withdrawals from...

176

Static and dynamic contact angle measurement on rough surfaces using sessile drop profile analysis with application to water management in low temperature fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Fuel Cells are a promising alternative energy technology. One of the biggest problems that exists in fuel cell is that of water management. A (more)

Konduru, Vinaykumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Insulation Monitors Settings Selection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the chapter general requirements set to insulation monitors selection in AC and DC networks ... given. Examples of regulations requirements for circuits insulation equivalent resistance are presented. Traditio...

Piotr Olszowiec

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Low Temperature Proton Conductivity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0 o C *Transport processes/motions slow down: questions re: lower conductivity,water mobility etc *Residual water will have various physical effects in different portions of the MEA questions re: durability of components 3 3 'States' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed based on DSC * Freezing water more mobile, allegedly important for high conductivity Analysis common for porous systems Does the presence of these states matter? Why? 4 'State of Water' in PEMs At T < 0 o C *'Liquid-like' water freezes *'Non-freezing' fraction: water of solvation at pore

180

Skill Set Training Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

MGTP-002 Skill Set/Training Process 11_0502 Page 1 of 7 MGTP-002 Skill Set/Training Process 11_0502 Page 1 of 7 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Skill Set/Training Process Document Number: MGTP-002 Rev. 11_0502 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Documents: MGTF-002 Skill Set Model, MGTF-003 Training Review/Record, MGTF-004 New Employee Checklist, MGTF-005 Departing Employee Checklist, MGTF-006 Position Descriptions MGTP-002 Skill Set/Training Process 11_0502 Page 2 of 7 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial revision B Made minor, non-content editorial changes based on internal audit results 08_0805 Minor, non-content editorial changes based on internal audit results

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

NACP Data Set Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is pleased to announce the release of a data set associated is pleased to announce the release of a data set associated with The North American Carbon Program (NACP): NACP: MODIS Daily Land Incident 4-km PAR Images for North America, 2003-2005 . Data set prepared by S. Liang and D. Wang. This data set contains daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) Images over North America for the years 2003 - 2005. The daily images were derived by integrating MODIS/Terra and MODIS/Aqua instantaneous PAR data where the instantaneous PAR data is estimated directly from Terra or Aqua MODIS 5-min L1b swath data (Liang et al., 2006 and Wang et al., 2010). The spatial distribution of this data set includes the MODIS tile subsets covering North America, Central America, portions of South America, and

182

Atmospheric Water Vapor Pressure over Land Surfaces: A Generic Algorithm with Data Input Limited to Air Temperature, Precipitation and Geographic Location  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lack of information for surface water vapor pressure (WVP) represents a major impediment to model-assisted ecosystem analysis for understanding plant-environment interactions or for projecting biospheric re...

X. Yin

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Contribution of the actomyosin motor to the temperature-dependent translational diffusion of water by cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea canadensis cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The extent to which the actomyosin motor responsible for cytoplasmic streaming contributes to the translational diffusion of water in Elodea canadensis...cells was studied by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sp...

V. N. Vorobev; A. V. Anisimov; N. R. Dautova

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Setting off for Saturn  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......than that of water the lowest of...thermoelectric generator (1 of 3) Huygens...surface the atmospheric pressure is...probe's in-situ atmospheric and surface...lites add water and other ions...perhaps the atmospheric chemistry will...thermoelec- tric generators provide the......

Andrew Coates

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Rodent carcinogens: setting priorities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mg )08 Swimming pool, 1 hour (for child...1 pg )06' Well water, 1 liter contaminated...indicate that coffee consumption, for example...pes-ticide residues and water pollution seem to...policy designed to reduce human cancer. Economic...serves to decrease consumption of foods that help...

LS Gold; TH Slone; BR Stern; NB Manley; BN Ames

1992-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Dust Settles on Water Vapor Feedback  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...To understand water vapor feedback...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...shifts in the atmospheric circulation...caused a positive water vapor feedback...temperature. Condensation, evaporation...

Anthony D. Del Genio

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

187

Field application of an interpretation method of downhole temperature and pressure data for detecting water entry in horizontal/highly inclined gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condition change, wellbore structure change, geothermal environment change, or simple just noise of measurement. To separate flow condition change from the other causes of temperature change, we require a comprehensive understanding of flow dynamics. 5.... The interpretation model for downhole temperature and pressure data is a coupled thermal wellbore/reservoir flow model. The model is built on fundamental flow and energy conservation equations for both the reservoir and wellbore. These equations are: Mass balance...

Achinivu, Ochi I.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

CDIAC Precipitation Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Precipitation Precipitation CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Precipitation Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Stations data; monthly totals Varies by station; through 1990 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Station data; monthly totals Varies by station; some through most recent month A Computer-Based Atlas of Global Instrumental Climate Data (CDIAC DB-1003) R.S. Bradley et al. Monthly, seasonal, and annual anomaly maps of precipitation 1851 - 1989 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record

189

data_sets.indd  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DATA SETS DATA SETS T est your technology with real data from RMOTC. RMOTC offers its non-proprietary data free of charge under certain terms and conditions. If you or your organization is interested in receiving any or all of the data sets, con- tact RMOTC at 888.599.2200 or talk@ rmotc.doe.gov. Offi ce of Fossil Energy Partnering to Power the World Terms of Use The data contained on RMOTC's data CDs is non-proprietary. Its intended use is for scientifi c research, testing and demonstrat- ing software,training end-users, and as an exploration/produc- tion analog. In order to track the data sets and their use, your contact information must be provided for RMOTC's records. If you use any of RMOTC's data in a presentation or publication, acknowledge RMOTC and the U.S. Department of Energy as the

190

NACP Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NACP Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Baseline Data (NBCD 2000), U.S.A., 2000 NACP Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Baseline Data (NBCD 2000), U.S.A., 2000 . Data set prepared by J. Kellndorfer, W. Walker, K. Kirsch, G. Fiske, J. Bishop, L. LaPoint, M. Hoppus, and J. Westfall. The NBCD 2000 (National Biomass and Carbon Dataset for the Year 2000) data set provides a high-resolution (30 m) map of year-2000 baseline estimates of basal area-weighted canopy height, aboveground live dry biomass, and standing carbon stock for the conterminous United States. This data set distributes, for each of 66 map zones, a set of six raster files in GeoTIFF format. There is a detailed README companion file for each map zone. There is also an ArcGIS shapefile with the boundaries of all the map zones. A mosaic image of biomass at 240-m resolution for the whole conterminous U.S. is

191

Nested-set inconsistency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines a denumerable version of the nested-set theorem and derives from it a contradiction involving the formal consistency of the actual infinity assumed by the Axiom of Infinity.

Antonio Leon

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

193

Water quality Water quantity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water mining ­ Often the largest long term issue ­ Water quality affected, surface/ground water pollution

Boisvert, Jeff

194

Low Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Low Temperature Dictionary.png Low Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 150°C and 190°C is considered by Sanyal to be "low temperature." "The mobile fluid phase in these reservoirs is liquid water. A number of commercial power projects have been operated over the last two decades

195

Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,?C Gcoal,T/Day Ts1v,?C Tr1v,?C Tw2argv,?C Gcoalv,T/Day Figure 4. Verified Model Responses With Operational Data 2.4 Properties Analysis From The Verified Model Simulations Based on the verified model, the factors ]1,25.1,1.1[],,[ ?enhex fff.../s HV heating value, J/Kg kp proportional gain ki integral gain KF heat transfer coefficient, W/? q heat per unit area, W/m2 Q heat, W t time, s T temperature, ? TD temperature difference, ? u control signal 30 ?? ? factors Subscripts 1, 2...

Zhong, L.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Corrosion behavior of high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3-yAgyO7-x in the presence of water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of the presence of water vapor, YBa2Cu3O7-x degrades easily in the atmosphere and thus very difficult to put it to practical use. When Cu is partially substituted with Ag, however, there is not much a dec...

Young-Soon Kim; Jeong-Shik Park; Bong-Woo Chung

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A study on some topological aspects of fuzzy sets, rough sets and soft sets; -.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis consists of three major parts viz., study of the topological notions of fuzzy sets, rough sets and soft sets. The first part consists (more)

Juthika, Mahanta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors: A preliminary assessment of experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6 and KORA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors has been measured in different laboratories under both irradiation and post irradiation conditions. The data from experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6, and in the KORA facility are compared to assess their consistency and complimentarily. The experiments are consistent under comparable experimental conditions and reveal two general mechanisms involving exposed fuel kernels embedded in carbonaceous materials. One is manifest as a strong dependence of fission gas release on the partial pressure of water vapor below 1 kPa and the other, as a weak dependence above 1 kPa.

Myers, B.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets Federal efficiency...

202

4-50 A vertical piston-cylinder device is filled with water and covered with a 20-kg piston that serves as the lid. The boiling temperature of water is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4-24 4-50 A vertical piston-cylinder device is filled with water and covered with a 20-kg piston in the cylinder is determined from a force balance on the piston, PA = PatmA + W W = mg Patm P or, kPa119.61 skg

Bahrami, Majid

203

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

204

Optimization of Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the absorption chiller has the least increase in COP per degree change in supply water. METHODS OF IMPLEMENTATION Using Space Conditions. (Figure 2). By evaluating the performance of all the cooling coils through a selector switch, then establishing.....::::.....L-...L-....L..-...L..-+--"""---.L.--"----"------1 15~--1---~-+---+---+---+-7' Reciprocating Absorption 40 c Leaving chIlled water temperature - C F Fig. 1 Effect of chilled water temperature on chiller coefficient of performance Using Return Water Temperature. (Figure 3). This method...

Gidwani, B. N.

205

Rough Sets, Kernel Set, and Spatiotemporal Outlier Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Sets, Kernel Set, and Spatiotemporal Outlier Detection Alessia Albanese, Member, IEEE, Sankar with the outlier detection problem in spatiotemporal data and describe a rough set approach that finds the top outliers in an unlabeled spatiotemporal data set. The proposed method, called Rough Outlier Set Extraction

Pal, Sankar Kumar

206

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

207

Causal Set Phenomenology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in phenomenology has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG phenomenology motivated by the causal set approach. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.

Lydia Philpott

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Three LBA-ECO Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

studies were studies were conducted by the Nutrients Dynamics teams of ND-07 at studies sites near Brasilia, Brazil. LBA-ECO ND-07 Hydrochemistry of Natural and Developed Land Cover, Brasilia, Brazil. Data set prepared by J.S.O. Silva and M. Bustamante. This data set reports on dissolved nutrient concentrations, as well as dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, and pH measured in water samples collected from nine streams, surface runoff, wells, lysimeters, and precipitation sites located in the state of Brasilia, Brazil, between September 2004 and December 2006. LBA-ECO ND-07 Microbial Biomass in Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil. Data set prepared by L.T. Viana, M. Molina, M. Bustamante, A.S. Pinto, K. Kisselle, R. Zepp, and R. Burke. This data set reports the microbial

210

More Southern African Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fifteen southern African data sets fifteen southern African data sets for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). These data sets, originally prepared in coordination with data investigators by the SAFARI 2000 Data Group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, contain the results of fire-related measurements including field and laboratory measurements of burning biomass emissions, pre- and post-burning site and ash reflectance, estimates of regional fuel load and emissions, and historical fire occurrence. These data sets also contain the results of measurements and estimates of vegetation emissions of volatile organic compounds; flux measurements of carbon, heat, and water vapor along the Kalahari Transect and at fixed tower sites; and meteorological data from tower sites.

211

Elementary Rough Set Granules: Toward a Rough Set Processor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, the basics of the rough set approach are presented, and an outline of ... of a simple processor is based on elementary rough set granules and dependencies between them. The rough set processor (R...

Zdzis?aw Pawlak

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Water, water everywhere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... available water resources, either locally or globally, are by no means exhausted. At present desalination -- the removal of salt from sea water or brackish water -- is very ... or brackish water -- is very expensive, mainly because it consumes so much energy. Desalination provides less than 0.2 per cent of all the water used in the world ...

Philip Ball

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

213

A comparative numerical study of hybrid-stabilized argonwater electric arc  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents numerical simulations of the discharge and the near-outlet regions of the hybrid-stabilized argonwater electric arc. Two different numerical methods for solving the set of conservative equations for the continuity, momentum and energy have been applied. The major difference between the results using the two methods occurs in the temperature distribution in arc fringes within the discharge chamber. This fact influences the potential drop, overpressure, reabsorption of radiation and arc efficiency. It is shown that the radial profiles of temperature at the exit nozzle are less influenced by different temperature distribution within the discharge chamber. Comparison with chosen experimental temperature profiles shows very good agreement.

Ji? Jenita; Hidemasa Takana; Hideya Nishiyama; Milada Bartlov; Vladimr Aubrecht; Petr K?enek; Viktor Sember; Alan Malni

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

215

Segmenting data sets for RIP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for experimental phasing by segmenting a large data set into sub-data sets for radiation-damage-induced phasing is presented.

de Sanctis, D.

2012-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

216

Index Sets and Vectorization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

Keasler, J A

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

217

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

218

Figure 9. Conceptual model for regionally divergent responses of the air-land fluxes to CO2 fertilization, which increases the water-use efficiency of photosynthesis. In dry regions where  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fertilization, which increases the water-use efficiency of photosynthesis. In dry regions where photosynthesis is limited by water, photosynthesis increases while transpiration stays roughly constant (set by the available moisture). In moist regions where photosynthesis is limited by other factors such as temperature

Krakauer, Nir Y.

219

High temperature probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Bachelor Thesis Detection of Zeno Sets in Hybrid Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bachelor Thesis Detection of Zeno Sets in Hybrid Systems to Validate Modelica Simulations Marcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Example: Water Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Modelica 9 3.1 OpenModelica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.1 Hybrid Automata

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Investigation of oxides formed in the corrosion of SUS-304 in high-temperature water through the measurement of evolved hydrogen and radiochemical analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion behavior of SUS-304 at 280/sup 0/C in deaerated water has been traced both through measuring H/sub 2/ gas, concomitantly formed with corrosion, and through radiochemical analysis of the corrosion layers. The calculated H/sub 2/ yield based on the reaction, M + x.H/sub 2/O = MO /sub x/ + x.H/sub 2/ (M: iron, chromium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt), agreed reasonably well with the observed H/sub 2/ yields, showing that iron is mainly in a magnetite form and chromium is in a Cr(III) state. More than 85% of the corrosion layers were recovered by repeating ultrasonic cleaning and electrostripping processes. The residual fraction was rich in chromium and dissolved in the subsequent electropolishing process. The total corrosion increases with the reaction time, although the ''inner layer'' tends to stay almost constant at a longer reaction time. In some cases, both neutron irradiated and nonirradiated SUS coexisted. Mutual transfer of the elements from one SUS to the other has been examined.

