Sample records for water temperature setting

  1. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  2. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  3. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Jensen, Assistant Research Scientist, Texas Water Resources Institute; The Texas A&M University System K Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a daunting challenge for small water systems. The rates must be high enough to re- cover...

  4. High-Temperature Water Splitting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Temperature Water Splitting High-Temperature Water Splitting High-temperature water splitting (a "thermochemical" process) is a long-term technology in the early stages of...

  5. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Ridge, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1982-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  6. Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

  7. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A. [NMD and Associates, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  8. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  9. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  10. Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Apparent Temperature Dependence on Localized Atmospheric Water Vapor Matthew Montanaroa, Carl temperature of the target if not properly accounted for. The temperature error is defined as the difference between the target leaving apparent temperature and observed apparent temperature. The effects

  11. Set-up of oil on water by wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Edmund Beryle

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SET-UP OF OIL ON WATER EY WIND A Thesis by EQ&1UND BERYLE SFFNCER Submitted to the Oraduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement Ior the d gee of iiASTFR OF SCIENCE August 1970 i:aj or Sub j ect: Civil...) Edmund B. Spencer, B. S. , Vanderbilt University Directed by: Dr. Robert M. Sorensen Set-up of various density and viscosity oils on water' s surface when subjected to wind was studied analytically and experimentally using a two-dimensional wind...

  12. High temperature hot water distribution system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA0l-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: * Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. * Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  13. Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, James Brent

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    RWH systems has become a concern. Water temperature is a parameter of water quality and storage container color and shading affect this temperature. Four different colors and three different shadings were applied to twelve rainwater storage barrels...

  14. Effects of drinking water temperature on water consumption, respiration rates, and body temperatures of lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanham, Jeffrey Kent

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by JEFFREY KENT LANHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis...

  15. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  16. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

    1982-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow.

  17. Bacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bodies that support oyster harvesting, called oyster waters, have four clas- sifications which determineBacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set water quality standards to ensure all uses of a water body have the ap- propriate water

  18. Occurrence of Low-Temperature Geothermal Waters in the United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Occurrence of Low-Temperature Geothermal Waters in the United States, in Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States -- 1978 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  19. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  20. Effect of GOR, Temperature, and Initial Water Saturation on Solution-Gas Drive in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Effect of GOR, Temperature, and Initial Water Saturation on Solution-Gas Drive in Heavy-Oil have carried out an extensive set of tests on solution-gas drive for a heavy oil to study the effects was approximately 16% and higher. Introduction Solution-gas drive from some heavy oil reservoirs in Canada, Ven

  1. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  2. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  3. Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from MODIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Cloud and Aerosol Properties, Precipitable Water, and Profiles of Temperature and Water Vapor from such as cloud mask, atmos- pheric profiles, aerosol properties, total precipitable water, and cloud properties vapor amount, aerosol particles, and the subsequently formed clouds [9]. Barnes et al. [2] provide

  4. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  5. Geography of international water conflict and cooperation: Data sets and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    ]. The lack of global-scale, quantitative tools for eval- uating interactions over shared water resourcesGeography of international water conflict and cooperation: Data sets and applications Shira Yoffe,1 main hypotheses on the likelihood and intensity of water resource disputes. To test these hypotheses

  6. Temperature impacts on the set pressure of soft seated pressure relief valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, J.J.; Zirps, G.T.; Gleason, R.B. [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From a safety standpoint, regardless of plant or facility type, the most important pieces of equipment are the pressure relief devices. The most critical characteristics of a pressure relief device are its set pressure and the related relieving capacity. The Set Pressure of a pressure relief device is defined as that value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the discharge becomes continuous (ASME PTC 25-1994, Performance Test Codes). To preclude an unsafe overpressure situation, the set pressure of the pressure relief device must not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure of the equipment or system being protected. Because of testing facility limitations, size or pressure, pressure relief valves intended for elevated temperature service are often set using ambient temperature air. Adjustments are made to the ambient valve opening pressures to compensate for the temperature differences. The extent of the adjustments to the pressure relief valve set pressure is important to ensure the valve will provide the required overpressure protection at the elevated in-service temperature.

  7. Design of a high temperature hot water central heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, E.L.; Johnson, R.C.; Weaver, J.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the conceptual design of a central heating system at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The resource considered for this heating system design was hot dry rock geothermal energy. Design criteria were developed to ensure reliability of energy supply, to provide flexibility for adaptation to multiple energy resources, to make optimum use of existing equipment and to minimize reinvestment cost. A variable temperature peaking high temperature water system was selected for this purpose.

  8. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting Bypaper was to compare the hydrology of the East Bay Municipala stream and watershed hydrology. Using stream flow data for

  9. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  10. Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    the assumption that the densities of the two uids are di#11;erent and that the viscosity of the oil core is veryLevel Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes Hyeseon Shim July 31, 2000 Abstract We simulate the axisymmetric pipeline transportation of oil and water numerically under

  11. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Design manual for high temperature hot water and steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cofield, R.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents aspects of high temperature hot water and steam generating systems. It covers all the calculations that must be made for sizing and then selecting the equipment that will make up an energy system. The author provides essential information on loan analysis, types of fuel, storage requirements, handling facilities, waste disposal, HVAC needs, and back-up systems. Also included are the calculations needed for determining the size of compressors, air pollution devices, fans, filters, and other supplementary equipment.

  13. Setting temperature effect in polycrystalline exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez-Outon, L. E.; Araujo Filho, M. S.; Araujo, R. E.; Ardisson, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effect of atomic interdiffusion on the exchange bias of polycrystalline IrMn/({sup 57}Fe + CoFe) multilayers due to the thermal setting process of exchange coupling during field annealing. Depth-resolved {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to quantify atomic interdiffusion. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to monitor the variation of exchange bias and magnetisation. It was found that interface sharpness is only affected above {approx}350 Degree-Sign C. Three different stages for the setting of exchange bias can be inferred from our results. At the lower setting temperatures (up to 350 Degree-Sign C), the effect of field annealing involves alignment of spins and interfacial coupling due to the setting of both antiferromagnetic (AF) bulk and interface without significant interdiffusion. At a second stage (350-450 Degree-Sign C), where AF ordering dominates over diffusion effects, atomic migration and increased setting of AF spins co-exist to produce a peak in exchange bias field and coercivity. On a third stage (>450 Degree-Sign C), severe chemical intermixing reduces significantly the F/AF coupling.

  14. The Role of Basis Set Superposition Error in Water Addition Reactions to Ln(III) Cations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvamme, Brandon; Wander, Matthew C F.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal in this work was to characterize the importance of basis set superposition error (BSSE) in the reaction energetics of water addition to highly charged metal ions that exhibit strong ion-dipole interactions with water. The gas phase water addition reactions, M(H?O)³+N + H?O ? M(H?O)³+N ? ? [M = La(III), Lu(III); N = 0–8] have been studied, with a particular emphasis on a posteriori methods for calculating BSSE and its constituent energetic components as a function of M(H?O) ³+N cluster size and water basis set. Because of accumulation of BSSE within the subclusters in the reaction series, the successive reaction counterpoise method for determining the BSSE correction interaction energies is advocated.

  15. HOT PHENOL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL 1) Set the water bath to 800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Kulvinder

    HOT PHENOL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL 1) Set the water bath to 800 C. 2) Make 50 mL Extraction bufferL SDS = 0.5 gm DEPC treated water = 43.2 mL Total = 50 mL 3) Add 50 mL phenol (pH = 4.7), in 50 mL extraction buffer (final concentration of 1:1). For small sample add 200 to 300ul of 1Extraction buffer: 1

  16. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells Presentation on New...

  17. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  18. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M. [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 62251, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Basurto, E. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, 02200, México, D.F. (Mexico); Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 5063 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered.

  19. Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kai

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    . After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

  20. Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kai

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

  1. The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC...

  2. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin [SAIC] [SAIC; Davenport, Roger [SAIC] [SAIC; Talbot, Jan [UCSD] [UCSD; Herz, Richard [UCSD] [UCSD; Genders, David [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Symons, Peter [Electrosynthesis Co.] [Electrosynthesis Co.; Brown, Lloyd [TChemE] [TChemE

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  3. Computer simulation of a lithium bromide-water absorption heat pump for temperature boosting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G.; Childs, K.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer-simulation model has been developed to predict the performance of an absorption heat pump for temperature boosting of low-grade heat. The model simulated a single-stage, lithium bromide-water system currently being constructed. Te effects of waste-heat temperature, cooling-water temperature, and solution circulation rate were investigated. The temperature boost and delivered capacity increased almost linearly with an increase in the waste-heat temperature or a decrease in the cooling-water temperature. The system's coefficient of performance (COP) increases slightly under either of these conditions.

  4. Numerical Analysis of Water Temperature Distribution in the Tank of ASHPWH it ha Cylindrical Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Shan, S.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presented a mathematic model for a cylindrical water tank with a cylindrical condenser as its heat source. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, FLUENT, was used to study hot water temperature distribution in the tank of the ASHPWH...

  5. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis1 of pavement surface temperature measurements2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis1 of pavement surface temperature measurements2.hendel@paris.fr)8 Abstract: Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a9 water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although11 pavement

  6. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  7. Collective Hydrogen Bond Reorganization in Water Studied with Temperature-Dependent Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

    We use temperature-dependent ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of dilute HOD in H2O to study the picosecond reorganization of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water. Temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR), ...

  8. Nuclide Composition Benchmark Data Set for Verifying Burnup Codes on Spent Light Water Reactor Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Suyama, Kenya; Inagawa, Jun; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Kohno, Nobuaki; Onuki, Mamoru; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish a nuclide composition benchmark data set for the verification of burnup codes, destructive analyses of light water reactor spent-fuel samples, which were cut out from several heights of spent-fuel rods, were carried out at the analytical laboratory at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The 16 samples from three kinds of pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods and the 18 samples from two boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods were examined. Their initial {sup 235}U enrichments and burnups were from 2.6 to 4.1% and from 4 to 50 GWd/t, respectively. One PWR fuel rod and one BWR fuel rod contained gadolinia as a burnable poison. The measurements for more than 40 nuclides of uranium, transuranium, and fission product elements were performed by destructive analysis using mass spectrometry, and alpha-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry. Burnup for each sample was determined by the {sup 148}Nd method. The analytical methods and the results as well as the related irradiation condition data are compiled as a complete benchmark data set.

  9. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis of pavement surface temperature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendel, Martin; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a promising tool for urban heat island reduction and climate change adaptation. However, possible future water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although pavement heat flux can be studied to improve pavement-watering methods (frequency and water consumption), these measurements are costly and require invasive construction work to install appropriate sensors in a dense urban environment. Therefore, we analyzed measurements of pavement surface temperatures in search of alternative information relevant to this goal. It was found that high frequency surface temperature measurements (more than every 5 minutes) made by an infrared camera can provide enough information to optimize the watering frequency. Furthermore, if the water retaining capacity of the studied pavement is known, optimization of total water consumption is possible on the sole basis of surface temperature measurements.

  10. Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi mass transport of a water cluster inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with the diameter of about 1.4 nm. The influence of the non-equilibrium thermal environment on the confined water cluster has

  11. NMR Studies on the Temperature-Dependent Dynamics of Confined Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Sattig; Stefan Reutter; Franz Fujara; Mayke Werner; Gerd Buntkowsky; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use $^2$H NMR to study the rotational motion of supercooled water in silica pores of various diameters, specifically, in the MCM-41 materials C10, C12, and C14. Combination of spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape, and stimulated-echo analyses allows us to determine correlation times in very broad time and temperature ranges. For the studied pore diameters, 2.1-2.9 nm, we find two crossovers in the temperature-dependent correlation times of liquid water upon cooling. At 220-230 K, a first kink in the temperature dependence is accompanied by a solidification of a fraction of the confined water, implying that the observed crossover is due to a change from bulk-like to interface-dominated water dynamics, rather than to a liquid-liquid phase transition. Moreover, the results provide evidence that $\\alpha$ process-like dynamics is probed above the crossover temperature, whereas $\\beta$ process-like dynamics is observed below. At 180-190 K, we find a second change of the temperature dependence, which resembles that reported for the $\\beta$ process of supercooled liquids during the glass transition, suggesting a value of $T_g\\!\\approx\\!185$ K for interface-affected liquid water. In the high-temperature range, $T\\!>\\!225$ K, the temperature dependence of water reorientation is weaker in the smaller C10 pores than in the larger C12 and C14 pores, where it is more bulk-like, indicating a significant effect of the silica confinement on the $\\alpha$ process of water in the former 2.1 nm confinement. By contrast, the temperature dependence of water reorientation is largely independent of the confinement size and described by an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of $E_a\\!\\approx\\!0.5\\ $eV in the low-temperature range, $T\\!water.

