Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Remote temperature-set-point controller  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

1984-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Ridge, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Rate Setting for Small Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in detail the many resources that are available to help managers of small water systems make wise business decisions....

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

4

Perspectives on Temperature in the Pacific Northwest's Fresh Waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a perspective on environmental water temperatures in the Pacific Northwest as they relate to the establishment of water temperature standards by the state and their review by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It is a companion to other detailed reviews of the literature on thermal effects on organisms important to the region. Many factors, both natural and anthropogenic, affect water temperatures in the region. Different environmental zones have characteristic temperatures and mechanisms that affect them. There are specific biotic adaptations to environmental temperatures. Life-cycle strategies of salmonids, in particular, are attuned to annual temperature patterns. Physiological and behavioral requirements on key species form the basis of present water temperature criteria, but may need to be augmented with more concern for environmental settings. There are many issues in the setting of standards, and these are discussed. There are also issues in compliance. Alternative temperature-regulating mechanisms are discussed, as are examples of actions to control water temperatures in the environment. Standards-setting is a social process for which this report should provide background and outline options, alternatives, limitations, and other points for discussion by those in the region.

Coutant, C.C.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

High-Temperature Water Splitting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Temperature Water Splitting High-Temperature Water Splitting High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of...

6

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

Houston, Paul L.

7

High temperature hot water systems: A primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

Govan, F.A. [NMD and Associates, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

9

Set-up of oil on water by wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the case of The citations on the following pages follow the style of the Journal of the Hydraulic Division, Proceedings of the American S ~fC' '1 Rug' oil floating on water. The experim nts utilized three different oils ranging in specific gravity..., 4. 45 in. wide and approximately 65 ft long. Water depths varied from 0. 79 in. to 5. 72 in. and the cross sectional average wind velocity ranged up to 40 tt per sec. Set-up of the water surface was measured at various wind velocities...

Spencer, Edmund Beryle

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

High temperature hot water distribution system study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA0l-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: * Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. * Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RWH systems has become a concern. Water temperature is a parameter of water quality and storage container color and shading affect this temperature. Four different colors and three different shadings were applied to twelve rainwater storage barrels...

Clayton, James Brent

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

12

Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow.

Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

1982-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

13

Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

Mark D. McKay

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of temperature and isotope substitution (replacing the hydrogen with deuterium to make "heavy" water). Their findings shed new light on the unique microscopic and macroscopic...

15

Carbon promoted water electrolysis to produce hydrogen at room temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of the work was to conduct water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production. The electrochemical gasification of carbons… (more)

Ranganathan, Sukanya.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE RESET CONTROLS ACCEPTANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STATE OF CALIFORNIA SUPPLY WATER TEMPERATURE RESET CONTROLS ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-9A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-9A NA7.5.8 Supply Water Temperature Reset, under the laws of the State of California, the information provided on this form is true and correct

17

Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effect of high temperature on fruit set of selected genotypes of Lycopersicon esculentum mill.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON FRUIT SET OF SELECTED GENOTYPES OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. A Thesis by ROBERT KEVAN BARRINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Horticulture EFFECT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE ON FRUIT SET OF SELECTED GENOTYPES OF LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. A Thes(s by ROBERT KEVAN BARRINGER Approved as to style and content by: Chalrma...

Barringer, Robert Kevan

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Record water temperatures in Chesapeake Bay The temperature of water in the Chesapeake Bay changes with the season warmer in summer and colder in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for this year. The heavy BLACK line is the average of all water termperaturesRecord water temperatures in Chesapeake Bay The temperature of water. We all remember cold winters (or the last warm winter) and the Bay water

20

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Geography of international water conflict and cooperation: Data sets and applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

]. The lack of global-scale, quantitative tools for eval- uating interactions over shared water resourcesGeography of international water conflict and cooperation: Data sets and applications Shira Yoffe,1 main hypotheses on the likelihood and intensity of water resource disputes. To test these hypotheses

Wolf, Aaron

22

Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application is the lubricated pipelining of crude oil by the addition of water. We want to eÃ?ciently transportLevel Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes Hyeseon Shim July 31, 2000 Abstract We simulate the axisymmetric pipeline transportation of oil and water numerically under

Soatto, Stefano

23

Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

Rana B. Gupta

2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

Sheridan, Jennifer

25

IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

Daniel P. Molloy

2002-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

26

The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting Bypaper was to compare the hydrology of the East Bay Municipala stream and watershed hydrology. Using stream flow data for

Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Design of a high temperature hot water central heating system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reviews the conceptual design of a central heating system at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The resource considered for this heating system design was hot dry rock geothermal energy. Design criteria were developed to ensure reliability of energy supply, to provide flexibility for adaptation to multiple energy resources, to make optimum use of existing equipment and to minimize reinvestment cost. A variable temperature peaking high temperature water system was selected for this purpose.

Beaumont, E.L.; Johnson, R.C.; Weaver, J.M.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Setting temperature effect in polycrystalline exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the effect of atomic interdiffusion on the exchange bias of polycrystalline IrMn/({sup 57}Fe + CoFe) multilayers due to the thermal setting process of exchange coupling during field annealing. Depth-resolved {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to quantify atomic interdiffusion. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to monitor the variation of exchange bias and magnetisation. It was found that interface sharpness is only affected above {approx}350 Degree-Sign C. Three different stages for the setting of exchange bias can be inferred from our results. At the lower setting temperatures (up to 350 Degree-Sign C), the effect of field annealing involves alignment of spins and interfacial coupling due to the setting of both antiferromagnetic (AF) bulk and interface without significant interdiffusion. At a second stage (350-450 Degree-Sign C), where AF ordering dominates over diffusion effects, atomic migration and increased setting of AF spins co-exist to produce a peak in exchange bias field and coercivity. On a third stage (>450 Degree-Sign C), severe chemical intermixing reduces significantly the F/AF coupling.

Fernandez-Outon, L. E.; Araujo Filho, M. S.; Araujo, R. E.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

The Role of Basis Set Superposition Error in Water Addition Reactions to Ln(III) Cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our goal in this work was to characterize the importance of basis set superposition error (BSSE) in the reaction energetics of water addition to highly charged metal ions that exhibit strong ion-dipole interactions with water. The gas phase water addition reactions, M(H?O)³+N + H?O ? M(H?O)³+N ? ? [M = La(III), Lu(III); N = 0–8] have been studied, with a particular emphasis on a posteriori methods for calculating BSSE and its constituent energetic components as a function of M(H?O) ³+N cluster size and water basis set. Because of accumulation of BSSE within the subclusters in the reaction series, the successive reaction counterpoise method for determining the BSSE correction interaction energies is advocated.

Kvamme, Brandon; Wander, Matthew C F.; Clark, Aurora E.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

Cofield, R.E. Jr.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

Yu, Kai

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

Yu, Kai

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

35

Pitting resistance of Alloy 800 as a function of temperature and prefilming in high temperature water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pitting behavior of Alloy 800 was investigated as a function of temperature and prefilming in high temperature water. The pitting behavior was characterized in terms of the pitting potential and the pit density. The pitting potential decreases with increasing temperature and chloride activity. Prefilming of test coupons over a time period between 100 and 5,000 hours in ammoniated water at 300 C has no apparent influence on the pitting potential at room temperature, 180 C and 300 C. However, the number of pits in prefilmed coupons is much higher than in coupons covered with an air passive layer. The effect of prefilming on pit nucleation was investigated in more detail with regard to a model and test methods developed by Bianchi and co-workers. Density of pits in prefilmed coupons is at least one order of magnitude higher than in air passive coupons. Maximum pit density was measured after a prefilming period of 1 00 hours. The effect is discussed in terms of Bianchi`s model and in terms of features of passive films. It is outlined that the initially amorphous metastable passive film on Alloy 800 becomes crystalline at increased temperatures. Crystallization induces lattice defects, such as dislocations and grain boundaries, in the passive film. The film grows and slowly transforms into a thick oxide layer. The transformation process is associated with enhanced susceptibility to pit nucleation.

Stellwag, B. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

36

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells Presentation on New...

37

The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC...

Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for water-free and high temperature operation. - Measure conductivity, mechanicalthermal properties of Nafion and Polyether polyelectrolytes doped with imidazoles....

39

Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Improving Managed Environmental Water Use: Shasta River Flow and Temperature Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i Improving Managed Environmental Water Use: Shasta River Flow and Temperature Modeling By SARAH and perhaps reduce some water management conflicts. Additional research for managing environmental water use manage water supplies and demands to increase water use efficiency through conservation, water markets

Lund, Jay R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Nuclide Composition Benchmark Data Set for Verifying Burnup Codes on Spent Light Water Reactor Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To establish a nuclide composition benchmark data set for the verification of burnup codes, destructive analyses of light water reactor spent-fuel samples, which were cut out from several heights of spent-fuel rods, were carried out at the analytical laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The 16 samples from three kinds of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods and the 18 samples from two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods were examined. Their initial {sup 235}U enrichments and burnups were from 2.6 to 4.1% and from 4 to 50 GWd/t, respectively. One PWR fuel rod and one BWR fuel rod contained gadolinia as a burnable poison. The measurements for more than 40 nuclides of uranium, transuranium, and fission product elements were performed by destructive analysis using mass spectrometry, and alpha-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. Burnup for each sample was determined by the {sup 148}Nd method. The analytical methods and the results as well as the related irradiation condition data are compiled as a complete benchmark data set.

Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Inagawa, Jun; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Kohno, Nobuaki; Onuki, Mamoru; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2002-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... used to detect ice formation in plant tissues by exotherm detection. An electronic device is used to measure the heat released (exotherm) when water freezes. From this information, the freezing and supercooling temperatures of plant tissues can...

Hagar, Christopher Flint

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Numerical Analysis of Water Temperature Distribution in the Tank of ASHPWH it ha Cylindrical Condenser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air source heat pump water heaters (ASHPWH) are becoming increasingly popular for saving energy, protecting the environment and security purposes. The water temperature distribution in the tank is an important parameter for an ASHPWH. This paper...

Wang, D.; Shan, S.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Room temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, reflecting greater occupancy of higher energy vibrational states. In pure water, hydrogen bonding state between 250K and 240K. (Tiny droplets of water have been shown to spontaneously freeze at aboutRoom temperature "super-cooling" of water by interaction with hydrophobic groups in a lipidic gel F

46

Comparison of Atmospheric Water Vapor in Observational and Model Data Sets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global water vapor distribution for five observational based data sets and three GCM integrations are compared. The variables considered are the mean and standard deviation values of the precipitable water for the entire atmospheric column and the 500 to 300 hPa layer for January and July. The observationally based sets are the radiosonde data of Ross and Elliott, the ERA and NCEP reanalyses, and the NVAP blend of sonde and satellite data. The three GCM simulations all use the NCAR CCM3 as the atmospheric model. They include: a AMIP type simulation using observed SSTs for the period 1979 to 1993, the NCAR CSM 300 year coupled ocean--atmosphere integration, and a CSM integration with a 1% CO2 increase per year. The observational data exhibit some serious inconsistencies. There are geographical patterns of differences related to interannual variations and national instrument biases. It is clear that the proper characterization of water vapor is somewhat uncertain. Some conclusions about these data appear to be robust even given the discrepancies. The ERA data are too dry especially in the upper levels. The observational data evince much better agreement in the data rich Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern. Distinct biases are quite pronounced over the Southern Ocean. The mean values and particularly the standard deviations of the three reanalyses are very dependent upon the GCM used as the assimilation vehicle for the analyses. This is made clear by the much enhanced tropical variability in the NCEP/DOE/ AMIP reanalyses compared the initial NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. The NCAR CCM3 shows consistent evidence of a dry bias. The 1% CO2 experiment shows a very similar pattern of disagreement with the sonde data as the other integrations, once account is taken of the warming trend. No new modes of difference are evident in the 1% CO2 experiment. All the CCM3 runs indicated too much Tropical variability especially in the western Tropical Pacific and Southeast Asia. A EOF analysis of the interannual variations of the zonally averaged precipitable water and the 500 to 300 hPa layer reveals fundamental differences in the structure of the variations. The impact of ENSO and variations of the ITCZ have only a low level of correspondence between the observed data, much less the simulations. It is apparent that an adequate characterization of the climatology of the global water vapor distribution is not yet at hand.

Boyle, J.S.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Collective Hydrogen Bond Reorganization in Water Studied with Temperature-Dependent Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use temperature-dependent ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of dilute HOD in H2O to study the picosecond reorganization of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water. Temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR), ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

48

New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

49

GROUND WATER USE FOR COOLING: ASSOCIATED AQUIFER TEMPERATURE CHANGES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

steam-electric power plants, large voluMes of surface waters are used for cooling the planes condensers

Lippmann, Marcelo J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Climatology and comparison study of stratosphere and lower mesosphere temperatures using satellite and reanalysis data sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A. , 1998b, Temperature climatology of the middle atmosphere28 G.N. Madhavi et al CLIMATOLOGY AND COMPARISON STUDY OFof Middle-Atmosphere Climatologies. J. Climate, 17, 986–

Madhavi, G. N.; Kishore, P.; Rao, S. V. B.; Velicogna, I.; Sivakumar, V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Temperature and High Pressure Conditions Copyright 2012 Brandon Scott Zigmond ! ! EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF WATER BASED DRILLING FLUID AGING PROCESSES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND HIGH PRESSURE CONDITIONS A Thesis by BRANDON SCOTT ZIGMOND Submitted...

Zigmond, Brandon

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

52

Review of High Temperature Water and Steam Cooled Reactor Concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review summarizes design concepts of supercritical-pressure water cooled reactors (SCR), nuclear superheaters and steam cooled fast reactors from 1950's to the present time. It includes water moderated supercritical steam cooled reactor, SCOTT-R and SC-PWR of Westinghouse, heavy water moderated light water cooled SCR of GE, SCLWR and SCFR of the University of Tokyo, B-500SKDI of Kurchatov Institute, CANDU -X of AECL, nuclear superheaters of GE, subcritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of KFK and B and W, Supercritical-pressure steam cooled FBR of B and W, subcritical-pressure steam cooled high converter by Edlund and Schultz and subcritical-pressure water-steam cooled FBR by Alekseev. This paper is prepared based on the previous review of SCR2000 symposium, and some author's comments are added. (author)

Oka, Yoshiaki [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 3-1, Hongo 7-Chome, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi mass transport of a water cluster inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with the diameter of about 1.4 nm. The influence of the non-equilibrium thermal environment on the confined water cluster has

Maruyama, Shigeo

54

Influence of temperature and photoperiod on flowering and seed set in buffelgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

period and genotype was attributed to the fact the 16 35 30 ~ Year 1999 rZZ2 30 Year Avg 25 O P 20 ra 15 E rtr I- 10 Apnl May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Oec Month Fig. 1. Average monthly temperature for 1999 and the 30-year temperature... at flowering for 6 buffelgrass genotypes at College Station, TX, 1999. Genotype Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Mean (April-May) (June-July) (Aug-Sept) (Oct-Nov) 7. 7 c 7. 6 8. 4 b 8. 2 7 5 c 7 9 9 6 a 9. 1 8. 7 b 8. 8 6. 2 c Common 8. 3 b 8. 4 c...

Ramirez de Leon, Hector

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

NMR Studies on the Temperature-Dependent Dynamics of Confined Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use $^2$H NMR to study the rotational motion of supercooled water in silica pores of various diameters, specifically, in the MCM-41 materials C10, C12, and C14. Combination of spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape, and stimulated-echo analyses allows us to determine correlation times in very broad time and temperature ranges. For the studied pore diameters, 2.1-2.9 nm, we find two crossovers in the temperature-dependent correlation times of liquid water upon cooling. At 220-230 K, a first kink in the temperature dependence is accompanied by a solidification of a fraction of the confined water, implying that the observed crossover is due to a change from bulk-like to interface-dominated water dynamics, rather than to a liquid-liquid phase transition. Moreover, the results provide evidence that $\\alpha$ process-like dynamics is probed above the crossover temperature, whereas $\\beta$ process-like dynamics is observed below. At 180-190 K, we find a second change of the temperature dependence, which resembles that reported for the $\\beta$ process of supercooled liquids during the glass transition, suggesting a value of $T_g\\!\\approx\\!185$ K for interface-affected liquid water. In the high-temperature range, $T\\!>\\!225$ K, the temperature dependence of water reorientation is weaker in the smaller C10 pores than in the larger C12 and C14 pores, where it is more bulk-like, indicating a significant effect of the silica confinement on the $\\alpha$ process of water in the former 2.1 nm confinement. By contrast, the temperature dependence of water reorientation is largely independent of the confinement size and described by an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of $E_a\\!\\approx\\!0.5\\ $eV in the low-temperature range, $T\\!water.

Matthias Sattig; Stefan Reutter; Franz Fujara; Mayke Werner; Gerd Buntkowsky; Michael Vogel

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

56

THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

J. E. O'Brien

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Ground-water temperature fluctuations at Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The well field serving the Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery has experienced reduced water temperatures following continued, periodic withdrawal of large volumes of water. In January 1985, the well field temperature was 49/sup 0/F, which is less than the optimal 52/sup 0/F for raising salmon and steelhead trout. The aquifer supplying the hatchery is in hydraulic and thermal connection with the Snake River and a flooded embayment of the Palouse River. Ground-water temperatures in the well field cycle on an annual basis in response to changes in surface water temperature and pumping rate. Numerical simulation of the well field, using a simplified mixing cell model, demonstrates the coupling of well field hydraulics and aquifer thermal response. Alternative pumping schedules indicate that it is feasible to adjust ground-water pumping to effectively store heat in the aquifer during the summer months when surface water temperatures are elevated. Sensitivity analysis of this model indicated that the primary controls of the system's thermal response are the volume of the aquifer assumed to contribute to the well field and temperature of the overlying surface water body.

Oberlander, P.L.; Myers, D.A.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

EFFECTS OF INCREASED WATER TEMPERATURE ON DAPHNIA PULEX  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

et al.2). Cladocerans may be thermally affected by a thermal nuclear power plant where, along. Study methods simulated prolonged exposure to constant high tempera· tures in thermal discharges by industrial and power plants may increase the temperature of certain areas of the river (bays and eddies

59

Development of a standard for calculation and measurement of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity in water-moderated power reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contents of ANS 19.11, the standard for ``Calculation and Measurement of the Moderator Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity in Water-Moderated Power Reactors,`` are described. The standard addresses the calculation of the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) both at standby conditions and at power. In addition, it describes several methods for the measurement of the at-power MTC and assesses their relative advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it specifies a minimum set of documentation requirements for compliance with the standard.