Tachikawa, E.; Hoshi, M.; Nakashima, M.; Sagawa, C.; Yonezawa, C.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

CDIAC Snow Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Snowfall and Snow Depth Snowfall and Snow Depth CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Snow Data Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record United States Historical Climatology Network M. Menne et al. Station data; daily snowfall and snow depth Varies by station; through 2010 Daily Snow Depth Measurements from 195 Stations in the United States (CDIAC NDP-059) D. Easterling et al. Station data; daily snow depth Varies by station; max. period is 1893-1992 Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Station data; 6- and 3-hourly state of any snowcover on ground; occurrance of snowfall in past and present weather observations Varies by station; through 2000 Two Long-Term Instrumental Climatic Data Bases of the People's Republic of China

223

On the phase diagram of water with density functional theory potentials: the melting temperature of Ice I-h with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functionals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The melting temperature (Tm) of ice Ih was determined from constant enthalphy (NPH) Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations to be 4173 K for the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and 4114 K for the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals using a coexisting ice (Ih)-liquid phase at constant pressures of P = 2,500 and 10,000 bar and a density ? = 1 g/cm3, respectively. This suggests that ambient condition simulations at ? = 1 g/cm3 will rather describe a supercooled state that is overstructured when compared to liquid water. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Yoo, Soohaeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Water Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Water Sampling Details Activities (51) Areas (45) Regions (5) NEPA(2) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Field Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Water composition and source of fluids Thermal: Water temperature Dictionary.png Water Sampling: Water sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Water sampling is done to characterize the geothermal system under investigation. A geothermal water typically has a unique chemical signature

225

set5.pdf  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Electricity Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil District Heat District Chilled Water Propane Other a All Buildings ............................................... 67,338 65,753 65,716 45,525 13,285 5,891 2,750 6,290 2,322 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 6,774 6,309 6,280 3,566 620 Q Q 635 292 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 8,238 7,721 7,721 5,088 583 Q Q 986 Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 11,153 10,851 10,843 7,001 983 414 Q 1,203 290 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 9,311 9,175 9,175 6,405 983 660 294 568 250 50,001 to 100,000 ........................................ 10,112 10,034 10,034 7,165 1,612 933 525 865 350 100,001 to 200,000 ...................................... 8,271

226

Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns of Water Potential, Photosynthesis, Evapotranspiration and Water Use Efficiency of Clusterbean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diurnal patterns of leaf water potential (?W), canopy net photosynthetic rate (P N), evapotranspiration rate (E), canopy temperature (Tc), and water use efficiency (WUE) of clusterbean [Cyamopsis ...

A. Kumar; N.C. Turner; D.P. Singh; P. Singh; M. Barr

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

LBA Land Use and Land Cover Data Set Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 and TG-06 Data Sets Published 2 and TG-06 Data Sets Published The ORNL DAAC announces the release of data sets from two LBA-ECO science themes: Carbon Dynamics and Trace Gases. Both data sets provide data from similar time periods and study areas. LBA-ECO CD-32 Flux Tower Network Data Compilation, Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2006. Data set prepared by S.R. Saleska, H.R. da Rocha, A.R. Huete, A.D. Nobre, P. Artaxo, and Y.E. Shimabukuro. This data set is a compilation of carbon and energy eddy covariance flux, meteorology, radiation, canopy temperature, humidity, CO2 profiles, soil moisture, and temperature profile data that were collected at nine towers across the Brazilian Amazon. Independent investigators provided the data from a variety of flux tower projects over the period 1999 thru 2006 for use in a model intercomparison.

228

ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsVirtual temperature govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler RWP : Radar Wind Profiler

229

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

230

A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

Jakob, Christian

231

Water Efficiency  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water...

232

Tectonic Settings | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tectonic Settings Tectonic Settings Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Tectonic Settings Dictionary.png Tectonic Settings: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Map showing worldwide plate tectonics(reference: NASA) Plate tectonics - or the large scale movements of Earth's crusts - result in a number of distinct settings. Major tectonic settings that commonly host geothermal systems include subduction zones, rift zones, extensional regimes, and transtensional or strike-slip zones. Hot spots are thought to occur independent of tectonic activity but will be considered a tectonic setting in the context of geothermal areas because they do not fit into any other category. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Tectonic_Settings&oldid=600139"

233

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must meet federal and state standards for safe drink- ing water. Two sets of standards-primary drinking water and secondary drinking water- establish Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for a variety of contaminants. If the water sup- ply

Dyer, Bill

234

Fever and Body Temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fever and Body Temperature Fever and Body Temperature Name: Ying Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I have a few questions that I want to ask you: Why does your body chose to raise its temperature when you have a fever? Replies: Most bacteria and viruses that live in your body grow best at body temperature. They don't grow very well when the temperature is raised. When there are bacteria in your body they give off chemicals that signal white blood cells to come to try to eat them and also affect an area in your brain called the hypothalamus. This part of the brain controls alot of the automatic functions in your body and is also the site of your body's "thermostat". When the chemicals from the bacteria circulate through the hypothalamus it sets the body's temperature higher. This is called a fever. Your body kind of tries to "sweat out" the bacteria and kill them with a higher temperature. Some scientists question whether trying to bring down a fever is the best thing to do. If it isn't too high, some believe we should just let it work

235

Rectihability of the Singular Set  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter we establish rectifiability results for the singular set sing u of energy minimizing maps.

Leon Simon

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

COMBINATION OF ROUGH AND FUZZY SETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 COMBINATION OF ROUGH AND FUZZY SETS BASED ON -LEVEL SETS Y.Y. Yao Department of Computer Science set can be represented by a family of crisp sets using its -level sets, whereas a rough set can involved in the combination of rough-set and fuzzy-set models. The rough-fuzzy-set and fuzzy-rough-set

Yao, Yiyu

237

Desalination of brackish ground waters and produced waters using in-situ precipitation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The need for fresh water has increased exponentially during the last several decades due to the continuous growth of human population and industrial and agricultural activities. Yet existing resources are limited often because of their high salinity. This unfavorable situation requires the development of new, long-term strategies and alternative technologies for desalination of saline waters presently not being used to supply the population growth occurring in arid regions. We have developed a novel environmentally friendly method for desalinating inland brackish waters. This process can be applied to either brackish ground water or produced waters (i.e., coal-bed methane or oil and gas produced waters). Using a set of ion exchange and sorption materials, our process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps. The ion exchange materials were chosen because of their specific selectivity for ions of interest, and for their ability to work in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. For anion exchange, we have focused on hydrotalcite (HTC), a layered hydroxide similar to clay in structure. For cation exchange, we have developed an amorphous silica material that has enhanced cation (in particular Na{sup +}) selectivity. In the case of produced waters with high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, a lime softening step is included.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn; Sattler, Allan Richard

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP govCampaignsArctic Winter Water Vapor IOP Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Winter Water Vapor IOP 2004.03.09 - 2004.04.09 Lead Scientist : Ed Westwater Data Availability http://www.etl.noaa.gov/programs/2004/wviop/data will contain quicklooks of all of the data. For data sets, see below. Summary During the IOP, the Ground-based Scanning Radiometer of NOAA/ETL, and the ARM MicroWave Radiometer and Microwave Profiler, yielded excellent data over a range of conditions. In all, angular-scanned and calibrated radiometric data from 22.345 to 380 GHz were taken. The Precipitable Water Vapor varied about an order of magnitude from 1 to 10 mm, and surface temperatures varied from about -10 to -40 deg. Celcius. Vaisala RS90

239

LBA Data Sets Released from Two Science Themes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

two data sets from the Land Use and two data sets from the Land Use and Land Cover Change science theme, and one data set from the Carbon Dynamics theme. These science research themes are components of the LBA-ECO Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). LBA-ECO LC-07 Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Balbina Reservoir, Brazil. Data set prepared by A. Kemenes, B.R. Forsberg, and J.M. Melack. This data set provides flux measurements of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from surface waters to the atmosphere, and CH4, CO2, and oxygen (O2) concentrations of surface water, and concentrations measured at several depths of the Balbina Reservoir in the central Amazon Basin, Amazonas, Brazil. The Balbina Reservoir was formed by impounding the Uatuma River in 1987.

240

WARD, PETER R. B. Seiches, tides, and wind set-up on Lake Kariba  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aug 16, 1977 ... Abstract-Water level records from six near- shore towers at Lake Kariba provide informa- tion on surface seiches, tides, and wind set-. UP-.

2000-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Certified Sites (Ready! Set! Build!) (Wisconsin) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Certified Sites (Ready! Set! Build!) (Wisconsin) Certified Sites (Ready! Set! Build!) (Wisconsin) Certified Sites (Ready! Set! Build!) (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Developer General Public/Consumer Institutional Low-Income Residential Nonprofit Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Training/Technical Assistance Siting and Permitting Provider Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation WEDC has created, in partnership with Deloitte Consulting (Site Selector Consultant) and community partners, the Ready! Set! Build! Program, which provides consistent standards for industrial site certification in

242

What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Set Your Thermostat to? Set Your Thermostat to? What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? June 29, 2012 - 6:29pm Addthis Earlier this week, Kristin was telling us how you can use a programmable thermostat to save money when you're not at home. This is an easy trick that's useful in the winter as well as the summer, and can always help save you some money. Why heat or cool your house when you're not there? So this week, we'd like to know: What temperature do you set your thermostat to in the summer? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles What Are Your Top Tips for Saving Energy? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer?

243

Very Low Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Very Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Very Low Temperature Dictionary.png Very Low Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 100°C and 150°C is considered by Sanyal to be "very low temperature." "The mobile fluid phase in these reservoirs is liquid water. Very few power projects have been developed in the U.S. based on geothermal resources in

244

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Temperature profile detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

Tokarz, R.D.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

246

South Dakota-Minnesota Boundary Waters Commission (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes an interstate commission to set standards for water levels and quality, and to coordinate among local governments to maintain and preserve water resources on the...

247

Study of the combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus vitreus by using a hyphal growth model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work investigates environmental effects on the growth of fungal colonies of P. vitreus by using a lattice-free discrete modelling approach called FGM (Fuhr et al. (2010), arXiv:1101.1747), in which hyphae and nutrients are considered as discrete structures. A discrete modelling approach allows studying the underlying mechanistic rule concerning the basic architecture and dynamic of fungal networks on the scale of a single colony. By comparing simulations of the FGM with laboratory experiments of growing fungal colonies on malt extract agar we show that combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of a fungal colony on a macroscopic scale may be explained by a power law for the growth costs of hyphal expansion on a microscopic scale. The information about the response of the fungal mycelium on a microscopic scale to environmental conditions is essential to simulate its behavior in complex structure substrates such as wood, where the impact of the fungus to the woo...

Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Probabilistic Set Covering with Correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 30, 2011 ... We conduct the first scenario-free investigation of the probabilistic set covering ...... Annals of Operations Research, 177:127137, 2010.

2011-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

temperature temperature Dataset Summary Description Freedom Field is a not-for-profit organization formed to facilitate development and commercialization of renewable energy solutions. The organization has installed a variety of renewable energy generating technologies at their facility (located at Rock River Water Reclamation in Rockford, IL), with the intention of serving as a demonstration facility. The facility monitors data (at 5-minute intervals) from a weather station, 12.4 kW of PV panels (56 220-watt panels), a 10kW wind turbine (HAWT), a 1.2 kW wind turbine (VAWT), an absorption cooling system, and biogas burners. Source Freedom Field Date Released July 19th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords biogas monitoring data PV radiance solar temperature

251

Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

252

Rough sets determined by tolerances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We show that for any tolerance R on U, the ordered sets of lower and upper rough approximations determined by R form ortholattices. These ortholattices are completely distributive, thus forming atomistic Boolean lattices, if and only if R is induced by an irredundant covering of U, and in such a case, the atoms of these Boolean lattices are described. We prove that the ordered set RS of rough sets determined by a tolerance R on U is a complete lattice if and only if it is a complete subdirect product of the complete lattices of lower and upper rough approximations. We show that R is a tolerance induced by an irredundant covering of U if and only if RS is an algebraic completely distributive lattice, and in such a situation a quasi-Nelson algebra can be defined on RS. We present necessary and sufficient conditions which guarantee that for a tolerance R on U, the ordered set RS X is a lattice for all X ? U , where R X denotes the restriction of R to the set X and RS X is the corresponding set of rough sets. We introduce the disjoint representation and the formal concept representation of rough sets, and show that they are DedekindMacNeille completions of RS.

Jouni Jrvinen; Sndor Radeleczki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Rough Set Theory: An Introduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In rough set theory, knowledge is interpreted as an ability...a, 81b]). These objects form a set called often a universe of discourse and their nature may vary from case to case: they may be e.g. medical patients...

Prof. Dr. Lech Polkowski

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Five LBA Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Use-Land Change Data Sets Released Use-Land Change Data Sets Released The ORNL DAAC and the LBA DIS announce the release of three data sets from the Land Use-Land Change teams, components of the LBA-ECO Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). LBA-ECO LC-09 Land Cover Transitions Maps for Study Sites in Para, Brazil: 1970-2001 . Data set prepared by E.S. Brondizio and E.F. Moran. This data set includes classified land cover transition maps at 30-m resolution derived from Landsat TM, MSS, ETM+ imagery and aerial photos of Altamira, Santarem, and Ponta de Pedras, in the state of Para, Brazil. The Landsat images were classified into several types of land use and subjected to change detection analysis to create transition matrices of land cover change. LBA-ECO LC-22 Post-deforestation Land Use, Mato Grosso, Brazil:

255

SAFARI 2000 Data Sets Available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data Sets Available Data Sets Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of four data sets for the SAFARI 2000 project. Two data sets, "SAFARI 2000 TOMS Tropospheric Ozone Data, Southern Africa Subset, Dry Season 2000" and "SAFARI 2000 TOMS Aerosol Index Data, Southern Africa, Dry Season 2000," contain ozone and aerosol data from the Earth Probe (EP) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the time period August-September 2000. The data set "SAFARI 2000 AVHRR Daily Site (1.5 km) and 15-Day Regional (1.5- and 6-km) Imagery" contains remotely sensed satellite data products at the site and regional level provided by the Global Inventory Mapping and Modeling (GIMMS) group at NASA/GSFC. These Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data contain site extracts of SAFARI core sites (Mongu,

256

RMOTC - Field Information - Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data sets Data sets The U.S. Department of Energy has made its RMOTC data sets available on CD-ROM for use in scientific research, testing, demonstration, and training. Non-proprietary seismic, well log, core, and GIS data are available at no charge with some restrictions (see Terms of Use). Contact Us to request a copy of any or all of the data sets. Well Log Data Log Curve LAS Files (900 wells) Teapot Dome Well Headers (1,300 wells) Directional Surveys Formation Log Tops & Formation Codes Key Teapot Dome Base Map NPR-3 Type Log Teapot Dome Geologic Column RMOTC Well Log Data Set, CD Image Core Data Tensleep Formation, 300 ft core Core Pore/Perm Analysis LAS Files FMI Log Mud Log Core Descriptions Core Photos RMOTC Core Data, CD Image Seismic Data 2D Seismic Data 3D Seismic Data (SEGY)

257

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

258

Counterexamples to Cantorian Set Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides some counterexamples to Cantor's contributions to the foundations of Set Theory. The first counterexample forces Cantor's Diagonal Method (DM) to yield one of the numbers in the target list. To study this anomaly, and given that for the DM to work the list of numbers have to be written down, the set of numbers that can be represented using positional fractional notation, $\\mathbb{W}$, is properly characterized. It is then shown that $\\mathbb{W}$ is not isomorphic to $\\mathbb{R}$, meaning that results obtained from the application of the DM to $\\mathbb{W}$ in order to derive properties of $\\mathbb{R}$ are not valid. It is then shown that Cantor's DM for a generic list of reals can be forced to yield one of the numbers of the list, thus invalidating Cantor's result that infers the non-denumerability of $\\mathbb{R}$ from the application of the DM to $\\mathbb{W}$. Cantor's Theorem about the different cardinalities of a set and its power set is then questioned, and by means of another counterexample we show that the theorem does not actually hold for infinite sets. After analyzing all these results, it is shown that the current notion of cardinality for infinite sets does not depend on the size of the sets, but rather on the representation chosen for them. Following this line of thought, the concept of model as a framework for the construction of the representation of a set is introduced, and a theorem showing that an infinite set can be well-ordered if there is a proper model for it is proven. To reiterate that the cardinality of a set does not determine whether the set can be well-ordered, a set of cardinality $\\aleph_{0}^{\\aleph_{0}}$ is proven to be equipollent to the set of natural numbers $\\mathbb{N}$. The paper concludes with an analysis of the cardinality of the ordinal numbers, for which a representation of cardinality $\\aleph_{0}^{\\aleph_{0}}$ is proposed.