  12. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  13. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS FOR THERMAL WATER SPLITTING PROCESSES AND HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on thermal water splitting processes is presented. Results of the analysis show that the overall efficiency of any thermal water splitting process operating between two temperature limits is proportional to the Carnot efficiency. Implications of thermodynamic efficiency limits and the impacts of loss mechanisms and operating conditions are discussed as they pertain specifically to hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis. Overall system performance predictions are also presented for high-temperature electrolysis plants powered by three different advanced nuclear reactor types, over their respective operating temperature ranges.

  14. Ground-water temperature fluctuations at Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberlander, P.L.; Myers, D.A.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The well field serving the Lyons Ferry Fish Hatchery has experienced reduced water temperatures following continued, periodic withdrawal of large volumes of water. In January 1985, the well field temperature was 49/sup 0/F, which is less than the optimal 52/sup 0/F for raising salmon and steelhead trout. The aquifer supplying the hatchery is in hydraulic and thermal connection with the Snake River and a flooded embayment of the Palouse River. Ground-water temperatures in the well field cycle on an annual basis in response to changes in surface water temperature and pumping rate. Numerical simulation of the well field, using a simplified mixing cell model, demonstrates the coupling of well field hydraulics and aquifer thermal response. Alternative pumping schedules indicate that it is feasible to adjust ground-water pumping to effectively store heat in the aquifer during the summer months when surface water temperatures are elevated. Sensitivity analysis of this model indicated that the primary controls of the system's thermal response are the volume of the aquifer assumed to contribute to the well field and temperature of the overlying surface water body.

  15. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  16. Low-temperature dynamics of water confined in a hydrophobic mesoporous material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xiang-qiang

    Quasielastic neutron scattering was used to study the dynamics of three-dimensional confined water in a hydrophobic mesoporous material designated as CMK-1 in the temperature range from 250 to 170 K. We observe a crossover ...

  17. Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

    We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

  18. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  19. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  20. Low-Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data for Thermal Wells and Springs Through 1993 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web...

  1. Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boushell, C. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator design and availability....

  2. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil-water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation (S/sub or/) and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in two parts. The first was to investigate changes in S/sub or/ with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. Runs were terminated when the water-cut exceeded 99.8%. For these experiments, S/sub or/ decreased from 0.31 at 70/sup 0/F to 0.09 at 250/sup 0/F. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in S/sub or/ was observed with temperature; (0.11 at 70/sup 0/F and 0.085 at 186/sup 0/F). Temperature effects on irreducible water saturations were studied. A small increase in irreducibile water saturation was observed upon increasing the temperature. However, the same magnitude of change was observed by changing the flowrate. Upon increasing the oil flowrate, immediate water production was observed from the core indicating a change in the capillary end effect. By comparing the change in irreducible water saturation with rate and temperature, it was determined that the change was caused mainly by a change in the viscous force across the core. A study on viscous instabilities was also performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It was also observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  3. Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water: energetical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Wear damage resulting from sliding impact kinematics in pressurized high temperature water.bec@ec-lyon.fr Abstract Specific wear of Rod Cluster Control Assemblies (RCCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) results from contacts with their guides due to flow induced vibration. Particular sliding impact contact

  4. Viscosity of carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids: Influence of1 concentration and temperature2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Viscosity of carbon nanotubes water based nanofluids: Influence of1 concentration and temperature of carbon nanotubes water-based nanofluids24 are presented considering the influence of particle volume nanofluids behave as shear-thinning materials for high particle content. For lower particle29 content

  5. EFFECTS OF WATER AND TEMPERATURE John R. Jones, Merrill R. Kaufmann, and E. Arlo Richardson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF WATER AND TEMPERATURE John R. Jones, Merrill R. Kaufmann, and E. Arlo Richardson not tolerate sustained high temperatures, or semiarid or even dry, subhumid conditions. Much can be inferred streams in relatively hot deserts. This indicates intolerance of high temper- ature effects-either direct

  6. Supraoptimal root-zone temperature effects on water use of three Cercis spp 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Beth Jez

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Committee: Dr. Jayne M. Zajicek Stem flow rates of three Cercis spp. exposed to supraoptimal root- zone temperatures were characterized in a controlled environment chamber using a water bath to maintain treatment temperatures. Flow rates of sap... in the xylem were measured every 15 sec and averaged over 15 min intervals. Sap flow measurements were correlated to root-zone temperatures recorded during the same time intervals. Whole plant transpiration was also measured gravimetrically. Root...

  7. Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milam, Kyle Zohn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN...

  8. Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Yong B.

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Factors related to operations of a well that impact drilling uncertainties in the shallow water region of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) can be directly linked to the site specific issues; such as water depth and local geological ...

  9. A new water anomaly: the temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Flammini; Fabio Bruni; Maria Antonietta Ricci

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The mean kinetic energy of protons in water is determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments, performed above and below the temperature of maximum density and in the supercooled phase. The temperature dependence of this energy shows an anomalous behavior, as it occurs for many water properties. In particular two regions of maximum kinetic energy are identified: the first one, in the supercooled phase in the range 269 K - 272 K, and a second one above 273 K. In both these regions the measured proton kinetic energy exceedes the theoretical prediction based on a semi-classical model. Noteworthy, the proton mean kinetic energy has a maximum at 277 K, the temperature of the maximum density of water. In the supercooled metastable phase the measured mean kinetic energy and the proton momentum distribution clearly indicate proton delocalization between two H-bonded oxygens.

  10. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    etc. ). Most oil and grease (aka sludge) are removed andoils, and greases; Page 14 of 20  winery waste; municipal water and wastewater sludge;

  11. Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with Internal Temperature, Pressure and Visual Observations. IDecember 1989) Thomas Raymond Reinarts, B. S. , Texas A8M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Frederick Best In a set of transient heat pipe experiments vapor space and wick... LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Outer Aluminum Wall Temperatures Observed and Predicted 79 Table 2. Summary of Measured Dryout, Rewet and Melting Front 126 Velocities LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Typical Heat Pipe Diagram Figure 2. Curvature of Vapor...

  12. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  13. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow scaled to the Temescal Creek Watershed compared withet al. Friends of Temescal Creek Water Quality MonitoringServices, Temescal Creek area

  14. MWRRET Value-Added Product: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Data Sets (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaustad, KL; Turner, DD; McFarlane, SA

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a short description of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility microwave radiometer (MWR) Retrieval (MWRRET) value-added product (VAP) algorithm. This algorithm utilizes a complementary physical retrieval method and applies brightness temperature offsets to reduce spurious liquid water path (LWP) bias in clear skies resulting in significantly improved precipitable water vapor (PWV) and LWP retrievals. We present a general overview of the technique, input parameters, output products, and describe data quality checks. A more complete discussion of the theory and results is given in Turner et al. (2007b).

  15. Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasmeen, Nuzhat

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the increase of integrated radon exposures in water. The CR-39 etch detector is observed to be more sensitive to alpha particles than LR 115 Type 2 film. The exposure period ranged from 1 to 10 days. The linearity test was done at room temperature. The actual...

  16. Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winant, Clinton D.

    Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods, California, USA Daniel B. Lluch-Cota Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, La Paz, Mexico-period cooling are coincident with elevated levels of microbial pollution in the surf zone. This relationship can

  17. Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasmeen, Nuzhat

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the increase of integrated radon exposures in water. The CR-39 etch detector is observed to be more sensitive to alpha particles than LR 115 Type 2 film. The exposure period ranged from 1 to 10 days. The linearity test was done at room temperature. The actual...

  18. Temperature-dependent leaching of chemical elements from mineral water bottle materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    t It is well established that minute amounts of chemical elements will leach from bottle materials (glass leach- ing increases with storage temperature. For glass bottles this is clearly the case for a long, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, U, V, W and Zr. However, for glass bottles drinking water maximum admissible

  19. Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

  20. Temperature-dependent mechanisms for the dynamics of protein-hydration waters: a molecular dynamics simulation study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Vogel

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the temperature-dependent dynamics and structures of the hydration shells of elastin-like and collagen-like peptides. For both model peptides, it is consistently observed that, upon cooling, the mechanisms for water dynamics continuously change from small-step diffusive motion to large-step jump motion, the temperature dependence of water dynamics shows a weak crossover from fragile behavior to strong behavior, and the order of the hydrogen-bond network increases. The temperature of the weak crossover from fragile to strong behavior is found to coincide with the temperature at which maximum possible order of the hydrogen-bond network is reached so that the structure becomes temperature independent. In the strong regime, the temperature dependence of water translation and rotational dynamics is characterized by an activation energy of ca. E_a=0.43 eV, consistent with results from previous dielectric spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies on protein hydration waters. At these temperatures, a distorted pi-flip motion about the twofold molecular symmetry axes, i.e., a water-specific beta process is an important aspect of water dynamics, at least at the water-peptide interfaces. In addition, it is shown that the hydration waters exhibit pronounced dynamical heterogeneities, which can be traced back to a strong slowdown of water motion in the immediate vicinity of peptide molecules due to formation of water-peptide hydrogen bonds.

  1. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

  2. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Thornton, Jeff W. [Thermal Energy Systems Specialists, Inc.; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern United States, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  3. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern US, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  4. Temperature calibration of Gulf of Mexico corals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jennifer Mae

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for measurement of extension, density, and isotopes ([]¹?O, []¹³C). The coral oxygen isotope signature was calibrated against high-resolution daily temperature and salinity data sets spanning 1990-1997. Coralline estimates of water temperature demonstrate only...

  5. Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milam, Kyle Zohn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1, and 1. 4X potassium respectively, with CR 2 fed during the barn adjustment and SP. Cows were fed ad libitum in individual tie-stalls twice daily from 0600 to 0900 h and from 1800 to 2100 h with access to barn water temperature (ca 28 C...EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University...

  6. A thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of carnot engines operating between the same temperature levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Belandria

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of Carnot engines is presented. This result is unexpected from the point of view of classical thermodynamics.

  7. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

  8. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamone, Salvatore, E-mail: s.mamone@soton.ac.uk; Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H., E-mail: mhl@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  9. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  10. Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

    TR-16 1968 Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere?in the Metric System W.O. Eihle R.J. Powers R.A. Clark...

  11. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  12. SIZE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE IN THE FAR-IR SPECTRA OF WATER ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medcraft, Chris; McNaughton, Don; Thompson, Chris D. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Appadoo, Dominique [Australian Synchrotron, Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Bauerecker, Sigurd [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Robertson, Evan G., E-mail: E.Robertson@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectra of water-ice aerosol particles have been measured in the far-IR region using synchrotron radiation. The particles in the nanoscale size regime of 1-100 nm were formed by rapid collisional cooling at temperatures ranging from 4 to 190 K. The spectra show the characteristic bands centered near 44 {mu}m (230 cm{sup -1}) and 62 {mu}m (160 cm{sup -1}) associated with the intermolecular lattice modes of crystalline ice at all temperatures, in contrast to previous studies of thin films formed by vapor deposition where amorphous ice is generated below 140 K. The bands shift to higher wavenumber values as the temperature is reduced, consistent with the trend seen in earlier studies, but in our experiments the actual peak positions in the aerosol particle spectra are consistently higher by ca. 4 cm{sup -1}. This finding has implications for the potential use of these spectral features as a temperature probe. The particle sizes are small enough for their spectra to be free of scattering effects, and therefore provide a means to assess imaginary refractive index values obtained through Kramers-Kronig analyses of thin film spectra.

  13. Water stress, temperature, and light effects on isoprene emission and photosynthesis of Kudzu leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharkey, T.D.; Loreto, F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kudzu (Pueraia lobata (Willd) Ohwi.) emits isoprene, a hydrocarbon which can significantly affect atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene emission under standard conditions of 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 30[degrees]C developed only after the leaf bad reached full expansion and was not maximal until up to two weeks past the point of full expansion of the leaf. Isoprene emission from kudzu was stimulated by increases in temperature and photon flux density (up to 3000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]s[sup [minus]1]). For unstressed plants, 20 % of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene at 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1]. Following the relief of water stress, photosynthesis recovered to the prestress rate but isoprene emission increased up to five times the prestress rate. At 1000 [mu]mol photons[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1] and 35[degrees]C, 67% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis was reemitted as isoprene eight days after water stress. For some leaves the rate of isoprene emission exceeded 500 nmol[center dot]M[sup [minus]2][center dot]S[sup [minus]1], substantially higher than ever reported before. Leaves of plants grown at less than 20[degrees]C did not make isoprene until an inductive treatment was given. Withholding water from plants or keeping leaves at 30[degrees]C induced isoprene emission. The observation of rapid and dramatic changes in the rate of isoprene emission from leaves in response to water stress and temperature may indicate that isoprene emission improves the ability of plants to cope with these conditions. With the new information on temperature and water stress effects on isoprene emission we speculate on possible reasons for isoprene emission from plants.