Mosteller, R.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hall, R.A. [Virginia Power, Glen Allen, VA (United States). Innsbrook Technical Center; Apperson, C.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Safety Management Solutions, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Lancaster, D.B. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Vienna, VA (United States); Young, E.H. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Gavin, P.H. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Robertson, S.T. [Framatome/COGEMA Fuels, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

Wu, Z.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

RESEARCH ARTICLE Statistics of the surface temperature field of an air/water interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the coefficient of thermal expansion, m is the kinematic viscosity, a is the thermal diffusivity, DTRESEARCH ARTICLE Statistics of the surface temperature field of an air/water interface under air

Saylor, John R.

62

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

64

Energy Savings with High Temperature Water Generation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel costs ency but as shown the steam system requires from steam systems are wasting a lot of ener~y and 18.1 to 44.8 more energy at the boiler than HTW dollars. I since the losses are realized in getting the steam to the user. To further compare....21 4 12.00 2.0 85 630 545 7.41 6 14.00 2.5 98 703 605 7.17 8 17.50 2.5 115 763 648 6.63 10 18.00 2.5 136 822 686 6.04 Assumptions: a. Heating medium temperature: 400 0 F c. Average pipe/conduit buried depth 4ft. b. Average soil temperature: 52...

Manicke, A. C.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil-water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation (S/sub or/) and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in two parts. The first was to investigate changes in S/sub or/ with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. Runs were terminated when the water-cut exceeded 99.8%. For these experiments, S/sub or/ decreased from 0.31 at 70/sup 0/F to 0.09 at 250/sup 0/F. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in S/sub or/ was observed with temperature; (0.11 at 70/sup 0/F and 0.085 at 186/sup 0/F). Temperature effects on irreducible water saturations were studied. A small increase in irreducibile water saturation was observed upon increasing the temperature. However, the same magnitude of change was observed by changing the flowrate. Upon increasing the oil flowrate, immediate water production was observed from the core indicating a change in the capillary end effect. By comparing the change in irreducible water saturation with rate and temperature, it was determined that the change was caused mainly by a change in the viscous force across the core. A study on viscous instabilities was also performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It was also observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

EFFECTS OF WATER AND TEMPERATURE John R. Jones, Merrill R. Kaufmann, and E. Arlo Richardson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECTS OF WATER AND TEMPERATURE John R. Jones, Merrill R. Kaufmann, and E. Arlo Richardson not tolerate sustained high temperatures, or semiarid or even dry, subhumid conditions. Much can be inferred streams in relatively hot deserts. This indicates intolerance of high temper- ature effects-either direct

67

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-94 LAKE ERIE WATER TEMPERATURE DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extends about 1.25 miles offshore from the Chestnut Street plant; the intake depth is 27-30' below temperature data are from Erie, Pennsylvania's Chestnut Street plant. The plant superintendent, Mr. John the peninsula that forms the bay. Water temperatures are taken in the plant six times a week (never on Sunday

68

Pitting resistance of alloy 800 as a function of temperature and prefilming in high-temperature water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pitting behavior of alloy 800 was investigated as a function of temperature and prefilming in high-temperature water. The behavior was characterized in terms of pitting potential (U{sub p}) and pit density (n{sub p}). U{sub p} decreased with increasing temperature and chloride activity. Prefilming of test coupons over a period between 100 h and 5,000 h in ammoniated water at 300 C had no apparent influence on U{sub p} at room temperature, 180 C, and 300 C. However, the number of pits in prefilmed coupons was much higher than in coupons covered with an air passive layer. The effect of prefilming on pit nucleation was investigated in detail with regard to a model and test methods developed by Bianchi, et al. Density of pits in prefilmed coupons was at least 1 order of magnitude higher than in air passive coupons. Maximum pit density was measured after a prefilming period of 100 h. The effect was discussed in terms of Bianchi`s model and in terms of features of passive films. The initially amorphous metastable passive film on alloy 800 became crystalline at increased temperatures. Crystallization induced lattice defects, such as dislocations and grain boundaries, in the passive film. The film grew and slowly transformed into a thick oxide layer. The transformation process was associated with enhanced susceptibility to pit nucleation.

Stellwag, B. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Internal Temperature, Pressure and Visual Observations. IDecember 1989) Thomas Raymond Reinarts, B. S. , Texas A8M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick Best In a set of transient heat pipe experiments vapor space and wick... LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Outer Aluminum Wall Temperatures Observed and Predicted 79 Table 2. Summary of Measured Dryout, Rewet and Melting Front 126 Velocities LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Typical Heat Pipe Diagram Figure 2. Curvature of Vapor...

Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Temperature and water vapor pressure effects on the friction coefficient of hydrogenated diamondlike carbon films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microtribological measurements of a hydrogenated diamondlike carbon film in controlled gaseous environments show that water vapor plays a significant role in the friction coefficient. These experiments reveal an initial high friction transient behavior that does not reoccur even after extended periods of exposure to low partial pressures of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. Experiments varying both water vapor pressure and sample temperature show trends of a decreasing friction coefficient as a function of both the decreasing water vapor pressure and the increasing substrate temperature. Theses trends are examined with regard to first order gas-surface interactions. Model fits give activation energies on the order of 40 kJ/mol, which is consistent with water vapor desorption.

Dickrell, P. L.; Sawyer, W. G.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology; Univ. of Florida

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

72

Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the increase of integrated radon exposures in water. The CR-39 etch detector is observed to be more sensitive to alpha particles than LR 115 Type 2 film. The exposure period ranged from 1 to 10 days. The linearity test was done at room temperature. The actual...

Yasmeen, Nuzhat

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods, California, USA Daniel B. Lluch-Cota Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, La Paz, Mexico-period cooling are coincident with elevated levels of microbial pollution in the surf zone. This relationship can

Winant, Clinton D.

75

Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters, R. A. Feely, and R. M. Key (2006), Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity 35)2 + d (SST Ã? 20) + e (SST Ã? 20)2 fits surface total alkalinity (AT) data for each of five

76

Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

Water adsorption at high temperature on core samples from The Geysers geothermal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three wells located in The Geysers geothermal field, California, was measured at 150, 200, and 250 C as a function of steam pressure in the range 0.00 {le} p/p{sub 0} {le} 0.98, where p{sub 0} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption and desorption runs were made in order to investigate the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were made on the same rock samples. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A qualitative correlation was found between the surface properties obtained from nitrogen adsorption and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids. However, there was no direct correlation between BET specific surface areas and the capacity of the rocks for water adsorption at high temperatures. The hysteresis decreased significantly at 250 C. The results indicate that multilayer adsorption, rather than capillary condensation, is the dominant water storage mechanism at high temperatures.

Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Water adsorption at high temperature on core samples from The Geysers geothermal field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The quantity of water retained by rock samples taken from three wells located in The Geysers geothermal reservoir, California, was measured at 150, 200, and 250 C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {le} p/p{sub 0} {le} 0.98, where p{sub 0} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A qualitative correlation was found between the surface properties obtained from nitrogen adsorption and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids. However, there is in general no proportionality between BET specific surface areas and the capacity of the rocks for water adsorption at high temperatures. The results indicate that multilayer adsorption rather than capillary condensation is the dominant water storage mechanism at high temperatures.

Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Supraoptimal root-zone temperature effects on water use of three Cercis spp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Horticulture SUPRAOPTIMAL ROOT-ZONE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON WATER USE OF THREE CERCIS SPP. A Thesis BETH JEZ LAWRENCE Approved as to style and content by: yneM. Z i e (C irof Co tt ) Malcolm Drew (Member) J s L..., flowering, and fruiting. When a plant is subjected to supraoptimal root- zone temperature conditions, these responses are typically deleterious (Gur et al. , 1976b; Gur et al, 1976c; Martin et al. , 1989; Nightingale and Blake, 1935; Wong et al. , 1971...

Lawrence, Beth Jez

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of carnot engines operating between the same temperature levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theoretical thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of Carnot engines is presented. This result is unexpected from the point of view of classical thermodynamics.

Jose Belandria

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

83

Stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 in high temperature water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SCC susceptibility of Alloy 600 in deaerated water at 360 C (statically loaded U-bend specimens) is dependent on microstructure and whether the material was cold-worked and annealed (CWA) or hot-worked and annealed (HWA). All cracking was intergranular, and materials lacking grain boundary carbides were most susceptible to SCC initiation. CWA tubing materials are more susceptible to SCC initiation than HWA ring-rolled forging materials with similar microstructures (optical metallography). In CWA tubing materials, one crack dominated and grew to a visible size. HWA materials with a low hot-working finishing temperature (<925 C) and final anneals at 1010-1065 C developed both large cracks (similar to those in CWA materials) and small intergranular microcracks detectable only by destructive metallography. HWA materials with a high hot-working finishing temperature (>980 C) and a high-temperature final anneal (>1040 C), with grain boundaries that are fully decorated, developed only microcracks in all specimens. These materials did not develop large, visually detectable cracks, even after more than 300 weeks exposure. A low-temperature thermal treatment (610 C for 7h), which reduces or eliminates SCC in Alloy 600, did not eliminate microcrack formation in high temperature processed HWA materials. Conventional metallographic and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) were done on selected materials to identify the factors responsible for the observed differences in cracking behavior. Major difference between high-temperature HWA and low-temperature HWA and CWA materials was that the high temperature processing and final annealing produced predominantly ``semi-continuous`` dendritic M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides along grain boundaries with a minimal amount of intragranular carbides. Lower temperature processing produced intragranular M7C3 carbides, with less intergranular carbides.

Webb, G.L.; Burke, M.G.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase-Change-Induced Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase cell membranes, a net flux of water was found to flow from the hot to the cold side of the full, 2008. Published January 8, 2009. Proper water management is critical to achieve high performance

Mench, Matthew M.

85

Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostic for temperature and water vapor in a scramjet combustor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of gas temperature and water concentration were made at the exit of a model scramjet combustor fueled on JP-7. Multiplexed, fiber-coupled, near-infrared distributed feedback lasers were used to probe three water vapor absorption features in the 1.34-1.47 {mu}m spectral region (2v1and v1+ v3overtone bands). Ratio thermometry was performed using direct-absorption wavelength scans of isolated features at a 4-kHz repetition rate, as well as 2f wavelength modulation scans at a 2-kHz scan rate. Large signal-to-noise ratios demonstrate the ability of the optimally engineered optical hardware to reject beam steering and vibration noise. Successful measurements were made at full combustion conditions for a variety of fuel/air equivalence ratios and at eight vertical positions in the duct to investigate spatial uniformity. The use of three water vapor absorption features allowed for preliminary estimates of temperature distributions along the line of sight. The improved signal quality afforded by 2f measurements, in the case of weak absorption, demonstrates the utility of a scanned wavelength modulation strategy in such situations.

Liu, Jonathan T.C.; Rieker, Gregory B.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Gruber, Mark R.; Carter, Campbell D.; Mathur, Tarun; Hanson, Ronald K

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

David Yuill

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

Mamone, Salvatore, E-mail: s.mamone@soton.ac.uk; Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H., E-mail: mhl@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

89

Improved Retrievals of Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles Using a Twelve-Channel Microwave Radiometer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300 219 255Retrievals of Temperature and Water

90

The Effects of Water Vapor and Hydrogen on the High-Temperature Oxidation of Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Essentially all alloys and coatings that are resistant to corrosion at high temperature require the formation of a protective (slowly-growing and adherent) oxide layer by a process known as selective oxidation. The fundamental understanding of this process has been developed over the years for exposure in pure oxygen or air. However, the atmospheres in most applications contain significant amounts of water vapor which can greatly modify the behavior of protective oxides. The development of oxy-fuel combustion systems in which fossil fuels are burned in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air, has caused renewed interest in the effects of water vapor and steam on alloy oxidation. The focus of this paper is on the ways the presence of water vapor can directly alter the selective oxidation process. The paper begins with a brief review of the fundamentals of selective oxidation followed by a description of recent experimental results regarding the effect of water vapor on the oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming alloys (Fe- and Ni-base) in the temperature range 600 to 700 °C. The atmospheres include air, air-H{sub 2}O, Ar-H{sub 2}O and Ar-H{sub 2}O-O{sub 2}. Then the behavior of alumina-forming alloys in H{sub 2}O-containing atmospheres is briefly described. As hydrogen is produced during oxidation of alloys in H{sub 2}O, it can be released back into the gas phase or injected into the metal (where it can diffuse through to the other side). Experiments in which hydrogen concentrations have been measured on both sides of thin specimens during oxidation by H{sub 2}O on only one side are described. Finally, it is attempted to catalogue the various experimental observations under a few general principles.

Mu, N.; Jung, K.; Yanar, N. M.; Pettit, F. S; Holcomb, G. R.; Howard, B. H.; Meier, G. H.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TR-16 1968 Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere?in the Metric System W.O. Eihle R.J. Powers R.A. Clark...

Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

93

Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

Westwater, Edgeworth

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

94

The effect of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of dissolved organic matter and atrazine on granular activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of water temperature on the adsorption of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) on activated carbon has not been investigated intensively yet. In this study, batch experiments with granular activated carbon (GAC) F300, from bituminous coal, have been carried out at three temperatures (5, 20, 35{sup o} C) using a humic acid model water and different types of surface water (lake, river, canal). Furthermore, the adsorption of an anthropogenic contaminant, atrazine, was quantified in the absence and presence of DOM. The results indicate a significant influence of water temperature on the adsorption equilibrium of DOM and atrazine. Contrary to expectations, DOM and atrazine adsorption in surface water tends to be increased with increasing water temperature, whereas the extent of this effect is dependent on the type and concentration of DOM. Furthermore, the temperature effect on atrazine adsorption is controlled by competition of DOM and atrazine on adsorption sites. Some assumptions are proposed and discussed for explaining the temperature effects observed in the batch studies. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Bernd Schreiber; Viktor Schmalz; Thomas Brinkmann; Eckhard Worch [Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany). Institute of Water Chemistry

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to add (Poole and Berman, 2001). High water temperatures cause stress in fish and create conditions that favor temperature of the input water and ensured that all fish tanks had the same turnover rate. The system

Bonar, Scott A.

96

Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYSTEM FOR POTENTIAL SPACE FLIGHT APPLICATION A Thesis by HASAN IMTIAZ CHOWDHURY Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson (Chair of Committee) T. D. Rogers (Member) R. D. pence (Member) W. Bradley (Head of Department) December... 1989 ABSTRACT Reduced Pressure and Temperature Reclamation of Water Using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for Potential Space Flight Application. (December 1989) Hasan Imtiaz Chowdhury, B. S. , Prairie View AlkM University Chair...

Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years of research data and cause thousands of dollars of damage to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years. To help prevent this common accident, wire or clamp all hose connections, secure the condenser outlet tubes into the inlet and outlet of the condenser. After fitting the tubes into the condenser (a

Brody, James P.

98

Characterization and biodegradation of water-soluble biomarkers and organic carbon extracted from low temperature chars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that wildfires/biomass combustion may be an important source of labile pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Py-WSOM) to aquatic systems. Spectroscopic analysis (of the solid char and Py-WSOM) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the Py-WSOM extracted from two low temperature chars (one wood, one grass) was dominated by polar moieties (-OH and C-O) derived from depolymerization and fragmentation of lignocellulose. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions with unsterilized river water suggested that Py-WSOM and associated biomarkers may have turnover rates on the order of weeks to months, consistent with mixing and transport conditions of riverine systems. For example, pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) had a half-life of 30-40 days. Turnover rate for the combustion biomarkers was shorter, with levoglucosan and free lignin phenols having a half-life around 3-4 days and polymeric lignin components 13-14 days. The latter observations contradict earlier studies on the biodegradation of dissolved lignin and point to the need for re-assessment of lignin degradation kinetics in well-mixed riverine systems, particularly when such lignin components are derived from thermally altered plant material that may exist in a form more labile than that in highly processed riverine DOM.

Norwood, Matt J.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Harvey, Omar

2013-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

99

Liquid-liquid equilibria of water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at various temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study is part of a wider program of research on the recovery of light alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions using high molecular weight solvents. The authors report liquid-liquid equilibrium data and binodal curves for the systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at 25, 35, and 45 C. The data were fitted to the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations.

Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Souza, P.; Vidal, I. (Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can… (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

Hart, K.A.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water. In some places the pipeline might be quite near the water table and in others it could be 50-100 feet

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

103

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

High temperature hot water distribution system study, Directorate of Public Works, Fort Drum, New York; executive summary. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA01-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: (1) Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. (2) Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A correlation of water solubility in jet fuels with API gravity: aniline point percent aromatics, and temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEMPERATURE ( P) Pi8ure 8 70 80 160 140 SOLUBILITY OF WATER IN JET FUELS CONCLUSION 120 100 e 80 M O 60 40 20 20 40 60 TENPERATURE ('F) Figure 9 80 100 120 22 The best equation found by the regression analysis process is: ln Sol ~ 141.... 55208 - 3804. 1721 x 10 5(AG) + 2581. 6616 x 10 (AG) + 9243. 1234 x 10 (ARO) + 7004. 9175(1/T) - 3468 F 0411 x 10 (1/T)2 where: ln ~ logarithm to base "e" (natural logarithm) Sol = water solubility, mg/liter AG = aniline-gravity constant (product...

Byington, Alonzo

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

hal-00133055,version1-29Mar2007 Nuclear spin interferences in bulk water at room temperature.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hal-00133055,version1-29Mar2007 Nuclear spin interferences in bulk water at room temperature. J in NMR pacs 03.67.-a: Quantum information pacs 67.57.Lm: Spin dynamics Abstract Nuclear spin interference in a static mag- netic field B0 4.7 T. For a homogeneity of B0 of the order of B0/B0 = 2 · 10-8 , the nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

109

Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

liquid/vapor interface of SPC/E water. J. Phys. Chem. 100,dioxide mixtures described by the SPC/E and EPM2 models. (and water oxygen is denoted by O SPC/E and O TIP for SPC/E (

Nielsen, L.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only two sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude changes in discharge, these flux reversals had minimal effect on emergence timing estimates. Indeed, the emergence timing estimates at all sites was largely unaffected by the changes in river stage resulting from hydropower operations at Hells Canyon Dam. Our results indicate that the range of emergence timing estimates due to differences among the eggs from different females can be as large as or larger than the emergence timing estimates due to site differences (i.e., bed temperatures within and among sites). We conclude that during the 2002-2003 fall chinook salmon incubation period, hydropower operations of Hells Canyon Dam had an insignificant effect on fry emergence timing at the study sites. It appears that short-term (i.e., hourly to daily) manipulations of discharge from the Hells Canyon Complex during the incubation period would not substantially alter egg pocket incubation temperatures, and thus would not affect fry emergence timing at the study sites. However, the use of hydropower operational manipulations at the Hells Canyon Complex to accelerate egg incubation and fry emergence should not be ruled out on the basis of only one water year's worth of study. Further investigation of the incubation environment of Snake River fall chinook salmon is warranted based on the complexity of hyporheic zone characteristics and the variability of surface/subsurface interactions among dry, normal, and wet water years.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

2004-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

112

Proceedings ASCE EWRI World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005 May 15-19, 2005 Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants Scott A. Wells1 , Dmitriy into receiving waters, there is much interest in providing a model of temperature dynamics in wastewater using detailed temperature data from a Washington County, Oregon, USA wastewater treatment facility

Wells, Scott A.