Enrique Coiras

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

259

Quantum Chemistry at Finite Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we present emerging fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. We discuss its recent developments on both experimental and theoretical fronts. First, we describe several experimental investigations related to the temperature effects on the structures, electronic spectra, or bond rupture forces for molecules. These include the analysis of the temperature impact on the pathway shifts for the protein unfolding by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of electrons in solvents, and the temperature influence over the intermolecular forces measured by the AFM. On the theoretical side, we review advancements made by the author in the coming fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. Starting from the Bloch equation, we have derived the sets of hierarchy equations for the reduced density operators in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. They provide a law according to which the reduced density operators vary in temperature for the identical and interacting many-body systems. By taking the independent particle approximation, we have solved the equations in the case of a grand canonical ensemble, and obtained an energy eigenequation for the molecular orbitals at finite temperature. The explicit expression for the temperature-dependent Fock operator is also given. They form a mathematical foundation for the examination of the molecular electronic structures and their interplay with finite temperature. Moreover, we clarify the physics concerning the temperature effects on the electronic structures or processes of the molecules, which is crucial for both theoretical understanding and computation. Finally, ....

Liqiang Wei

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Measurement of wind set-up on an open coast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 48 iii FIGURES 1 Caplen Pier 16 2 Measuring Circuit 17 3 Stillwell Installation 20 4 Onshore Synchro 24 5 Offshore Synchro and Water Level Recorder 24 6 Differential Generator 25 7 Sample Record of Wind, Wind Set-Up, and 39... maximum float lag error of approximately .02 inches. This error, recorded in water stage measurements, will be found in both the inshore and offshore wells; hence, it is absent in set-up measurements, provided the float in the inshore well is 21 also...

Clayton, William Howard

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Radiation Effects on Metastable States of Superheated Water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Radiation Effects on Metastable States of Superheated Water covers theory, application, and experimentation into the behavior of water at temperatures above the boiling point. The (more)

Alvord, Charles William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for Magnesite Formation at Low Temperatures. Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for...

263

Enhancement of photosynthetic performance, water use efficiency and grain yield during long-term growth under elevated CO2 in wheat and rye is growth temperature and cultivar dependent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of long-term elevated CO2 on photosynthetic performance of winter (cv Musketeer) and spring (cv SR4A) rye (Secale cereale) and winter (cv Norstar) and spring (cv Katepwa) wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown at either 20/16C (non-acclimated (NA)) or 5/5C (cold acclimated (CA) and at either ambient (380?molCmol?1) or elevated (700?molCmol?1) CO2 were studied. Compared to NA counterparts, CA winter cereals exhibited a 3040% increase in light and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthesis at both ambient and elevated CO2. This was accompanied by a 3550% decrease in excitation pressure and non-photochemical energy dissipation. Concomitantly, biomass increased by 2846% and grain yield per plant by 60%. In contrast, both CA spring cultivars exhibited a 4560% inhibition of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthesis at ambient CO2 as well as growth at elevated CO2 relative to NA controls. This inhibition was specific for photosynthesis since cold acclimation stimulated rates of respiration by 2247% in all cultivars tested. This was accompanied by a 58% increase in excitation pressure and a 17% increase in non-photochemical energy dissipation in the cold acclimated spring rye and spring wheat. Consequently, biomass accumulation was reduced by about 25% in CA versus NA spring cultivars at elevated CO2. We conclude that the potential for enhancement of photosynthetic performance, water use efficiency and grain yield of cereals grown at elevated CO2 is both growth temperature and cultivar dependent.

Keshav Dahal; Vicki L. Knowles; William C. Plaxton; Norman P.A. Hner

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

SAFARI 2000 Data Set Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Set Released Set Released The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "SAFARI 2000 MISR Level 2 Data, Southern Africa, Dry Season 2000". This data set is a product of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative containing 240 HDF-EOS formatted MISR Level 2 Top-of-Atmosphere/Cloud and Aerosol/Surface Products focused in a southern African study area which includes: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The MISR Level 2 Products are geophysical measurements derived from the Level 1B2 data which consists of parameters that have been geometrically corrected and projected to a standard map grid. The products are in swaths, each derived from a single MISR orbit, where the imagery is 360 km wide and

265

Southern African Data Sets Available  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

thirteen new Southern African data thirteen new Southern African data sets. Originally offered on the second CD-ROM volume prepared for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) by the Goddard Space Flight Center, these data sets contain meteorological, aerosol, atmospheric chemistry, and precipitation data. In addition, this data release includes a new data set that compares Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire data from the dry season 2001. The SAFARI 2000 project was conducted during 1999-2001 to develop a better understanding of the earth-atmosphere-human system in southern Africa. These data sets focus primarily on the 2000 dry season— and September— the southern African region, defined as latitude 5° N to 35° S and

266

1998 Priority Setting | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Setting 1998 Priority Setting Draft of the 1998 Priority Setting for Standards and Test Procedure Rulemakings, June 27, 1997 prioritysettingfy98.pdf More Documents &...

267

Desalination of brackish waters using ion-exchange media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of around 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x}+2yAl{sub x}Si{sub 1}-xO{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of around to 2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = similar to 11 000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

Pless, J.D.; Philips, M.L.F.; Voigt, J.A.; Moore, D.; Axness, M.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Nenoff, T.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

268

Desalination of brackish waters using ion exchange media.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An environmentally friendly method and materials study for desalinating inland brackish waters (i.e., coal bed methane produced waters) using a set of ion-exchange materials is presented. This desalination process effectively removes anions and cations in separate steps with minimal caustic waste generation. The anion-exchange material, hydrotalcite (HTC), exhibits an ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of {approx} 3 mequiv g{sup -1}. The cation-exchange material, an amorphous aluminosilicate permutite-like material, (Na{sub x+2y}Al{sub x}Si{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}), has an IEC of {approx}2.5 mequiv g{sup -1}. These ion-exchange materials were studied and optimized because of their specific ion-exchange capacity for the ions of interest and their ability to function in the temperature and pH regions necessary for cost and energy effectiveness. Room temperature, minimum pressure column studies (once-pass through) on simulant brackish water (total dissolved solids (TDS) = 2222 ppm) resulted in water containing TDS = 25 ppm. A second once-pass through column study on actual produced water (TDS = {approx}11,000) with a high carbonate concentration used an additional lime softening step and resulted in a decreased TDS of 600 ppm.

Pless, Jason D.; Krumhansl, James Lee; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Voigt, James A.; Phillips, Mark L. F.; Axness, Marlene; Moore, Diana Lynn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A Rough Set Paradigm for Unifying Rough Set Theory and Fuzzy Set Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this plenary address, we would like to discuss rough inclusions defined in Rough Mereology, a joint idea with A. ... , as a basis for common models for rough as well as fuzzy set theories. We would like to jus...

Lech Polkowski

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Better Plants Water Pilot- Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy (DOE) is expanding the Better Buildings Challenge to help partners demonstrate successful approaches to saving water and decrease their utility bills. The commercial and industrial sectors account for more than 25 percent of the withdrawals from public water supplies and many organizations in these sectors may have savings opportunities of 20 to 40%. The efficient use of water resources results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. Additionally, because energy is required to transport and treat water, saving water also saves energy. Through this pilot, DOE will work with a small, diverse group of Better Buildings Challenge Partners to expand their resource management strategies to include water in addition to energy, set water savings goals, track progress and showcase solutions.

271

Influence of temperature on the luminescence spectrum of  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An investigation was made of the influence of temperature on the luminescence spectrum of blue-green single-cell algae in water. It was found that the relative intensity of the maxima changed by 30% when temperature was increased from 0 to 23 C. This dependence could be used for remote determination of the temperature of water.

F V Bunkin; D V Vlasov; L M Gerasimenko; V P Slobodyanin

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

A thermoacoustic oscillator powered by vaporized water and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We measure the temperature difference required to drive a thermoacoustic oscillator containing air water vapor and liquid water as the working fluids. The oscillator is composed of a large tube containing an array of narrow tubes connected at one end to a tank of liquid water. When the water is heated the temperature difference across the tube array increases until thermoacoustic oscillations occur. The temperature difference at the onset of oscillation is measured to be 56 ? C significantly smaller (by ? 200 ? C ) than the temperature measured when the tank is filled with dry air instead of water. The temperature difference can be further reduced to 47 ? C by using ethanol instead of water.

Daisuke Noda; Yuki Ueda

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Beamline Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Temperatures Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 493.2242 mA Date: 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 493.2 mA 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 LN:MainTankLevel 124.4 in LN:MainTankPress 56.9 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 15.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.2 l/min BL 4 BL02:LCW 0.0 ℃ BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 47.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA -167.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalB -172.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalA -177.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalB -175.0 ℃ BL 4-2 BL04-2:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom1 24.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom2 25.0 ℃

274

Finding the Influence Set through Skylines Xiaobing Wu1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sha Tin, New Territories, Hong Kong Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong ABSTRACT Given a set P of products power. Motivated by this, we propose a new algorithm called BRS, and prove that BRS never entails more I applications require the skyline of a dataset dynami- cally generated based on a given query. Consider a car

Wu, Dekai

275

Air separation with temperature and pressure swing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Surface Water Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Surface Water Sampling Surface Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Surface Water Sampling Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Water Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Water composition and source of fluids Thermal: Water temperature Dictionary.png Surface Water Sampling: Water sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Surface water sampling of hot and cold spring discharges has traditionally

277

ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

surface temperature surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation

278

Graph Algorithms Special Sets in Graphs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

{u e}. Graph Algorithms 8 #12;Example: A Vertex Cover Set Graph Algorithms 9 #12;Example: A Minimum Size Vertex Cover Set Graph Algorithms 10 #12;A Clique A set of vertices for which all possible edges * * * * * Graph Algorithms 20 #12;Independent Sets and Vertex Cover Sets Observation: I is an independent set

Bar-Noy, Amotz

279

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

280

Answer Sets and Qualitative Optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......difficulties to decide whether they prefer wine or beer for dinner, yet will be reluctant...between answer sets which are of the same quality according to more preferred rules. The...qualitative optimization will greatly increase the impact of ASP on AI and computer science......

Gerhard Brewka

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, water electrolysis technology and its applications for nuclear hydrogen ... of the chapter, a general classification of water electrolysis systems is given, the fundamentals of water electrolysis

Greg F. Naterer; Ibrahim Dincer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep Convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project are analyzed in the vicinity of deep convective outflow to study the variationsInfluence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep upper-tropospheric temperature and humidity by the Mea- surement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In

Johnson, Richard H.

284

Impact of externally forced changes on temperature extremes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigates changes in temperature extremes between 1950-2005, analysing gridded data sets of observations and climate model simulations. It focuses on changes in the (more)

Morak, Simone

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

286

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Reclamation Rural Water Act 56th Annual NM Water Conf., New Water New Energy: A Conference Linking Desalination and Renewable Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Desalination and Renewable Energy 71 Reclamation Rural Water Act: Southwestern Navajo Rural Water Supply researching new techniques for using renewable energy for desalination in an off grid setting. Kevin Black SrReclamation Rural Water Act 56th Annual NM Water Conf., New Water New Energy: A Conference Linking

Johnson, Eric E.

288

Global land and water grabbing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...water grabbing enhance food and energy availability in the grabbing...until recently) for food (and energy) production...identified using the agro-economical zoning (AEZ) system (33...temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed were taken...

Maria Cristina Rulli; Antonio Saviori; Paolo DOdorico

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Wavelet Based Density Estimators for Modeling Multidimensional Data Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the distribution of this random variable. We exhibit an estimator for the wavelet coe?cients of this density and ionospheric data. After three levels of o#11;-line pre-processing, observations of temperature, water vapor agreement nr. F30602-99-1-0524, and unrestricted cash/equipment gifts from NCR, IBM, Intel and SUN. #12; 1

Shahabi, Cyrus

291

CDIAC Atmospheric Pressure Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Pressure CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Pressure Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 1 (CDIAC NDP-041) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; through 1990 Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of sea-level pressure Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN); Vs. 2 (Note: the above link takes you to NOAA's National Climatic Data Center website.) R.S. Vose et al. Surface stations; monthly mean sea-level pressure Varies by station; some through most recent month

292

Priority Setting in Public Health  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The key drivers of population health lie outside the health sector. However, decision makers outside the health sector are primarily interested in delivering sector specific outputs other than health. Economic approaches to priority setting can help align sectors to consider the intersectoral impacts of decisions within an integrated societal framework. First, economic evaluation can explicitly identify and measure all impacts including health and value them as inputs into overall social welfare. Second, priority setting tools such as program budgeting marginal analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis can then be used to help translate evidence into policy, where the full consequences of decisions are considered and the overall aim is to improve social welfare.

K. Lawson; H. Mason; E. McIntosh; C. Donaldson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Modeling a set of heavy oil aqueous pyrolysis experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous pyrolysis experiments, aimed at mild upgrading of heavy oil, were analyzed using various computer models. The primary focus of the analysis was the pressure history of the closed autoclave reactors obtained during the heating of the autoclave to desired reaction temperatures. The models used included a means of estimating nonideal behavior of primary components with regard to vapor liquid equilibrium. The modeling indicated that to match measured autoclave pressures, which often were well below the vapor pressure of water at a given temperature, it was necessary to incorporate water solubility in the oil phase and an activity model for the water in the oil phase which reduced its fugacity below that of pure water. Analysis also indicated that the mild to moderate upgrading of the oil which occurred in experiments that reached 400{degrees}C or more using a FE(III) 2-ethylhexanoate could be reasonably well characterized by a simple first order rate constant of 1.7xl0{sup 8} exp(-20000/T)s{sup {minus}l}. Both gas production and API gravity increase were characterized by this rate constant. Models were able to match the complete pressure history of the autoclave experiments fairly well with relatively simple equilibria models. However, a consistent lower than measured buildup in pressure at peak temperatures was noted in the model calculations. This phenomena was tentatively attributed to an increase in the amount of water entering the vapor phase caused by a change in its activity in the oil phase.