  14. Plot size and location within a cotton block: their effects on the canopy temperature function and crop water stress index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaitan, Camilo Alberto

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PLOT SIZE AND LOCATION WITHIN A COTTON BLOCK: THEIR EFFECTS ON THE CANOPY TEMPERATURE FUNCTION AND CROP WATER STRESS INDEX A Thesis CAMILO ALBERTO GAITAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering PLOT SIZE AND LOCATION WITHIN A COTTON BLOCK: THEIR EFFECTS ON THE CANOPY TEMPERATURE FUNCTION AND CROP WATER STRESS INDEX A Thesis by CAMILO ALBERTO...

  15. Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonar, Scott A.

    in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to add (Poole and Berman, 2001). High water temperatures cause stress in fish and create conditions that favor temperature of the input water and ensured that all fish tanks had the same turnover rate. The system

  16. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  17. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  18. Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase-Change-Induced Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    -Change-Induced Flow Soowhan Kim* and M. M. Mench**,z Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics Laboratory, DepartmentInvestigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase electrolyte fuel cell materials subjected to a temperature gradient. Contrary to thermo-osmotic flow in fuel

  19. An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect 20 December 2011 Keywords: Syngas combustion Elevated temperatures Water addition Laminar flame speed a b s t r a c t Laminar flame speeds of premixed syngas/air mixtures were measured at various fuel

  20. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  1. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathenson, M.; Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nehring, N.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raft River area of Idaho contains a geothermal system of intermediate temperatures (approx. = 150/sup 0/C) at depths of about 1.5 km. Outside of the geothermal area, temperature measurements in three intermediate-depth drill holes (200 to 400 m) and one deep well (1500 m) indicate that the regional conductive heat flow is about 2.5 ..mu..cal/cm/sup 2/ sec or slightly higher and that temperature gradients range from 50/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/C/km in the sediments, tuffs, and volcanic debris that fill the valley. Within and close to the geothermal system, temperature gradients in intermediate-depth drill holes (100 to 350 m) range from 120/sup 0/ to more than 600/sup 0/C/km, the latter value found close to an artesian hot well that was once a hot spring. Temperatures measured in three deep wells (1 to 2 km) within the geothermal area indicate that two wells are in or near an active upflow zone, whereas one well shows a temperature reversal. Assuming that the upflow is fault controlled, the flow is estimated to be 6 liter/sec per kilometer of fault length. From shut-in pressure data and the estimated flow, the permeability times thickness of the fault is calculated to be 2.4 darcy m. Chemical analyses of water samples from old flowing wells, recently completed intermediate-depth drill holes, and deep wells show a confused pattern. Geothermometer temperatures of shallow samples suggest significant re-equilibration at temperatures below those found in the deep wells. Silica geothermometer temperatures of water samples from the deep wells are in reasonable agreement with measured temperatures, whereas Na-K-Ca temperatures are significantly higher than measured temperatures. The chemical characteristics of the water, as indicated by chloride concentration, are extremely variable in shallow and deep samples. Chloride concentrations of the deep samples range from 580 to 2200 mg/kg.

  2. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization...

  3. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization...

  4. Characterization and biodegradation of water-soluble biomarkers and organic carbon extracted from low temperature chars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norwood, Matt J.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung; Harvey, Omar

    2013-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates that wildfires/biomass combustion may be an important source of labile pyrogenic water-soluble organic matter (Py-WSOM) to aquatic systems. Spectroscopic analysis (of the solid char and Py-WSOM) with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the Py-WSOM extracted from two low temperature chars (one wood, one grass) was dominated by polar moieties (-OH and C-O) derived from depolymerization and fragmentation of lignocellulose. Incubation experiments under aerobic conditions with unsterilized river water suggested that Py-WSOM and associated biomarkers may have turnover rates on the order of weeks to months, consistent with mixing and transport conditions of riverine systems. For example, pyrogenic dissolved organic carbon (Py-DOC) had a half-life of 30-40 days. Turnover rate for the combustion biomarkers was shorter, with levoglucosan and free lignin phenols having a half-life around 3-4 days and polymeric lignin components 13-14 days. The latter observations contradict earlier studies on the biodegradation of dissolved lignin and point to the need for re-assessment of lignin degradation kinetics in well-mixed riverine systems, particularly when such lignin components are derived from thermally altered plant material that may exist in a form more labile than that in highly processed riverine DOM.

  5. Temperature Dependence of the Hydrophobic Hydration and Interaction of Simple Solutes: An Examination of Five Popular Water Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Paschek

    2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine five different popular rigid water models (SPC, SPCE, TIP3P, TIP4P and TIP5P) using MD simulations in order to investigate the hydrophobic hydration and interaction of apolar Lennard-Jones solutes as a function of temperature in the range between $275 {K}$ and $375 {K}$. For all investigated models and state points we calculate the excess chemical potential for the noble gases and Methane.All water models exhibit too small hydration entropies, but show a clear hierarchy. TIP3P shows poorest agreement with experiment whereas TIP5P is closest to the experimental data at lower temperatures and SPCE is closest at higher temperatures. A rescaling procedure inspired by information theory model of Hummer et al. ({\\em Chem.Phys.}258, 349-370 (2000)) suggests that the differences between the different models and real water can be explained on the basis of the density curves at constant pressure. In addition, the models that give a good representation of the water structure at ambient conditions (TIP5P, SPCE and TIP4P) show considerably better agreement with the experimental data than SPC and TIP3P. We calculate the hydrophobic interaction between Xenon particles directly from a series of 60 ns simulation runs.We find that the temperature dependence of the association is related to the strength of the solvation entropy. Nevertheless, differences between the models seem to require a more detailed molecular picture.The TIP5P model shows by far the strongest temperature dependence.The suggested density-rescaling is also applied to the Xenon-Xenon contact-pair configuration, indicating the presence of a temperature where the hydrophobic interaction turns into purely repulsive.The predicted association for Xenon in real water suggest the presence a strong variation with temperature.

  6. An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Paul Lawrence

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978) Paul Lawrence Archer, B. S. , The Pennsylvania State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Andrew Hajash Natural seawater and mid-ocean ridge tholeiitic basalt were allowed to react at 100-500'C, and 1000 bars at water/rock mass ratios... temperature experiments at 500'C and temperature- gradient experiments reacted from 200'C to 500 C 53 57 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Graphs of Na, Ca, K, and Mg concentrations in 5/1 and 50/1 seawater/basalt experiments as a function of temperature 17...

  7. Liquid-liquid equilibria of water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at various temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arce, A.; Blanco, A.; Souza, P.; Vidal, I. (Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is part of a wider program of research on the recovery of light alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions using high molecular weight solvents. The authors report liquid-liquid equilibrium data and binodal curves for the systems water + methanol + 1-octanol and water + ethanol + 1-octanol at 25, 35, and 45 C. The data were fitted to the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations.

  8. Summary Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration of thin- ning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water content, and soil physi- cal and chemical properties, result in high variability in and sensitivity

  9. Theoretical relation between water flow rate in a vertical fracture and rock temperature in the surrounding massif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steady-state analytical solution is given describing the temperature distribution in a homogeneous massif perturbed by cold water flow through a discrete vertical fracture. A relation is derived to express the flow rate in the fracture as a function of the temperature measured in the surrounding rock. These mathematical results can be useful for tunnel drilling as it approaches a vertical cold water bearing structure that induces a thermal anomaly in the surrounding massif. During the tunnel drilling, by monitoring this anomaly along the tunnel axis one can quantify the flow rate in the discontinuity ahead before intersecting the fracture. The cases of the Simplon, Mont Blanc and Gotthard tunnels (Alps) are handled with this approach which shows very good agreement between observed temperatures and the theoretical trend. The flow rates before drilling of the tunnel predicted with the theoretical solution are similar in the Mont Blanc and Simplon cases, as well as the flow rates observed during the drilling....

  10. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  11. High temperature hot water distribution system study, Directorate of Public Works, Fort Drum, New York; executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System has been plagued with design and construction deficiencies since startup of the HTHW system, in October 1988. In October 1989, after one year of service, these deficiencies were outlined in a technical evaluation. The deficiencies included flooded manholes, sump pumps not hooked up, leaking valves, contaminated HTHW water, and no cathodic protection system. This feasibility study of the High Temperature Hot Water (HTHW) Distribution System was performed under Contract No. DACA01-94-D-0033, Delivery Order 0013, Modification 1, issued to EMC Engineers, Inc. (EMC), by the Norfolk District Corps of Engineers, on 25 April 1996. The purpose of this study was to determine the existing conditions of the High Temperature Hot Water Distribution System, manholes, and areas of containment system degradation. The study focused on two areas of concern, as follows: (1) Determine existing conditions and areas of containment system degradation (leaks) in the underground carrier pipes and protective conduit. (2) Document the condition of underground steel and concrete manholes. To document the leaks, a site survey was performed, using state-of-the-art infrared leak detection equipment and tracer gas leak detection equipment. To document the condition of the manholes, color photographs were taken of the insides of 125 manholes, and notes were made on the condition of these manholes.

  12. An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Paul Lawrence

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the precipitation of Fe-sulfides (pyri te and pyrrhoti te) in both 5/1 and 50/1 water/rock ratio systems. As a result of this precipitation, Fe was effectively fractionated from Mn and the Fe/Mn ratio of the fluid decreased. Because the 50/1 systems had lower pH.... EPR). This investi- gation also provides data potentially useful in predicting the occur- rence and kind of mineralization at ocean spreading centers as a function of the temperature and water/rock ratio regime of that system. 11 METHODS Ex...

  13. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  14. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and transport properties of carbon dioxide for molecularinterfacial properties of binary carbon dioxide – waterCarbon dioxide’s liquid—vapor coexistence curve and critical properties

  15. Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of the pipeline as a way to check for leaks? Do you have any specific concerns regarding oil or natural gas1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water

  16. hal-00133055,version1-29Mar2007 Nuclear spin interferences in bulk water at room temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00133055,version1-29Mar2007 Nuclear spin interferences in bulk water at room temperature. J in NMR pacs 03.67.-a: Quantum information pacs 67.57.Lm: Spin dynamics Abstract Nuclear spin interference in a static mag- netic field B0 4.7 T. For a homogeneity of B0 of the order of B0/B0 = 2 · 10-8 , the nuclear

  17. A correlation of water solubility in jet fuels with API gravity: aniline point percent aromatics, and temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byington, Alonzo

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CORRELATION OF WATER SOLUBILITY IN JET FUELS WITH API GRAVITY, ANILINE POINT PERCENT AROMATICS, AND TEMPERATURE A Thesis By ALONZO B YINGTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1964 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A CORRELATION OF MATER SOLUBILITT IH JET FUELS WITS API GEAVITT, ANILINE POINT, PERCENT ARONATICS, AND TENPERATURE A Thesis By ALOHZO BYIHGTOH Approved...

  18. Three-phase K-values for n-alkanes co-existing with water at high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forero Reyes, Helber Alfonso

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering; B. S. Petroleum Engineering, Universidad de America, Bogota, Colombia Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ching H. Wu Three-phase K-values for hydrocarbons-water systems at temperatures greater than 350 oF are rare. A new comprehensive... recovery efficiencies2, Injected steam distills the light components of a crude oil and transports them to the steam front where they condense to form a light distillate bank. The distillate bank then miscibly displaces oil toward the producing well...