113

In-Pile SCC Growth Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water at JMTR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In general, IASCC can be reproduced on the materials irradiated over a certain threshold fluence level of fast neutron by the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). It is, however, considered that the reproduced IASCC by PIEs must be carefully compared with the actual IASCC in nuclear power plants, because the actual IASCC occurs in the core under simultaneous effects of radiation, stress and high temperature water environment. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. A high temperature water loop facility was installed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to carry out the in-pile IASCC testing under a framework of cooperative research program between JAERI and the JAPC. In-pile IASCC growth tests have been successfully carried out using the compact tension (CT) type specimens of type 304 stainless steel that had been pre-irradiated up to a neutron fluence level around 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} before the in-pile testing since 2004. The tests were carried out in pure water simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant condition. In the paper, results of the in-pile SCC growth tests will be discussed comparing with the result obtained by PIEs from a viewpoint of the synergistic effects on IASCC. (authors)

Yoshiyuki Kaji; Hirokazu Ugachi; Takashi Tsukada; Yoshinori Matsui; Masao Ohmi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Nobuaki Nagata; Koji Dozaki; Hideki Takiguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones potential and where we have relaxed or generalized the potential to arbitrary and possibly fractional powers. The theory then is a semi-classical theory as the repulsion of particles is incorporated in the Lennard-Jones -like potential's energy required to bring two molecules together, a repulsion of sorts. We derive distributions for the molecular species that are exactly solved, and are derived from maximum entropy, here the semi-classical analogue of the Hamiltonian superposition of quantum phase theory of fluids. We also derive the similar statistics from the microscopic SDEs stochastic differential dynamics equations, verifying the macroscopic state function entropic-thermodynamic derivation.

Fredrick Michael

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

115

Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

Hu, Lin-Wen

116

Estimation of interstitial water in porous medium by capillary pressure measurements at various temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water to remove the salt. Ten pore volumes of distilled water were flushed through each core and diaphragm. They were then dried in the oven overnight and oooled. Finally they were saturated with kerosene. Run V was made at 75 F with the cores... saturated with kerosene. In this run kerosene was the wetting fluid instead of brine. A standard Du Nouy Tensiometer was used to measure surface tension of the brine solution at 75'F, 150'F and 200'F. Surface tension of kerosene, and brine solution...

Gupta, Mahesh Chander

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Infrared imaging of the surface temperature field of water during film spreading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

which exists at a perfectly clean gas/liquid interface is considered to be shear- free. Films be significantly affected by the presence of a film.3­7 Such studies are typically conducted in a water tank where in the area of oil slicks and their dispersal,10 the transport of surfactants within the lung,11

Saylor, John R.

119

The influence of temperature on the estimation of interstitial water by capillary pressure measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

riietting Phase 91. turation ? nercent 18 13 12 u 0 10 a 9 o a 4 6 u '/ j h'[ '' ll j Captllary Pressure Curve at Temperature - 130oF (Porous Diaphradm Vethod) Core hto. 1033 ts 0 10 ?0 30 40 ! 0 60 '/0 80 90 100 leettfn3 'Phrase...

Shah, Narendra

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ultimate lower lethal temperature of red drum Sciaenops Ocellatus as a function of water hardness and salinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

S UE PR OCAR ION E Approved as to style and content by: William H. Neill ( Chair of Committee) Edwin H. Robinson (Member ) ff y D. Hart ( Member) Dav id . Schmidly (Head o Department) Dec ember 1 986 ABSTRACT Ult' t L L th l t p t f R D D ~p... in water as cold as 2 C in both Texas (Simmons and Breuer 1962) and Florida (Springer 1960). In contr ol led experiments, Miranda and Sonski (in pr ess) found the median lower-lethal temperatur e for 25- and 15-C-acclimated red drum in freshwater...

Procarione, Lynne S

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Molecular properties by Quantum Monte Carlo: an investigation on the role of the wave function ansatz and the basis set in the water molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Monte Carlo methods are accurate and promising many body techniques for electronic structure calculations which, in the last years, are encountering a growing interest thanks to their favorable scaling with the system size and their efficient parallelization, particularly suited for the modern high performance computing facilities. The ansatz of the wave function and its variational flexibility are crucial points for both the accurate description of molecular properties and the capabilities of the method to tackle large systems. In this paper, we extensively analyze, using different variational ansatzes, several properties of the water molecule, namely: the total energy, the dipole and quadrupole momenta, the ionization and atomization energies, the equilibrium configuration, and the harmonic and fundamental frequencies of vibration. The investigation mainly focuses on variational Monte Carlo calculations, although several lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are also reported. Through a systematic study, we provide a useful guide to the choice of the wave function, the pseudo potential, and the basis set for QMC calculations. We also introduce a new strategy for the definition of the atomic orbitals involved in the Jastrow - Antisymmetrised Geminal power wave function, in order to drastically reduce the number of variational parameters. This scheme significantly improves the efficiency of QMC energy minimization in case of large basis sets.

Andrea Zen; Ye Luo; Sandro Sorella; Leonardo Guidoni

2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

JOURNAL of GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, YOLo 90, NO. C3, PAGES 4907-4910, MAY 20, 1985 The Effect of Water Temperature and Synoptic Winds on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature and Synoptic Winds on the Development of Surface Flows Over Narrow, Elongated Water Bodies M surfacetemperature and of the large-scalesynoptic winds on the devel- opment of surfaceflows over the water created by damming of a river). In these locations, a daytime induced breeze, including its interaction

Pielke, Roger A.

123

Low-temperature geothermal water in Utah: A compilation of data for thermal wells and springs through 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Geothermal Division of DOE initiated the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program, following a special appropriation by Congress in 1991, to encourage wider use of lower-temperature geothermal resources through direct-use, geothermal heat-pump, and binary-cycle power conversion technologies. The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT), the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI), and the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute organized the federally-funded program and enlisted the help of ten western states to carry out phase one. This first phase involves updating the inventory of thermal wells and springs with the help of the participating state agencies. The state resource teams inventory thermal wells and springs, and compile relevant information on each sources. OIT and UURI cooperatively administer the program. OIT provides overall contract management while UURI provides technical direction to the state teams. Phase one of the program focuses on replacing part of GEOTHERM by building a new database of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal systems for use on personal computers. For Utah, this involved (1) identifying sources of geothermal date, (2) designing a database structure, (3) entering the new date; (4) checking for errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records; (5) organizing the data into reporting formats; and (6) generating a map (1:750,000 scale) of Utah showing the locations and record identification numbers of thermal wells and springs.

Blackett, R.E.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Zinc Treatment Effects on Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trace levels of soluble zinc(II) ions (30 ppb) maintained in mildly alkaline, hydrogenated water at 260 C were found to lower the corrosion rate of austenitic stainless steel (UNS S30400) by about a factor of five, relative to a non-zinc baseline test after 10,000 hr. Characterizations of the corrosion oxide layer via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with argon ion milling and target factor analysis, confirmed the presence of two spinel oxide phases and minor amounts of recrystallized nickel. Based on the distribution of the three oxidized alloying constituents (Fe, Cr, Ni) with respect to depth and oxidation state, it was concluded that: (a) corrosion occurs in a non-selective manner, but approximately 30% of the oxidized iron is released to the water, and (b) the two spinel oxides exist as a ferrite-based outer layer (Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.3})(Fe{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 4} on top of a chromite-based inner layer (Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.7})(Fe{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.6}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. These results suggest that immiscibility in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} binary may play a role in controlling the zinc content of the outer layer. On the other hand, the lower corrosion rate caused by zinc additions is believed to be a consequence of corrosion oxide film stabilization due to the substitution reaction equilibrium: z Zn{sup 2+}(aq) + FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s) {approx} z Fe{sup 2+}(aq) + (Zn{sub z}Fe{sub 1-z})Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4}(s). The liquid-solid distribution coefficient for the reaction, defined by the ratio of total zinc to iron ion concentrations in solution divided by the Zn(II)/Fe(II) ratio in the solid, z/(1-z), was found to be 0.184. This interpretation is consistent with the benefits of zinc treatment being concentration dependent.

S.E. Ziemniak; M. Hanson

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

125

Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

Quinn, Nigel W.T.

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The corrosion behavior of an austenitic stainless steel (UNS S30400) has been characterized in a 10,000 hour test conducted in hydrogenated, ammoniated water at 260 C. The corrosion kinetics were observed to follow a parabolic rate dependency, the parabolic rate constant being determined by chemical descaling to be 1.16 mg dm{sup -2} hr{sup -1/2}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, in combination with argon ion milling and target factor analysis, was applied to provide an independent estimate of the rate constant that agreed with the gravimetric result. Based on the distribution of the three oxidized alloying constituents (Fe, Cr, Ni) with respect to depth and elemental state, it was found that: (a) corrosion occurs in a non-selective manner, and (b) the corrosion film consists of two spinel oxide layers--a ferrite-based outer layer (Ni{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8})(Fe{sub 0.95}Cr{sub 0.05}){sub 2}O{sub 4} on top of a chromite-based inner layer (Ni{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8})(Cr{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. These compositions agree closely with the solvi phases created by immiscibility in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} binary, implying that immiscibility plays an important role in the phase separation process.

S.E. Ziemniak; M. Hanson

2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

128

Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump Bin Zheng and Mingsheng Liu Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln Abstract Traditionally, chilled water pump speed is modulated to maintain the water loop... differential pressure set point and the control valve at the air handling unit (AHU) is modulated to maintain the supply air temperature. This paper introduces a new VFD pump speed control algorithm, optimal pump head control strategy, in variable water...

Zheng, B.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEALING WITH “BIG CIRCULATION FLOW RATE, SMALL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE” BASED ON VERIFIED DYNAMIC MODEL SIMULATIONS OF A HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM Li Lian Zhong, Senior Sales Consultant, Danfoss Automatic Controls Management (Shanghai...) Co.,Ltd, Anshan, China ABSTRACT Dynamic models of an indirect hot water district heating system were developed based on the first principle of thermodynamics. The ideal model was verified by using measured operational data. The ideal...

Zhong, L.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water Quality Management for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report. Real-time Water Quality Management for SJR RiparianReal-time Water Quality Management for SJR Riparian HabitatPaper Real-time Water Quality Management for SJR Riparian

Quinn, Nigel W.T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Structure Sensitivity of the Low-temperature Water-gas Shift Reaction on Cu–CeO2 catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the structure sensitivity of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction on Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts prepared at the nanoscale by different techniques. On the surface of ceria, different CuO{sub x} structures exist. We show here that only the strongly bound Cu-[O{sub x}]-Ce species, probably associated with the surface oxygen vacancies of ceria, are active for catalyzing the low-temperature WGS reaction. Weakly bound CuO{sub x} clusters and CuO nanoparticles are spectator species in the reaction. Isolated Cu{sup 2+} ions doping the ceria surface are not active themselves, but they are important in that they create oxygen vacancies and can be used as a reservoir of copper to replenish surface Cu removed by leaching or sintering. Accordingly, synthesis techniques such as coprecipitation that allow for extensive solubility of Cu in ceria should be preferred over impregnation, deposition-precipitation, ion exchange or another two-step method whereby the copper precursor is added to already made ceria nanocrystals. For the synthesis of different structures, we have used two methods: a homogeneous coprecipitation (CP), involving hexamethylenetetramine as the precipitating agent and the pH buffer; and a deposition-precipitation (DP) technique. In the latter case, the ceria supports were first synthesized at the nanoscale with different shapes (rods, cubes) to investigate any potential shape effect on the reaction. Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts with different copper contents up to ca. 20 at.% were prepared. An indirect shape effect of CeO{sub 2}, manifested by the propensity to form oxygen vacancies and strongly bind copper in the active form, was established; i.e. the water-gas shift reaction is not structure-sensitive. The apparent activation energy of the reaction on all samples was similar, 50 {+-} 10 kJ/mol, in a product-free (2% CO-10% H{sub 2}O) gas mixture.

Si, R.; Zhang, L.; Raitano, J.; Yi, N.; Chan, S.-W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

132

Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature systems, simultaneous electronic excitation and exposure to aggressive chemicals can acceler- ate etching-induced neutral particle desorption and surface erosion on single- crystal sodium chloride in the presence of low

Dickinson, J. Thomas

133

Drilling Addendum to Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This addendum report presents the results of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) drilling program at Calistoga, California, which was the final geothermal-resource assessment investigation performed under terms of the second year contract (1979-80) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CDMG under the State Coupled Program. This report is intended to supplement information presented in CDMG's technical report for the project year, ''Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California''. During the investigative phase of the CDMG's Geothermal Project, over 200 well-driller's reports were obtained from the Department of Water Resources (DWR). It was hoped that the interpretation and correlation of these logs would reveal the subsurface geology of the Upper Napa Valley and also provide a check for the various geophysical surveys that were performed in the course of the study. However, these DWR driller logs proved to be inadequate due to the brief, non-technical, and erroneous descriptions contained on the logs. As a result of the lack of useable drill-hole data, and because information was desired from,deeper horizons, it became evident that drilling some exploratory holes would be necessary in order to obtain physical evidence of the stratigraphy and aquifers in the immediate Calistoga area. Pursuant to this objective, a total of twelve sites were selected--four under jurisdiction of Napa County and eight under jurisdiction of the City of Calistoga. A moratorium is currently in existence within Napa County on most geothermal drilling, and environmental and time constraints precluded CDMG from obtaining the necessary site permits within the county. However, a variance was applied for and obtained from the City of Calistoga to allow CDMG to drill within the city limits. With this areal constraint and also funding limits in mind, six drilling sites were selected on the basis of (1) proximity to areas where geophysical surveys had been performed, (2) accessibility of the site for drill rig setup, and (3) favorability for obtaining the maximum information possible concerning the geology and the resources. Necessary landowner permission and permits were secured for these sites, and actual drilling began on December 17, 1980. Drilling was terminated on February 4, 1981, with the completion of three holes that ranged in depth from 205 to 885 feet. Use of a relatively new drilling technique called the Dual Tube Method enabled the collection of precise subsurface data of a level of detail never before obtained in the Calistoga area. As a result, a totally new and unexpected picture of the geothermal reservoir conditions there has been obtained, and is outlined in this addendum report.

Taylor, Gary C.; Bacon, C. Forrest; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Majmundar, Hasmukhrai H.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Effects of Ce, Y and Mo Addition on the Stress Accelerated Oxidation of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Oxygenated High Temperature Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based upon the recent progress in mechanistic understanding of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water in light water reactor (LWR), the effects of Ce, Y, and Mo addition on oxidation kinetics under a tensile stress condition was investigated. Minor impurity of P was also studied. A kind of circumferentially notched tensile specimen was prepared to simulate the crack tip stress field. The notched specimens of different materials studied were applied with an almost constant load in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) water. The oxidation was examined by the specimen cross section. It was shown that these elements have quite clear effects on the metal oxidation and alloying element distribution in the oxide layer. (authors)

Shengchun Wang; Nobuaki Kawaguchi; Tetsuo Shoji [Fracture Research Institute, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba 01, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399) downstream to the upper end of Lower Granite Reservoir near rkm 240. We randomly selected 14 fall Chinook salmon spawning locations as study sites, which represents 25% of the most used spawning areas throughout the HCR. Interactions between river water and pore water within the riverbed (i.e., hyporheic zone) at each site were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. Surrounding the piezometer cluster at each site were 3 artificial egg pockets. In mid-November 2002, early-eyed stage fall Chinook salmon eggs were placed inside of perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes, along with a temperature data logger, and buried within the egg pockets. Fall Chinook salmon eggs were also incubated in the laboratory for the purpose of developing growth curves that could be used as indicators of emergence timing. The effects of discharge on vertical hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed were inferred from measured temperature gradients between the river and riverbed, and the application of a numerical model. The hydrologic regime during the 2002-2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only 2 of 14 sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude

Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Estimating the Annual Water and Energy Savings in Texas A & M University Cafeterias using Low Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equal to 100,000 British thermal units (BTU).1 Therm is equal to 29.3 kWh Temperature rise through Heater The difference in the water temperature supplied to the water heater, and the water exiting the water heater. This is typically 70*F, which... assumes a water line temperature of 75*F and a water heater setting of 145*F Water Heater Efficiency The percentage of energy delivered to the water divided by the amount of energy consumed by the water heater viii TABLE OF CONTENTS...

Rebello, Harsh Varun

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

137

Limited Energy Engineering Analysis (EEAP) study of summer boiler at high temperature hot water plants, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a study of the existing High Temperature Hot Water Distribution Systems at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. There are two systems with central boilers located in Buildings 1021 and 2369. The study focuses on the operation of the boilers during the summer months which is required to provide domestic hot water and sanitizing steam to various buildings. Because the boilers are operating under a reduced load condition, it may be cost effective in terms of energy conservation to implement one of the following energy conservation opportunities (ECO`s).

NONE

1993-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyethylene terephthalate drinking water bottles of China Ying-Ying Fan a , Jian-Lun Zheng a , Jing-Hua Ren Accepted 9 May 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate Antimony Bisphenol A Release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water

Ma, Lena

139

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the quench pH data as a function of temperature in temperature-gradient experiments 38 40 LIST OF PLATES Plate Page Ia Ib I la IIb IIIa IIIb IVa Ivb Va Vb VIa Large euhedral anhydrite crystals surrounded by honeycomb-shaped smectite. Run... circulation. Metabasalts ranging from zeolite to amphibolite facies, with greenstones dominating, have been dredged from the ocean floor (Aumento et al. 1971; Miyashi ro et al. 1971; Melson and van Andel, 1966; Shi do et al. , 1974; Bonatti et al. ; 1975...

Archer, Paul Lawrence

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption, and Local Air Temperature in Phoenix, AZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption Area This study examined 16 Census Block Groups (2000) within the City of Phoenix to investigate are critical for long-term urban planning. Figure 2: Study Area: 16 Census Block Groups within City of Phoenix

Hall, Sharon J.

142

Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III, and Kenneth S. Suslick*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

likely due to its own fluorescence. Carbon tetrachloride does not change the intensity of water sonoluminescence but does exhibit C2 emission. This indicates that the dissociation of carbon tetrachloride inside and other incipient emitting species produced during sonolysis. Small concentrations of carbon disulfide do

Suslick, Kenneth S.