Thorsness, C.B.; Reynolds, J.G.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Set-Aside (EDSA) (Iowa) Set-Aside (EDSA) (Iowa) Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info Funding Source Job Creation, Retention and Enhancement Fund State Iowa Program Type Industry Recruitment/Support Provider Iowa Economic Development Authority The Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) program provides financial assistance to those businesses and industries requiring such assistance in order to create new job opportunities. Assistance is provided to encourage

295

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Enhancement of 3-Way CNG Catalyst Performance at High Temperature Due to the Presence of Water in the Feed: On the Role of Steam Reforming of Methane and on the Influence of Ageing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reaction mechanism of typical 3-way catalysts (TWC) has been already deeply studied. However, fewer efforts have been made to understand TWC compressed natural gas applications. Thus, the role of water in ...

Marc Salan; Sandra Capela; Stphanie Da Costa; Laurent Gagnepain

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Chapter 2 - Water Electrolysis Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different water electrolysis technologies. In the introduction section, the general characteristics of water electrolysis (thermodynamics, kinetics, efficiency) are described. Main electrolysis technologies used to produce hydrogen and oxygen of electrolytic grade are then described in the following sections. Alkaline water electrolysis is described in Section 2.2, proton-exchange membrane water electrolysis in Section 2.3 and high-temperature water electrolysis in Section 2.4. For each technology, state-of-the-art performances are analyzed, limitations are identified and some perspectives are discussed.

Pierre Millet; Sergey Grigoriev

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Empirical modeling of summer lake surface temperatures in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The model approximates the slow integrated response of water temperature to meteorological forcing by applying an exponential smoothing filter to air...

299

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

300

Project Profile: High-Temperature Solar Selective Coating Development...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

water droplets falling on a flat, dust-covered surface. The research team is exploring materials with high melting temperatures, intrinsic oxidation resistance, high thermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Nutrient and temperature control of the contribution of picoplankton ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

temperature control (adjusted to the in situ water tempera- ture). After 3 h of ..... at which molecular diffusion can supply nutrients to the cell surface (Munk and...

2000-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

302

TOPOLOGICAL AND FUZZY ROUGH SETS Department of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOPOLOGICAL AND FUZZY ROUGH SETS T. Y. Lin Department of Mathematics and Computer Science San Jose is studied via rough sets, fuzzy sets and topological spaces (more precisely, Frechet spaces). Rough set a knowledge base [1](pp. 14). Pawlak's rough set theory can be viewed as a study of concepts or knowledge via

Lin, Tsau Young

303

World's Largest Laser Sets New Records | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

World's Largest Laser Sets New Records World's Largest Laser Sets New Records World's Largest Laser Sets New Records November 10, 2010 - 6:26pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? The National Ignition Facility in California fired a shot of 300 trillion neutrons -- one step closer to the amount of neutrons needed to reach fusion ignition. Scientists also used the laser to create a temperature of six million degrees Fahernheit. The world's largest laser, located at the National Ignition Facility (or NIF) in California, set new records on October 31 and November 2. Specifically, on October 31 the NIF laser fired a shot of 300 trillion neutrons, the most neutrons ever yielded by a laser to date, and one step closer to the amount of neutrons (about 10 to the 18th power) needed to

304

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Constrained water cloud generator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fast generation of large cloudy volumes with imposed cloud cover fractions and ambient vertical profiles is very important for the realistic simulation of atmospheric scenes. The model proposed here is the second step of a two-step model composed on the one hand of a volume generator based on a Fourier filtering method and on the other hand of a physical generator filling the volume with physical parameters. After a description of the general generation scheme, this paper focuses on the simulation of vertical profiles of water content (liquid, vapour) coupled with other state parameters (temperature, pressure, vertical velocity) via thermodynamic and hydrodynamic equations by local forcing of ambient conditions. The method for solving these equations is explained and applied to practical cases. First, by assuming that the actual temperature at the cloud base is equal to the dew temperature and by imposing a moist pseudo-adiabatic temperature gradient between the cloud top and bottom, the temperature profile in the cloud is found. When conditional instability occurs, the initial temperature profile between the ground and the cloud base is iteratively shifted to lower values until absolute stability is reached. Then the liquid water content is calculated by integrating the equation of water conservation, and the water vapour content by assuming that the cloud is everywhere saturated. Eventually, the vertical velocity is estimated by integration of the momentum equation. This method gives results in good agreement with published measurements, analytical and numerical models. Eventually, further developments of the column model, including the effects of phase transitions, turbulence, horizontal motions and mixing with the surrounding medium, are proposed in the concluding section.

Roland P.H. Berton

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSea surface temperature govMeasurementsSea surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data Field Campaign Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai

307

Analysis of field-test data from domestic solar-water heaters in the southern United States, period through September 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The monitored performance data used here was gathered from 137 solar water heaters. All but 51 are located in Florida. The gathered data accumulated from weekly mailers consists of the following measurements: total gallons of hot water consumed; total kWh of electricity used; total hours the circulating pump operated; hot and cold water temperatures at the top; number of household members at home since last reading; tank thermostat setting and any changes to it; total number of hours that the tank's backup heating element had power available; and problems or comments concerning system operational status or component reliability and maintenance. The data analysis is described and results are presented. (MHR)

Jones, W.M.; Fenner, M.F.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Rough Set Approach to KDD (Extended Abstract)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This tutorial is a survey on rough set theory and some of its applications in ... to analysis of different real life problems using rough set methods as well as the presentation of Rough Set Exploration System (R...

Hung Son Nguyen; Andrzej Skowron

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Rough Sets in Economy and Finance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Rough Set Theory makes it possible to represent and ... of the currently available literature covering applications of rough sets in the economy and finance. The classical rough set model and its important ex...

Mariusz Podsiad?o; Henryk Rybi?ski

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Rough Approximate Operators: Axiomatic Rough Set Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In rough set theory, the upper and lower approximations are ... are two abstract operators acting on the power set of U, the universe of discourse. ... The proof is an easy application of point set topology. Simi...

T. Y. Lin; Qing Liu

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Multi topological approximations of rough set theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we generalise Pawlak's approximation spaces to topological approximation spaces. These topological approximation spaces are generated using many topological notions such as regular open sets, semi-open sets, pre-open sets, ?-open sets, ?-open sets and ?-open sets and others. The basic definitions and properties of these topological approximation spaces are introduced and sufficiently illustrated. We put all topological generalisations in one generalisation called m-generalisation spaces.

A.S. Salama; O.G. El-Barbary

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7.5{angstrom} and 5.5{angstrom} to give two different time resolutions. All the spectra have been measure at room temperature. The spectra were corrected for the sample holder contribution and normalized using the vanadium standard. The resulting data were analyzed with DAVE programs (http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/). The AMBER force field and SPCE water model were used for modeling the NALMA solute and water, respectively. For the analysis of the water dynamics in the NALMA aqueous solutions, we performed simulations of a dispersed solute configuration consistent with our previous structural analysis, where we had primarily focused on the structural organization of these peptide solutions and their connection to protein folding. Further details of the QENS experiment and molecular dynamics simulations are reported elsewhere.

Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ecotourism and Certification: Setting Standards in Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: Ecotourism and Certification: Setting Standards inMartha Honey (Ed. ). Ecotourism and Certification: SettingAlkaline paper. Tourism and ecotourism are growing rapidly,

Hook, Robert D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tight extended formulations for independent set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

maximal independent sets, not only does its independent set polytope admit a compact ..... In Fundamentals of Computation Theory, pages 298309. Springer,.

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

316

Effect of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic distribution in the hydrocarbon mixture and water on the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon systems over the temperature range from 333 K to 366 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide flooding has been suggested as an efficient and effective means of achieving additional oil recoveries from depleted and/or water flooded reservoirs. The numerical simulation of a carbon dioxide flood requires a phase equilibria predictor that will provide the compositional distribution of the reservoir fluids as the displacement propagates through the reservoir. The objective of this work was to provide a phase equilibria predictor that utilizes the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A new PUT apparatus was constructed. This apparatus was used to measure the isothermal P-x data of the systems: CO/sub 2/-toluene, CO/sub 2/-ethylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-propylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-cyclopentane, CO/sub 2/-cyclohexane and CO/sub 2/-methylcyclohexane at 333.15 K, 349.82 K and 366.48 K. Interaction parameters were regressed from literature data for CO/sub 2/-paraffin systems and from the experimental data of this work for CO/sub 2/-aromatic and CO/sub 2/-naphthenic systems. Recommended interaction parameters for these systems are provided. Experimental results indicated that the dominant effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems was the solubilization of carbon dioxide by water into the aqueous phase. This concept was simulated with the SRK equation of state and a correlation of literature data on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. The predicted results agreed well with the experimental results. The presence of dissolved salts in water mitigates the effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems. The presence on n-butylbenzene or n-butylcylcohexane in the heavy ends with n-decane improved the maximum miscibility composition of the system. Pressure has a substantial effect on maximum miscibility compositions.

Ezekwe, J.N.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Water Quality Modeling Hydraulics and Hydrology Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ­ Streamflows ­ Lake basin ­ Meteorology (wind/sun/precip...) · Outputs: ­ Vertical Temperature distribution ­ E. Coli · Temperature changes ­ Long term and short term · Lake circulation ­ Lake circulation ­ Outputs: · Oxygen distribution in water column · Nutrient distribution in water column (N

318

Respiration, temperature regulation and energetics of thermogenic inflorescences of the dragon lily Dracunculus vulgaris (Araceae)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...native geographical distribution (Piccioli, cited...measured oral temperatures and rates of oxygen...the chamber. Temperatures in the middle...heating by the sun. In a separate set of experiments, temperature regulation in...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 200 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

320

Rough Fuzzy Set Model for Set-Valued Ordered Fuzzy Decision System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The classical rough set theory can not be directly used to reduce knowledge in set-valued ordered fuzzy decision system. Firstly, we propose a dominance relation-based rough fuzzy set model in set-valued ordered ...

Zhongkui Bao; Shanlin Yang; Ju Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Locating and total dominating sets in trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A set S of vertices in a graph G = ( V , E ) is a total dominating set of G if every vertex of V is adjacent to a vertex in S. We consider total dominating sets of minimum cardinality which have the additional property that distinct vertices of V are totally dominated by distinct subsets of the total dominating set.

Teresa W. Haynes; Michael A. Henning; Jamie Howard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis Y.Y. Yao, Yaohua Chen Department of Computer}@cs.uregina.ca Abstract-- An important topic of rough set theory is the approximation of undefinable sets or concepts of approximation operators. In this paper, the notion of rough set approximations is introduced into formal concept

Yao, Yiyu

323

Vaguely Quantified Rough Sets Chris Cornelis1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vaguely Quantified Rough Sets Chris Cornelis1 , Martine De Cock1 , and Anna Maria Radzikowska2 1@mini.pw.edu.pl Abstract. The hybridization of rough sets and fuzzy sets has focused on creating an end product they allow for gradual membership, fuzzy rough sets are still abrupt in a sense that adding or omitting

Gent, Universiteit

324

Intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets: at the cross-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F Intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets: at the cross- roads of imperfect: Just like rough set theory, fuzzy set theory addresses the topic of dealing with imperfect knowledge tentative definitions of the concept of an `intuitionistic fuzzy rough set' that were raised in their wake

Gent, Universiteit

325

On Generalized Rough Sets (extended abstract)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Generalized Rough Sets (extended abstract) Anita Wasilewska Department of Computer Science State Rough Sets The idea of rough set was proposed by Pawlak in 1982 [10]. The starting point of the rough a rough set. The lower and upper approximations treated as one argument operations R and R in the ap

Vigneron, Laurent

326

The Rough Set Engine GROBIAN Ivo Dntsch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Rough Set Engine GROBIAN Ivo Düntsch School of Information and Software Engineering University semantische Informationsverarbeitung Universität Osnabrück Abstract Rough set analysis is a non rough set data analysis. In addition to the "traditional" procedures of rough set analysis

Düntsch, Ivo

327

A logic for rough sets Ivo Dntsch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A logic for rough sets Ivo Düntsch School of Information and Software Engineering, University of a set forms a Boolean algebra under the usual set theoretic operations, while the collection of rough that regular double Stone algebras are a class of algebras appropriate for a logic of rough sets. Using

Düntsch, Ivo

328

Textures and covering based rough sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper introduces the relations between covering and dicovering in the framework of rough sets. The natural counterpart of a covering in textures is given by a family of pairs of sets which is called a dicovering. This leads us to two dual concepts ... Keywords: Covering based approximation operators, Dicovering, Rough set, Textural rough set, Texture space

Murat Diker; Ay?egl Altay U?ur

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

What's In My Water?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for long-term use; some precious stones of cancer and damage to exchange, reverse osmosis, 0.5 ppm for short-term use. such as emeralds and bones and lungs. distillation or electrodialysis. Livestock: Current limit not established. aquamarine. Found... from refineries system disorders. or electrodialysis. Water Standards have been set for other or runoff from landfills HgCl 3 - :Anion exchange, forms of mercury (HgCl 3 - or organic and croplands. reverse osmosis, distillation or mercury complexes...

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

330

FEMP--Solar Water Heating  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- nesses in the United States are using the sun to heat domestic water efficiently in almost any climate. In summer, a solar system properly sized for a resi- dential building can meet 100% of the building's water-heating needs in most parts of the country. In winter, the system might meet only half of this need, so another source of heat is used to back up the solar system. In either case, solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector-the device that actually captures the sun's energy.

331

A Comparative Study of Fuzzy Sets and Rough Sets Department of Computer Science, Lakehead University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Comparative Study of Fuzzy Sets and Rough Sets Y.Y. Yao 1 Department of Computer Science and compares theories of fuzzy sets and rough sets. Two approaches for the formulation of fuzzy sets are reviewed, one is based on many-valued logic and the other is based on modal logic. Two views of rough sets

Yao, Yiyu

332

Solid state differential temperature regulator for a solar heating system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A solid state temperature regulator is provided for a solar heating system for use in conjunction with a swimming pool, or the like. The solar swimming pool heating system includes the usual components, namely, a pump, a filter, and a collector, and in which the pump serves to circulate the water from the pool through the filter and collector and back into the pool. The system also includes additional components, namely, temperature sensors for the collector and for the circulated pool water, appropriate valves, and a solid state control circuit. The solid state control circuit responds to predetermined temperature differences sensed by the sensors to cause the pool water to be circulated through the collector so long as the collector is at a higher temperature than the circulated pool water, and which causes the circulated pool water to by-pass the collector when the temperature of the collector drops below the temperature of the circulated pool water. The control circuit also has a high temperature cut-off control which activates the valves to cause the circulated pool water to by-pass the collector when the temperature of the circulated pool water exceeds a particular threshold. The control circuit also includes a mode switch which may be actuated to reverse the action of the system, causing the pool water to be circulated through the collector when the collector temperature is lower than the pool water temperature, for example, at night following a hot day, in which the collector radiates to the black sky, whereby the collector can be used to cool the water in the pool.