  19. Experimental evidence for interaction of water vapor and platinum crucibles at high temperatures : Implications for volatiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    The extraction of water from igneous rocks and minerals is classically achieved by induction heating or foils, to extract water from rocks or minerals should be avoided. The interaction high- lighted : Implications for volatiles from igneous rocks and minerals Matthieu Clog , Pierre Cartigny, Cyril Aubaud

  20. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid/vapor interface of SPC/E water. J. Phys. Chem. 100,dioxide mixtures described by the SPC/E and EPM2 models. (and water oxygen is denoted by O SPC/E and O TIP for SPC/E (

  1. In-Pile SCC Growth Behavior of Type 304 Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water at JMTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiyuki Kaji; Hirokazu Ugachi; Takashi Tsukada; Yoshinori Matsui; Masao Ohmi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Nobuaki Nagata; Koji Dozaki; Hideki Takiguchi [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is one of the critical concerns when stainless steel components have been in service in light water reactors (LWRs) for a long period. In general, IASCC can be reproduced on the materials irradiated over a certain threshold fluence level of fast neutron by the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs). It is, however, considered that the reproduced IASCC by PIEs must be carefully compared with the actual IASCC in nuclear power plants, because the actual IASCC occurs in the core under simultaneous effects of radiation, stress and high temperature water environment. In the research field of IASCC, mainly PIEs for irradiated materials have been carried out, because there are many difficulties on SCC tests under neutron irradiation. Hence as a part of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on a development of the test technique to obtain information concerning effects of applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. A high temperature water loop facility was installed at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) to carry out the in-pile IASCC testing under a framework of cooperative research program between JAERI and the JAPC. In-pile IASCC growth tests have been successfully carried out using the compact tension (CT) type specimens of type 304 stainless steel that had been pre-irradiated up to a neutron fluence level around 1 x 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} before the in-pile testing since 2004. The tests were carried out in pure water simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) coolant condition. In the paper, results of the in-pile SCC growth tests will be discussed comparing with the result obtained by PIEs from a viewpoint of the synergistic effects on IASCC. (authors)

  2. Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredrick Michael

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones potential and where we have relaxed or generalized the potential to arbitrary and possibly fractional powers. The theory then is a semi-classical theory as the repulsion of particles is incorporated in the Lennard-Jones -like potential's energy required to bring two molecules together, a repulsion of sorts. We derive distributions for the molecular species that are exactly solved, and are derived from maximum entropy, here the semi-classical analogue of the Hamiltonian superposition of quantum phase theory of fluids. We also derive the similar statistics from the microscopic SDEs stochastic differential dynamics equations, verifying the macroscopic state function entropic-thermodynamic derivation.

  3. Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lin-Wen

    In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

  4. Estimation of interstitial water in porous medium by capillary pressure measurements at various temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Mahesh Chander

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water to remove the salt. Ten pore volumes of distilled water were flushed through each core and diaphragm. They were then dried in the oven overnight and oooled. Finally they were saturated with kerosene. Run V was made at 75 F with the cores... saturated with kerosene. In this run kerosene was the wetting fluid instead of brine. A standard Du Nouy Tensiometer was used to measure surface tension of the brine solution at 75'F, 150'F and 200'F. Surface tension of kerosene, and brine solution...

  5. Global study of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) behaviour and the tuning of a 1-dimensional model to determine the LSWTs of large lakes worldwide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layden, Aisling

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) of 246 globally distributed large lakes were derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) for the period 1991 to 2011. These LSWTs, derived in a systematic manner, presents ...

  6. 2H and 13C NMR studies on the temperature-dependent water and protein dynamics in hydrated elastin, myoglobin and collagen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Lusceac; C. R. Herbers; M. Vogel

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    2H NMR spin-lattice relaxation and line-shape analyses are performed to study the temperature-dependent dynamics of water in the hydration shells of myoglobin, elastin, and collagen.

  7. Ultimate lower lethal temperature of red drum Sciaenops Ocellatus as a function of water hardness and salinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Procarione, Lynne S

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S UE PR OCAR ION E Approved as to style and content by: William H. Neill ( Chair of Committee) Edwin H. Robinson (Member ) ff y D. Hart ( Member) Dav id . Schmidly (Head o Department) Dec ember 1 986 ABSTRACT Ult' t L L th l t p t f R D D ~p... in water as cold as 2 C in both Texas (Simmons and Breuer 1962) and Florida (Springer 1960). In contr ol led experiments, Miranda and Sonski (in pr ess) found the median lower-lethal temperatur e for 25- and 15-C-acclimated red drum in freshwater...

  8. Model to Predict Temperature and Capillary Pressure Driven Water Transport in PEFCs After Shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Manish Khandelwal,a, * Sungho Lee,b and M. M. Mencha, **,z a Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics-912 Korea To enhance durability and cold-start performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs , residual water in the fuel cell components must be minimized during operation and after shutdown

  9. Viscoelastic properties of a high temperature cross-linked water shut-off polymeric gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hussein, Ibnelwaleed A.

    -Araghi, 2000). Rheological testing of water Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 55 (2007) 56­66 www.elsevier.com/locate/petrol.A. Hussein). 0920-4105/$ - see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.petrol

  10. The influence of temperature on the estimation of interstitial water by capillary pressure measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Narendra

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    riietting Phase 91. turation ? nercent 18 13 12 u 0 10 a 9 o a 4 6 u '/ j h'[ '' ll j Captllary Pressure Curve at Temperature - 130oF (Porous Diaphradm Vethod) Core hto. 1033 ts 0 10 ?0 30 40 ! 0 60 '/0 80 90 100 leettfn3 'Phrase...

  11. Occurrence of Low-Temperature Geothermal Waters in the United States, in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellence SeedNunn,andOasys Water JumpOccoquan,

  12. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:HoldingsTechint Spa JumpTVCEtTemperature" Showing

  13. Low-temperature geothermal water in Utah: A compilation of data for thermal wells and springs through 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackett, R.E.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geothermal Division of DOE initiated the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program, following a special appropriation by Congress in 1991, to encourage wider use of lower-temperature geothermal resources through direct-use, geothermal heat-pump, and binary-cycle power conversion technologies. The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT), the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI), and the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute organized the federally-funded program and enlisted the help of ten western states to carry out phase one. This first phase involves updating the inventory of thermal wells and springs with the help of the participating state agencies. The state resource teams inventory thermal wells and springs, and compile relevant information on each sources. OIT and UURI cooperatively administer the program. OIT provides overall contract management while UURI provides technical direction to the state teams. Phase one of the program focuses on replacing part of GEOTHERM by building a new database of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal systems for use on personal computers. For Utah, this involved (1) identifying sources of geothermal date, (2) designing a database structure, (3) entering the new date; (4) checking for errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records; (5) organizing the data into reporting formats; and (6) generating a map (1:750,000 scale) of Utah showing the locations and record identification numbers of thermal wells and springs.

  14. Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

  15. Effects of Compaction and Temperature on Sorption and Diffusion of Cs and HTO in Compacted Bentonite Saturated with Saline Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satoru Suzuki; Masashi Haginuma; Kazunori Suzuki [Nuclear Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Center, Institute of Research and Innovation, 1201 Takada, Kashiwa, 277-0861 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sorption and diffusion of Cs and tritiated water (HTO) in compacted bentonite was investigated at temperatures from 30 to 60 deg. C. The apparent (D{sub a}) and effective (D{sub e}) diffusion coefficients were determined by in-diffusion and through-diffusion experiments with a constant boundary concentration maintained. The temperature dependence of De and Da obeyed an Arrhenius-type equation, allowing determination of the activation energy for diffusion of Cs and HTO. The D{sub e} value of Cs was three times the D{sub e} of HTO, which is considered to be a result of surface-excess diffusion. Cs may be concentrated near the surface of the negatively charged clay, thus giving a large diffusive flux. The activation energies for Cs diffusion were 21.4{+-}2.8 kJ/mol and 37.3{+-}1.5 kJ/mol as determined based on D{sub e} and D{sub a}, respectively. This difference was due to the temperature dependence of the distribution coefficient K{sub d} of Cs. (authors)

  16. Molecular properties by Quantum Monte Carlo: an investigation on the role of the wave function ansatz and the basis set in the water molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Zen; Ye Luo; Sandro Sorella; Leonardo Guidoni

    2013-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are accurate and promising many body techniques for electronic structure calculations which, in the last years, are encountering a growing interest thanks to their favorable scaling with the system size and their efficient parallelization, particularly suited for the modern high performance computing facilities. The ansatz of the wave function and its variational flexibility are crucial points for both the accurate description of molecular properties and the capabilities of the method to tackle large systems. In this paper, we extensively analyze, using different variational ansatzes, several properties of the water molecule, namely: the total energy, the dipole and quadrupole momenta, the ionization and atomization energies, the equilibrium configuration, and the harmonic and fundamental frequencies of vibration. The investigation mainly focuses on variational Monte Carlo calculations, although several lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are also reported. Through a systematic study, we provide a useful guide to the choice of the wave function, the pseudo potential, and the basis set for QMC calculations. We also introduce a new strategy for the definition of the atomic orbitals involved in the Jastrow - Antisymmetrised Geminal power wave function, in order to drastically reduce the number of variational parameters. This scheme significantly improves the efficiency of QMC energy minimization in case of large basis sets.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

  18. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  19. Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, B.; Liu, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump Bin Zheng and Mingsheng Liu Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln Abstract Traditionally, chilled water pump speed is modulated to maintain the water loop... differential pressure set point and the control valve at the air handling unit (AHU) is modulated to maintain the supply air temperature. This paper introduces a new VFD pump speed control algorithm, optimal pump head control strategy, in variable water...

  20. Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, L.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEALING WITH “BIG CIRCULATION FLOW RATE, SMALL TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE” BASED ON VERIFIED DYNAMIC MODEL SIMULATIONS OF A HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM Li Lian Zhong, Senior Sales Consultant, Danfoss Automatic Controls Management (Shanghai...) Co.,Ltd, Anshan, China ABSTRACT Dynamic models of an indirect hot water district heating system were developed based on the first principle of thermodynamics. The ideal model was verified by using measured operational data. The ideal...

  1. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water Quality Management for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report. Real-time Water Quality Management for SJR RiparianReal-time Water Quality Management for SJR Riparian HabitatPaper Real-time Water Quality Management for SJR Riparian

  2. Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    . Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature systems, simultaneous electronic excitation and exposure to aggressive chemicals can acceler- ate etching-induced neutral particle desorption and surface erosion on single- crystal sodium chloride in the presence of low

  3. Drilling Addendum to Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Gary C.; Bacon, C. Forrest; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Majmundar, Hasmukhrai H.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This addendum report presents the results of the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) drilling program at Calistoga, California, which was the final geothermal-resource assessment investigation performed under terms of the second year contract (1979-80) between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CDMG under the State Coupled Program. This report is intended to supplement information presented in CDMG's technical report for the project year, ''Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California''. During the investigative phase of the CDMG's Geothermal Project, over 200 well-driller's reports were obtained from the Department of Water Resources (DWR). It was hoped that the interpretation and correlation of these logs would reveal the subsurface geology of the Upper Napa Valley and also provide a check for the various geophysical surveys that were performed in the course of the study. However, these DWR driller logs proved to be inadequate due to the brief, non-technical, and erroneous descriptions contained on the logs. As a result of the lack of useable drill-hole data, and because information was desired from,deeper horizons, it became evident that drilling some exploratory holes would be necessary in order to obtain physical evidence of the stratigraphy and aquifers in the immediate Calistoga area. Pursuant to this objective, a total of twelve sites were selected--four under jurisdiction of Napa County and eight under jurisdiction of the City of Calistoga. A moratorium is currently in existence within Napa County on most geothermal drilling, and environmental and time constraints precluded CDMG from obtaining the necessary site permits within the county. However, a variance was applied for and obtained from the City of Calistoga to allow CDMG to drill within the city limits. With this areal constraint and also funding limits in mind, six drilling sites were selected on the basis of (1) proximity to areas where geophysical surveys had been performed, (2) accessibility of the site for drill rig setup, and (3) favorability for obtaining the maximum information possible concerning the geology and the resources. Necessary landowner permission and permits were secured for these sites, and actual drilling began on December 17, 1980. Drilling was terminated on February 4, 1981, with the completion of three holes that ranged in depth from 205 to 885 feet. Use of a relatively new drilling technique called the Dual Tube Method enabled the collection of precise subsurface data of a level of detail never before obtained in the Calistoga area. As a result, a totally new and unexpected picture of the geothermal reservoir conditions there has been obtained, and is outlined in this addendum report.

  4. The effect of environment, chemistry, and microstructure on the corrosion fatigue behavior of austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Lindsay Beth

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of sulfur on the corrosion fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steel was evaluated under Light Water Reactor (LWR) conditions of 288°C deaerated (less than 5ppb O?) water, to shed light on the accelerating ...