143

Molecular properties by Quantum Monte Carlo: an investigation on the role of the wave function ansatz and the basis set in the water molecule  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum Monte Carlo methods are accurate and promising many body techniques for electronic structure calculations which, in the last years, are encountering a growing interest thanks to their favorable scaling with the system size and their efficient parallelization, particularly suited for the modern high performance computing facilities. The ansatz of the wave function and its variational flexibility are crucial points for both the accurate description of molecular properties and the capabilities of the method to tackle large systems. In this paper, we extensively analyze, using different variational ansatzes, several properties of the water molecule, namely: the total energy, the dipole and quadrupole momenta, the ionization and atomization energies, the equilibrium configuration, and the harmonic and fundamental frequencies of vibration. The investigation mainly focuses on variational Monte Carlo calculations, although several lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are also reported. Throu...

Zen, Andrea; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Features of temperature control of fuel element cladding for pressurized water nuclear reactor “WWER-1000” while simulating reactor accidents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the experiments simulating NPR (nuclear power reactor) accidents with a coolant loss fuel elements behavior in a steam-hydrogen medium was studied at the temperature changed with the rate from 1 to 100K/s within the range of 300÷1500 °C. Indications of the thermocouples fixed on the cladding notably differ from real values of the cladding temperatures in the area of measuring junction due to thermal resistance influence of the transition zones “cladding-junction” and “junction-coolant”. The estimating method of a measurement error was considered which can provide adequate accounting of the influence factors. The method is based on thermal probing of a thermocouple by electric current flashing through thermoelements under the coolant presence or absence, a response time registration and processing, calculation of thermal inertia value for a thermocouple junction. A formula was derived for calculation of methodical error under stationary mode and within the stage of linear increase in temperature, which will determine the conditions for the cladding depressurization. Some variants of the formula application were considered, and the values of methodical errors were established which reached ?5% of maximum value by the final moment of the stage of linear increase in the temperature.

Zaytsev, P. A.; Priymak, S. V.; Usachev, V. B.; Oleynikov, P. P.; Soldatkin, D. M. [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

145

Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Paradigm or Paradox: Can we Attribute Species Changes to Global Climate Change in Light of Decreasing Water Temperatures in Central California?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California and Adjacent Waters. University of Californiamarmoratus) in California waters as assessed in 2005. ReportMonitoring MPAs in Deep Water off Central California: 2007

Breaker, Laurence; Cailliet, Gregor; Launer, Andrea; Wadsworth, Tom

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Lithium/water interactions: Experiments and analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of molten-lithium droplets with water is studied experimentally. In one set of experiments, droplets of [approximately]10- to 15-mm diameter are injected into a vessel filled with water. The reaction is filmed, and pressure measurements are made. The initial metal and water temperatures range from 200 to 500[degrees]C and 20 to 70[degrees]C, respectively. It is found that when reactant temperatures are high, an explosive reaction often occurs. When the initial lithium temperature is >400[degrees]C and the water is >30[degrees]C, the explosive reactions become much more probable, with pressure peaks as high as 4 MPa. The reaction is modeled to explain the temperature threshold for this metal-ignition phenomena. Results with the model support the hypothesis that explosive reactions occur when the lithium droplet surface reaches its saturation temperature while the hydrogen film surrounding the drop is relatively thin. A second set of experiments measures the reaction rate of nonexplosive lithium-water reactions. The test geometry parallels that of the previous experiments, and the reactant temperature combinations are deliberately kept below the observed ignition threshold. Two separate methods are used to determine the reaction rate in each test: One uses a three-color pyrometer to measure the drop temperature as the lithium rises through the water, while the other consists of a photographic technique that measures the amount of hydrogen generated. Measured reaction rates range from [approximately]10 to 50 mol/s[center dot]m[sup 2] with good agreement between the two measurement techniques. The data do not show any significant variation in the reaction rate as a function of either the initial water or initial lithium temperature. 17 refs., 15 figs.

Lomperski, S.; Corradini, M.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A survey of potential low-cost concentrator concepts for use in low-temperature water detoxification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several different concentrator concepts have been considered for use in the detoxification of chemically contaminated water. The reactions of interest are predominantly photocatalytic in nature and are driven by low concentrations (between 1 and 50 suns) of UV radiation in the 300- to 385-nm wavelength range. Optical performance characteristics of these concentrators are thus somewhat different compared to concentrators developed for industrial process heat and electrical energy production. Relaxed optical tolerances might lead to reductions in concentrator cost that, when integrated into overall field system cost, could make the solar-driven process competitive with current UV lamp technology. Aspects of the concentrator system that might realize cost reductions include the concentrating element, the support structure, the tracking and drive system, the manufacturing processes, and the installation procedures. Several ideals have been resurrected from earlier research in the Solar Thermal Program where the need for more stringent optical performance requirements led to a decline or even an end to further investigation. In light of this new application, the most promising of these ideas are presented, including a description and a discussion of the cost and performance trade-offs. In addition, the results of recent investigate research on several of these concepts will be presented. The concepts include a low-cost parabolic trough, the inflatable line-focus concentrator, and the holographic concentrator. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Wendelin, T.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Impact of Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures on interannual and decadal variations of GRACE land water storage in tropical South America  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stress, i.e. , the ground water storage [Toomey et al. ,and longer time scales, as ground water storage multidecadal

de Linage, Caroline; Kim, Hyungjun; Famiglietti, James S; Yu, Jin-Yi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Xuhuui [University of Oklahoma; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Emmett, Bridget [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Northern pike bycatch in an inland commercial hoop net fishery: effects of water temperature and net tending frequency on injury, physiology, and survival  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In lakes and rivers of eastern Ontario (Canada) commercial fishers use hoop nets to target a variety of fishes, but incidentally capture non-target (i.e., bycatch) gamefish species such as northern pike (Esox lucius). Little is known about the consequences of bycatch in inland commercial fisheries, making it difficult to identify regulatory options. Regulations that limit fishing during warmer periods and that require frequent net tending have been proposed as possible strategies to reduce bycatch mortality. Using northern pike as a model, we conducted experiments during two thermal periods (mid-April: 14.45 ± 0.32 °C, and late May: 17.17 ± 0.08 °C) where fish were retained in nets for 2 d and 6 d. A ‘0 d’ control group consisted of northern pike that were angled, immediately sampled and released. We evaluated injury, physiological status and mortality after the prescribed net retention period and for the surviving fish used radio telemetry with manual tracking to monitor delayed post-release mortality. Our experiments revealed that injury levels, in-net mortality, and post-release mortality tended to increase with net set duration and at higher temperatures. Pike exhibited signs of chronic stress and starvation following retention, particularly at higher temperatures. Total mortality rates were negligible for the 2 d holding period at 14 °C, 14% for 6 d holding at 14 °C, 21% for 2 d holding at 17 °C, and 58% for 6 d holding at 17 °C. No mortality was observed in control fish. Collectively, these data reveal that frequent net tending, particularly at warmer temperatures, may be useful for conserving gamefish populations captured as bycatch in inland hoop net fisheries.

Colotelo, Alison HA; Raby, Graham D.; Hasler, Caleb T.; Haxton, Tim; Smokorowski, Karen; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Influence of Specimen Size on the SCC Growth Rate of Ni-Alloys Exposed to High Temperature Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tests were conducted on a single heat of Alloy 600 using compact tension specimens ranging from 50.80 mm (2 inches) in gross thickness (2T) to 10.16 mm (0.4 inches, 0.4T) in gross thickness. Results indicated that at stress intensity factor (K) levels above 55 MPa{radical}m, the growth rate is affected by specimen size in deaerated primary water. The growth rate can be significantly faster in 0.4T and 0.6T (15.24 mm = 0.6 inches in gross thickness) specimens at these elevated K levels compared to 2T specimens. Stress corrosion crack (SCC) growth rates > 6 x 10{sup -7} mm/s were observed at 338 C and 40 cc/kg H{sub 2} in 0.6T and 0.4T specimens at these elevated K levels, although the fracture mode was not significantly affected by the specimen size. The SCC growth rate of 2T specimens under comparable test conditions was {approx}6 x 10{sup -8} mm/s. All of the specimens examined that were tested at K > 55 MPa{radical}m exhibited intergranular failure, although ductile dimples and cracked grains were observed in the 0.4T specimens loaded to the elevated K levels. The effect of specimen size on the crack growth behavior indicated by electric potential drop (EPD) monitoring at K > 55 MPa{radical}m was also reviewed. EPD indicated steady state crack growth during the tests conducted on 1T (25.4 mm = 1.0 inches in gross thickness) and 2T specimens. Steady state crack growth was not indicated by EPD for the 0.4T and 0.6T specimens loaded at K > 55 MPa{radical}m. EPD indicated large jumps in the crack length at discrete points. Initially, it was believed that these large, rapid increases in the crack length corresponded to ductile tearing of uncracked ligaments in the crack wake as the SCC crack advanced. However, examination of the fracture surfaces did not reveal any evidence of isolated regions of ductile tearing in the crack wake. The large increases in the EPD signal were due to strain bursts. These results highlight the need to base SCC growth rates on destructive examination of the specimen.

E Richey; D Morton; W Moshier

2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

154

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

Seong W. Lee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: Chemical analysis and potential toxicity Cristina Bach a used for the bottling of drinking water is polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Since migra- tion can

Short, Daniel

156

Greenland temperature, climate change, and human society during the last 11,600 years  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature reconstruction from water isotopes in ice cores.temperature reconstruction from water isotopes in ice cores,Finkel, Changes in deep-water formation during the Younger

Kobashi, Takuro

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator were conducted in this reporting period. In the systematic test, two (2) factors were considered as the experimental parameters, including air injection rate and water injection rate. Each experimental factor had two (2) levels, respectively. A special water-feeding device was designed and installed to the gasifier simulator. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results of the systematic tests. The ANOVA shows that the air injection rate did have the significant impact to the temperature measurement in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA also shows that the water injection rate did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The ANOVA analysis also proves that the thermocouple assembly we proposed was immune to the moisture environment, the temperature measurement remained accurate in moisture environment. Within this reporting period, the vibration application for cleaning purpose was explored. Both ultrasonic and sub-sonic vibrations were considered. A feasibility test was conducted to prove that the thermocouple vibration did not have the significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. This feasibility test was a 2{sup 2} factorial design. Two factors including temperature levels and motor speeds were set to two levels respectively. The sub-sonic vibration tests were applied to the thermocouple to remove the concrete cover layer (used to simulate the solid condensate in gasifiers) on the thermocouple tip. It was found that both frequency and amplitude had significant impacts on removal performance of the concrete cover layer.

Seong W. Lee

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set forth requirements for the registration of water withdrawals and reporting of water losses from the Great Lakes Basin. The regulations apply to water withdrawals from...

159

Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greatest Energy Concerns for Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? Contact Us E-mail: Webmaster Online: Facebook iconconnecttwitter.png Twitter...

162

Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Speeding up solar disinfection : effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli in Charles River water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sunlight efficiently disinfects drinking water in plastic bottles over two days, but simple additives may show promise for reducing this time to several hours. This study found that adding up to 500 [micro]M hydrogen ...

Fisher, Michael Benjamin, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Field application of an interpretation method of downhole temperature and pressure data for detecting water entry in horizontal/highly inclined gas wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condition change, wellbore structure change, geothermal environment change, or simple just noise of measurement. To separate flow condition change from the other causes of temperature change, we require a comprehensive understanding of flow dynamics. 5.... The interpretation model for downhole temperature and pressure data is a coupled thermal wellbore/reservoir flow model. The model is built on fundamental flow and energy conservation equations for both the reservoir and wellbore. These equations are: Mass balance...

Achinivu, Ochi I.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

165

Synchronization of Limit Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

166

Setting up file permissions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

at the JGI for usergroup readwrite and global read access. Creating a New Shared Directory dmj@genepool04: umask 002 or have this set in .bashrc.ext dmj@genepool04:...

167

Nested-set inconsistency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper examines a denumerable version of the nested-set theorem and derives from it a contradiction involving the formal consistency of the actual infinity assumed by the Axiom of Infinity.

Antonio Leon

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

168

Set theory and physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

Svozil, K. [Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Reaction-Relevant Gold Structures in the Low Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction on Weiling Deng, Anatoly I. Frenkel, Rui Si, and Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cell and other uses. Highly active and stable WGS catalysts are required for integration in fuel cell systems.1 The commercially used WGS catalyst in chemical plants, Cu-ZnO, is unsuitable for fuel cell The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction is a key step in fuel processing to generate high-grade hydrogen for fuel

Frenkel, Anatoly

170

Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

172

4-50 A vertical piston-cylinder device is filled with water and covered with a 20-kg piston that serves as the lid. The boiling temperature of water is to be determined.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4-24 4-50 A vertical piston-cylinder device is filled with water and covered with a 20-kg piston in the cylinder is determined from a force balance on the piston, PA = PatmA + W W = mg Patm P or, kPa119.61 skg

Bahrami, Majid

173

Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

174

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets Federal efficiency...

175

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

176

Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Causal Set Phenomenology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Central to the development of any new theory is the investigation of the observable consequences of the theory. In the search for quantum gravity, research in phenomenology has been dominated by models violating Lorentz invariance (LI) -- despite there being, at present, no evidence that LI is violated. Causal set theory is a LI candidate theory of QG that seeks not to quantise gravity as such, but rather to develop a new understanding of the universe from which both GR and QM could arise separately. The key hypothesis is that spacetime is a discrete partial order: a set of events where the partial ordering is the physical causal ordering between the events. This thesis investigates Lorentz invariant QG phenomenology motivated by the causal set approach. Massive particles propagating in a discrete spacetime will experience diffusion in both position and momentum in proper time. This thesis considers this idea in more depth, providing a rigorous derivation of the diffusion equation in terms of observable cosmic time. The diffusion behaviour does not depend on any particular underlying particle model. Simulations of three different models are conducted, revealing behaviour that matches the diffusion equation despite limitations on the size of causal set simulated. The effect of spacetime discreteness on the behaviour of massless particles is also investigated. Diffusion equations in both affine time and cosmic time are derived, and it is found that massless particles undergo diffusion and drift in energy. Constraints are placed on the magnitudes of the drift and diffusion parameters by considering the blackbody nature of the CMB. Spacetime discreteness also has a potentially observable effect on photon polarisation. For linearly polarised photons, underlying discreteness is found to cause a rotation in polarisation angle and a suppression in overall polarisation.

Lydia Philpott

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

178

Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

180

High temperature probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy) [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

183

Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters. Center for Energy andhot water from the water heater to each end-use locationMixed Temperature Water Water Heater Drain Indoor Boundary

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Bachelor Thesis Detection of Zeno Sets in Hybrid Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bachelor Thesis Detection of Zeno Sets in Hybrid Systems to Validate Modelica Simulations Marcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Example: Water Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Modelica 9 3.1 OpenModelica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.1 Hybrid Automata

185

On the phase diagram of water with density functional theory potentials: the melting temperature of Ice I-h with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof and Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functionals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The melting temperature (Tm) of ice Ih was determined from constant enthalphy (NPH) Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations to be 417±3 K for the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) and 411±4 K for the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP) density functionals using a coexisting ice (Ih)-liquid phase at constant pressures of P = 2,500 and 10,000 bar and a density ? = 1 g/cm3, respectively. This suggests that ambient condition simulations at ? = 1 g/cm3 will rather describe a supercooled state that is overstructured when compared to liquid water. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Yoo, Soohaeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

186

Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the campus loops and the building loops. Some optimization of the plant chiller 1 boiler operation is also necessary and beneficial. In general, through Continuous Commissioning, chilled water and hot water loop temperature differences will be improved...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Georgia Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) is a set of environmental regulations and permitting requirements that comply with the federal Clean Water Act. The Georgia Water Quality Control Act...

188

IV. Environmental Impact, Setting, and Mitigation Measures LBNL LRDP EIR IV.G-1 ESA / 201074  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IV. Environmental Impact, Setting, and Mitigation Measures LBNL LRDP EIR IV.G-1 ESA / 201074 Public discusses existing surface water and groundwater conditions at LBNL and analyzes the potential Setting IV.G.2.1 Hydrologic Setting Surface Water LBNL is situated within Blackberry and Strawberry

Lee, Jason R.

189

Steam-Water Relative Permeability  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Separation and Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Low Temperature Geothermal Water 500,000 64,061 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Engineering Thermophilic...

190

Penrose Well Temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

Christopherson, Karen

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

Jakob, Christian

193

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must meet federal and state standards for safe drink- ing water. Two sets of standards-primary drinking water and secondary drinking water- establish Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for a variety of contaminants. If the water sup- ply

Dyer, Bill

194

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

195

Dynamics in the Category Set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What makes sets, or more precisely, the category {\\bf Set} important in Mathematics are the well known {\\it two} specific ways in which arbitrary mappings $f : X \\longrightarrow Y$ between any two sets $X, Y$ can {\\it fail} to be bijections. Namely, they can fail to be injective, and/or to be surjective. As for bijective mappings they are rather trivial, since with some relabeling of their domains or ranges, they simply become permutations, or even identity mappings. \\\\ To the above, one may add the {\\it third} property of sets, namely that, between any two nonvoid sets there exist mappings. \\\\ These three properties turn out to be at the root of much of the interest which the category {\\bf Set} has in Mathematics. Specifically, these properties create a certain {\\it dynamics}, or for that matter, lack of it, on the level of the category {\\bf Set} and of some of its subcategories.

Elemer E Rosinger

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

196

Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

Water Transfers: The Case against Transbasin Diversions in the Eastern States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a global perspective, water shortage is not simply a problemto face regional water shortages. Part II sets the stage bytions to projected water shortages. Particular hotspots are

Klein, Christine A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Study of the combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of the white-rot basidiomycete Physisporinus vitreus by using a hyphal growth model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present work investigates environmental effects on the growth of fungal colonies of P. vitreus by using a lattice-free discrete modelling approach called FGM (Fuhr et al. (2010), arXiv:1101.1747), in which hyphae and nutrients are considered as discrete structures. A discrete modelling approach allows studying the underlying mechanistic rule concerning the basic architecture and dynamic of fungal networks on the scale of a single colony. By comparing simulations of the FGM with laboratory experiments of growing fungal colonies on malt extract agar we show that combined effect of temperature, pH and water activity on the radial growth rate of a fungal colony on a macroscopic scale may be explained by a power law for the growth costs of hyphal expansion on a microscopic scale. The information about the response of the fungal mycelium on a microscopic scale to environmental conditions is essential to simulate its behavior in complex structure substrates such as wood, where the impact of the fungus to the woo...