Firebaugh, D.C.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Temporary Waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temporary waters are lakes, ponds, streams, seeps, microhabitats, and other areas that hold water periodically and then dry. They occur across the globe, at all latitudes, and in all biomes, wherever water can collect long enough for aquatic life to develop. These waters are numerous, mostly small, and easily studied. Their biological communities are diverse, have much among-site variation, often include endemic species, and differ from those in permanent waters, contributing to regional biodiversity. Organisms survive through species-specific behavioral, physiological, and life-history adaptations. Community composition and structure change in response to environmental variations. Temporary waters are highly productive and their food webs are relatively simple. For all of these reasons, temporary waters lend themselves to surveys and experimental manipulations designed to test hypotheses about biological adaptation, population regulation, evolutionary processes, community composition and structure, and ecosystem functioning. In many parts of the world, most temporary waters have been lost. The conservation and restoration of vulnerable temporary waters is a major thrust of applied ecology. Also important are applications of ecological understanding to the control of disease vectors, especially pathogen-transmitting mosquitoes, from temporary water habitats. This article describes temporary waters, examines their biota and adaptations, and summarizes key questions about their ecology.

E.A. Colburn

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water Bugs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

335

Simulation of a temperature adaptive control strategy for an IWSE economizer in a data center  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, with the constant evolution of Information Technology (IT) equipments, the energy consumption of data center over the world becomes a major concern. In 2011 the ASHRAE Technical committee 9.9 (TC9.9) issued important guidelines concerning server temperature and hygrometric environment to help engineer in the design of cooling solutions. While raising the temperature may be a source of heat pump energy savings, it induces an increase in the Computer Room Air Handling (CRAH) unit energy requirement, lowering the benefits. Hence optimal temperature cooling set point must be found to maximise the efficiency of the cooling plant. To test various chiller control strategy a full scale model is proposed. A 32kW data center is considered, cooled by a centrifugal heat pump linked to a wet cooling tower. An Integrated Water Side Economizer (IWSE) is added to minimize the energy consumption the regulation and the chilled air production is simulated with the software TRNSYS. The temperature field in the server room is calculated with the CFD code Thetis. To create a link between the 2 simulation environments, a Reduced Order Model (ROM) using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is program with MATLAB. Finally this numerical model is used to investigate the effect of server room temperature increase on the cooling plant energy consumption. A new Temperature Adaptive Control Strategy (TACS) that minimizes the energy need is proposed and tested.

Baptiste Durand-Estebe; Cdric Le Bot; Jean Nicolas Mancos; Eric Arquis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

Ciovati, Gianluigi

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereís an untapped market using resources right under our feet,î the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

338

Temperature dependence of the lower critical field and strong pinning in high-temperature superconductors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show, within the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory, that both the conventional and the anomalous temperature dependence of the lower critical field observed in high-temperature superconductors may result from the flux penetration through a set of separated microdefects. Microdefects modeled by normal layers with proximity-induced superconductivity can produce drastic enhancement of the lower critical field at low temperatures and can provide strong-pinning centers. The pinning interaction between an isolated vortex and the normal layer is primarily magnetic at high temperatures. At low temperatures, magnetic interaction is reduced, due to the increase of the normal-layer coherence length.

Dragomir Davidovi? and Ljiljana Dobrosavljevi?-Gruji?

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

water pipeline gallery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

water pipeline gallery, water pipeline drift; water pipeline tunnel (US) ? Wasserleitungsrohrstollen m

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Comparison of Particle Level Set and CLSVOF Methods for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are applied to simulate a water drop impact onto a liquid pool, and wave breakings over a submerged bump which-of-fluid method, have been implemented with the aim at improving the mass conservation property of the level set phenomena in ship hydrodynamics which include complex air/water interactions, such as breaking waves

Yang, Jianming

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

342

Advances in water electrolysis technology with emphasis on use of the solid polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efforts to improve water electrolysis technology are being made using three promising ... ) development of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysers, (b) increasing the operating temperature of alkaline...

P. W. T. Lu; S. Srinivasan

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger was configured to use higher temperature water produced by a cooling tower alone. The other coilLBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger-temperature cooling water, so that it can support many more hours of free cooling compared to traditional systems

344

Reusing Water  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

345

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.3 Integration with the Avoided Costconsistency with the Avoided Cost model. 4. Provide a set ofWater Utility Direct Avoided Costs from Water Use E?ciency,

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Colorado Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Colorado Water Quality Control ActLegal Abstract Statute setting forth laws for water quality control...

347

New and Underutilized Technology: Wireless Temperature Sensors | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Wireless Temperature Sensors Wireless Temperature Sensors New and Underutilized Technology: Wireless Temperature Sensors October 4, 2013 - 4:45pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for wireless temperature sensors within the Federal sector. Benefits Wireless thermostats are connected into a building automation system. Ease of adding temperature sensors in more zones allows for greater spatial resolution of zone temperatures, increasing confidence in control improvements through thermostat reset. Application Wireless temperature settings are applicable in most building categories. Key Factors for Deployment Ease of moving thermostats increases diagnostic capabilities in checking existing hard-wired thermostats. Ranking Criteria Federal energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and probability of success are

348

Experimental study on steam plume and temperature distribution for sonic steam jet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The sonic steam jet in subcooled water was investigated experimentally over a wide range of steam mass flux and water temperature conditions. Four different steam plume shapes were observed in present test conditions, and the condensation form was mainly controlled by the steam mass flux and water temperature. Moreover, the unstable jet was observed on the condition of low steam mass flux and high water temperature. The transition criterion of unstable-stable jet was also given. The temperature fields in the steam plume and in the surrounding water were measured. Axial temperature distributions represented the four typical steam plumes, and the fluctuation of axial temperature confirmed the existence of expansion and compression waves. Additionally, the radial temperature distributions were independent of water temperature for small radial distance at nozzle exit, and further the axial location was apart from the nozzle exit, longer the radial distance affected by the momentum diffusion.

Xinzhuang Wu; Junjie Yan; Wenjun Li; Dongdong Pan; Ying Li

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

350

Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency May 29, 2012 - 7:42pm Addthis Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency What does this mean for me? The temperature you keep your pool affects the pool heater size as well as your operating costs. Turn the temperature down or turn off the heater when your pool won't be used for several days. The water temperature you desire for your swimming pool not only affects the size of the pool's heater, but also your heating costs if use a gas or heat pump pool heater. Pool water temperatures typically range from 78ºF to 82ºF. The American Red Cross recommends a temperature of 78ºF for competitive swimming. This coincides with good fuel savings. However, this may be too cool for young

351

Online decision problems with large strategy sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an online decision problem, an algorithm performs a sequence of trials, each of which involves selecting one element from a fixed set of alternatives (the "strategy set") whose costs vary over time. After T trials, the ...

Kleinberg, Robert David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

A Review of Rough Set Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since introduction of the theory of rough set in early eighties, considerable work has been ... The paper provides a review of the Pawlak rough set model and its extensions, with emphasis on ... the formulation, ...

Y. Y. Yao; S. K. M. Wong; T. Y. Lin

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

SetSolar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SetSolar Jump to: navigation, search Name: SetSolar Place: Cape Town, South Africa Zip: 7460 Sector: Solar Product: South African company that specialises in the manufacture of PV...

354

Comparison of Rough-set and Interval-set Models for Uncertain Reasoning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of Rough-set and Interval-set Models for Uncertain Reasoning Y.Y. Yao and Xining Li Department of Computer Science Lakehead University Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1 Abstract In the rough-set of their extended set-theoretic operators. The operators in the rough-set model are not truth-functional, while

Yao, Yiyu

355

Visualising associations between paired omics data sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three accessible visualization approaches enable meaningful biological hypotheses to be derived from high-throughput "omics" data sets.

Ignacio Gonzlez; Kim-Anh L Cao; Melissa J Davis; Sbastien Djean

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

356

Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

358

Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and double differential cross sections at 232 meV at various angles with the available experimental data (at room temperature), and then extrapolate the calculations to lower temperatures (77K and 4K). The new temperature dependent scattering kernel gives a good quantitative fit to the available room temperature data and has a temperature dependence that is qualitatively consistent with thermodynamics.

Roger E. Hill; C. -Y. Liu

2003-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

Distributed algorithms for edge dominating sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distributed algorithms for edge dominating sets Jukka Suomela Helsinki Institute for Information problem · Simple 2-approximation algorithm: find any maximal matching 5 #12;Edge dominating sets · NP dominating sets · using deterministic distributed algorithms, in the port-numbering model · But why would we

Suomela, Jukka

360

Free idempotent generated semigroups over biordered sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free idempotent generated semigroups over biordered sets Dandan Yang The University of York (Dandan Yang ) Free idempotent generated semigroups over biordered sets May 3, 2012 1 / 1 #12;Outline Free idempotent generated semigroup IG(E) over biordered set E. (Dandan Yang ) Free idempotent generated

Gould, Victoria

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A REVIEW OF ROUGH SET MODELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A REVIEW OF ROUGH SET MODELS Y.Y. Yao*, S.K.M. Wong**, and T.Y. Lin*** * Department of Computer of rough set in early eighties, considerable work has been done on the development and application of this new theory. The paper provides a review of the Pawlak rough set model and its extensions

Lin, Tsau Young

362

Rough Sets and Matroids Victor W. Marek  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Sets and Matroids Victor W. Marek Department of Computer Science, University of Kentucky of that and related facts for the development of Rough Sets theory. 1 Introduction The goal of this note is to provide a proof of the recent statement by Liu and Zhu [2] and look at some properties of rough sets related

Marek, Victor W.

363

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rough Set Approximations in Formal Concept Analysis Yiyu Yao and Yaohua Chen Department of Computer}@cs.uregina.ca Abstract. A basic notion shared by rough set analysis and formal concept anal- ysis is the definability to each other based on defin- ability. In this paper, the notion of rough set approximations is introduced

Yao, Yiyu

364

Ordered Weighted Average Based Fuzzy Rough Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ordered Weighted Average Based Fuzzy Rough Sets Chris Cornelis 1 , Nele Verbiest1 , and Richard rough set model, which is based on a similar rationale, our proposal has the ad- vantage a feature selection application confirm the potential of the OWA-based model. Keywords: fuzzy rough sets

Gent, Universiteit

365

Random sets lotteries and decision theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We apply random sets theory to decision making under risk. This leads to a unifying concept which is compatible with some types of behavior like the Choquet Expected Utility and MaxMin Expected Utility. We show that the expected utility of a random set lottery is easy to calculate. Hence a decision making model with random sets is actually very tractable.

Marc-Arthur Diaye; Gleb Koshevoy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong A Thesis Submitted;Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong This is to certify that I have implementations on unstructured point cloud 15 3.1 Level set initialization

Duncan, James S.

367

The multiparty communication complexity of set disjointness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the set disjointness problem in the number-on-the-forehead model of multiparty communication. (i) We prove that k-party set disjointness has communication complexity Omega(n/4k)1/4 in the randomized and nondeterministic ... Keywords: circuit complexity, direct product theorems, multiparty communication complexity, set disjointness problem

Alexander A. Sherstov

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fuzzy Set Extensions of the Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rough set theory has been proposed by Pawlak in ... operates on an information table composed of a set U of objects described by a set Q of condition and decision attributes. Decision attributes make a partition ...

Salvatore Greco; Benedetto Matarazzo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Data Mining in Uniform Hospital Discharge Data Set Using Rough Set Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this study were to apply rough set model to nursing knowledge discovery process. Method: Data mining based on rough set model was conducted on a large clinical data set containing Nursing ...

M. Park

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The interaction of various polymers with water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water content. The glass transition temperature was taken as the inflection point in the heat capacity curve (Figure 3). The uncertainty in the glass points was rather high (x20'C) mainly because of the small change in heat capacities -1 (6C = . 03... water/g methylcellulose) 17 Y=. 10 Y=. 15 10 50 70 90 110 T ( c) Fig. 3. C (arbitrary units) versus temperature at two water p contents, Y, for methylcellulose. Inflection in curve is the glass transition region of the polymer-water system...

Quock, Billy

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" Average Data for Each Choke Setting (before 24-May 2010 06:00), 6-hour average (after 24-May 2010 06:00):" ,,"Choke","Average","Average","Fluid","Methanol","Water","Oil","Gas","Hyd. Eq.","Gas" ,"Choke","Setting","Upstream","Upstream","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery","Recovery" "Date and Time","Setting","Duration","Pressure","Temp.","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Rate","Portion" "dd-mmm-yy","(64ths)","(hours)","(psia)","(degF)","(bfpd)","(bfpd)","(bwpd)","(bopd)","(mmcfpd)","(boepd)","(%)"

373

Riparian areas in urban settings: two case studies from Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Riparian areas are significant ecosystems due to the numerous and substantial services they provide. These ecosystem services can range from wildlife habitat, water quality improvement, flood mitigation and recreational opportunities. Human developments, including cities and towns are frequently established in the riparian areas and degrade their functionality. Maintaining healthy riparian areas in urban settings that sustain their connectivity with the natural riparian areas should be of a great priority. Fragmented riparian areas lose many of the aforementioned ecosystem services. At the same time healthy riparian areas are aesthetically pleasing, creating a feeling of escape for the inhabitants, while also increasing the real estate value of the adjacent structures. In this study examples of healthy and degraded urban riparian areas from two Greek cities are presented. Overall, the proper restoration and sustainable management of these areas can improve the quality of life in urban settings and maintain the services they provide.

Valasia Iakovoglou; George N. Zaimes; Dimitrios Gounaridis

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................... 193 Lesson 11 Water and Pollution........................................................................................................................ 195 Activity 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere...! ............................................................................. 205 Record Sheet 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere! ..................................................................... 207 Activity 11.2, Pollution at Its Source...

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water Privatisation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zlls, Elisa

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

Computerized Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with WRAP. TWRI Technical Report 283, April 2005. This report serves as an introductory tutorial to help new users apply the model quickly for basic water availability modeling applications. ? Comparative Evaluation of Generalized Reservoir...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of ammonium sulfate fertilizer via synthetic ammonia was a national project in Japan just after World War II, and water electrolysis as the source of hydrogen was active....3 of hydrogen and 700 Nm3 of...

Fumio Hine

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Water Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal bed methane (CBM) gas recovery techniques are unique compared to other production methods. Formation water must be removed, or dewatered as it holds the methane gas in the coal seam by hydrostatic pressure...