  5. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399) downstream to the upper end of Lower Granite Reservoir near rkm 240. We randomly selected 14 fall Chinook salmon spawning locations as study sites, which represents 25% of the most used spawning areas throughout the HCR. Interactions between river water and pore water within the riverbed (i.e., hyporheic zone) at each site were quantified through the use of self-contained temperature and water level data loggers suspended inside of piezometers. Surrounding the piezometer cluster at each site were 3 artificial egg pockets. In mid-November 2002, early-eyed stage fall Chinook salmon eggs were placed inside of perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes, along with a temperature data logger, and buried within the egg pockets. Fall Chinook salmon eggs were also incubated in the laboratory for the purpose of developing growth curves that could be used as indicators of emergence timing. The effects of discharge on vertical hydrologic exchange between the river and riverbed were inferred from measured temperature gradients between the river and riverbed, and the application of a numerical model. The hydrologic regime during the 2002-2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures suggested that there was significant vertical hydrologic exchange during all time periods. The combined results of temperature monitoring and numerical modeling indicate that only 2 of 14 sites were significantly affected by short-term (hourly to daily) large magnitude changes in discharge. Although the two sites exhibited acute flux reversals between river water and hyporheic water resulting from short-term large magnitude

  6. Limited Energy Engineering Analysis (EEAP) study of summer boiler at high temperature hot water plants, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a study of the existing High Temperature Hot Water Distribution Systems at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. There are two systems with central boilers located in Buildings 1021 and 2369. The study focuses on the operation of the boilers during the summer months which is required to provide domestic hot water and sanitizing steam to various buildings. Because the boilers are operating under a reduced load condition, it may be cost effective in terms of energy conservation to implement one of the following energy conservation opportunities (ECO`s).

  7. Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of reclaiming high quality drinking water and maintaining it in a, sterile condition without the use of bactericide. The prototype hardware has been shown to be applicable for water reclamation. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize..., development of regenerative life support system (RLSS) technology for space applications was in progress. Following the Apollo Program, NASA priorities shifted to the Shuttle Program and much of the research and development on RLSS technology was curtailed...

  8. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortz, Sarah E; Prather, Michael J; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extension of the measurement of ozone and water vapour byin-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) ozone climatologies usingcomparison with SHADOZ ozone and MODIS aerosol, J. Geophys.

  9. Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hardware and verify the results previously reported by GE, the following series of tests were performed: 1) Disassemble, clean, and reassemble the system. 2) Determine the condensation rate as a function of temperature of the evaporator and the condenser... derivative (PID) feedback control sensor. The cooling system devised has a capacity of 1465 W and is controlled by an on/otf temperature sensor operating through a time delay relay. B. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The system characterization procedure consisted...

  10. Previously, we have investigated techniques for measuring temperature-dependent change in backscattered energy (CBE) in 1D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur, R. Martin

    . Tissue samples were heated in an insulated tank that was filled with deionized water, which had of a 7MHz linear array probe, model 10L5. Temperature in the tank was set by a heater that circulated the water in the tank. The temperature in the tissue was monitored by a thermometer

  11. Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content Profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B Brightness Temperatures Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, E-K.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program important goals is to develop and test radiation and cloud parameterizations of climate models using single column modeling (SCMs) (Randall et al. 1996). As forcing terms, SCMs need advection tendency of cloud condensates besides the tendencies of temperature, moisture and momentum. To compute the tendency terms of cloud condensates, 3D distribution of cloud condensates over a scale much larger than the climate model's grid scale is needed. Since they can cover a large area within a short time period, satellite measurements are useful utilities to provide advection tendency of cloud condensates for SCMs. However, so far, most satellite retrieval algorithms only retrieve vertically integrated quantities, for example, in the case of cloud ice, ice water path (IWP). To fulfill the requirement of 3D ice water content field for computing ice water advection, in this study, we develop an ice water content profile retrieval algorithm by combining the vertical distribution characteristics obtained from long-term surface radar observations and satellite high-frequency microwave observations that cover a large area. The algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem using a priori database derived from analyzing cloud radar observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The end product of the algorithm is a 3D ice water content covering 10{sup o} x 10{sup o} surrounding the SGP site during the passage of the satellite. This 3D ice water content, together with wind field analysis, can be used to compute the advection tendency of ice water for SCMs.

  12. Guidelines for Setting up a Reflux Condenser Water leaks from a reflux condenser can destroy years of research data and cause thousands of dollars of damage to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brody, James P.

    ), the joints are further secured with copper wires (16 ga.) by wrapping twice around the joints and tightening with pliers (b). Any leftover wires are cut (c). * The copper wirings around the joints (encircled in pictures if there are any items that may block the water flow. The picture, as an example, shows possible items that may

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  14. Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

  15. Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption, and Local Air Temperature in Phoenix, AZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption Area This study examined 16 Census Block Groups (2000) within the City of Phoenix to investigate are critical for long-term urban planning. Figure 2: Study Area: 16 Census Block Groups within City of Phoenix

  16. Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water Yuri T. Didenko, William B. McNamara III, and Kenneth S. Suslick*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    likely due to its own fluorescence. Carbon tetrachloride does not change the intensity of water sonoluminescence but does exhibit C2 emission. This indicates that the dissociation of carbon tetrachloride inside and other incipient emitting species produced during sonolysis. Small concentrations of carbon disulfide do

  17. Features of temperature control of fuel element cladding for pressurized water nuclear reactor “WWER-1000” while simulating reactor accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, P. A.; Priymak, S. V.; Usachev, V. B.; Oleynikov, P. P.; Soldatkin, D. M. [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    During the experiments simulating NPR (nuclear power reactor) accidents with a coolant loss fuel elements behavior in a steam-hydrogen medium was studied at the temperature changed with the rate from 1 to 100K/s within the range of 300÷1500 °C. Indications of the thermocouples fixed on the cladding notably differ from real values of the cladding temperatures in the area of measuring junction due to thermal resistance influence of the transition zones “cladding-junction” and “junction-coolant”. The estimating method of a measurement error was considered which can provide adequate accounting of the influence factors. The method is based on thermal probing of a thermocouple by electric current flashing through thermoelements under the coolant presence or absence, a response time registration and processing, calculation of thermal inertia value for a thermocouple junction. A formula was derived for calculation of methodical error under stationary mode and within the stage of linear increase in temperature, which will determine the conditions for the cladding depressurization. Some variants of the formula application were considered, and the values of methodical errors were established which reached ?5% of maximum value by the final moment of the stage of linear increase in the temperature.

  18. Three-phase K-values for n-alkanes co-existing with water at high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forero Reyes, Helber Alfonso

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Wehe and McKetta~ reported the mutual solubility of n-butane/i- butane/water. Again no PVT data of the system were provided in the paper. The first published attempt to use an equation of state for three-phase equilibrium calculations appeared... equation: L+W+G = 10 -(4. 1) Component i mole balance equations: hc Lx; +Wx; +Gy; =zi i = l, n -- -(4. 2) Restrictive equations n n g x, h'= Z x, . " i=1 i=1 = Zy, "=Lo i=1 (4. 3) Thermodynamic equations for component fugacities: V hc f. = f...

  19. Molecular properties by Quantum Monte Carlo: an investigation on the role of the wave function ansatz and the basis set in the water molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zen, Andrea; Sorella, Sandro; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are accurate and promising many body techniques for electronic structure calculations which, in the last years, are encountering a growing interest thanks to their favorable scaling with the system size and their efficient parallelization, particularly suited for the modern high performance computing facilities. The ansatz of the wave function and its variational flexibility are crucial points for both the accurate description of molecular properties and the capabilities of the method to tackle large systems. In this paper, we extensively analyze, using different variational ansatzes, several properties of the water molecule, namely: the total energy, the dipole and quadrupole momenta, the ionization and atomization energies, the equilibrium configuration, and the harmonic and fundamental frequencies of vibration. The investigation mainly focuses on variational Monte Carlo calculations, although several lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are also reported. Throu...

  20. Recommended temperature limits for dry storage of spent light water reactor Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in inert gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, I.S.; Chin, B.A.; Simonen, E.P.; Beyer, C.E.; Gilbert, E.R.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is concluded that the recommendation of a single-valued temperature limit of 380/sup 0/C should be replaced by multiple limits to account for variations in fuel design, burnup level, spent fuel age, and storage cask design. A single-valued limit to account for these factors would, in some situations, impose unnecessary conservatisms and, potentially, economic penalties for utilities and storage cask vendors. The technical validity and conservatism of the CSFM model should assure acceptance by the NRC for utility and cask vendor use.

  1. Lithium/water interactions: Experiments and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomperski, S.; Corradini, M.L. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of molten-lithium droplets with water is studied experimentally. In one set of experiments, droplets of [approximately]10- to 15-mm diameter are injected into a vessel filled with water. The reaction is filmed, and pressure measurements are made. The initial metal and water temperatures range from 200 to 500[degrees]C and 20 to 70[degrees]C, respectively. It is found that when reactant temperatures are high, an explosive reaction often occurs. When the initial lithium temperature is >400[degrees]C and the water is >30[degrees]C, the explosive reactions become much more probable, with pressure peaks as high as 4 MPa. The reaction is modeled to explain the temperature threshold for this metal-ignition phenomena. Results with the model support the hypothesis that explosive reactions occur when the lithium droplet surface reaches its saturation temperature while the hydrogen film surrounding the drop is relatively thin. A second set of experiments measures the reaction rate of nonexplosive lithium-water reactions. The test geometry parallels that of the previous experiments, and the reactant temperature combinations are deliberately kept below the observed ignition threshold. Two separate methods are used to determine the reaction rate in each test: One uses a three-color pyrometer to measure the drop temperature as the lithium rises through the water, while the other consists of a photographic technique that measures the amount of hydrogen generated. Measured reaction rates range from [approximately]10 to 50 mol/s[center dot]m[sup 2] with good agreement between the two measurement techniques. The data do not show any significant variation in the reaction rate as a function of either the initial water or initial lithium temperature. 17 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Paradigm or Paradox: Can we Attribute Species Changes to Global Climate Change in Light of Decreasing Water Temperatures in Central California?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breaker, Laurence; Cailliet, Gregor; Launer, Andrea; Wadsworth, Tom

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California and Adjacent Waters. University of Californiamarmoratus) in California waters as assessed in 2005. ReportMonitoring MPAs in Deep Water off Central California: 2007

  3. The use of an interrogating ultrasound beam for noninvasive measurement of temperature has been investigated from several perspectives. Our group is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur, R. Martin

    was set by a heater that circulated the water in the tank. The temperature in the tissue tank that was filled with deionized water, which had been degassed by vacuum pumping of backscattered ultrasound from tissue samples. Deionized and degassed water in the tank was heated

  4. Impact of Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures on interannual and decadal variations of GRACE land water storage in tropical South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Linage, Caroline; Kim, Hyungjun; Famiglietti, James S; Yu, Jin-Yi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stress, i.e. , the ground water storage [Toomey et al. ,and longer time scales, as ground water storage multidecadal

  5. A survey of potential low-cost concentrator concepts for use in low-temperature water detoxification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendelin, T.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different concentrator concepts have been considered for use in the detoxification of chemically contaminated water. The reactions of interest are predominantly photocatalytic in nature and are driven by low concentrations (between 1 and 50 suns) of UV radiation in the 300- to 385-nm wavelength range. Optical performance characteristics of these concentrators are thus somewhat different compared to concentrators developed for industrial process heat and electrical energy production. Relaxed optical tolerances might lead to reductions in concentrator cost that, when integrated into overall field system cost, could make the solar-driven process competitive with current UV lamp technology. Aspects of the concentrator system that might realize cost reductions include the concentrating element, the support structure, the tracking and drive system, the manufacturing processes, and the installation procedures. Several ideals have been resurrected from earlier research in the Solar Thermal Program where the need for more stringent optical performance requirements led to a decline or even an end to further investigation. In light of this new application, the most promising of these ideas are presented, including a description and a discussion of the cost and performance trade-offs. In addition, the results of recent investigate research on several of these concepts will be presented. The concepts include a low-cost parabolic trough, the inflatable line-focus concentrator, and the holographic concentrator. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Xuhuui [University of Oklahoma; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Emmett, Bridget [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

  7. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters June 23, 2009 -...