Fuhr, M J; Schubert, M; Schwarze, F W M R; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

South Dakota-Minnesota Boundary Waters Commission (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation establishes an interstate commission to set standards for water levels and quality, and to coordinate among local governments to maintain and preserve water resources on the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Would the heat of an oil pipeline buried 4 feet underground affect ground or surface water temperature or the roots of typical Nebraska crops like corn, soybeans, alfalfa? Would  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature or the roots of typical Nebraska crops like corn, soybeans, alfalfa? Would crop yield likely

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

202

Probabilistic Set Covering with Correlations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jul 30, 2011 ... We conduct the first scenario-free investigation of the probabilistic set covering ...... Annals of Operations Research, 177:127–137, 2010.

2011-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

204

Quantum Chemistry at Finite Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article, we present emerging fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. We discuss its recent developments on both experimental and theoretical fronts. First, we describe several experimental investigations related to the temperature effects on the structures, electronic spectra, or bond rupture forces for molecules. These include the analysis of the temperature impact on the pathway shifts for the protein unfolding by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of electrons in solvents, and the temperature influence over the intermolecular forces measured by the AFM. On the theoretical side, we review advancements made by the author in the coming fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. Starting from the Bloch equation, we have derived the sets of hierarchy equations for the reduced density operators in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. They provide a law according to which the reduced density operators vary in temperature for the identical and interacting many-body systems. By taking the independent particle approximation, we have solved the equations in the case of a grand canonical ensemble, and obtained an energy eigenequation for the molecular orbitals at finite temperature. The explicit expression for the temperature-dependent Fock operator is also given. They form a mathematical foundation for the examination of the molecular electronic structures and their interplay with finite temperature. Moreover, we clarify the physics concerning the temperature effects on the electronic structures or processes of the molecules, which is crucial for both theoretical understanding and computation. Finally, ....

Liqiang Wei

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

205

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

206

As was hypothesized, annual ET water losses appears to be driven by seasonal variations in the total aboveground biomass of the treatment wetland. We found that only air temperature and PAR were significant climatic drivers of ET. However, unlike  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shore-to-open-water transects were distributed proportionally across a treatment flow cell based.T.A. 2003. Water and mass budgets of a vertical=-flow constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment· As was hypothesized, annual ET water losses appears to be driven by seasonal variations

Hall, Sharon J.

207

Radiation Effects on Metastable States of Superheated Water.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Radiation Effects on Metastable States of Superheated Water covers theory, application, and experimentation into the behavior of water at temperatures above the boiling point. The… (more)

Alvord, Charles William

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for Magnesite Formation at Low Temperatures. Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for...

209

Counterexamples to Cantorian Set Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper provides some counterexamples to Cantor's contributions to the foundations of Set Theory. The first counterexample forces Cantor's Diagonal Method (DM) to yield one of the numbers in the target list. To study this anomaly, and given that for the DM to work the list of numbers have to be written down, the set of numbers that can be represented using positional fractional notation, $\\mathbb{W}$, is properly characterized. It is then shown that $\\mathbb{W}$ is not isomorphic to $\\mathbb{R}$, meaning that results obtained from the application of the DM to $\\mathbb{W}$ in order to derive properties of $\\mathbb{R}$ are not valid. It is then shown that Cantor's DM for a generic list of reals can be forced to yield one of the numbers of the list, thus invalidating Cantor's result that infers the non-denumerability of $\\mathbb{R}$ from the application of the DM to $\\mathbb{W}$. Cantor's Theorem about the different cardinalities of a set and its power set is then questioned, and by means of another counterexample we show that the theorem does not actually hold for infinite sets. After analyzing all these results, it is shown that the current notion of cardinality for infinite sets does not depend on the size of the sets, but rather on the representation chosen for them. Following this line of thought, the concept of model as a framework for the construction of the representation of a set is introduced, and a theorem showing that an infinite set can be well-ordered if there is a proper model for it is proven. To reiterate that the cardinality of a set does not determine whether the set can be well-ordered, a set of cardinality $\\aleph_{0}^{\\aleph_{0}}$ is proven to be equipollent to the set of natural numbers $\\mathbb{N}$. The paper concludes with an analysis of the cardinality of the ordinal numbers, for which a representation of cardinality $\\aleph_{0}^{\\aleph_{0}}$ is proposed.

Enrique Coiras

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

211

DEVELOPMENTAL RATES AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES OF EMBRYOS OF THE NORTHERN LOBSTER (Homarus americanus MILNE-EDWARDS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of larvae and con- trol hatching times by manipulating the water temperature in tanks holding egg-bearing fe at seasonal water temperatures or in water warmed to various constant temperatures. Water from the laboratory's seawater system was piped to the heated tanks at rates consistent with the capacity of the heaters

212

Comprehensive Local Water Management Act (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Each county is encouraged to develop and implement a local water management plan. This section sets the specifications that must be met by local plans. The status of county water plans is shown...

213

Fuel cell water transport  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - acclimation induction temperatures Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: acclimation induction temperatures Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Thermal Biology 29 (2004) 185193 Acclimation of the temperature set-points of Summary: reserved....

215

Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Temperature System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystallineForeignTechnology-Selection-Process SignL.Ted Donat1 Soil Water

217

Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Beamline Temperatures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience ProgramBackground8.0.1 PrintTemperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV

220

Evaluation of integrated data sets: four examples. [Uranium deposits (exploration)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several large data sets have been integrated and utilized for rapid evaluation on a reconnaissance scale for the Montrose 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Colorado. The data sets include Landsat imagery, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses, airborne geophysical data, known mineral occurrences, and a geologic map. All data sets were registered to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid and projected onto Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. A grid resolution of 1 km was used. All possible combinations of three, for most data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. In addition, gray-level pictures of statistical output, e.g., factor analysis, have been employed to aid evaluations. Examples for the data sets dysprosium-calcium, lead-copper-zinc, and equivalent uranium-uranium in water-uranium in sediment are described with respect to geologic applications, base-metal regimes, and geochemical associations.

Bolivar, S.L.; Freeman, S.B.; Weaver, T.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Air separation with temperature and pressure swing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sugama, Toshifumi.

1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

223

High temperature lightweight foamed cements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Analysis on a Fractal Set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formulation of a new analysis on a zero measure Cantor set $C (\\subset I=[0,1])$ is presented. A non-archimedean absolute value is introduced in $C$ exploiting the concept of {\\em relative} infinitesimals and a scale invariant ultrametric valuation of the form $\\log_{\\varepsilon^{-1}} (\\varepsilon/x) $ for a given scale $\\varepsilon>0$ and infinitesimals $0set, if it exists. The formulation of a scale invariant real analysis is also outlined, when the singleton $\\{0\\}$ of the real line $R$ is replaced by a zero measure Cantor set. The Cantor function is realised as a locally constant function in this setting. The ordinary derivative $dx/dt$ in $R$ is replaced by the scale invariant logarithmic derivative $d\\log x/d\\log t$ on the set of valued infinitesimals. As a result, the ordinary real valued functions are expected to enjoy some novel asymptotic properties, which might have important applications in number theory and in other areas of mathematics.

Santanu Raut; Dhurjati Prasad Datta

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

225

Better Plants Water Pilot- Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy (DOE) is expanding the Better Buildings Challenge to help partners demonstrate successful approaches to saving water and decrease their utility bills. The commercial and industrial sectors account for more than 25 percent of the withdrawals from public water supplies and many organizations in these sectors may have savings opportunities of 20 to 40%. The efficient use of water resources results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. Additionally, because energy is required to transport and treat water, saving water also saves energy. Through this pilot, DOE will work with a small, diverse group of Better Buildings Challenge Partners to expand their resource management strategies to include water in addition to energy, set water savings goals, track progress and showcase solutions.

226

Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep Convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project are analyzed in the vicinity of deep convective outflow to study the variationsInfluence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep upper-tropospheric temperature and humidity by the Mea- surement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In

Johnson, Richard H.

227

Impact of externally forced changes on temperature extremes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis investigates changes in temperature extremes between 1950-2005, analysing gridded data sets of observations and climate model simulations. It focuses on changes in the… (more)

Morak, Simone

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

230

TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR: DETERMINIST AND STOCHASTIC APPROACHES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the calculation of air and load temperatures. An analysis of the predicted temperatures was undertaken temperature and thermostat setting, on air and load temperatures in non ventilated domestic refrigerator was studied. A simplified steady state heat transfer model was developed which takes into account heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

Water heater control module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

Hammerstrom, Donald J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

232

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

233

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The water solubility of naphthenes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Naphthenes, like paraffins and aromatics, are a major component of unrefined fuels. Like these other hydrocarbons, naphthenes' solubility in water is of critical importance to engineers, particularly vis-a-vis the environmental hazard they present when spilled in water. Naphthenes' water solubility is described as a function of temperature. The correlation constants are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format, which is especially applicable for rapid engineering usage with the personal computer or hand calculator. These data are applicable for a temperature range of 25--120 C, encountered in air and steam-stripping operations. An engineer can use the data to assess the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill in water, i.e., by determining the amount of dissolved naphthenes. Solubility values at ambient temperature, as well as higher-temperature values can be ascertained from the correlation.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Bu, Li (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

Jia, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

238

Water value in power generation: Experts distinguish water use and consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Winter 2013 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek In Grimes County, the sun sets over Gibbons Creek Reservoir, the cooling water supply for an adjacent power plant. Photo by Leslie Lee. WATER VALUE IN POWER GENERATION Experts distinguish... water use and consumption Having enough water available for municipal and agricultural needs is o#23;en discussed; however, having the water needed to generate electric power and the electricity needed to treat and transport water is a struggle all...

Kalisek, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Wavelet Based Density Estimators for Modeling Multidimensional Data Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the distribution of this random variable. We exhibit an estimator for the wavelet coeÃ?cients of this density and ionospheric data. After three levels of o#11;-line pre-processing, observations of temperature, water vapor agreement nr. F30602-99-1-0524, and unrestricted cash/equipment gifts from NCR, IBM, Intel and SUN. #12; 1

Shahabi, Cyrus

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced steam temperatures Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

adiabatic process changes the temperature of the gas without heating it. 12;DC A steam engine and a Ferrari... water at the same temperature. Assume that water and steam,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulating water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity). After the tower...

Burger, R.

242

Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Optical set-reset latch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

Skogen, Erik J.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

245

A Study of the Occurrence of Supercooling of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water supercooling has received considerable research attention. The parameters influencing supercooling include the initial temperature of the water and the temperature of the chilling medium. In this study, we investigated an additional parameter, the type of chilling medium. We correlated the occurrence of supercooling with the minimum temperature anywhere in the water. If the minimum temperature is higher, ice nucleation is unlikely and supercooling will take place. Besides distilled water, we also investigated supercooling of water found in nature, and found that impurities in such water do not facilitate ice nucleation.

Tan, K -C; Katz, J I; Feng, S -J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7.5{angstrom} and 5.5{angstrom} to give two different time resolutions. All the spectra have been measure at room temperature. The spectra were corrected for the sample holder contribution and normalized using the vanadium standard. The resulting data were analyzed with DAVE programs (http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/). The AMBER force field and SPCE water model were used for modeling the NALMA solute and water, respectively. For the analysis of the water dynamics in the NALMA aqueous solutions, we performed simulations of a dispersed solute configuration consistent with our previous structural analysis, where we had primarily focused on the structural organization of these peptide solutions and their connection to protein folding. Further details of the QENS experiment and molecular dynamics simulations are reported elsewhere.

Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work.

Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

2001-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

249

RMOTC - Field Information - Data Sets  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115, 2001Data sets Notice: As of January

250

SHM Data Sets and Software  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStoriesSANDIA REPORT SANDSDNTM7/31/13 Page3SHM Data Sets

251

Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 3: IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS 3.11.6.2 I MPROVING PERFORMANCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS 1.6.3 GCHAPTER 3: IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS 3.1

Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2009b. Chapter 5 - Helicobacter pylori - 2010 Yellow Book.and A Cravioto. 2001. “Helicobacter pylori and other entericincluding E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter,

Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

A coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics tool for calculating fluctuations in Pressurized Water Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Reactors or Heavy Water Reactors (LarssoA coupled neutronics/thermal­hydraulics tool for calculating fluctuations in Pressurized Water in neutron flux, fuel temperature, moderator den- sity and flow velocity in Pressurized Water Reactors

Demazière, Christophe

255

Water Quality Modeling Hydraulics and Hydrology Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ­ Streamflows ­ Lake basin ­ Meteorology (wind/sun/precip...) · Outputs: ­ Vertical Temperature distribution ­ E. Coli · Temperature changes ­ Long term and short term · Lake circulation ­ Lake circulation ­ Outputs: · Oxygen distribution in water column · Nutrient distribution in water column (N

256

Effect of paraffinic, naphthenic and aromatic distribution in the hydrocarbon mixture and water on the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide-hydrocarbon systems over the temperature range from 333 K to 366 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide flooding has been suggested as an efficient and effective means of achieving additional oil recoveries from depleted and/or water flooded reservoirs. The numerical simulation of a carbon dioxide flood requires a phase equilibria predictor that will provide the compositional distribution of the reservoir fluids as the displacement propagates through the reservoir. The objective of this work was to provide a phase equilibria predictor that utilizes the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A new PUT apparatus was constructed. This apparatus was used to measure the isothermal P-x data of the systems: CO/sub 2/-toluene, CO/sub 2/-ethylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-propylbenzene, CO/sub 2/-cyclopentane, CO/sub 2/-cyclohexane and CO/sub 2/-methylcyclohexane at 333.15 K, 349.82 K and 366.48 K. Interaction parameters were regressed from literature data for CO/sub 2/-paraffin systems and from the experimental data of this work for CO/sub 2/-aromatic and CO/sub 2/-naphthenic systems. Recommended interaction parameters for these systems are provided. Experimental results indicated that the dominant effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems was the solubilization of carbon dioxide by water into the aqueous phase. This concept was simulated with the SRK equation of state and a correlation of literature data on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. The predicted results agreed well with the experimental results. The presence of dissolved salts in water mitigates the effect of water on CO/sub 2/-hydrocarbon systems. The presence on n-butylbenzene or n-butylcylcohexane in the heavy ends with n-decane improved the maximum miscibility composition of the system. Pressure has a substantial effect on maximum miscibility compositions.

Ezekwe, J.N.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ecotourism and Certification: Setting Standards in Practice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: Ecotourism and Certification: Setting Standards inMartha Honey (Ed. ). Ecotourism and Certification: SettingAlkaline paper. Tourism and ecotourism are growing rapidly,

Hook, Robert D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Distribution of Soil Temperature Regimes and Climate Change in the Mojave Desert Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

precipitation, and water vapor on diurnal temperature range.Idaho, United States. Water Resour. Res. 37: 2843-2846.and J. Bouma. 1994. Modelling water and chemical fluxes as

Bai, Yanying

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Experimental Temperature Monitoring and Coagulation Detection using Ultrasound-Stimulated Acoustic Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the monitoring and control of thermal therapies, with diagnostic ultrasound and MRI demonstrating the most elements to monitor and increase the temperature in the tissue. Processing USAE vs. temperature plot WaterFrequency Generator 2 f 2 Amplifier USAE vs. temperature plot Water USAE signal Hydrophone Tissue f 1 Temperature

Konofagou, Elisa E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Liu UCD Phy9B 07 1 Ch 17. Temperature & Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in temperature. Like water, flows from high to low (temperature). Not the energy a body contains. #12;Liu UCD Phy of how hot /cold an object is Temperature Scale Celsius (centigrade) ºC Fahrenheit ºF Absolute (Kelvin of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1Cº kilocalorie (kcal) 1 kcal =1000 cal

Yoo, S. J. Ben

262

BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 200 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

263

Geometrical setting of solid mechanics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: > Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). > Generalized logarithmic strain. > Consistent linearization. > Incremental principle of virtual power. > Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.

Fiala, Zdenek, E-mail: fiala@itam.cas.cz [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, ASCR, v. v. i., Prosecka 809/76, 190 00 Praha 9 (Czech Republic)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that gives very hot water with detergent. #12;4. The method of using a relatively low temperature air bake of the requirements for high quality forged blanks for flanges. After machining using a water based lubricantLow Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning

265

Physics 1114: Unit 7 Homework: Answers Problem set 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics 1114: Unit 7 Homework: Answers Problem set 1 1. When 7 kg (about 15 pounds) of fuel oil to 26 C, we start with Q = mcT = (72 kg)(1.0 kcal kg-1 C-1 )(26 C - 20 C) = 432 kcal 4. When 110 kilocalories are removed (Q = -110) from 62 kg of water at 85 C, the tempera- ture drop comes from Q = mcT

Mansell, Edward "Ted"

266

Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

Answers to the set revision exercise 1 Answers to the set revision exercise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the set revision exercise 5 Answers to the set revision exercise · If A has k elements, how many different1 Answers to the set revision exercise 1 Answers to the set revision exercise · Are A = {1 in which they are listed does not matter. Answers to the set revision exercise 2 Answers to the set

Alechina, Natasha

268

Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

Ciovati, Gianluigi

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

269

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

270

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH with a vision, thereís an untapped market using resources right under our feet,î the University of Nebraska outdoors in India, Bangladesh, China and Viet- nam. Thousands of them have been grown to harvest

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

271

Energy and Society Fall 2013 Problem Set 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the temperature and pressure, if known.) (3 points) g. How many square meters of solar panels (assume that the panels are placed in the Southwest in an area with an annual average solar radiation of 6.5 kWh/m2 /day, and that the solar panels have a conversion efficiency of 15%) (3 points) h. How many gallons of water that fall

Kammen, Daniel M.

272

Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

273

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

274

Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exchanger was configured to use higher temperature water produced by a cooling tower alone. The other coilLBNL-6660E Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water; Demonstration of a Dual Heat Exchanger-temperature cooling water, so that it can support many more hours of free cooling compared to traditional systems

275

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

276

Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and double differential cross sections at 232 meV at various angles with the available experimental data (at room temperature), and then extrapolate the calculations to lower temperatures (77K and 4K). The new temperature dependent scattering kernel gives a good quantitative fit to the available room temperature data and has a temperature dependence that is qualitatively consistent with thermodynamics.

Roger E. Hill; C. -Y. Liu

2003-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

277

Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban Water Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2.3 Integration with the Avoided Costconsistency with the Avoided Cost model. 4. Provide a set ofWater Utility Direct Avoided Costs from Water Use E?ciency,

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

279

Computerized Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Water Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

282

JULIA SETS AND WILD CANTOR SETS ALASTAIR FLETCHER AND JANG-MEI WU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JULIA SETS AND WILD CANTOR SETS ALASTAIR FLETCHER AND JANG-MEI WU Abstract. There exist uniformly quasiregular maps f : R3 R3 whose Julia sets are wild Cantor sets. 1. Introduction The most direct is not tame is called wild. The first example of a wild Cantor set was Antoine's necklace [1

Fletcher, Alastair

283

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

October 2013 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, IMPACTS, AND MITIGATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

October 2013 4-1 CHAPTER 4 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, IMPACTS, AND MITIGATION MEASURES This chapter discusses the environmental setting, impacts, and mitigation measures for the 14 fully evaluated to measure changes that would result #12;Chapter 4 Environmental Setting, Impacts, and Mitigation Measures

Lee, Jason R.