Alireza Bahadori; Malcolm Clark; Bill Boyd

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

NPP Grassland: Tullgarnsnäset, Sweden  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tullgarnsnäset, Sweden, 1968-1969 Tullgarnsnäset, Sweden, 1968-1969 Data Citation Cite this data set as follows: Wallentinus, H. G., and G. Tyler. 1997. NPP Grassland: Tullgarnsnäset, Sweden, 1968-1969. Data set. Available on-line [http://www.daac.ornl.gov] from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A. Description Productivity of a sea-shore meadow was studied from 1968 to 1969 at Tullgarnsnäset, near Stockholm, Sweden. Measurements of above-ground live biomass and total dead matter were made approximately monthly. Below-ground biomass was measured, but data were not reported. Above-ground net primary production was estimated by several methods, including peak total live and dead, and accounting for mortality determined by several different methods.

380

Low temperature thermal treatment for petroleum refinery waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment requirements for waste sludges generated by petroleum refinery operations and designated as waste codes K048, K049, K050, K051 and K052 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) became effective in November, 1990 under the Landban regulations. An experimental program evaluated low temperature thermal treatment of filter cakes produced from these sludges using laboratory and pilot-scale equipment. One set of experiments on waste samples from two different refineries demonstrated the effective removal of organics of concern from the sludges to meet the RCRA Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) treatment standards. Cyanides were also within the acceptable limit. Combined with stabilization of heavy metals in the treatment residues, low temperature thermal treatment therefore provides an effective and efficient means of treating refinery sludges, with most hydrocarbons recovered and recycled to the refinery. A milder thermal treatment was used to remove the bulk of the water from a previously filtered waste sludge, providing effective waste minimization through a 40% decrease in the mass of sludge to be disposed. The heating value of the sludge was increased simultaneously by one-third, thereby producing a residue of greater value in an alternative fuels program. A process based on this approach was successfully designed and commercialized.

Ayen, R.J.; Swanstrom, C.P. (Geneva Research Center, IL (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.

James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISE SET #4 SCOTT MESSICK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a legal coloring if for each edge e E, |f(e)| > 1, i.e., there exist vertices u, v E such that f(u) = fSOLUTIONS TO EXERCISE SET #4 SCOTT MESSICK Exercise 4.1. (a) Define legal colorings of a hypergraph = (V, E) be a hypergraph. A coloring is a function f : V C where C is the set of "colors" (any set); f

Babai, László

383

Universal basis sets for electronic structure calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of a universal basis set for electronic structure calculations is explored by presenting energy results obtained when basis sets are transferred from one atom to another. The calculations are performed using the diagrammatic techniques of many?body perturbation theory. A single universal basis set is shown to give uniformly accurate descriptions of the matrix HartreeFock and correlation energies of the He Be and Ne atoms.

David M. Silver; Stephen Wilson

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Personalizing information retrieval in CRISs with Fuzzy Sets and Rough Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Personalizing information retrieval in CRISs with Fuzzy Sets and Rough Sets Germán Hurtado Martín? Our approach proposes using fuzzy and rough sets to make the matching process between the users. Furthermore, both fuzzy and rough sets perform well in the presence of imperfect or missing information

Gent, Universiteit

385

Semantics of Fuzzy Sets in Rough Set Theory Department of Computer Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Semantics of Fuzzy Sets in Rough Set Theory Y.Y. Yao Department of Computer Science University of rough sets. Rough membership func- tions are viewed as a special type of fuzzy membership functions and rough membership functions, between core and support of fuzzy set theory and lower and upper

Yao, Yiyu

386

The Position of Rough Set in Soft Set: A Topological Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the author presents the concept of topological space that must be used to show a relation between rough set and soft set. There are two main results presented; firstly, a construction of a quasi-discrete topology using indiscernibility ... Keywords: Indiscernibility Relation, Quasi Discrete, Rough Set Theory, Soft Set Theory, Topological Space

Tutut Herawan

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

NORTH AMERICAN WATER OFFICE  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

NORTH AMERICAN WATER OFFICE NORTH AMERICAN WATER OFFICE P.O. Box 174 Lake Elmo, MN 55042 Phone: (612) 770-3861 Fax: (612) 770-3976 January 30, 1998 US Department of Energy Office of General Council GC-52 1000 Independence Ave. SW Washington DC 20585 RE: Preparation of Report to Congress on Price-Anderson Act Dear Office of General Council: The Price Anderson Act should be eliminated. The Price Anderson Act assumes that the encouragement and growth of the commercial nuclear industry is in the public interest. It is not. Rational evaluation of the commercial nuclear industry forces the conclusion that the Price Anderson Act simply shields the commercial nuclear industry from costs that it would otherwise, in a fair market setting, be forced to internalize and pay. Price Anderson amounts to

388

Energy Metabolism Response to Low-Temperature and Frozen Conditions in Psychrobacter cryohalolentis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the cellular pools of ATP and ADP...metabolic and energy conservation reactions, increasing...temperature and water activity conditions...Antarctic subglacial water: origin, evolution...the cellular pools of ATP and ADP...metabolic and energy conservation reactions, increasing...temperature and water activity conditions...

Pierre Amato; Brent C. Christner

2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

389

Property:TectonicSetting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TectonicSetting TectonicSetting Jump to: navigation, search Property Name TectonicSetting Property Type Page Description Describes tectonic process responsible for development of geothermal resource. This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "TectonicSetting" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Amedee Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics + B Beowawe Hot Springs Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics + Blue Mountain Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics + Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics + C Chena Geothermal Area + Non-tectonic (radiogenic) + Coso Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics + D Desert Peak Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics + Dixie Valley Geothermal Area + Extensional Tectonics +

390

Attribute Selection Methods in Rough Set Theory.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Attribute selection for rough sets is an NP-hard problem, in which fast heuristic algorithms are needed to find reducts. In this project, two reduct (more)

Li, Xiaohan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

392

EVSE Features Low and High Current Settings Integrated Flashlight  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low and High Current Settings Integrated Flashlight Low and High Current Settings Integrated Flashlight Auto-restart EVSE Specifications Grid connection Plug and cord NEMA 5-15 Connector type J1772 Test lab certifications ETL Listed Approximate size (H x W x D inches) 16 x 9 x 4 Charge level AC Level 1 Input voltage 120 VAC Maximum input current 12 Amp Circuit breaker rating 20 Amp Test Conditions 1 Test date 9/4/2012 Nominal supply voltage (Vrms) 117.05 Supply frequency (Hz) 59.99 Initial ambient temperature (°F) 58 Test Vehicle 1,3 Make and model 2012 Chevrolet Volt Battery type Li-ion Steady state charge power (AC kW) 1.36 Maximum charge power (AC kW) 1.45 EVSE Test Results 1,2,4 EVSE consumption prior to charge (AC W) 3.6

393

LBA Land Use and Land Cover Data Set Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LBA Model Intercomparison Project Meteorological Forcing Data Published LBA Model Intercomparison Project Meteorological Forcing Data Published The ORNL DAAC announces the release of LBA Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP) meteorological forcing data from nine Brazilian flux towers for periods between 1999 and 2006. LBA-ECO CD-32 LBA Model Intercomparison Project (LBA-MIP) Meteorological Forcing Data. Data set prepared by L.G.G. de Goncalves, N. Restrepo-Coupe, H.R. da Rocha, S.R. Saleska, and R. Stockli. This data set provides gap-filled meteorological observations from nine Brazilian flux towers for periods between 1999 and 2006. The measurements include: air temperature, specific humidity, module of wind speed, downward long wave and shortwave radiation at the surface, surface pressure, precipitation, and carbon dioxide (CO2). These atmospheric data are provided at 1-hour time-steps,

394

Sanyal Temperature Classification | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sanyal Temperature Classification Sanyal Temperature Classification Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification The information for this page was taken directly from Subir Sanyal's paper, Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme (Stanford, February 2, 2005) At the request of the United States Department of Energy, the author was asked by the Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, D.C.) to prepare a white paper on the subject (in connection with a new national assessment of geothermal resources). This paper offers a possible scheme in which geothermal resources are classified into seven categories based on temperature. This scheme is based not only on temperature but also according to a set of additional attributes important for practical utilization of geothermal

395

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

396

Power, Fresh Water, and Food from Cold, Deep Sea Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...used. 5) Boilers will use the controlled flash evaporation (CFE) system to re-duce losses in pressure and temperature drops...will increase production of both water and power (6, 8). The CFE system also will reduce substan-tially the deaeration costs...

Donald F. Othmer; Oswald A. Roels

1973-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

397

NMR studies of water-gas interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analysis of published data concerning the solubility of different gases in water as dependent on temperature was carried out. ... described by mono-or bi-exponential functions. Solubilities of nitrogen and oxygen...

V. P. Kutyshenko; S. I. Vorobev

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

Steven B. Hawthorne

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Comprehensive aerological reference data set (CARDS). [Meteorological reference data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the CO{sub 2}-doubling scenario, the current numerical climate models are robust in predicting that surface temperatures will rise markedly in the polar regions and that stratospheric temperatures will decrease markedly. The goal of the CARDS project is to produce an upper air data set based on radiosonde and pibal observations suitable for use in evaluating climate models and detecting climate change. We are taking a number of steps to achieve this goal: we have begun collecting upper air data from various sources, we are developing plans to digitize (key) selected older data, we are developing station histories, we have developed version 1.0 of a quality control (QC) program, and we are developing methods for removing biases (systematic errors) from these data. A final step to ensure data integrity will consist of an analysis of these data in the context of greenhouse-gas induced climate modification.

Eskridge, R.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Small solar (thermal) water-pumping system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small solar (thermal) water pump phototype was tested. The pump works on an organic Rankine cycle using refrigerant R113. The design of the pump is described. Detailed temperature and pressure measurements of the working fluid for different operating conditions are performed. The behaviour of the cycle is analysed to get a clear picture of the thermodynamic process. Power-characteristic curves are obtained by a systematic variation of water temperature, pumping head and heat input. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Spindler, K.; Hahne, E. [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)] [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Chandwalker, K. [Stiletto Engineers, Hyderabad (India)] [Stiletto Engineers, Hyderabad (India)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Ozone decomposition in water solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hewes, III; B. S. , Texas ASH University Directed by Dr. R. R. Davison The rate of the decomposition of ozone in water solutions at various pH's and temperatures were ob- tained by an iodometrical method. The orders of the reactions and the reaction...

Hewes, Cecil Grayson

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

ARM - PI Product - Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water ProductsLarge Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content Site(s) SGP TWP General Description Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the

403

Learning Minimum Volume Sets Clayton Scott  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Learning Minimum Volume Sets Clayton Scott Statistics Department Rice University Houston, TX 77005 herein are primarily of theoretical interest, although they may be implemented e#eciently for certain measure based on S: # P (G) = (1/n) # n i=1 I(X i # G). Here I(·) is the indicator function. Set µ

Scott, Clayton

404

Status of MRST/MSTW PDF sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We outline the historical development of MRST/MSTW parton distribution functions (PDFs), and clarify how they should be regarded when compared to the most up-to-date 2008 MSTW sets, noting which sets are now obsolete and the reasons why.

Thorne, R S; Stirling, W J; Watt, G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Alliance free and alliance cover sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A defensive (offensive) k-alliance in ? = (V,E) is a set S ? V such that every ? in S (in the boundary of S) has at least k more neighbors in S than it has in V / S. A set X ? V is defensive (offensive) k-alliance

Juan Alberto Rodriguez-Velazquez

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Two LBA-ECO Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LC-15 Data Sets Released LC-15 Data Sets Released The ORNL DAAC and the LBA DIS announce the release of two data sets associated with the LBA-ECO component of the Large Scale Biosphere- Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). LBA-ECO LC-15 JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996 . Data set prepared by S.S. Saatchi, B. Nelson, E. Podest, and J. Holt. This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two images of derived first order texture. The mosaics were created from 1,500 images collected by the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) over the Amazon River Basin as part of the Global Rainforest Mapping Project (GRMP). Backscatter image mosaics were developed for the dry season of 1995 and the wet season

407

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems – USR Group, Inc. Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems – USR Group, Inc. The project team demonstrates the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Most water consumption in coal-fired power plants occurs due to evaporative water losses. For example, a 500-megawatt (MW) power plant will loose approximately 5,000 - 6,000 gallons per minute (gpm) to evaporation and 500 gpm in the wet FGD system. Installation of regenerative reheat on FGD systems is expected to reduce water consumption to one half of water consumption using conventional FGD technology. Electrostatic Precipitator Researchers are conducting pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assessing the resulting impact on air pollution control (APC) systems. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc. as the prime contractor, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The team is conducting an analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs. The tests are intended to determine the impact of operation at cooler flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate removal (see Figure 1), SO3 removal, and Hg removal. Additionally, tests are conducted to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger.

408

Crop Water Requirement and Water Use Efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water use efficiency is defined as ratio of yield to irrigation water requirement (De Pascale and Maggio 2005) WUE=yield/irrigation water requirement (kg crop/m3 irrigation water) ...

Christian von Zabeltitz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programs) · Audience: homeowners Outcome 4: Increase water reuse and recycling programs · Example program: Water harvesting ­ rain barrels and cisterns · Audience: home owners #12;: Water conservation. Conserve Florida's finite water resources by teaching rural, suburban and urban

Kane, Andrew S.

410

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

411

Changing climatic conditions in the Colorado River Basin: Implications for water resources management in the Las Vegas Valley.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Climate change affects the water available in a region. It also affects the water demand, because of the increase in temperature. A system dynamics model (more)

Dawadi, Srijana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Water Boatman  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Boatman Water Boatman Name: Joshua Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a research on water boatman. I go through your web, I only find little information about it. Can you give me its habitat, its appearance, life cycles and communication between themselves and they defenses themselves? Replies: Find a good book in the library on insects, also on pond biology/ecology, as boatmen live in ponds and marshes. It should be easy to find. J.Elliott Try this web site: http://www.dnr.state.il.us/ctap.ctaphome.htm or http://www.dnr.state.il.us/nredu/nredpage.htm this is the state of Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources homepage and somewhere on there is a page called "bugpage". They have pictures and characteristics of aquatic insects there. good luck

413

Low-Cost Approaches to Robust Temperature Compensation in Near-Infrared Calibration and Prediction Situations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The traditional way of handling temperature shifts and other perturbations in calibration situations is to incorporate the non-relevant spectral variation in the calibration set by...