  8. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  9. Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Phase Transition in High Temperature Hydrogenated Water Using the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; M.A. Ando; N.F. Panayotou; C.D. Thompson

    2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior studies of Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 have shown the existence of a maximum in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high temperature water (e.g., at 360 C), when testing is conducted over a range of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentrations. It has also been shown that this maximum in SCC susceptibility tends to occur in proximity to the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, suggesting that oxide phase stability may affect primary water SCC (PWSCC) resistance. Previous studies have estimated the Ni/NiO transition using thermodynamic calculations based on free energies of formation for NiO and H{sub 2}O. The present study reports experimental measurements of the Ni/NiO transition performed using a contact electric resistance (CER) instrument. The CER is capable of measuring the surface resistance of a metal to determine whether it is oxide-covered or oxide-free at a given condition. The transition aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentration corresponding to the Ni/NiO equilibrium was measured at 288, 316, 338 and 360 C using high purity Ni specimens. The results showed an appreciable deviation (i.e., 7 to 58 scc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O) between the measured Ni/NiO transition and the theoretical Ni/NiO transition previously calculated using free energy data from the Journal of Solution Chemistry. The CER-measured position of the Ni/NiO transition is in good agreement with the maxima in PWSCC susceptibility at 338 and 360 C. The measured Ni/NiO transition provides a reasonable basis for estimating the aqueous H{sub 2} level at which the maximum in SCC susceptibility is likely to be observed at temperatures lower than 338 to 360 C, at which SCC tests are time-consuming to perform. Limited SCC data are presented which are consistent with the observation that SCC susceptibility is maximized near the Ni/NiO transition at 288 C.

  10. As was hypothesized, annual ET water losses appears to be driven by seasonal variations in the total aboveground biomass of the treatment wetland. We found that only air temperature and PAR were significant climatic drivers of ET. However, unlike

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    in the total aboveground biomass of the treatment wetland. We found that only air temperature and PAR were budget of an aridland" urban wastewater treatment wetland" Experimental Design and Field Sampling! · 10.T.A. 2003. Water and mass budgets of a vertical=-flow constructed wetland used for wastewater treatment

  11. Greenland temperature, climate change, and human society during the last 11,600 years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobashi, Takuro

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature reconstruction from water isotopes in ice cores.temperature reconstruction from water isotopes in ice cores,Finkel, Changes in deep-water formation during the Younger

  12. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: Chemical analysis and potential toxicity Cristina Bach a January 2013 Keywords: PET-bottled water By-products Chemical mixtures Cyto-genotoxicity Endocrine on the release of PET-bottle con- stituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro

  13. Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set forth requirements for the registration of water withdrawals and reporting of water losses from the Great Lakes Basin. The regulations apply to water withdrawals from...

  14. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  15. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.

  16. Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures up to 300 MPa and 600 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures for the phase coexistence of carbon dioxide + benzene + water ternary mixtures. Phase coexistence was observed exceptions are the systematic studies6-9 of ternary mixtures containing carbon dioxide with large alkanes

  17. Proceedings ASCE EWRI World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005 May 15-19, 2005 Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants Scott A. Wells1 , Dmitriy treatment plants (WWTP). This type of model would allow operators to evaluate alternatives for reducing conditions. Temperatures were taken at 6 control points throughout the treatment plant and used as a basis

  18. Speeding up solar disinfection : effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli in Charles River water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Michael Benjamin, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sunlight efficiently disinfects drinking water in plastic bottles over two days, but simple additives may show promise for reducing this time to several hours. This study found that adding up to 500 [micro]M hydrogen ...

  19. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  20. Deforming Meyer sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong-Yup Lee; Robert V. Moody

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear deformation of a Meyer set $M$ in $\\RR^d$ is the image of $M$ under a group homomorphism of the group $[M]$ generated by $M$ into $\\RR^d$. We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for such a deformation to be a Meyer set. In the case that the deformation is a Meyer set and the deformation is injective, the deformation is pure point diffractive if the orginal set $M$ is pure point diffractive.

  1. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  2. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, J.L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  3. Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck, Arnold L. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Robin

    ventilation and global thermohaline circulation. The local ocean-atmosphere heat exchange may be affected-atmosphere heat transport, the global thermohaline circulation, and the ventilation of the deep ocean. Several programs were developed in order to investigate deep water production and ventilation and their variation

  4. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

  5. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  6. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Resistance Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sets federal efficiency...

  7. Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

  8. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  9. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  10. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  11. Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters. Center for Energy andhot water from the water heater to each end-use locationMixed Temperature Water Water Heater Drain Indoor Boundary

  12. data_sets.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DATA SETS T est your technology with real data from RMOTC. RMOTC offers its non-proprietary data free of charge under certain terms and conditions. If you or your organization is...

  13. Synchronization of Limit Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

  14. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svozil, K. [Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  15. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy) [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  16. Water Quality Modeling Hydraulics and Hydrology Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : ­ Streamflows ­ Lake basin ­ Meteorology (wind/sun/precip...) · Outputs: ­ Vertical Temperature distribution ­ E. Coli · Temperature changes ­ Long term and short term · Lake circulation ­ Lake circulation ­ Outputs: · Oxygen distribution in water column · Nutrient distribution in water column (N

  17. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  18. Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the campus loops and the building loops. Some optimization of the plant chiller 1 boiler operation is also necessary and beneficial. In general, through Continuous Commissioning, chilled water and hot water loop temperature differences will be improved...

  19. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  20. Functional Answer Set Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabalar, Pedro

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we propose an extension of Answer Set Programming (ASP), and in particular, of its most general logical counterpart, Quantified Equilibrium Logic (QEL), to deal with partial functions. Although the treatment of equality in QEL can be established in different ways, we first analyse the choice of decidable equality with complete functions and Herbrand models, recently proposed in the literature. We argue that this choice yields some counterintuitive effects from a logic programming and knowledge representation point of view. We then propose a variant called QELF where the set of functions is partitioned into partial and Herbrand functions (we also call constructors). In the rest of the paper, we show a direct connection to Scott's Logic of Existence and present a practical application, proposing an extension of normal logic programs to deal with partial functions and equality, so that they can be translated into function-free normal programs, being possible in this way to compute their answer sets...

  1. INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong W. Lee

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the clean thermocouple were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the clean thermocouple, five (5) factors were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow rate, water flow rate, fine dust particle amount, ammonia addition and high/low frequency device (electric motor). The fractional factorial design method was used in the experiment design with sixteen (16) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the un-balanced motor vibration frequency did not have the significant impact on the temperature changes in the gasifier simulator. For the fine dust particles testing, the amount of fine dust particles has significant impact to the temperature measurements in the gasifier simulator. The effects of the air and water on the temperature measurements show the same results as reported in the previous report. The ammonia concentration was included as an experimental parameter for the reducing environment in this reporting period. The ammonia concentration does not seem to be a significant factor on the temperature changes. The linear regression analysis was applied to the temperature reading with five (5) factors. The accuracy of the linear regression is relatively low, which is less than 10% accuracy. Nonlinear regression was also conducted to the temperature reading with the same factors. Since the experiments were designed in two (2) levels, the nonlinear regression is not very effective with the dataset (16 readings). An extra central point test was conducted. With the data of the center point testing, the accuracy of the nonlinear regression is much better than the linear regression.

  2. Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Georgia Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) is a set of environmental regulations and permitting requirements that comply with the federal Clean Water Act. The Georgia Water Quality Control Act...

  3. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  4. Logic and the set theory Lecture 19: The set theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Suhyoung

    Logic and the set theory Lecture 19: The set theory S. Choi Department of Mathematical Science KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea Fall semester, 2012 S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory November 20, 2012 1 / 24 #12;Introduction About this lecture Axioms of the set theory S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory

  5. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  6. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  7. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistance storage water heater with tank and controls;tank size and thermostat set point of the water heater, and

  8. On Q-sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleissner, William G.; Miller, Arnold W.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from X is a separable normal nonmetrizable Moore space. Theorem 2. Each of the following statements implies the next. (a) Martin's Axiom plus the negation of the Continuum Hypothesis. (b) There are no ß limits in the partial order (ß(u),Q mod finite.... Assume that 2"1 = wherep = (pß: ß is a sequence of basic open sets from B and where f = wim each ry m something like P(A, X) above. In the extension, M[G], we...

  9. Bachelor Thesis Detection of Zeno Sets in Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachelor Thesis Detection of Zeno Sets in Hybrid Systems to Validate Modelica Simulations Marcel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 Example: Water Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 Modelica 9 3.1 OpenModelica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.1.1 Hybrid Automata

  10. Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must meet federal and state standards for safe drink- ing water. Two sets of standards-primary drinking water and secondary drinking water- establish Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for a variety of contaminants. If the water sup- ply

  11. IV. Environmental Impact, Setting, and Mitigation Measures LBNL LRDP EIR IV.G-1 ESA / 201074

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jason R.

    IV. Environmental Impact, Setting, and Mitigation Measures LBNL LRDP EIR IV.G-1 ESA / 201074 Public discusses existing surface water and groundwater conditions at LBNL and analyzes the potential Setting IV.G.2.1 Hydrologic Setting Surface Water LBNL is situated within Blackberry and Strawberry

  12. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  13. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  14. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  15. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  16. Water Transfers: The Case against Transbasin Diversions in the Eastern States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Christine A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a global perspective, water shortage is not simply a problemto face regional water shortages. Part II sets the stage bytions to projected water shortages. Particular hotspots are

  17. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  18. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  19. South Dakota-Minnesota Boundary Waters Commission (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes an interstate commission to set standards for water levels and quality, and to coordinate among local governments to maintain and preserve water resources on the...

  20. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  1. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analogue is introduced in chapter two. In chapter three the notion of special set semigroup linear algebra is introduced. The concept of special set n-vector spaces, n greater than or equal to three is defined and their fuzzy analogue is their fuzzy analogue is given in chapter four. The probable applications are also mentioned. The final chapter suggests 66 problems.

  2. Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for Magnesite Formation at Low Temperatures. Reaction of Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2 with Forsterite: Evidence for...

  3. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL RATES AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES OF EMBRYOS OF THE NORTHERN LOBSTER (Homarus americanus MILNE-EDWARDS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of larvae and con- trol hatching times by manipulating the water temperature in tanks holding egg-bearing fe at seasonal water temperatures or in water warmed to various constant temperatures. Water from the laboratory's seawater system was piped to the heated tanks at rates consistent with the capacity of the heaters

  5. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... of thermostat, and the relationship between room temperature set point and return air temperature. The Role Of Thermostat Traditional pneumatic thermostat is a proportional (P) type controller. It senses the space temperature changes and produces...

  6. Set Linear Algebra and Set Fuzzy Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this book, the authors define the new notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized form of vector spaces. Set vector spaces make use of the least number of algebraic operations, therefore, even a non-mathematician is comfortable working with it. It is with the passage of time, that we can think of set linear algebras as a paradigm shift from linear algebras. Here, the authors have also given the fuzzy parallels of these new classes of set linear algebras. This book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter briefly recalls some of the basic concepts in order to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces the notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized concept of vector spaces. Set vector spaces lends itself to define new classes of vector spaces like semigroup vector spaces and group vector spaces. These are also generalization of vector spaces. The fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in Chapter three. In Chapter four, set vector spaces are generalized to biset bivector spaces and not set vector spaces. This is done taking into account the advanced information technology age in which we live. As mathematicians, we have to realize that our computer-dominated world needs special types of sets and algebraic structures. Set n-vector spaces and their generalizations are carried out in Chapter five. Fuzzy n-set vector spaces are introduced in the sixth chapter. The seventh chapter suggests more than three hundred problems.

  7. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  8. 14 Managing Water in a Dynamic Setting: The Challenges of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    carried out mainly in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan between 2002 and 2008, and anchors them in a broader- formation economy; climate change; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Central Asia. #12;Global Change and Sustainable

  9. LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE BRIDGE CREEK BASIN Prepared for: Water Quality ............................................. DESCRIPTION OF BRIDGE CREEK BASIN ........................ PHYSICAL SETTING'T. ................................ 5.1 CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ....................................... 5.1.1 Bridge Creek basin upstream

  10. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  11. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  12. Dynamics in the Category Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elemer E Rosinger

    2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    What makes sets, or more precisely, the category {\\bf Set} important in Mathematics are the well known {\\it two} specific ways in which arbitrary mappings $f : X \\longrightarrow Y$ between any two sets $X, Y$ can {\\it fail} to be bijections. Namely, they can fail to be injective, and/or to be surjective. As for bijective mappings they are rather trivial, since with some relabeling of their domains or ranges, they simply become permutations, or even identity mappings. \\\\ To the above, one may add the {\\it third} property of sets, namely that, between any two nonvoid sets there exist mappings. \\\\ These three properties turn out to be at the root of much of the interest which the category {\\bf Set} has in Mathematics. Specifically, these properties create a certain {\\it dynamics}, or for that matter, lack of it, on the level of the category {\\bf Set} and of some of its subcategories.