286

Free idempotent generated semigroups over biordered sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Free idempotent generated semigroups over biordered sets Dandan Yang The University of York (Dandan Yang ) Free idempotent generated semigroups over biordered sets May 3, 2012 1 / 1 #12;Outline Free idempotent generated semigroup IG(E) over biordered set E. (Dandan Yang ) Free idempotent generated

Gould, Victoria

287

Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong A Thesis Submitted;Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong This is to certify that I have implementations on unstructured point cloud 15 3.1 Level set initialization

Duncan, James S.

288

Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

Layne Pincock

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Raman spectroscopy of shocked water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Raman scattering has been used extensively to study the vibrational and rotational properties of molecules under a variety of conditions. Here, interest is in the behavior of water molecules shocked to high pressures and temperatures. Behind the shock front the water molecules undergo changes in bonding and the molecules may become ionized. Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the molecular species behind the shock front. In addition, changes in Raman spectra can yield information regarding inter- and intramolecular potentials and the temperature behind the shock front.

Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The interaction of various polymers with water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water content. The glass transition temperature was taken as the inflection point in the heat capacity curve (Figure 3). The uncertainty in the glass points was rather high (x20'C) mainly because of the small change in heat capacities -1 (6C = . 03... water/g methylcellulose) 17 Y=. 10 Y=. 15 10 50 70 90 110 T ( c) Fig. 3. C (arbitrary units) versus temperature at two water p contents, Y, for methylcellulose. Inflection in curve is the glass transition region of the polymer-water system...

Quock, Billy

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Low temperature thermal treatment for petroleum refinery waste sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Treatment requirements for waste sludges generated by petroleum refinery operations and designated as waste codes K048, K049, K050, K051 and K052 under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) became effective in November, 1990 under the Landban regulations. An experimental program evaluated low temperature thermal treatment of filter cakes produced from these sludges using laboratory and pilot-scale equipment. One set of experiments on waste samples from two different refineries demonstrated the effective removal of organics of concern from the sludges to meet the RCRA Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) treatment standards. Cyanides were also within the acceptable limit. Combined with stabilization of heavy metals in the treatment residues, low temperature thermal treatment therefore provides an effective and efficient means of treating refinery sludges, with most hydrocarbons recovered and recycled to the refinery. A milder thermal treatment was used to remove the bulk of the water from a previously filtered waste sludge, providing effective waste minimization through a 40% decrease in the mass of sludge to be disposed. The heating value of the sludge was increased simultaneously by one-third, thereby producing a residue of greater value in an alternative fuels program. A process based on this approach was successfully designed and commercialized.

Ayen, R.J.; Swanstrom, C.P. (Geneva Research Center, IL (United States))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Coordinated Management: Power, Performance, Energy, and Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordinated Management: Power, Performance, Energy, and Temperature Heather Hanson Stephen W and energy lim- its" and enable a coherent set of management mechanisms to achieve the goal. The closed at Austin IBM Technical Contact : Rob Bell, Jr. Abstract We are developing a next-generation power manager

Keckler, Stephen W.

293

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulatlng water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water temperature discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity... rather than a portion of it for water breakup and splash resulting in a net lower temperature. b. Water ~roughs or enclosed flumes in counterflow towers should be changed to a low-pressure spray piping system. c. Existing spray systems can...

Burger, R.

294

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................... 193 Lesson 11 Water and Pollution........................................................................................................................ 195 Activity 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere...! ............................................................................. 205 Record Sheet 11.1, Pollution, Pollution, Everywhere! ..................................................................... 207 Activity 11.2, Pollution at Its Source...

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

295

Water Privatisation   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zölls, Elisa

2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

296

SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISE SET #4 SCOTT MESSICK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a legal coloring if for each edge e E, |f(e)| > 1, i.e., there exist vertices u, v E such that f(u) = fSOLUTIONS TO EXERCISE SET #4 SCOTT MESSICK Exercise 4.1. (a) Define legal colorings of a hypergraph = (V, E) be a hypergraph. A coloring is a function f : V C where C is the set of "colors" (any set); f

Babai, László

297

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Temperature (oC)! Height(km)!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and forecasting ! ·Temperature decreases in altitude + water vapor > instabilities can develop ·Well mixed + O2 + M = O3 + M to proceed. It is M here that transfers the excess energy to the surrounding created and transported to high latitudes PSCs form in cold, dark, polar lower stratosphere PSCs process

299

Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

300

On Test Sets for Nonlinear Integer Maximization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Test Sets for Nonlinear. Integer Maximization. July 2007; revised February 2008. Jon Leea, Shmuel Onnb, Robert Weismantelc a IBM T.J. Watson Research

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) program provides financial assistance to those businesses and industries requiring such assistance in order to create new job opportunities. Assistance is...

302

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

303

About uniform regularity of collections of sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Russian. 18. Kruger, A. Y. Strict (?, ?)-semidifferentials and the extremality of sets and functions. Dokl. Nats. Akad. Nauk Belarusi 44, 2 (2000), 19–22, 122.

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point Tinset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point Fset, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point Topset.

Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

305

ENHANCED ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES IN SUBCRITICAL WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project involved designing and performing preliminary electrochemical experiments in subcritical water. An electrochemical cell with substantially better performance characteristics than presently available was designed, built, and tested successfully. The electrochemical conductivity of subcritical water increased substantially with temperature, e.g., conductivities increased by a factor of 120 when the temperature was increased from 25 to 250 C. Cyclic voltammograms obtained with platinum and nickel demonstrated that the voltage required to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water can be dropped by a factor of three in subcritical water compared to the voltages required at ambient temperatures. However, no enhancement in the degradation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene and the polychlorinated biphenyl 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl was observed with applied potential in subcritical water.

Steven B. Hawthorne

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gas-fired Storage Water Heater .. 418 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heaters Small Gas Storage Water Heater Market The objective of

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

309

Neutrons and X-rays reveal structure of high-temperature liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

first determination of the complete set of pair distribution functions for a high temperature oxide melt, which gives element-specific information on the probability of finding...

310

Ozone decomposition in water solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Hewes, III; B. S. , Texas ASH University Directed by Dr. R. R. Davison The rate of the decomposition of ozone in water solutions at various pH's and temperatures were ob- tained by an iodometrical method. The orders of the reactions and the reaction...

Hewes, Cecil Grayson

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Low temperature MFM imaging of Fe??xV??xAl intermetallics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) system was set up by adapting a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) from Park Scientific Instruments (PSI) for low temperature MFM use. Magnetic cantilevers were fabricated for the low...

Nooner, Scott Lee

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Strings at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

Changing climatic conditions in the Colorado River Basin: Implications for water resources management in the Las Vegas Valley.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Climate change affects the water available in a region. It also affects the water demand, because of the increase in temperature. A system dynamics model… (more)

Dawadi, Srijana

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

315

6, 13011320, 2006 Temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban, South Africa H and Physics Discussions Temperature climatology and trend estimates in the UTLS region as observed over Commons License. 1301 #12;ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban

Boyer, Edmond

316

Learning Minimum Volume Sets Clayton Scott  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Learning Minimum Volume Sets Clayton Scott Statistics Department Rice University Houston, TX 77005 herein are primarily of theoretical interest, although they may be implemented e#eciently for certain measure based on S: # P (G) = (1/n) # n i=1 I(X i # G). Here I(·) is the indicator function. Set µ

Scott, Clayton

317

Modeling Product Line Architectures through Change Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

architecture (PLA) § Software architecture for product line · Single, monolithic architecture for multiple products · Variation points to differentiate among products 3/17 KAIST SE LAB 2010 PLA > Engineer or guard PLA PLA PLA Engineer or guard Engineer or guard Change set & Relation Change set

Bae, Doo-Hwan

318

Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

319

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

programs) · Audience: homeowners Outcome 4: Increase water reuse and recycling programs · Example program: Water harvesting ­ rain barrels and cisterns · Audience: home owners #12;: Water conservation. Conserve Florida's finite water resources by teaching rural, suburban and urban

Kane, Andrew S.

320

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Liquid-liquid phase transition model incorporating evidence for ferroelectric state near the lambda-point anomaly in supercooled water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a unified model combining the first-order liquid-liquid and the second-order ferroelectric phase transitions models and explaining various features of the $\\lambda$-point of liquid water within a single theoretical framework. It becomes clear within the proposed model that not only does the long-range dipole-dipole interaction of water molecules yield a large value of dielectric constant $\\epsilon$ at room temperatures, our analysis shows that the large dipole moment of the water molecules also leads to a ferroelectric phase transition at a temperature close to the lambda-point. Our more refined model suggests that the phase transition occurs only in the low density component of the liquid and is the origin of the singularity of the dielectric constant recently observed in experiments with supercooled liquid water at temperature T~233K. This combined model agrees well with nearly every available set of experiments and explains most of the well-known and even recently obtained results of MD simulations.

Peter O. Fedichev; Leonid I. Menshikov

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

323

TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

324

High temperature electrochemical corrosion rate probes for combustion environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical corrosion rate probes have been constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in an air plus water vapor and a N2/O2/CO2 plus water vapor environment. Temperatures ranged from 200? to 700?C. Results show that electrochemical corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel are a function of time, temperature and process environment. Correlation between the electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was poor.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Eden, David A. (Intercorr International Inc.); Kane, Russell D. (Intercorr International Inc.); Eden, Dawn C. (Intercorr International Inc.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

The effect of temperature on relative permeability of unconsolidated sand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND A Thesis By SIMON YSRAEL Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE.... Summary of Water Flood at 150 F VII. Summary of Water Flood at 293 F 48 49 50 ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of temperature on relative permeability of unconsolidated sand. The present work was performed...

Ysrael, Simon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The aim of this project was to study the spatial and temporal distributions of ...

Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

328

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

329

Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in water heater. Scale buildup in pipes and re duced water flow. Hard water due to calcium and magnesiumHousehold Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may

Liskiewicz, Maciej

330

High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water...

331

Carbonate clumped isotope constraints on Silurian ocean temperature and seawater d18  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature is the carbonate-water oxygen isotope exchange thermometer, also known as the carbonate d18 O thermometer (Urey, 1947). This thermometer is based on the temperature dependence of the fractionation between

332

High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

Cieslewski, Grzegorz

333

High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

Cieslewski, Grzegorz

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Sun-Earth Connection The Temperature of the Earth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AST248 The Sun-Earth Connection #12;The Temperature of the Earth The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun - on average it is neither heating nor cooling. The equilibrium temperature is set by equating ­ the heat absorbed from the Sun with ­ the heat radiated by the Earth. Heat in = heat out #12;Heat

Walter, Frederick M.

335

Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

Young, I.

1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

336

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket37963 Vol.DepartmentFertilizer usedAugust

337

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chilled water cooling coil, and supply fan. The fan is aspecify the VAV box cooling design supply air temperature (the underfloor supply plenum (thereby, reducing room cooling

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

340

Grabbing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX: NEURONAL REPRESENTATION OF ORAL TEMPERATURE AND CAPSAICIN IN ADDITION TO TASTE AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the temperature of a liquid in the mouth. The temperature stimuli consisted of water at 10 °C, 23 °C, 37 °C and 42, and soup when hot. Although part of the effect of temperature on food palat- ability may be secondary refreshing when the core temperature is high (Cabanac, 1971). In this investigation we discovered neurons

Rolls, Edmund T.

342

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

T Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between atmosphere and ocean References coefficient of heat in water determine the heat transfer velocity: *t Infrared images of the water surface: a-Karls-Universität Heidelberg www.uni-heidelberg.de Active controlled flux technique (ACFT) Continuous heat flux Periodic heat

Jaehne, Bernd

345

EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property analysis of the three samples, there is no clear conclusion about transporting the samples before they are set; however, experience with saltstone grout indicates the samples should sit and develop some structure before being transported to SRNL for curing.

Reigel, M.

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

A note on three dimensional good sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that as in the case of n- fold Cartesian product for n greater than or equal to 4, even in 3-fold Cartesian product, a related component of a good set need not be a full component.

K. Gowri Navada

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

347

Tight extended formulations for independent set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3. there is finite set Q and a mapping f : V ? 2Q such that. (a) f is “consistent” with the acyclicity, namely, for every hyperarc (J, i) ?. A and for every j ? J, we ...

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Constructing Roadmaps of Semi-algebraic Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

4 A Uniform Algorithm. 4.1 Combinatorial Level. Given a polynomial Q and a set of polynomials P = fP1;:::;Psg we de ne the combinatorial level. of the system (Q;

349

BFL Research Greenhouse Guidelines (BFLRG) Contact: All emails regarding facilities, facilities equipment, supplies at facilities, or watering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(reverse osmosis) water at a neutral pH range. Do not use RO or Dosatron water for cleaning. Dosatron Fertilizer Injector: The injector should always be set up to run with RO (reverse osmosis) water as its

350

Fluctuations in Water and their Relation to the Hydrophobic Effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cavities of radius R in SPC/E water. After Ref. [49].hydrophobic polymer, in explicit SPC/E water. The collectiveA 60 × 60 × 60 ? A 3 slab of SPC/E water is set up in a 60 ×

Varilly, Patrick Stephen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Diode laser measurement of H?O, CO?, and temperature in gas turbine exhaust through the application of wavelength modulation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption-Measurements of Water-Vapor Concentration, Temperature, and Line-Shape Parameters Using a Tunable Ingaasp

Leon, Marco E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Bright Water- hydrosols, water conservation and climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since air-water and water-air interfaces are equally refractive, cloud droplets and microbubbles dispersed in bodies of water reflect sunlight in much the same way. The lifetime of sunlight-reflecting microbubbles, and hence the scale on which they may be applied, depends on Stokes Law and the influence of ambient or added surfactants. Small bubbles backscatter light more efficiently than large ones, opening the possibility of using highly dilute micron-radius hydrosols to substantially brighten surface waters. Such microbubbles can noticeably increase water surface reflectivity, even at volume fractions of parts per million and such loadings can be created at an energy cost as low as J m-2 to initiate and milliwatts m-2 to sustain. Increasing water albedo in this way can reduce solar energy absorption by as much as 100 W m-2, potentially reducing equilibrium temperatures of standing water bodies by several Kelvins. While aerosols injected into the stratosphere tend to alter climate globally, hydrosols can be...

Seitz, Russell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Temperature and RH Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

355

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The water supercooled regime as described by four common water models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The temperature scale of simple water models in general does not coincide with the natural one. Therefore, in order to make a meaningful evaluation of different water models a temperature rescaling is necessary. In this paper we introduce a rescaling using the melting temperature and the temperature corresponding to the maximum of the heat capacity to evaluate four common water models (TIP4P-Ew, TIP4P-2005, TIP5P-Ew and Six-Sites) in the supercooled regime. Although all the models show the same general qualitative behavior, the TIP5P-Ew appears as the best representation of the supercooled regime when the rescaled temperature is used. We also analyze, using thermodynamic arguments, the critical nucleus size for ice growth. Finally, we speculate on the possible reasons why atomistic models do not usually crystalize while the coarse grained mW model do crystallize.

Malaspina, David C; Pereyra, Rodolfo G; Szleifer, Igal; Carignano, Marcelo A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY The University recognises the challenge posed by climate change, and will identify and set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy and Water We will reduce by the annual target our consumption of energy and water We will set an exemplar of good practice and a leader in environmental management within the HE sector. This environmental policy will be reviewed every three years and made publicly available. Vice Chancellor January 2013 #12;

Barker, Jon

358

Modeling of structure H hydrate equilibria for methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds in which guest molecules are engaged by water molecules under favorable conditions of pressure and temperature. The well known structures 1 and 2 have been discovered since last century, while a new structure called H has been recently described in the literature. Since that time, structure H hydrate equilibrium data involving methane and different intermediate liquid hydrocarbon molecules have been published. The equilibrium calculations involving hydrates are based on the fact that the chemical potential of water in the aqueous liquid phase is equal to the one in the hydrate phase. The chemical potential of water in the liquid aqueous phase can be easily described by classical thermodynamic relations, while the chemical potential of water in the hydrates phase is described by the expressions proposed by Van der Walls and Platteeuw derived from an adsorption model based on statistical thermodynamics. The authors present in this paper a set of Kihara potential parameters which enable the calculation of Langmuir constants which characterize the adsorption of some naphthenic and iso-paraffinic intermediate hydrocarbons in the larger cage of structure H hydrates. This work thus allows the computation of structural H hydrate equilibrium conditions for systems made of methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water.

Thomas, M.; Behar, E. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

360

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional-wide, systematic approach · Flexible--Adaptive Management Adaptive Manageme nt #12;Integrated Water Management

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

362

Fiber optic temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

Rabold, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Water solubility data for 151 hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of a hydrocarbon in water is important from both an environmental and a safety perspective. This information is required by engineers who design or operate stripping processes that remove hydrocarbons from air or water, or who must determine the amount of a hydrocarbon that has dissolved in water following a chemical spill. In particular, the water solubilities of paraffins are increasingly important because of more-stringent government regulations. Paraffins, along with naphthenes and aromatics, are the three major components of unrefined fuels. The water solubilities of 151 paraffins are listed in tables. The data are valid between 25 and 121 C, typical temperature in air- and steam-stripping operations. Also included is a correlation equation that allows users to estimate hydrocarbon solubilities above the given temperature range.

Yaws, C.L.; Pan, Xiang; Lin, Xiaoyin (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »ExchangeDepartmentResolve to Save

365

Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II FieldVacancy-InducedCloud PropertiesObservations

366

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformationSEDS data JumpWakullaWanxiang ElectricFacility | Open

367

Instruction sets for Parallel Random Access Machines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The computational powers of time-bounded Parallel Random Access Machines (PRAMs) with different instruction sets are compared. A basic PRAM can perform the following operations in unit-time: addition, subtraction, Boolean operations, comparisons, and indirect addressing. Multiple processors may concurrently read and concurrently write a single cell. This thesis establishes that the class of languages accepted in polynomial time on a PRAM(*, {up arrow}, {down arrow}) contains the class of languages accepted in exponential time on a nondeterministic Turing machine (NEXPTIME) and is contained in the class of languages accepted in exponential space on a Turing machine. Efficient simulations are presented of PRAMs with enhanced instruction sets by sequential RAMs with the same instruction sets; also simulations of probabilistic PRAMs by deterministic PRAMs, using parallelism to replace randomness. Also given are simulations of PRAM(op)s by PRAMs, where both the simulated machine and the simulating machine are exclusive-read, exclusive-write machines.