Segtnan, Vegard H; Mevik, Bjrn-Helge; Isaksson, Tomas; Ns, Tormod

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

415

Yeast and Temperature  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Yeast and Temperature Yeast and Temperature Name: Alyssaaum Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How does temperature affect yeast? Replies: Dear Alyssa, At low temperatures (0-10 C) yeast will not grow, but not die either. At temperatures 10-37 C yeast will grow and multiply, faster at higher temperatures with an optimal growth at 30 or 37 C (that depends on the species). At higher temperature the cells become stressed, meaning that their content becomes damaged and which can be repaired to some degree. At high temperatures (>50 C) the cells die. The bacteria can survive freezing under certain conditions. When baking bread all yeast dies during the process. Dr. Trudy Wassenaar yeast is a unique type of fungi that grows quickly by rapid cell division. It grows best at about 100 degrees fahrenheit, colder will cause it to go dormant, much warmer could kill it

416

Liquid-liquid phase transition model incorporating evidence for ferroelectric state near the lambda-point anomaly in supercooled water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a unified model combining the first-order liquid-liquid and the second-order ferroelectric phase transitions models and explaining various features of the $\\lambda$-point of liquid water within a single theoretical framework. It becomes clear within the proposed model that not only does the long-range dipole-dipole interaction of water molecules yield a large value of dielectric constant $\\epsilon$ at room temperatures, our analysis shows that the large dipole moment of the water molecules also leads to a ferroelectric phase transition at a temperature close to the lambda-point. Our more refined model suggests that the phase transition occurs only in the low density component of the liquid and is the origin of the singularity of the dielectric constant recently observed in experiments with supercooled liquid water at temperature T~233K. This combined model agrees well with nearly every available set of experiments and explains most of the well-known and even recently obtained results of MD simulations.

Peter O. Fedichev; Leonid I. Menshikov

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

Gasification of Glucose in Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasification of Glucose in Supercritical Water ... Gasification of 0.6 M glucose in supercritical water was investigated at a temperature range from 480 to 750 C and 28 MPa with a reactor residence time of 10?50 s. ... Carbon gasification efficiency reached 100% at 700 C. ...

In-Gu Lee; Mi-Sun Kim; Son-Ki Ihm

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

6, 13011320, 2006 Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban, South Africa H and Physics Discussions Temperature climatology and trend estimates in the UTLS region as observed over Commons License. 1301 #12;ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban

Boyer, Edmond

419

Thermoelectric Temperature Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the controller can supply the power required to bring the device to the desired temperature and maintain a stableNOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92 of applications that require extremely stable temperature control. System design can be complex, but improved

Saffman, Mark

420

Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: The oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes have been tested as a geothermometer in three areas of the western United States. Limited analyses of spring and borehole fluids and existing experimental rate studies suggest that dissolved sulfate and water are probably in isotopic equilibrium in all reservoirs of significant size with temperatures above

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Hadley Circulation and the Weak Temperature Gradient Approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation is applied to simple shallow-water models of the Hadley circulation. While it is difficult to formally justify the use of the WTG approximation for this problem, the derived WTG solutions are ...

L. M. Polvani; A. H. Sobel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

Young, I.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Water Revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...explains the su-percooling behavior. The important issue...Hydrophobic Interactions The behavior of water toward non-polar...structures ofthe clath-rate hydrates for many ofthese nonpolar...underlying the anomalous behavior of supercooled wa-ter...Schuster, G. Zundel, C. Sand-SCIENCE, VOL. 209...

Frank H. Stillinger

1980-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

424

Whither water?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... proposal for the future seems to have been ruled out for some time to come. Desalination has been widely mooted as a practical system of obtaining pure water in Britain, ... addition, the environment lobby, which by and large seems to favour the idea of desalination, has not, perhaps, taken full account of the impact on the coastal environment ...

John Gribbin

1974-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Hydrothermal outflow occurs most commonly at the terminations of individual faults and where multiple faults interact. These areas of fault propagation and interaction are sites of elevated stress termed breakdown regions. Here, stress concentrations cause active fracturing and continual re-opening of fluid-flow conduits, permitting long-lived hydrothermal flow despite potential clogging of fractures due to mineral precipitation. As

426

Radiation stress due to ocean waves and the resulting currents and set-up/set-down  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors have developed a model to predict the radiation stresses in the coastal zone and to estimate currents and set-up/set-down of mean sea level. The values of radiation stress are calculated from veloc...

Carl Newell; Thomas Mullarkey; Mark Clyne

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Using co-expression to redefine functional gene sets for gene set enrichment analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manually curated gene sets related to a biological function often contain genes that are not tightly co-regulated transcriptionally. which obscures the evidence of coordinated differential expression of these gene sets in ...

Kodysh, Yuliya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Generalizing Rough Set Theory Through Dominance-Based Rough Set Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ordinal properties of data related to preferences have been taken into account in the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA). We show that DRSA ... a very general framework in which the classical rough set app...

Salvatore Greco; Benedetto Matarazzo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The aim of this project was to study the spatial and temporal distributions of Kuwait SST using MODIS...

Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

430

Experimental Investigation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Microchannel using Temperature Nanosensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments were performed to study forced convective heat transfer of de-ionized water (DI water) and aqueous nanofluids flowing in a microchannel. An array of temperature nanosensors, called Thin Film Thermocouples (TFT), was utilized...

Yu, Jiwon 1982-

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

431

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

432

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes for combustion environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes have been constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in an air plus water vapor and a N2/O2/CO2 plus water vapor environment. Temperatures ranged from 200? to 700?C. Results show that electrochemical corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel are a function of time, temperature and process environment. Correlation between the electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was poor.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Eden, David A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The effect of temperature on relative permeability of unconsolidated sand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND A Thesis By SIMON YSRAEL Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE.... Summary of Water Flood at 150 F VII. Summary of Water Flood at 293 F 48 49 50 ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of temperature on relative permeability of unconsolidated sand. The present work was performed...

Ysrael, Simon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

434

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

436

International Macroeconomic Data Set | Data.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

International Macroeconomic Data Set International Macroeconomic Data Set Agriculture Community Menu DATA APPS EVENTS DEVELOPER STATISTICS COLLABORATE ABOUT Agriculture You are here Data.gov » Communities » Agriculture » Data International Macroeconomic Data Set Dataset Summary Description The International Macroeconomic Data Set provides data from 1969 through 2020 for real (adjusted for inflation) gross domestic product (GDP), population, real exchange rates, and other variables for the 190 countries and 34 regions that are most important for U.S. agricultural trade. The data presented here are a key component of the USDA Baseline projections process, and can be used as a benchmark for analyzing the impacts of U.S. and global macroeconomic shocks. The data for the Baseline projections are updated once a year to reflect the assumptions used for the Baseline. The historical data will be revised several times a year as the underlying data evolve.

437

On -locatingdominating sets in paths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Assume that G = ( V , E ) is a simple undirected graph, and C is a nonempty subset of V . For every v ? V , we define I r ( v ) = { u ? C ? d G ( u , v ) ? r } , where d G ( u , v ) denotes the number of edges on any shortest path between u and v . If the sets I r ( v ) for v ? C are pairwise different, and none of them is the empty set, we say that C is an r -locatingdominating set in G . It is shown that the smallest 2-locatingdominating set in a path with n vertices has cardinality ? ( n + 1 ) / 3 ? , which coincides with the lower bound proved earlier by Bertrand, Charon, Hudry and Lobstein. Moreover, we give a general upper bound which improves a result of Bertrand, Charon, Hudry and Lobstein.

Iiro Honkala

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Stuck-at-fault test set compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and introduces a new method for measuring the contribution of each test pattern. Both static and dynamic compaction methods were implemented and evaluated in terms of final test pattern set size and diversity of excitation. The program resulting from...

Vanfickell, Jason Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

439

Sol-gel process set for commercialization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sol-gel process set for commercialization ... Research on embedding chemical compounds in porous glass, carried out in Israel at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has reached the point of commercialization. ...

JAMES KRIEGER

1992-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

440

Polymorphism is not set-theoretic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polymorphic, or second-order, typed lambda calculus is an extension of the typed lambda calculus in which polymorphic functions can be defined. In this paper, we will prove that the standard set-theoretic ...

John C. Reynolds

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

LANL sets TRU waste hauling record  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sets TRU waste hauling record sets TRU waste hauling record LANL sets TRU waste hauling record TRU waste consists of clothing, tools, rags, debris, soil, and other items contaminated with radioactive elements, mostly plutonium. October 4, 2011 TRU waste from LANL to WIPP TRU waste from LANL to WIPP Contact Colleen Curran Communications Office (505) 664-0344 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, October 4, 2011-Los Alamos National Laboratory has set a new LANL record for the amount of transuranic (TRU) waste from past nuclearoperations shipped in a single year to the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. In fact, the Laboratory has shipped record numbers of transuranic waste each of the past three years. The Laboratory's TRU Waste Program completed 171 shipments in the past

442

High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

Grzegorz Cieslewski

443

The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun - on average it is neither heating nor cooling. The equilibrium temperature is set by equating ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat

Walter, Frederick M.

444

High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

Cieslewski, Grzegorz

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

445

Carbonate clumped isotope constraints on Silurian ocean temperature and seawater d18  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature is the carbonate-water oxygen isotope exchange thermometer, also known as the carbonate d18 O thermometer (Urey, 1947). This thermometer is based on the temperature dependence of the fractionation between

446

Generating set for general multipartite entangled states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a entanglement generating set for a general multipartite state based on the of concurrence. In particular, we show that concurrence for general multipartite states can be constructed by different classes of local operators which are defined by complement of positive operator valued measure on quantum phases. The entanglement generating set consists of different classes of entanglement that are detected by these classes of operators and contributes to the degree of entanglement for a general multipartite state.

Hoshang Heydari

2006-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

447

Game, Set, and Match A Personal Journey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be called Lo Shu. . . Or Tic-Tac-Toe! 8 1 6 3 5 7 4 9 2 Carl Lee (UK) Game, Set, and Match KYMAA -- April. . . Or Tic-Tac-Toe! 8 1 6 3 5 7 4 9 2 This was one of my early encounters with the notion of isomorphism (and Coxeter).) Carl Lee (UK) Game, Set, and Match KYMAA -- April 2013 9 / 54 #12;Three Dimensional Tic

Lee, Carl

448

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Decision analysis of polluted sites -- A fuzzy set approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A decision analysis based model (DAPS 1.0, Decision Analysis of Polluted Sites) has been developed to evaluate risks that polluted sites might pose to human health. Pollutants present in soils and sediments can potentially migrate from source to receptor(s), via different pathways. in the developed model, pathways are simulated via transport models (i.e., groundwater transport model, runoff-erosion model, air diffusion model, and sediment diffusion, and resuspension model in water bodies). Humans can be affected by pollutant migration through land and water use. health risks can arise from ingestion of and dermal contact with polluted water and soil, as well as through inhalation of polluted air. Quantitative estimates of risks are calculated for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants. Being very heterogeneous, soil and sediment systems are characterized by uncertain parameters. Concepts of fuzzy set theory have been adopted to account for uncertainty in the input parameters which are represented by fuzzy numbers. An inference model using fuzzy logic has been constructed for reasoning in the decision analysis.

Mohamed, A.M.O.; Cote, K.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Four LBA-ECO Data Sets Released  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

These data sets are from These data sets are from the Carbon Dynamics Team and report research results from the km 83 logged forest tower site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil . Data set prepared by M. Figueira, C.A.D. de Sousa, M. Menton, R.N. Juarez, H.R. da Rocha, S.D. Miller, and M.L. Goulden. This data set reports on leaf area determination utilizing a computer scanner and image processing software. LBA-ECO CD-04 Biomass Survey, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil . Data set prepared by M. Menton, M. Figueira, C.A.D. de Sousa, S.D. Miller, H.R. da Rocha, and M.L.Goulden. This data set contains the results of a biometric tree survey of a 19.25 ha area adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 logged forest tower site.

451

earth skin temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

earth skin temperature earth skin temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Earth Skin Temperature (° C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Earth Skin Temperature (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords climate

452

Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Georgia Department of Natural Resources The Georgia Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) is a set of environmental regulations and permitting requirements that comply with the federal Clean Water Act. The Georgia Water Quality Control Act is enforced by the Georgia

453

A FAST LEVEL SET METHOD FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION K. HVISTENDAHL KARLSEN, K.--A. LIE, AND N. H. RISEBRO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g., water flooding, polymer flooding, thermal flooding, etc. To this end, accurate numerical simulationA FAST LEVEL SET METHOD FOR RESERVOIR SIMULATION K. HVISTENDAHL KARLSEN, K.--A. LIE, AND N. H. RISEBRO Abstract. We present a level set method for reservoir simulation based on a fractional flow

454

Implementing algorithms of rough set theory and fuzzy rough set theory in the R package RoughSets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The package RoughSets, written mainly in the R language, provides implementations of methods from the rough set theory (RST) and fuzzy rough set theory (FRST) for data modeling and analysis. It considers not only fundamental concepts (e.g., indiscernibility relations, lower/upper approximations, etc.), but also their applications in many tasks: discretization, feature selection, instance selection, rule induction, and nearest neighbor-based classifiers. The package architecture and examples are presented in order to introduce it to researchers and practitioners. Researchers can build new models by defining custom functions as parameters, and practitioners are able to perform analysis and prediction of their data using available algorithms. Additionally, we provide a review and comparison of well-known software packages. Overall, our package should be considered as an alternative software library for analyzing data based on RST and FRST.

Lala Septem Riza; Andrzej Janusz; Christoph Bergmeir; Chris Cornelis; Francisco Herrera; Dominik ?lezak; Jos Manuel Bentez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

A decision making model using soft set and rough set on fuzzy approximation spaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In modern era of computing, there is a need of development in data analysis and decision making. Most of our tools are crisp, deterministic and precise in character. But general real life situations contains uncertainties. To handle such uncertainties many theories are developed such as fuzzy set, rough set, rough set on fuzzy approximation spaces etc. But all these theories have their own limitations. To overcome the limitations, the concept of soft set is introduced. But, soft set also fails if the attributes in the information system are almost identical rather exactly identical. In this paper, we propose a decision making model that consists of two processes such as preprocess and postprocess to mine decisions. In preprocess we use rough set on fuzzy approximation spaces to get the almost equivalence classes whereas in postprocess we use soft set techniques to obtain decisions. The proposed model is tested over an institutional dataset and the results show practical viability of the proposed research.

T.K. Das; D.P. Acharjya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Applying DDC and VFD to Central Chilled Water Plants for Profits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that was first placed in operation during the Fall of 1973 and has continuously operated since that time. The original plant produced steam for heating and for chilled water generation via condensing turbine type centrifugal chiller drives. Its original... DDC controller having the following inputs and outputs: 1. leaving chilled water temperature 2. the temperature differential between the leaving chilled water and the leaving condenser water 3. the surface temperatures of the parall,el service...

Utesch, A. L.