  13. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  14. Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

  15. Transition temperature in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.; Christ, N. H.; Mawhinney, R. D. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Datta, S.; Jung, C.; Schmidt, C.; Umeda, T. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Heide, J. van der; Kaczmarek, O.; Laermann, E.; Miao, C. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Karsch, F. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Petreczky, P. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Petrov, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed for various light to strange quark mass ratios in the range, 0.05{<=}m-circumflex{sub l}/m-circumflex{sub s}{<=}0.5, and with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m-circumflex{sub l}{yields}0) and continuum (aT{identical_to}1/N{sub {tau}}{yields}0) limits we find for the transition temperature at the physical point T{sub c}r{sub 0}=0.457(7) where the scale is set by the Sommer-scale parameter r{sub 0} defined as the distance in the static quark potential at which the slope takes on the value (dV{sub qq}(r)/dr){sub r=r{sub 0}}=1.65/r{sub 0}{sup 2}. Using the currently best known value for r{sub 0} this translates to a transition temperature T{sub c}=192(7)(4) MeV. The transition temperature in the chiral limit is about 3% smaller. We discuss current ambiguities in the determination of T{sub c} in physical units and also comment on the universal scaling behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the chiral limit.

  16. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  17. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  18. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

  19. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  20. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  1. GENERALIZED SUPPORT SET INVARIANCY SENSITIVITY ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    CQO problems by focusing on the support set of slack variables in dual optimal solutions. ... resources in storage as he had before.” Meanwhile, the manager ...

  2. Set the PACE St. Louis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial property owners, community associations (e.g., Home Owners Associations), and some residential property owners are eligible for Set the PACE St. Louis. Currently, only residential prop...

  3. SHM Data Sets and Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sets and Software Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff Assistant Jutta Kayser (505)...

  4. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characteristics, along with water age and temperature, are primary factors affecting disinfectant residual decaySouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction South Dakotas Water Resources Research Institutes program is administered through the College of Agricultural

  5. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

  6. Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Supernatant Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Headspace Supernatant Water Schmutzdecke Raw water Supernatant drain Filter drain & backfill Sand media Support gravel Drain tile Adjustable weir Overflow weir Vent Control valve Treated Water Effluent flow control structure Overflow Assessing Temperature

  7. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  8. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  9. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  10. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    requirements before a cooling tower is purchased. This relates to the volume of circulating water, hot water temperature on the tower, cold water discharge, and wet bulb temperature (consisting of ambient temperature and relative humidity). After the tower...

  11. PRODUCING OYSTER SEED BY REMOTE SETTING by Richard E. Bohn, Donald W. Webster and Donald W. Meritt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    heaters in the tank can be Contents Introduction Selection of setting and nursery sites Cultch selection and preparation Cultch containers Setting equipment Water delivery Preparing the setting tank Adding larvae with cultch are placed in a tank of salt water that is equipped with aeration. Cultch is often soaked for 24

  12. The water solubility of naphthenes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Bu, Li (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naphthenes, like paraffins and aromatics, are a major component of unrefined fuels. Like these other hydrocarbons, naphthenes' solubility in water is of critical importance to engineers, particularly vis-a-vis the environmental hazard they present when spilled in water. Naphthenes' water solubility is described as a function of temperature. The correlation constants are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format, which is especially applicable for rapid engineering usage with the personal computer or hand calculator. These data are applicable for a temperature range of 25--120 C, encountered in air and steam-stripping operations. An engineer can use the data to assess the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill in water, i.e., by determining the amount of dissolved naphthenes. Solubility values at ambient temperature, as well as higher-temperature values can be ascertained from the correlation.

  13. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  14. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  15. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  16. advanced high temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John 3 Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer and Geosciences Websites Summary: and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  17. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  18. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  19. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  20. Water value in power generation: Experts distinguish water use and consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter 2013 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek In Grimes County, the sun sets over Gibbons Creek Reservoir, the cooling water supply for an adjacent power plant. Photo by Leslie Lee. WATER VALUE IN POWER GENERATION Experts distinguish... water use and consumption Having enough water available for municipal and agricultural needs is o#23;en discussed; however, having the water needed to generate electric power and the electricity needed to treat and transport water is a struggle all...

  1. Water value in power generation: Experts distinguish water use and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter 2013 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek In Grimes County, the sun sets over Gibbons Creek Reservoir, the cooling water supply for an adjacent power plant. Photo by Leslie Lee. WATER VALUE IN POWER GENERATION Experts distinguish... water use and consumption Having enough water available for municipal and agricultural needs is o#23;en discussed; however, having the water needed to generate electric power and the electricity needed to treat and transport water is a struggle all...

  2. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  3. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  4. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  5. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  6. A Study of the Occurrence of Supercooling of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, K -C; Katz, J I; Feng, S -J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water supercooling has received considerable research attention. The parameters influencing supercooling include the initial temperature of the water and the temperature of the chilling medium. In this study, we investigated an additional parameter, the type of chilling medium. We correlated the occurrence of supercooling with the minimum temperature anywhere in the water. If the minimum temperature is higher, ice nucleation is unlikely and supercooling will take place. Besides distilled water, we also investigated supercooling of water found in nature, and found that impurities in such water do not facilitate ice nucleation.

  7. Evaluation of integrated data sets: four examples. [Uranium deposits (exploration)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolivar, S.L.; Freeman, S.B.; Weaver, T.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several large data sets have been integrated and utilized for rapid evaluation on a reconnaissance scale for the Montrose 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle, Colorado. The data sets include Landsat imagery, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses, airborne geophysical data, known mineral occurrences, and a geologic map. All data sets were registered to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid and projected onto Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. A grid resolution of 1 km was used. All possible combinations of three, for most data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. In addition, gray-level pictures of statistical output, e.g., factor analysis, have been employed to aid evaluations. Examples for the data sets dysprosium-calcium, lead-copper-zinc, and equivalent uranium-uranium in water-uranium in sediment are described with respect to geologic applications, base-metal regimes, and geochemical associations.

  8. Introduction Importance of temperature in streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    , fish reproduction, and aquatic metabolism rates. Nearly every species is temperature sensitive a downstream gradient as the surface water is exposed to solar radiation. Theurer et al. (1984) listed sources-radiation. Inverted temperature gradients (downstream cooling) have been observed where clear cutting exposed head

  9. ROOM TEMPERATURE STRENGTH DEGRADATION OF OPTICAL FIBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    temperatures. 6 :4 Aging Time (s) Fig. 2. Residual strength of fiber B after aging in deionized water. Aging Time (s) Fig. 4. Data of Griffioen3 for residual strength (strain to failure) of fiber aged in water. 1) Fig. 1 . Residual strength of fiber A after aging in distilled water. io 10 i0 106 io 108 1.0 0.9 0 (0

  10. Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7.5{angstrom} and 5.5{angstrom} to give two different time resolutions. All the spectra have been measure at room temperature. The spectra were corrected for the sample holder contribution and normalized using the vanadium standard. The resulting data were analyzed with DAVE programs (http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/). The AMBER force field and SPCE water model were used for modeling the NALMA solute and water, respectively. For the analysis of the water dynamics in the NALMA aqueous solutions, we performed simulations of a dispersed solute configuration consistent with our previous structural analysis, where we had primarily focused on the structural organization of these peptide solutions and their connection to protein folding. Further details of the QENS experiment and molecular dynamics simulations are reported elsewhere.

  11. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

    2001-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work.

  12. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  13. Distribution of Soil Temperature Regimes and Climate Change in the Mojave Desert Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Yanying

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    precipitation, and water vapor on diurnal temperature range.Idaho, United States. Water Resour. Res. 37: 2843-2846.and J. Bouma. 1994. Modelling water and chemical fluxes as

  14. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + ethanol + water, methanol + water, and ethanol + water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kouichi; Kojima, Kazuo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry; Minoura, Tsuyoshi [Mitui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were measured for the ternary system methanol + ethanol + water and its constituent binary systems of methanol + water and ethanol + water at 323.15, 328.15, and 333.15 K. The apparatus that was used made it possible to control the measured temperature and total pressure by computer. The experimental binary data were correlated by the NRTL equation. The ternary system was predicted using the binary NRTL parameters with good accuracy.

  15. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  16. Liu UCD Phy9B 07 1 Ch 17. Temperature & Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    in temperature. Like water, flows from high to low (temperature). Not the energy a body contains. #12;Liu UCD Phy of how hot /cold an object is Temperature Scale Celsius (centigrade) ºC Fahrenheit ºF Absolute (Kelvin of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1Cº kilocalorie (kcal) 1 kcal =1000 cal

  17. Experimental Temperature Monitoring and Coagulation Detection using Ultrasound-Stimulated Acoustic Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    in the monitoring and control of thermal therapies, with diagnostic ultrasound and MRI demonstrating the most elements to monitor and increase the temperature in the tissue. Processing USAE vs. temperature plot WaterFrequency Generator 2 f 2 Amplifier USAE vs. temperature plot Water USAE signal Hydrophone Tissue f 1 Temperature

  18. Wavelet Based Density Estimators for Modeling Multidimensional Data Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    the distribution of this random variable. We exhibit an estimator for the wavelet coeÃ?cients of this density and ionospheric data. After three levels of o#11;-line pre-processing, observations of temperature, water vapor agreement nr. F30602-99-1-0524, and unrestricted cash/equipment gifts from NCR, IBM, Intel and SUN. #12; 1

  19. Analysis on a Fractal Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santanu Raut; Dhurjati Prasad Datta

    2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The formulation of a new analysis on a zero measure Cantor set $C (\\subset I=[0,1])$ is presented. A non-archimedean absolute value is introduced in $C$ exploiting the concept of {\\em relative} infinitesimals and a scale invariant ultrametric valuation of the form $\\log_{\\varepsilon^{-1}} (\\varepsilon/x) $ for a given scale $\\varepsilon>0$ and infinitesimals $0set, if it exists. The formulation of a scale invariant real analysis is also outlined, when the singleton $\\{0\\}$ of the real line $R$ is replaced by a zero measure Cantor set. The Cantor function is realised as a locally constant function in this setting. The ordinary derivative $dx/dt$ in $R$ is replaced by the scale invariant logarithmic derivative $d\\log x/d\\log t$ on the set of valued infinitesimals. As a result, the ordinary real valued functions are expected to enjoy some novel asymptotic properties, which might have important applications in number theory and in other areas of mathematics.