Trahan, J.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Water Management Act (Massachusetts)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

369

Protected Water Sources (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter designates protected water sources, which are subject to additional special conditions regarding water use. Permit applications for water withdrawals from these sources may still be...

370

Storm Water Analytical Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL...

371

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

372

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2013 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

373

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

374

Efficient Water Use & Management  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL....

375

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and Materials Disposition InformationInteractionsWater

376

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout Printable VersionProtectiveWaste to beswim WatchingWaterW

377

A Clustering-Assisted Regression (CAR) approach for developing spatial climate data sets in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Clustering-Assisted Regression (CAR) approach for developing spatial climate data sets in China t There is an increasing demand for improving spatial resolution of climate data. However, an increase in resolution does spatial data of monthly mean temperature and monthly precipitation at a national scale in mainland China

Pittendrigh, Barry

378

A single-electron tunneling reset-set flip-flop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a new Reset-Set flip-flop fully implemented with single-electron devices is proposed. Its topology derived from NAND gates and was validated at room temperature by simulation. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed single-electron device and MOS devices in terms of power consumption and occupied area is presented.

Alencar, Bianca M. S. M. de; Guimarães, Janaina G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, P.O. Box 4386, Brasilia-DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

TEST PLAN FOR MONITORING COOLING COILS IN A LABORATORY SETTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research project is to understand and quantify the moisture removal performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. The project will include a comprehensive literature review, detailed measurement of cooling coil performance in a laboratory facility, monitoring cooling systems at several field test sites, and development/validation of engineering models that can be used in energy calculations and building simulations. This document contains the detailed test plan for monitoring cooling coil performance in a laboratory setting. Detailed measurements will be taken on up to 10 direct expansion (DX) and chilled water cooling coils in various configurations to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation.

Don B. Shirey, III

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

Burch, J.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

High Temperature Capacitor Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

John Kosek

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Holographic conductivity of zero temperature superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the recently found by G. Horowitz and M. Roberts (arXiv:0908.3677) numerical model of the ground state of holographic superconductors (at zero temperature), we calculate the conductivity for such models. The universal relation connecting conductivity with the reflection coefficient was used for finding the conductivity by the WKB approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the frequency and charge density is discussed. Numerical calculations confirm the general arguments of (arXiv:0908.3677) in favor of non-zero conductivity even at zero temperature. In addition to the Horowitz-Roberts solution we have found (probably infinite) set of extra solutions which are normalizable and reach the same correct RN-AdS asymptotic at spatial infinity. These extra solutions (which correspond to larger values of the grand canonical potential) lead to effective potentials that also vanish at the horizon and thus correspond to a non-zero conductivity at zero temperature.

R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Dominating Set on Bipartite Graphs Mathieu Liedloff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5263n ) time algorithm using polynomial space and an O(1.5137n ) time algorithm using exponential space ) time and polynomial space algorithm, and an O(1.5063n ) time algorithm that uses exponential space. We]). Known results. Given a graph G = (V, E), a subset D V is a dominating set of G if every vertex of V

Liedloff, Mathieu

384

Second Decade Planning Setting System Wide Goals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School Enrollment Should be done HS by going rate with rollups to colleges and to total. Build in the HS an Efficient, Sustainable Organization · For each category, a small number of goals will be set that will o of students earning degrees through the University Centers to A. Creating an efficient, sustainable

Olsen, Stephen L.

385

Imperfect World of $??$-decay Nuclear Data Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The precision of double-beta ($\\beta\\beta$) decay experimental half lives and their uncertainties is reanalyzed. The method of Benford's distributions has been applied to nuclear reaction, structure and decay data sets. First-digit distribution trend for $\\beta\\beta$-decay T$_{1/2}^{2\

B. Pritychenko

2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

386

Fuzzy Mathematics Fuzzy -Sets, -Relations, -Logic, -Graphs,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuzzy Mathematics Fuzzy -Sets, -Relations, -Logic, -Graphs, -Mappings and The Extension Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 The Extension Principle 10 3 Fuzzy Graphs 16 4 Fuzzy Logic 19 Back View #12;Section 1: Fuzzy Olaf Wolkenhauer Control Systems Centre UMIST o.wolkenhauer@umist.ac.uk www

Rostock, Universität

387

Transformations between symmetric sets of quantum states  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate probabilistic transformations of quantum states from a `source' set to a `target' set of states. Such transforms have many applications. They can be used for tasks which include state-dependent cloning or quantum state discrimination, and as interfaces between systems whose information encodings are not related by a unitary transform, such as continuous-variable systems and finite-dimensional systems. In a probabilistic transform, information may be lost or leaked, and we explain the concepts of leak and redundancy. Following this, we show how the analysis of probabilistic transforms significantly simplifies for symmetric source and target sets of states. In particular, we give a simple linear program which solves the task of finding optimal transforms, and a method of characterizing the introduced leak and redundancy in information-theoretic terms. Using the developed techniques, we analyse a class of transforms which convert coherent states with information encoded in their relative phase to symmetric qubit states. Each of these sets of states on their own appears in many well studied quantum information protocols. Finally, we suggest an asymptotic realization based on quantum scissors.

Vedran Dunjko; Erika Andersson

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

388

Savannah River Site TEP-SET tests uncertainty report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a measurement uncertainty analysis for the instruments used for the Phase I, II and III of the Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank/Muff/Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) Experiment Series. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory conducted the tests for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The tests represented a range of hydraulic conditions and geometries that bound anticipated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents in the SRS reactors. Important hydraulic phenomena were identified from experiments. In addition, code calculations will be benchmarked from these experiments. The experimental system includes the following measurement groups: coolant density; absolute and differential pressures; turbine flowmeters (liquid phase); thermal flowmeters (gas phase); ultrasonic liquid level meters; temperatures; pump torque; pump speed; moderator tank liquid inventory via a load cells measurement; and relative humidity meters. This document also analyzes data acquisition system including the presampling filters as it relates to these measurements.

Taylor, D.J.N.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Cygnus Water Switch Jitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Disaggregating residential hot water use. Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major obstacle to gathering detailed data on end-use hot water consumption within residences and commercial buildings is the cost and complexity of the field tests. An earlier study by the authors presented a methodology that could accurately disaggregate hot water consumption into individual end-uses using only information on the flow of hot water from the water heater. The earlier methodology can be extended to a much larger population of buildings, without greatly increasing the cost and complexity of the data collection and analysis, by monitoring the temperature of the hot water lines that go to different parts of the building. For the three residences studied here, thermocouples /monitored the temperatures of four hot water lines at each site. The thermocouple readings provide a positive indication of when hot water starts to flow in a line. Since the end-uses served by each hot water line are known, the uncertainty in assigning a draw to a particular end-use is greatly reduced. Benefits and limitations for the methodology are discussed in the paper. Using the revised methodology, hot water usage in three residences is disaggregated into the following end-uses: showers, baths, clothes washing, dishwashing, kitchen sink, and bathroom sink. For two residences, the earlier methodology--which does not use the thermocouple data--is also used to disaggregate the same draw data.

Lowenstein, A. [AIL Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Hiller, C.C. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Low temperature cryoprobe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

Sungaila, Z.F.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

393

High-Temperature Superconductivity  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

Peter Johnson

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

Elevated temperature crack propagation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

Orange, T.W.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

It has been hot! In some places in Tennessee this summer, records have been set for "hot weather." According to the Weather Service in Morristown, there has been 59 days of tempera-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

degrees. The high temperature during the days and the nights above 70, this is tough on cattle. They have water is needed to cool the cattle's internal or- gans. Internal temperature will have an impact on feed and especially, forage intake. Water from ponds will be elevated in temperature and therefore will be reduced

Tennessee, University of

396

High temperature low friction surface coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

High temperature pressure gauge  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

399

Setting Environmental Standards: A Statistician's Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to protect the population from adverse health effects due to pollution of air, water and soil of using compliance monitoring networks to assess health effects of air pollution. #12;2. A statistical value of pollution, measured or actual, not to be exceeded. We consider the standard for ozone

Washington at Seattle, University of

400

Neutrinos from Stellar Collapse: Comparison of signatures in water and heavy water detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Signatures of neutrino and antineutrino signals from stellar collapse in heavy water detectors are contrasted with those in water detectors. The effects of mixing, especially due to the highly dense matter in the supernova core, are studied. The mixing parameters used are those sets allowed by current understanding of available neutrino data: from solar, atmospheric and laboratory neutrino experiments. Signals at a heavy water detector, especially the dominant charged current reactions on deuteron, are very sensitive to some of these sets of allowed mixing parameters. Theoretical uncertainties on supernova neutrino spectra notwithstanding, a combination of supernova measurements with water and heavy water detectors may be able to distinguish many of these mixing possibilities and thus help in ruling out many of them.

Gautam Dutta; D. Indumathi; M. V. N. Murthy; G. Rajasekaran

2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Solar Desalination of Brackish Water Using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It was found that the solar water heater could increase the brackish water temperature to above 170 F duringNew Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Solar Desalination of Brackish Water Using Membrane Distillation Process Shuguang Deng, NMSU

Johnson, Eric E.

402

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Cadeddu, Maria

403

Water watch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Designing a low cost XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis guides the reader through the design of an inexpensive XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting machine starting with a set of functional requirements and ending with a product. Abrasive water jet cutting allows ...

Abu Ibrahim, Fadi, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

AME 101 Fall 2013 Problem Set #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engine is defined as follows: TSFC = mf QR Tc where mf is the fuel mass flow rate (units mass/time), QR points) (from a previous midterm) I calculated the power production from a new type of steam turbine, Pin and Uin are the temperature, pressure and velocity of the steam going into the turbine, Tout, Pout

407

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

408

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

Buehrer, R. Michael

409

Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Drought, Climate Change · Growth and the need for additional supplies · Water and Energy · Water the Southwest, nation, semi-arid and arid regions, and the world. · Today's program provides just a glimpse to and utilization of renewable supplies · Transboundary water issues · The surface water/groundwater interface

Cushing, Jim. M.

410

Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

411

Optical monitor for water vapor concentration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

413

Stuck-at-fault test set compaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Test set size under pattern score based dynamic compaction . . . 13 . . . 17 Figure 7. Pattern Score distribution v:ith pattern metric dynamic compaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . I g LIST OF TABLES Page Table l. l. nuit Target Sclcction Methods.... Fault Target Selection Methods Random Minimum Detection Count Circuit Name c432 c499 c880 c1355 c1908 G2670 Excitation Balance 0. 136296 0. 191652 0. 170293 0. 173310 0. 187486 0. 190484 Pattern Count 1152 873 2693 1394 1708 5148...

Vanfickell, Jason Michael

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

414

An annual quasidifference approach to water price elasticity David R. Bell1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, industrial, and heavy commercial water usage, residential/urban water use is more likely to occur in settingsAn annual quasidifference approach to water price elasticity David R. Bell1 and Ronald C. Griffin1] The preferred price specification for retail water demand estimation has not been fully settled by prior

Griffin, Ronald

415

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

High temperature thermometric phosphors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

418

High temperature thermometric phosphors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

419

Temperature Data Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

Gillespie, David

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Reduction of a phosphorus oxide and acid reaction set  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been predicted for some time that hypersonic aircraft will suffer from diminished fuel efficiency due to the slow speed of radical recombination in the nozzle of the aircraft and the consequent expulsion of high-energy fragments during high Mach number flight. The addition of small amounts of phosphine combustion products (phosphorus oxides and acids) to water vapor has been found to result in a faster relaxation rate of OH to its equilibrium density following H{sub 2}O photolysis. This article describes the systematic construction of a reaction model of 162 phosphorus reactions among 17 phosphorus-containing species. Those reactions that contribute to the reestablishment of equilibrium following the perturbation of the system by H{sub 2}O photolysis or by an increase in temperature are identified. A thermodynamic free energy function is used to quantify the rate of system relaxation back to equilibrium for a series of 36 reaction conditions covering a temperature range of 1,500 to 3,000 K, a gas density range of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} to 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} mol/cm{sup 3} and a fuel equivalence ratio of 0.8 to 1.2.

Twarowski, A. [Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)] [Rockwell International Science Center, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Dedrick, Daniel E. (Berkeley, CA); Anderson, David W. (Riverbank, CA)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

422

STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP JOSEPH FARRELL JOHN HAYES CARL SHAPIRO THERESA SULLIVAN* I. STANDARD SETTING, PATENTS, AND HOLD-UP: A TROUBLESOME MIX Standard setting raises a variety of antitrust strategy in standard setting, and Shapiro ad- dresses the boundary between cooperative standard setting

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

423

Improved Water and Nutrient Management Through HighFrequency Irrigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High frequency irrigation implies the uniform, frequent application of water to crops. The fequency may range from several irrigations per week to daily irrigation to even several irrigations per day in greenhouse and nursery settings. Most...

Howell, T. A.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Redden, D. L.; McFarland, M. J.

424

High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

425

The effect of temperature on the development, growth and survival of Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and plastic lids to prevent evaporative cooling or water loss in the rearing pans, The temperature in the pans was moniz. ored with a Rustrak 2144 temperature recorder and a 1411 temp- erature probe (Gulton Ind. Inc. , Manchester, N. H...

McHugh, Chad Patrick

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Fluorescent temperature sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

427

Adaptation of US Maize to Temperature Variations Ethan E. Butler1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@fas.harvard.edu High temperatures are associated with reduced crop yields1,2 , and predictions for future warming3 have maize is locally adapted to hot temperatures across U.S. counties. Using this spatial adaptation. This result does not ac- count for possible changes in temperature variability or water resources, nor does

Huybers, Peter

428

Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100.degree. C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Phillip, Bradley L. (Shaker Heights, OH)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Phillip, Bradley L. (20976 Fairmount Blvd., Shaker Heights, Cuyahoga County, OH 44120)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Leaf water potential in Pinus taeda L. as related to fluctuating soil water and atmospheric conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

growing on Bienville loamy fine sand near Rusk, Texas. The average available water storage capacity was 9. 50 inches in the 8-foot profile. Siruiltaneous measurements of leaf water potential and environmental variables were made weekly at two hour... pressure 2 deficit, temperature, and wind (R 0. 78). A regression equation relating total daily water stress to only vapor pressure deficit and soil water content in the 0- to 4-foot soil layer was also signifi- 2= cant (R = 0. 76). The total daily...

Ellison, Stanley Lee

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Modern hot water district heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of district heating in Europe is drastically different from that in the United States. The development of district heating in northern and eastern Europe started in the early 1950s. Hot water rather than steam was used as the transport medium and the systems have proven to be more economical. Recently, the northern European concept has been introduced into two US cities - St. Paul and Willmar, Minnesota. The hot water project in St. Paul started construction and operation in the summer and fall of 1983, respectively. The entire first phase of the St. Paul project will take two summers to construct and will connect approximately 80 buildings for a total of 150 MW(t). The system spans the entire St. Paul business district and includes privately owned offices and retail buildings, city and county government buildings, hospitals, the state Capitol complex, and several industrial customers. The City of Willmar, Minnesota, replaced an old steam system with a modern hot water system in the summer of 1982. The first phase of the hot water system was constructed in the central business district. The system serves a peak thermal load of about 10 MW(t) and includes about 12,000 ft of network. The Willmar system completed the second stage of development in the fall of 1983. These two new systems demonstrate the benefits of the low-temperature hot water district heating technology. The systems are economical to build, have high reliability, and have low maintenance and operating cost.

Karnitz, M.A.; Barnes, M.H.; Kadrmas, C.; Nyman, H.O.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising hydrng a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO.sub.3 of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Trenton, NJ); Knox, Lerry (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Off-set stabilizer for comparator output  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stabilized off-set voltage is input as the reference voltage to a comparator. In application to a time-interval meter, the comparator output generates a timing interval which is independent of drift in the initial voltage across the timing capacitor. A precision resistor and operational amplifier charge a capacitor to a voltage which is precisely offset from the initial voltage. The capacitance of the reference capacitor is selected so that substantially no voltage drop is obtained in the reference voltage applied to the comparator during the interval to be measured.

Lunsford, James S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Widget:SetTitle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place:ReferenceEdit Jump to: navigation, search This widget isSetTitle

435

Optimization of a Chilled Water Plant Using a Forward Plant Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of some energy conservation measures. This model is based on a Wire-to-Water efficiency concept to simulate the plant power for producing cooling. The fluctuation of the chilled water loop supply and return temperature difference is also considered...

Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

Girling, P.M.

1986-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

437

Low Temperature Performance Characterization  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0.0036 0.0038 0.004 0.0042 Inverse Temperature, 1K Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww) (BID 1935), 4.1V, 3 Sep. Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww)...

438

The Adjustment of Avian Metabolic Rates and Water Fluxes to Desert Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ambient air temperatures (Ta), low primary productivity, and lack of surface water place deserts among and Seely 1982; Williams and Tieleman 2000b). Likewise, lack of surface water ostensibly limits water intake461 The Adjustment of Avian Metabolic Rates and Water Fluxes to Desert Environments B. Irene

Williams, Jos. B.

439

Water Quality 101 Dr. Mike Mallin and Matthew McIver  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ organic nitrogen Silicate Heavy metals ­ water column aluminum arsenic cadmium chromium copper1 Water Quality 101 Dr. Mike Mallin and Matthew McIver Aquatic Ecology Laboratory UNCW-Center for Marine Science Common Water Quality Sampling Parameters and Analytical Procedures Water temperature

Mallin, Michael

440

FOCUS: HARSH ENVIRONMENT MASS SPECTROMETRY Field Testing of Lake Water Chemistry with a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOCUS: HARSH ENVIRONMENT MASS SPECTROMETRY Field Testing of Lake Water Chemistry with a Portable waters. KOALA is a backpackable MS operated from above the water surface, in which samples are pumped for temperature control of a membrane inlet when steep thermal gradients are present in a water body, as well

Entekhabi, Dara

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Control of Chilled Water System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supply temperatures may improve the efficiency while meeting cooling requirements for cleanroom for cleanrooms and their adjacent spaces. Chillers 39% Cooling Towers 7% Pumps 17% MUAH + RCU Fans 9% Hot Water;chilled water pumps, secondary loop chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and cooling towers

442

Experimental investigation of over-expanded supersonic steam jet submerged in quiescent water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was designed to determine the behaviour of an over-expanded supersonic steam jet in quiescent water. Only two shapes of steam plume were observed and an analytical model was constructed. The axial and radial temperature distributions were measured in the steam plume and in the surrounding water. The flow pattern and temperature distributions were influenced mainly by steam mass flux and water temperature. The results confirmed the occurrence of compression and expansion waves in the steam plume, and indicated that the temperature distributions reflected the steam plume shapes. The axial temperature distributions in the forepart of the steam plume were independent of water temperature. Empirical correlations were found that predicted the dimensionless axial and radial temperatures of the turbulent jet region. Moreover, prediction of the steam plume length by the dimensionless axial temperature showed good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

Wu, Xin-Zhuang; Yan, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jun; Pan, Dong-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yao [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Fact sheet...