457

Daily Temperature Lag  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Daily Temperature Lag Daily Temperature Lag Name: Shyammayi Status: teacher Grade: K-2 Country: Mauritius Date: Summer 2011 Question: At what time of the day is the temperature hottest? At what time of the day is the temperature coldest? Replies: In general, the hottest part of the day is late afternoon. The sun has passed its peak in the sky but still heats the Earth up until very late in the afternoon. The lowest temperatures are around dawn. Earth has had all night to get rid of the day's heat by radiating it into space. After sunrise, temperatures begin to climb. This can be changed by local storms, sea breezes or mountain breezes and even monsoon winds. Hope this helps. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Instructor Arts and Sciences/CRC Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology Shyammayi

458

Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date 1977 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Temperature logs were taken during and after drilling: Results: Convective heat flow and temperatures greater than 350 F appear to occur only along an open fracture system encountered between depths of 1850 and 2775 feet. Temperature logs indicate a negative thermal gradient below 3000 feet. Water chemistry indicates that this geothermal resource is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. References Galbraith, R. M. (1 May 1978) Geological and geophysical analysis of Coso Geothermal Exploration Hole No. 1 (CGEH-1), Coso Hot Springs KGRA,

459

Water|Energy Energy|Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water|Energy Energy|Water ... This issue of Environmental Science & Technology features articles addressing the concept of the waterenergy nexus. ... Perrone et al. invoke the concept in their title, in creating a tool to account for the energy [used] for water and water [used] for energy (Environ. ...

Darcy J. Gentleman

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

460

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and energy are inextricably bound. Energy is consumed and sometimes produced by every form of water resourcesWATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, water resources professionals squarely faced the fact that water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

462

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

463

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

464

Diode laser measurement of H?O, CO?, and temperature in gas turbine exhaust through the application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption-Measurements of Water-Vapor Concentration, Temperature, and Line-Shape Parameters Using a Tunable Ingaasp

Leon, Marco E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Surface Temperature of IGUs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

117 117 Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith, Daniel Türler, and Dariush Arasteh Building Technologies Program Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Fax: 510-486-6046, email: D_Arasteh@lbl.gov Abstract Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions

467

Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R Property:ReservoirTemp T Property:Temperature U Property:USGSMeanReservoirTemp Retrieved from "http:...

468

ARM - Temperature Converter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 F for the freezing...

469

Low Temperature Proton Conductivity  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Tom Zawodzinski to DOE's Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop held February 1-5, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona.

470

Temperature and productivity  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

symptoms and performance of office work under combined exposure to temperature, noise and air pollution. PhD Thesis. International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy,...

471

Modeling of structure H hydrate equilibria for methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds in which guest molecules are engaged by water molecules under favorable conditions of pressure and temperature. The well known structures 1 and 2 have been discovered since last century, while a new structure called H has been recently described in the literature. Since that time, structure H hydrate equilibrium data involving methane and different intermediate liquid hydrocarbon molecules have been published. The equilibrium calculations involving hydrates are based on the fact that the chemical potential of water in the aqueous liquid phase is equal to the one in the hydrate phase. The chemical potential of water in the liquid aqueous phase can be easily described by classical thermodynamic relations, while the chemical potential of water in the hydrates phase is described by the expressions proposed by Van der Walls and Platteeuw derived from an adsorption model based on statistical thermodynamics. The authors present in this paper a set of Kihara potential parameters which enable the calculation of Langmuir constants which characterize the adsorption of some naphthenic and iso-paraffinic intermediate hydrocarbons in the larger cage of structure H hydrates. This work thus allows the computation of structural H hydrate equilibrium conditions for systems made of methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water.

Thomas, M.; Behar, E. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

472

Analysis of water heater standby energy consumption from ELCAP homes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) routinely prepares forecasts of future energy demands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Bonneville also implements conservation programs to reduce load demands. Results from the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for Bonneville, indicated that single-family homes with electric space-heating equipment consume more than 4700 kWh/yr to heat water for domestic uses. This energy use amounts to about 23% of the total electricity consumed. Additionally, the peak consumption for water heating coincides with regional system peak demands. Detailed analyses of the water heating end-use data acquired for residential buildings in ELCAP reveal that the average standby load for existing homes is 1200 kWh/yr, while homes built as part of the Residential Standards Demonstration Program averaged 1100 kWh/yr. These figures are consistent with the current figure of 1300 kWh/yr that is being used in the regional energy forecast. We also determined that standby loads for some of the participants were behaviorally driven. The data indicated the occurrence of vacancy setbacks in which the participant appears to lower the thermostat to save energy while the house is vacant. Anecdotal evidence from interviews revealed that this does occur. Reasons for setting back the thermostat ranged from not thinking about using the breaker, to fear that the tank would freeze in cold weather. These types of activities also appear to create the occurrence of dueling thermostats where the upper and lower thermostats, after the vacancy period, are not returned to the same temperature. This leads to additional energy use in an attempt to maintain a uniform temperature in the tank.

R.G. Pratt; B.A. Ross; W.F. Sandusky

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Water A magic solvent for biomass conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrothermal biomass conversion processes provide the opportunity to use feedstocks with high water content for the formation of energy carriers or platform chemicals. The water plays an active role in the processes as solvent, reactant and catalyst or catalyst precursor. In this paper, the different hydrothermal processes of carbonization, gasification and liquefaction are introduced and the specific role of water is discussed for each of them. The high reactivity of the polar components of biomass in hot compressed water and its changing properties with temperature are the key to obtain high selectivities of the desired products. Despite the obvious advantages of hydrothermal conversion examples for industrial applications are rare. The main reason for not commercial application of water in the high temperature state is that there are no products that can be sold with profit and cannot be produced cheaper, with less capital risk, and with more simple processes.

Andrea Kruse; Nicolaus Dahmen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Core File Settings | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Core File Settings Core File Settings The following environment variables control core file creation and contents. Specify regular (non-script) jobs using the qsub argument --env (Note: two dashes). Specify script jobs (--mode script) using the --envs (Note: two dashes) or --exp_env (Note: two dashes) options of runjob. For additional information about setting environment variables in your job, visit http://www.alcf.anl.gov/user-guides/running-jobs#environment-variables. Generation The following environment variables control conditions of core file generation and naming: BG_COREDUMPONEXIT=1 Creates a core file when the application exits. This is useful when the application performed an exit() operation and the cause and location of the exit() is not known. BG_COREDUMPONERROR=1

475

First Wartsila 200 diesel generator set shipped  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In early June, Wartsila SACM Diesel shipped its first Wartsila 200 diesel generator set from Mulhouse, France. This 12-cylinder generator set, rated 1870 kW at 1500 r/min, is being installed in India for base-load power generation service on a floating crane. The Cummins Wartsila Engine Company will have the responsibility to continue the development and production of the 200 series engine and a new 170 mm bore series that will be launched in 1996. Marine applications include diesel-electric propulsion, because of high specific output, relatively low cost and compact size of the gen-sets. Other applications include main propulsion for fishing boats, fast ferries and various coastal and inland waterways commercial vessels such as tugs and push boats. 2 figs.

Wadman, B.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Polyelectrolyte Materials for High 3M (3M) Temperature Fuel Cells John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Collaborators: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Team Members: Nitash Blasara, Rachel Segalman, Adam Weber (LBNL). Bryan Pivovar, James Boncella (LANL) Steve Hamrock Objectives * Investigate the use of solid polyelectrolyte proton conductors that do not require the presence of water. * Prepare solid electrolytes where only the proton moves. - Measure conductivity, mechanical/thermal properties of Nafion® and other polyelectrolytes doped with imidazoles. Compare with water doped materials. - Covalently attach imidazoles to side chains of ionomers with

477

Recent climatic trends in nearshore water temperatures in the St ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

evaluating biological health and productivity of the ecosys- tem. It serves as a ..... here suggest that care must be exercised when selecting the time interval over...

1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

478

Temperature and Pressure Dependence of the AMOEBA Water Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 ...

Pengyu Ren; Jay W. Ponder

2004-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

479

Surface Science Letters Structures of adsorbed water layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Science Letters Structures of adsorbed water layers on MgO: an ab initio study R.M. Lynden; Single crystal surfaces 1. Introduction The structure of adsorbed ®lms of water on a perfect surface. Experimentally, water is found to adsorb reversibly on a ¯at MgO surface to form a monolayer at temperatures

Alavi, Ali

480

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

482

Low temperature expansion for the Ising model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On simple cubic lattices, we compute the low-temperature expansion for the energy of the Ising model through 50 excited bonds in three dimensions and 44 excited bonds in four dimensions. We also give the magnetization through 42 excited bonds. Our method is a recursive enumeration of states with given energies on a set of finite lattices with generalized helical boundary conditions. A linear combination of such lattices cancels finite volume effects.

Gyan Bhanot; Michael Creutz; Jan Lacki

1992-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

483

Fiber optic temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

Rabold, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis 13 May 2011 Professor Tom Moore, a...

485

TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

Don B. Shirey, III

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Energy Department Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Qualify for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Qualify for the ENERGY STAR® Label Energy Department Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Qualify for the ENERGY STAR® Label December 19, 2005 - 4:49pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced tougher standards for clothes washers to qualify for the ENERGY STAR® label, which lets American families identify which clothes washers save the most energy and use the least water. The new standards take effect January 1, 2007, and will increase the efficiency of new clothes washers up to 37 percent. The more energy-efficient clothes washers will have the potential to save up to $70 million in energy bills and 8.9 billion gallons of water each year. "With these tougher ENERGY STAR® standards, families will be able to

487

Numerically Efficient Water Quality Modeling and Security Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to consider e ective tools and mitigation strategies to improve water network security. This work presents two components that have been integrated into EPA?s Water Security Toolkit, an open-source software package that includes a set of tools to help water... several advantages and potential uses that are aligned with current emerging water security applications. This computational framework is able to e ciently generate an explicit mathematical model that can be easily embedded into larger mathematical...

Mann, Angelica

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

488

Formation of microemulsion: Effect of temperature and polyacrylamide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pseudoternary phase diagram of the system involving cyclohexane, sodium dodecyl sulphate, propanol, and water was constructed for an SDS-to-propanol mass ratio 1:2. The area of the monophasic microemulsion region was computed. The effects of change of temperature and change of concentration of water-soluble polyacrylamide (PAA) on the microemulsion zone as well as the conductance, viscosity, and adiabatic compressibility of the microemulsion systems were studied. It was observed that for the water system there is a critical temperature below which the microemulsion zone increases with temperature, though at higher temperature the zone decreases within the range studied. The effects of presence of polyacrylamide above and below 0.003%(w/v)also are different from each other.

John, A.C.; Rakshit, A.K. (Univ. of Baroda (India))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Static Temperature Survey At Molokai Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Molokai Area (Thomas, 1986) Molokai Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Static Temperature Survey At Molokai Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Molokai Area Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Due to the very small potential market on the island of Molokai for geothermal energy, only a limited effort was made to confirm a resource in the identified PGRA. An attempt was made to locate the (now abandoned) water well that was reported to have encountered warm saline fluids. The well was located but had caved in above the water table and thus no water sampling was possible. Temperature measurements in the open portion of the well were performed, but no temperatures significantly above ambient were

490

A Clustering-Assisted Regression (CAR) approach for developing spatial climate data sets in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Clustering-Assisted Regression (CAR) approach for developing spatial climate data sets in China t There is an increasing demand for improving spatial resolution of climate data. However, an increase in resolution does spatial data of monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation at a national scale in mainland China

Pittendrigh, Barry

491

A single-electron tunneling reset-set flip-flop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a new Reset-Set flip-flop fully implemented with single-electron devices is proposed. Its topology derived from NAND gates and was validated at room temperature by simulation. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed single-electron device and MOS devices in terms of power consumption and occupied area is presented.

Alencar, Bianca M. S. M. de; Guimares, Janaina G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitrio Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, P.O. Box 4386, Brasilia-DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

492

Minimal Experimental Data Set Required for Estimating PCP-SAFT Parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Minimal Experimental Data Set Required for Estimating PCP-SAFT Parameters ... The pure-component parameters of the Perturbed Chain Polar-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PCP-SAFT) equation of state are usually fitted to experimental data over broad temperature ranges. ... PCP-SAFT Equation of State ...

Katja Albers; Gabriele Sadowski

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

493

Imperfect World of $??$-decay Nuclear Data Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

B. Pritychenko

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

494

Fuzzy Mathematics Fuzzy -Sets, -Relations, -Logic, -Graphs,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuzzy Mathematics Fuzzy -Sets, -Relations, -Logic, -Graphs, -Mappings and The Extension Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 The Extension Principle 10 3 Fuzzy Graphs 16 4 Fuzzy Logic 19 Back View #12;Section 1: Fuzzy Olaf Wolkenhauer Control Systems Centre UMIST o.wolkenhauer@umist.ac.uk www

Rostock, Universität

495

Assessing the significance of sets of words  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Various criteria have been defined to evaluate the significance of sets of words, the computation of them often being difficult. We provide explicit expressions for the waiting time in such a context. In order to assess the significance of a cluster ...

Valentina Boeva; Julien Clment; Mireille Rgnier; Mathias Vandenbogaert

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Second Decade Planning Setting System Wide Goals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School Enrollment Should be done HS by going rate with rollups to colleges and to total. Build in the HS an Efficient, Sustainable Organization · For each category, a small number of goals will be set that will o of students earning degrees through the University Centers to A. Creating an efficient, sustainable

Olsen, Stephen L.

497

Loan payment prediction using rough sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In small business loans, there is always a risk for nonpayment or non-refunding of loans though very detailed examinations are made about the company. In this study, behaviors that increase the risk in loans or causing non-refunding are tried to be determined ... Keywords: classification, loan payment failure, prediction, rough sets

Bahadtin Ruzgar; Nursel Selver Ruzgar

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Transformations between symmetric sets of quantum states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate probabilistic transformations of quantum states from a `source' set to a `target' set of states. Such transforms have many applications. They can be used for tasks which include state-dependent cloning or quantum state discrimination, and as interfaces between systems whose information encodings are not related by a unitary transform, such as continuous-variable systems and finite-dimensional systems. In a probabilistic transform, information may be lost or leaked, and we explain the concepts of leak and redundancy. Following this, we show how the analysis of probabilistic transforms significantly simplifies for symmetric source and target sets of states. In particular, we give a simple linear program which solves the task of finding optimal transforms, and a method of characterizing the introduced leak and redundancy in information-theoretic terms. Using the developed techniques, we analyse a class of transforms which convert coherent states with information encoded in their relative phase to symmetric qubit states. Each of these sets of states on their own appears in many well studied quantum information protocols. Finally, we suggest an asymptotic realization based on quantum scissors.

Vedran Dunjko; Erika Andersson

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

499

Cygnus Water Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulseforming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a self-break switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Water and energy studies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water and energy studies Water and energy studies Jump to: navigation, search This page tracks studies, reports and analyses of the Energy-Water Nexus. When adding a study, report or publication to this list, please observe the following guidelines: It should substantively address some aspect of the energy-water nexus. It should be publicly accessible online, and/or be published in a refereed technical journal. Please include a link to a publicly accessible URL where the study, report or publication can be downloaded. Please also include a brief set of keywords summarizing the topic area. Topic area definitions "Water intensity of electricity generation" relates to the amount of water withdrawn and/or consumed in the generation of electricity (generally thermal power plants, but also including other electricity-generation