444

The Set Covering Problem Revisited: An Empirical Study of the ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the set covering problem (SCP) and conduct an empirical study on a set of ...... Technical report, Graduate Program in Operations Research and Industrial ...

Birbil

2014-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

445

EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework EV Everywhere Electric Drive Workshop: Preliminary Target-Setting Framework Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

446

Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress This Report to Congress, published in August 2006,...

447

Shelah Classication and Higher Descriptive Set Theory Shelah's Classication Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Rautila whenever + = , SDF when + : Theorem (Sam Coskey and SDF, independently) You can force 1 1 sets to have the BP. Perfect Set Property

448

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy...

449

Energy Department Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Qualify for the ENERGY STAR Label Energy Department Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Qualify for the ENERGY STAR...

450

Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

Dai, Steven Xunhu

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

451

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

Soerens, Thomas

452

Water Basins Civil Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

Provancher, William

453

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

454

Setting clear expectations for safety basis development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE-RL has set clear expectations for a cost-effective approach for achieving compliance with the Nuclear Safety Management requirements (10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Rule) which will ensure long-term benefit to Hanford. To facilitate implementation of these expectations, tools were developed to streamline and standardize safety analysis and safety document development resulting in a shorter and more predictable DOE approval cycle. A Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) was issued to standardized methodologies for development of safety analyses. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet (RADIDOSE) was issued for the evaluation of radiological consequences for accident scenarios often postulated for Hanford. A standard Site Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) detailing the safety management programs was issued for use as a means of compliance with a majority of 3009 Standard chapters. An in-process review was developed between DOE and the Contractor to facilitate DOE approval and provide early course correction. As a result of setting expectations and providing safety analysis tools, the four Hanford Site waste management nuclear facilities were able to integrate into one Master Waste Management Documented Safety Analysis (WM-DSA).

MORENO, M.R.

2003-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

455

Solubility Measurements of Crystalline Cu2O in Aqueous Solution as a Function of Temperature and pH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The equilibrium solubility of crystalline cuprous oxide, cuprite, was measured in liquid water and steam using two flow-through reactors and a conventional batch autoclave. These measurements were carried out from 20 to 400 C. Different batches of pretreated cuprite were thoroughly characterized prior to and following each set of experiments. Metallic copper beads were added to the inlet end of the reactors and to the solid charge in the autoclave to preserve the Cu(I) oxidation state, although one series of experiments produced some results which were only compatible with CuO(cr) as the solubility limiting phase. Comparison of the solubility data for Cu2O(cr) in aqueous solution with those from the only available high-temperature dataset (Var yash, Geochem. Int. 26:80 90, 1989) showed that in near-neutral solutions the new data are lower by about four orders of magnitude at 350 C. Moreover, the dominant species in solution at temperatures 100 C were found to be only Cu+ and Cu(OH) 2 with Cu(OH)0 occurring over a narrow pH range at 75 C rather than the reverse trend reported previously. Solubility equations were developed as a function of temperature and pH, based on these new results, which showed increased solubility with temperature in acidic and basic solutions. The solubility of Cu2O(cr) in steam decreased slightly with temperature and as expected increased with increasing pressure to supercritical conditions where limited, compatible data were available in the literature. The solubility at subcritical conditions was on the order of one to several parts per billion, ppb. A simple empirical fit was derived for the solubility in steam as a function of temperature and pressure.

Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Microbial impacts on geothermometry temperature predictions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional geothermometry approaches assume that the composition of a collected water sample originating in a deep geothermal reservoir still reflects chemical equilibration of the water with the deep reservoir rocks. However, for geothermal prospecting samples whose temperatures have dropped to <120°C, temperature predictions may be skewed by the activity of microorganisms; microbial metabolism can drastically and rapidly change the water’s chemistry. We hypothesize that knowledge of microbial impacts on exploration sample geochemistry can be used to constrain input into geothermometry models and thereby improve the reliability of reservoir temperature predictions. To evaluate this hypothesis we have chosen to focus on sulfur cycling, because of the significant changes in redox state and pH associated with sulfur chemistry. Redox and pH are critical factors in defining the mineral-fluid equilibria that form the basis of solute geothermometry approaches. Initially we are developing assays to detect the process of sulfate reduction, using knowledge of genes specific to sulfate reducing microorganisms. The assays rely on a common molecular biological technique known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which allows estimation of the number of target organisms in a particular sample by enumerating genes specific to the organisms rather than actually retrieving and characterizing the organisms themselves. For quantitation of sulfate reducing genes using qPCR, we constructed a plasmid (a piece of DNA) containing portions of two genes (known as dsrA and dsrB) that are directly involved with sulfate reduction and unique to sulfate reducing microorganisms. Using the plasmid as well as DNA from other microorganisms known to be sulfate reducers or non-sulfate reducers, we developed qPCR protocols and showed the assay’s specificity to sulfate reducers and that a qPCR standard curve using the plasmid was linear over >5 orders of magnitude. As a first test with actual field samples, the assay was applied to DNA extracted from water collected at springs located in and around the town of Soda Springs, Idaho. Soda Springs is located in the fold and thrust belt on the eastern boundary of the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot, where a deep carbon dioxide source believed to originate from Mississippian limestone contacts acidic hydrothermal fluids at depth. Both sulfate and sulfide have been measured in samples collected previously at Soda Springs. Preliminary results indicate that sulfate reducing genes were present in each of the samples tested. Our work supports evaluation of the potential for microbial processes to have altered water chemistry in geothermal exploration samples.

Yoshiko Fujita; David W. Reed; Kaitlyn R. Nowak; Vicki S. Thompson; Travis L. McLing; Robert W. Smith

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 1 INTRODUCTION Faced with geopolitical and global economic uncertainties, many leading exploration and production corporations (E&P) have placed deliberate emphasis on marketing their ?shallow hazardous? and ?economically volatile? assets... of Matthews and Kelly?s work, Eaton24,25 stated that rock deformation is elastic, he then replaced effective stress coefficient in the above method by employing Poisson?s ratio: PPP +?? ?? ? ? ?= ? ? 1 , ?????????????????????????(12) On the basis...

Tu, Yong B.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

458

Adjust your laptop's power settings to save energy Carry your reusable water bottle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recycling receptacles Use Compact Florescent Lightbulbs Buy local produce and goods Get involved student-led farm on campus), and supporting education in agroecology and sustainable food systems. "Each

459

Nauru Island Effect Detection Data Set  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

During Nauru99 it was noted that the island was producing small clouds that advected over the ARM site. The Nauru Island Effect Study was run for 1.5 years and the methodology developed to detect the occurrence. Nauru ACRF downwelling SW, wind direction, and air temperature data are used, along with downwelling SW data from Licor radiometers located on the southern end of the island near the airport landing strip. A statistical analysis and comparison of data from the two locations is used to detect the likely occurrence of an island influence on the Nauru ACRF site data

Long, Chuck

460

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

462

Skin temperature of the sea as determined by radiometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Differences Temperature Vapor Press Skin Skin Bkt Skin Bkt -Bkt -Air -Air -Air -Air 120100 120200 120400 120500 1 20600 1 20700 1 20800 1 20900 1 21000 130100 130200 130300 130400 130500 130600 130700 130800 131000 131100 . 6235 . 6732.... FORTRAN program. 57 6. Stepwise analysis of error in radiation temperature of the sea. 65 LIST OF FIGURES Number Page 1. Tracks of Cruise 62 -H-10 along which radiation data were obtained, 2. Comparison of i. nfrared emissivities of water vapor. 14...

Boudreau, Robert Donald

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Integrated Temperature and Humidity Control: A Unique Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as in Singapore. The results presented herein are from one of these sites, consisting of two adjacent unoccupied guest rooms in a hotel, each equipped with chilled- water fan coil units. The two, virtually identical adja- cent rooms were selected primarily... for comparing the operation and performance of the ITHC with that of a dry-bulb temperature controller (DBTC) under the exact same conditions (solar, outdoor temperature and humidity, internal loads, etc.). To obtain com- parative results, the fan coil unit...

Shah, D. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Logic and the set theory Lecture 11,12: Quantifiers (The set theory) in How to Prove It.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and set theory October 2, 2011 1 / 1 #12;Introduction About this lecture Sets (HTP Sections 1.3, 1.4) S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory October 2, 2011 2 / 1 #12;Introduction About this lecture Sets (HTP Sections 1.3, 1.4) Quantifiers and sets (HTP 2.1) S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory October 2, 2011 2

Choi, Suhyoung

465

Logic and the set theory Lecture 11,12: Quantifiers (The set theory) in How to Prove It.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and set theory October 7, 2012 1 / 26 #12;Introduction About this lecture Sets (HTP Sections 1.3, 1.4) S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory October 7, 2012 2 / 26 #12;Introduction About this lecture Sets (HTP Sections 1.3, 1.4) Quantifiers and sets (HTP 2.1) S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory October 7, 2012 2

Choi, Suhyoung

466

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

467

Clusters of galaxies: setting the stage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clusters of galaxies are self-gravitating systems of mass ~10^14-10^15 Msun. They consist of dark matter (~80 %), hot diffuse intracluster plasma (web and form by anisotropic and episodic accretion of mass. In this model of the universe dominated by cold dark matter, at the present time most baryons are expected to be in a diffuse component rather than in stars and galaxies; moreover, ~50 % of this diffuse component has temperature ~0.01-1 keV and permeates the filamentary distribution of the dark matter. The temperature of this Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) increases with the local density and its search in the outer regions of clusters and lower density regions has been the quest of much recent observational effort. Over the last thirty years, an impressive coherent picture of the formation and evolution of cosmic structures has emerged from the intense interplay between observations, theory and numerical experiments. Future efforts will continue to test whether this picture keeps being valid, needs corrections or suffers dramatic failures in its predictive power.

A. Diaferio; S. Schindler; K. Dolag

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

468

Measurement of the ?[subscript e] and total [superscript 8]B solar neutrino fluxes with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory phase-III data set  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper details the solar neutrino analysis of the 385.17-day phase-III data set acquired by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO). An array of [superscript 3]He proportional counters was installed in the heavy-water ...

Formaggio, Joseph A.

469

Water Rights (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

470

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

Adler, J.

471

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power plants, water withdrawals for electricity generationelectricity generation in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric power plantsplant with CCS technologies requires roughly 1,000 gallons of water for every megawatt-hour of electricity generation (

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water...

473

Lawn Water Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

474

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of California’s Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Report on fuel pool water loss tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To resolve potential concerns on the integrity of the fuel storage pool at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a highly accurate testing technique was developed to quantify water losses from the pool. The fuel pool is an unlined, single wall, reinforced concrete structure containing approximately 818,000 gallons of water. Since an initial test indicated that water losses could possibly be attributed solely to evaporation, a cover was suspended and sealed over the pool to block evaporation losses. High accuracy water level and temperature instrumentation was procured and installed. The conclusions of this report indicate that unaccounted-for water losses from the pool are insignificant and there is no detectable leakage within the range of test accuracy.

Zalenski, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., West Valley, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Experimental Investigation on the Interaction of Water and Methanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For water, three desorption states were observed in the TPD spectra at 160 K, 190 K, and 250...

478

Modelling of unidirectional thermal diffusers in shallow water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study is an experimental and theoretical investigation of the temperature field and velocity field induced by a unidirectional thermal diffuser in shallow water. A multiport thermal diffuser is essentially a pipe laid ...

Lee, Joseph Hun-Wei

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

A Study on Performance Degradation of PEMFC by Water Freezing...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Study on Performance Degradation of PEMFC by Water Freezing Workshop on Fuel Cell Operation at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Feb. 1-2, 2005 EunAe Cho Fuel Cell Research Center Korea...

480

Problems with low-temperature clinkers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the cement industry, there are real problems connected with reducing the fuel/energy consumption and producing high-strength and rapid setting cements. A series of physicochemical examinations and pilot plant trials have shown that the use of BaSO/sub 4/ + CaSO/sub 4/ as a compound additive (barium-containing waste + gypsum) makes it possible to prepare a belite clinker at a temperature of 1250/sup 0/C; the BaSO/sub 4/ + CaSO/sub 4/ additive stabilizes the dicalcium silicate in the ..cap alpha..'-modification; introduction of the compound additive into the belite raw material mixture leads to the formation of hydraulically active minerals in the clinker-calcium sulfoaluminate, monocalcium aluminate, and ..cap alpha..'-C/sub 2/S, which in combination with alite ensure that a high-activity belite clinker is obtained at low burning temperatures.

Sychev, M.M.; Tandilova, K.B.; Minkina, V.N.

1987-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water temperature setting" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

482

Engine Cylinder Temperature Control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

483

Chimera Grids for Water Simulation R. Elliot English  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chimera Grids for Water Simulation R. Elliot English Stanford University Linhai Qiu Stanford propellers. Abstract We introduce a new method for large scale water simulation using Chimera grid embedding level set method in order to adapt it to Chimera grids including particle treatment across grid

Fedkiw, Ron

484

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS A REPORT SUBMITTED;Abstract A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous ow of steam and water in porous media with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeability for steam phase

Stanford University

485

Improved germination of pansy seed at high temperatures by priming with salt solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Khan et al. , 1981). The Kinetics of Water Uptake by Seeds Many seeds placed in distilled water in petri dishes under optimum conditions for germination show a triphasic pattern of water uptake (Hadas, 1982). The first stage of water uptake... OF PANSY SEED AT HIGH TEMPERATURES BY PRIMING WITH SALT SOLUTIONS Introduction Seed germination can be divided into three separate but overlapping phases: imbibition, transition or lag, and radicle emergence (Hadas, 1982). An osmotically adjusted...

Yoon, Beyoung-Han

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Santa Clara and Virgin River Valleys, Washington County, Utah  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.

Budding, K.E.; Sommer, S.N.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Environmental standards setting for Rocky Flats Plant: The pursuit of zero risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a Department of Energy facility, located near Denver, Colorado, whose primary mission has been the fabrication of nuclear weapons components using plutonium, uranium, beryllium, and stainless steel. Past RFP activities have resulted in contamination of soil, surface water, sediment, and ground water with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical constituents. Although RFP environmental contamination levels generally are low in comparison to other DOE sites, close proximity to the Denver metropolitan area has resulted in proposed and implemented RFP environmental protection standards which are far more stringent than those for comparable facilities in the nation. The RFP experience with State and local involvement in standards setting, which often bypasses the traditional organizations and recommendations for radiation protection, may set precedence for future environmental radiation protection at other nuclear facilities.

Daugherty, N.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Environmental standards setting for Rocky Flats Plant: The pursuit of zero risk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a Department of Energy facility, located near Denver, Colorado, whose primary mission has been the fabrication of nuclear weapons components using plutonium, uranium, beryllium, and stainless steel. Past RFP activities have resulted in contamination of soil, surface water, sediment, and ground water with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical constituents. Although RFP environmental contamination levels generally are low in comparison to other DOE sites, close proximity to the Denver metropolitan area has resulted in proposed and implemented RFP environmental protection standards which are far more stringent than those for comparable facilities in the nation. The RFP experience with State and local involvement in standards setting, which often bypasses the traditional organizations and recommendations for radiation protection, may set precedence for future environmental radiation protection at other nuclear facilities.

Daugherty, N.M.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Turbine set with a generator feeding a network of constant frequency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a turbine set with an axial flow which is traversed by water and which is coupled to a generator feeding a network of constant frequency, the flow turbine is a propeller turbine with nonadjustable blades. The stator winding of the generator is connected to the network by means of a frequency-controllable converter, in particular a direct converter. The speed of rotation of the turbine set is controllable continuously according to the power to be delivered. In the case of an asynchronous design of the generator, it is advisable to provide the stator with a waterproof jacket on the inside and to flange it into the turbine tube, since the rotor with its cage winding is swept by water.

Spirk, F.

1983-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

490

Manufacturing High Temperature Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of Energy Low-TemperatureEnergyAll ManufacturingFoodOctoberto DOE

491

Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

types of water management organizations, environmental NGOs,environmental policy and integrated water management hasenvironmental and water infrastructure stakeholders involved in Bay Area water management.

Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental policy and integrated water management hastypes of water management organizations, environmental NGOs,environmental and water infrastructure stakeholders involved in Bay Area water management.

Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction in Your Building Portfolio Water World: Success Stories and Tools for Water Use Reduction in Your Building Portfolio...

494

Los Alamos synchronous orbit data set  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energetic electron (30-15000 keV) and proton 145 keV to 150 MeV) measurements made by Los Alamos National Laboratory sensors at geostationary orbit (6.6 R/sub E/) are summarized. The instrumentation employed and the satellite positions are described. The spacecraft have been variously located, but in their present configuration the Los Alamos satellites designated 1976-059, 1977-007, and 1979-053 are located, respectively, at approx. 70/sup 0/W, approx. 70/sup 0/E, and approx. 135/sup 0/W longitude. Several examples of the high temporal and full three-dimensional spatial measurement capabilities of these instruments are illustrated by examples from the published literature. Discussion is also given for the Los Alamos Synoptic Data Set (SDS) which gives a broad overview of the Los Alamos geostationary orbit measurements. The SDS data are plotted in terms of daily average spectra, 3-hour local time averages, and in a variety of statistical formats. The data summarize conditions from mid-1976 through 1978 (S/C 1976-059) and from early 1977 through 1978 (S/C 1977-007). The SDS compilations presented correspond to measurements at 35/sup 0/W, 70/sup 0/W, and 135/sup 0/W geographic longitude and thus are indicative of conditions at 9/sup 0/, 11/sup 0/, and 4.8/sup 0/ geomagnetic latitude, respectively. The bulk of the SDS report presents data plots which are organized according to Carrington solar rotations and, as such, the data are readily comparable to solar rotation-dependent interplanetary conditions. Potential applications of the Synoptic Data Set (available to all interested users in June 1981) are discussed.

Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Belian, R.D.; Hones, E.W.; Klebesadel, R.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

What's your water footprint?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower... water footprint is the amount of water you directly or indirectly consume. This includes ?virtual water??the amount of water needed to produce everyday things such as food, clothing, and energy. ] What?s your water footprint? tx H2O | pg. 22...

Jordan, Leslie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Water Efficiency Goal Guidance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

497

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

498

Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method for producing concrete, and more specifically, this invention relates to a method for producing quick-setting concrete while simultaneously minimizing the release of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, said release of carbon dioxide inherent in cement production. A method for producing quick setting concrete comprises hydrating a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

499

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Agents, Beliefs, and Plausible Behavior in a Temporal Setting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zachmann (Computer Graphics) #12;Agents, Beliefs, and Plausible Behavior in a Temporal Setting Nils Bulling

Zachmann, Gabriel