  20. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

  1. Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that gives very hot water with detergent. #12;4. The method of using a relatively low temperature air bake of the requirements for high quality forged blanks for flanges. After machining using a water based lubricantLow Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning

  2. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  3. ASCE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS World Water Congress 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the ice pack and boundary conditions of ice-water existence. It simultaneously finds ice temperatures, pack size, and heat transferred between ice pack and both the atmosphere and the water. Since measured-parameter Great Lakes continuous evaporation model solves for each day's over-water and over-ice surface fluxes

  4. Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex Applied Mathematics 121 -- Spring 2011 Due 5:00 PM, Friday, February 18 linear programs using the Simplex method. Second, you will get a better understanding of linear programming through a better understanding of the Simplex method. Contents 1 Making it rain 2 2 Simplex

  5. Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex AM121/ES121 -- Fall 2014 Due 5:00 PM, Tuesday, September 30, 2014 linear programs using the Simplex method. Second, you will get a better understanding of linear programming through a better understanding of the Simplex method. Contents 1 Making it rain 3 2 Simplex

  6. Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Problem Set 3 Let's Simplex Applied Mathematics 121 -- Spring 2014 Due 5:00 PM, Friday, February 21 practice solving linear programs using the Simplex method. Second, you will get a better understanding of linear programming through a better understanding of the Simplex method. Contents 1 Making it rain 3 2

  7. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  8. Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009b. Chapter 5 - Helicobacter pylori - 2010 Yellow Book.and A Cravioto. 2001. “Helicobacter pylori and other entericincluding E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter,

  9. Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPTER 3: IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS 3.11.6.2 I MPROVING PERFORMANCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS 1.6.3 GCHAPTER 3: IMPROVING PERFORMANCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISMS 3.1

  10. Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking, fate and transport, and modeling study found that, when coupled together, groundwater and solar

  11. Optical set-reset latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  12. Fuel-Cell Fundamentals at Low and Subzero Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    understanding of transport phenomena and water and thermal management at low and subzero temperatures using and freeze cycles; degradation-mechanism identification and mitigation C. Performance Efficiency and power layers D. Water Transport within the Stack Critical water management, especially at the component level

  13. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  14. ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORAL QUAL SYLLABUS: SET THEORY; ERGODIC THEORY SAMUEL COSKEY Set Theory. #15; Basic set theory's theorem { there exists an Aronsajn tree { Shanin's root system lemma (#2;2) #15; Descriptive set theory of set theory (Jech 12,13) { Mostowski's collapsing theorem { relativization and absolute formulas { re

  15. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  16. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  17. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  18. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Yang, Nan [ORNL; Doria, Sandra [ORNL; Tebano, Antonello [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  19. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  20. Set Multicover The Set Multicover problem is the same as set cover except

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    during that step. Notice that the average cost can not decrease. Then 8e 2 U price(e; 1) Ÿ price(e; 2) Ÿ to be covered a specified number of times. That is we want to pick a minimum­cost set cover such that element e algorithm to multi­ cover A Greedy MultiCover algorithm U / X C / ; select a F 2 F that minimizes Cost(F ) j

  1. Set Multicover The Set Multicover problem is the same as set cover except

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    price(e; j) = Cost(F ) jF ``U j If j = r e remove e from U: return(C) This algorithm is very similar during that step. Notice that the average cost can not decrease. Then 8e 2 U price(e; 1) Ÿ price(e; 2) Ÿ to be covered a specified number of times. That is we want to pick a minimum­cost set cover such that element e

  2. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  3. Temperature Dependent Neutron Scattering Sections for Polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roger E. Hill; C. -Y. Liu

    2003-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This note presents neutron scattering cross sections for polyethylene at 296 K, 77 K and 4 K derived from a new scattering kernel for neutron scattering off of hydrogen in polyethylene. The kernel was developed in ENDF-6 format as a set of S(alpha,beta) tables using the LEAPR module of the NJOY94 code package. The polyethylene density of states (from 0 to sub eV) adopted to derive the new kernel is presented. We compare our calculated room temperature total scattering cross sections and double differential cross sections at 232 meV at various angles with the available experimental data (at room temperature), and then extrapolate the calculations to lower temperatures (77K and 4K). The new temperature dependent scattering kernel gives a good quantitative fit to the available room temperature data and has a temperature dependence that is qualitatively consistent with thermodynamics.

  4. South Dakota-Minnesota Boundary Waters Commission (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes an interstate commission to set standards for water levels and quality, and to coordinate among local governments to maintain and preserve water resources on the Minnesota...

  5. Discrete Sets of Singular Cardinality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleissner, William G.

    1983-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    singular cardinal k and a closed, cofinal in k, set of cardinals, {kb: ß «,. Throughout this paper, Y will be a discrete subset of a space X with | Y \\ = k. We say that t? = (Aß)ß...

  6. Tectonic Settings | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained ByManagement Inc Place: Cleveland, Ohio Zip:Settings

  7. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  8. Berkeley Lab Compact Accelerator Sets World Record

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record Berkeley Lab Particle Accelerator Sets World Record Simulations at NERSC Help Validate Experimental Laser-Plasma Design December...

  9. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  10. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  11. Raman spectroscopy of shocked water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman scattering has been used extensively to study the vibrational and rotational properties of molecules under a variety of conditions. Here, interest is in the behavior of water molecules shocked to high pressures and temperatures. Behind the shock front the water molecules undergo changes in bonding and the molecules may become ionized. Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the molecular species behind the shock front. In addition, changes in Raman spectra can yield information regarding inter- and intramolecular potentials and the temperature behind the shock front.

  12. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 200 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  13. Climate Change Assessment for Urban Water Resource Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Ramiro

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    change will influence in the availability of local water resource systems. Water resources are especially vulnerable to dramatic changes in temperature and precipitation, and significant impacts may be experienced by both human and ecosystems...

  14. CC Retrofits and Optimal Controls for Hot Water Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, L.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous Commissioning (CC) technologies, three old boilers (13.39 MMBH each) were replaced by three new boilers (1.675 MMBH each) and hot water pumps. Optimal controls for the hot water systems included optimal hot water temperature reset, hot water pump...

  15. Energy and Society Fall 2013 Problem Set 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the temperature and pressure, if known.) (3 points) g. How many square meters of solar panels (assume that the panels are placed in the Southwest in an area with an annual average solar radiation of 6.5 kWh/m2 /day, and that the solar panels have a conversion efficiency of 15%) (3 points) h. How many gallons of water that fall

  16. Water Use Act of 1967 (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act sets rules for withdrawing waters in excess of 100,000 gallons per day, for constructing, installing or operating any new well or withdrawal facilities having a capacity in excess of a...

  17. Contagious Sets in Random Graphs Uriel Feige

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contagious Sets in Random Graphs Uriel Feige Michael Krivelevich Daniel Reichman August 10, 2014. A contagious set is a set whose activation results with the entire graph being active. Given a graph G, let m(G, 2) be the minimal size of a contagious set. We consider the binomial random graph G := G(n, p

  18. Math 566: Axiomatic Set Theory Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basic Set Theory Definition (Axiom of Choice (AC)). If F is a family of non-empty sets, then thereMath 566: Axiomatic Set Theory Spring 2009 Professor: Simon Thomas Note-taker: Jay Williams #12;Contents 1 Basic Set Theory 3 1.1 The ordinals

  19. advanced water cooled: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    your Cooling Water System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: characteristics limit savings. Figure 1. Predicted Performance Curve PD-3274 HISTORY Colder temperatures allow...

  20. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl{sub 2}, LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct-pressure measurements were also made at elevated temperatures. The project included multicomponent mixtures useful for verification of models, and a set of binary solutions with common ions (such as KNO{sub 3} + NaNO{sub 3}, KNO{sub 3} + Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, NaNO{sub 3} + Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and KNO{sub 3} + K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) needed for determination of the mixing parameters in the Pitzer ion-interaction model for mixtures. The results are compared with existing experimental results and model predictions.

  1. Answers to the set revision exercise 1 Answers to the set revision exercise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    to the set revision exercise 5 Answers to the set revision exercise · If A has k elements, how many different1 Answers to the set revision exercise 1 Answers to the set revision exercise · Are A = {1 in which they are listed does not matter. Answers to the set revision exercise 2 Answers to the set

  2. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  3. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  4. ESAIM: PROCEEDINGS, Vol. ?, 2012, 1-10 Editors: Will be set by the publisher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    variables (like temperature) within the reactor. Let us rst present the normal functioning of a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) see Fig. 1. In a PWR, the primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure circuit of a PWR. where steam is generated and ows to a turbine which, in turn, spins an electric

  5. Coordinated Management: Power, Performance, Energy, and Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keckler, Stephen W.

    Coordinated Management: Power, Performance, Energy, and Temperature Heather Hanson Stephen W and energy lim- its" and enable a coherent set of management mechanisms to achieve the goal. The closed at Austin IBM Technical Contact : Rob Bell, Jr. Abstract We are developing a next-generation power manager

  6. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  7. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  8. Infrarde temperatur-og gasmlinger Haderslev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentrations was extracted from measured spectra of emitted thermal radiation from gas slab over a 25 cm path as a part of PSO-project 5727 "On-line optimization of waste incinerators". Non-contact gas temperature and gas composition was measured simultaneously with a FTIR spectrometer coupled to a water-cooled fiber

  9. Temperature (oC)! Height(km)!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and forecasting ! ·Temperature decreases in altitude + water vapor > instabilities can develop ·Well mixed + O2 + M = O3 + M to proceed. It is M here that transfers the excess energy to the surrounding created and transported to high latitudes PSCs form in cold, dark, polar lower stratosphere PSCs process

  10. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  11. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Three research projects were. The technical transfer project set up a RI Water Resources Center Website to allow easy access to the Center treatment devices, such as oil/sediment separators, that have been widely installed in urbanized areas have

  12. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  13. You Should Get Your Own ATMs (Automated Temperature, Money Savers...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This was a must-have purchase for us because we knew we wanted to control the temperature in our home as much as we could. In the winter we keep the house set at just 68F,...

  14. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  15. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  16. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  17. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  18. Factors influencing biological treatment of MTBE contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Hines Jr., Robert D.; Cockrum, Dirk K.; Kilkenny, Scott T.

    2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) contamination has complicated the remediation of gasoline contaminated sites. Many sites are using biological processes for ground water treatment and would like to apply the same technology to MTBE. However, the efficiency and reliability of MTBE biological treatment is not well documented. The objective of this study was to examine the operational and environmental variables influencing MTBE biotreatment. A fluidized bed reactor was installed at a fuel transfer station and used to treat ground water contaminated with MTBE and gasoline hydrocarbons. A complete set of chemical and operational data was collected during this study and a statistical approach was used to determine what variables were influencing MTBE treatment efficiency. It was found that MTBE treatment was more sensitive to up-set than gasoline hydrocarbon treatment. Events, such as excess iron accumulation, inhibited MTBE treatment, but not hydrocarbon treatment. Multiple regression analysis identified biomass accumulation and temperature as the most important variables controlling the efficiency of MTBE treatment. The influent concentration and loading of hydrocarbons, but not MTBE, also impacted MTBE treatment efficiency. The results of this study suggest guidelines for improving MTBE treatment. Long cell retention times in the reactor are necessary for maintaining MTBE treatment. The onset of nitrification only occurs when long cell retention times have been reached and can be used as an indicator in fixed film reactors that conditions favorable to MTBE treatment exist. Conversely, if the reactor can not nitrify, it is unlikely to have stable MTBE treatment.

  19. System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point Tinset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point Fset, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point Topset.

  20. Confined water in the low hydration regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gallo; M. Rapinesi; M. Rovere

    2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics results on water confined in a silica pore in the low hydration regime are presented. Strong layering effects are found due to the hydrophilic character of the substrate. The local properties of water are studied as function of both temperature and hydration level. The interaction of the thin films of water with the silica atoms induces a strong distortion of the hydrogen bond network. The residence time of the water molecules is dependent on the distance from the surface. Its behavior shows a transition from a brownian to a non-brownian regime approaching the substrate in agreement with results found in studies of water at contact with globular proteins.

  1. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  2. Low temperature MFM imaging of Fe??xV??xAl intermetallics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nooner, Scott Lee

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) system was set up by adapting a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) from Park Scientific Instruments (PSI) for low temperature MFM use. Magnetic cantilevers were fabricated for the low...

  3. DIVIDE AND CONQUER ROADMAP FOR ALGEBRAIC SETS ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 18, 2014 ... SAUGATA BASU AND MARIE-FRANÇOISE ROY .... pk,. (2) a finite subset of points of N ? Rp. The set V 0 and the finite set N are not arbitrary ...

  4. acid solutions low-temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    geometry may be matched with the zero temperature solution at an intermediate length scale. We understand this matching from separation of scales by setting up a perturbative...

  5. Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The aim of this project was to study the spatial and temporal distributions of ...

  6. Experimental Investigation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Microchannel using Temperature Nanosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jiwon 1982-

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were performed to study forced convective heat transfer of de-ionized water (DI water) and aqueous nanofluids flowing in a microchannel. An array of temperature nanosensors, called “Thin Film Thermocouples (TFT)”, was utilized...

  7. JULIA SETS AND WILD CANTOR SETS ALASTAIR FLETCHER AND JANG-MEI WU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Alastair

    JULIA SETS AND WILD CANTOR SETS ALASTAIR FLETCHER AND JANG-MEI WU Abstract. There exist uniformly quasiregular maps f : R3 R3 whose Julia sets are wild Cantor sets. 1. Introduction The most direct is not tame is called wild. The first example of a wild Cantor set was Antoine's necklace [1

  8. Logic and the set theory Lecture 20: The set theory (NS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Suhyoung

    Logic and the set theory Lecture 20: The set theory (NS) S. Choi Department of Mathematical Science KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea Fall semester, 2012 S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory November 20, 2012 1 / 14 #12;Introduction About this lecture Further set theory S. Choi (KAIST) Logic and set theory

  9. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  10. Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

  11. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  12. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  13. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water...

  14. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

  15. An experimental investigation of high temperature, high pressure paper drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Kamal Raoji

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % moisture removed oven dried mass of handsheet, g mass of handsheet after drying test, g mass of handsheet before drying test, g relative moisture removed from handsheet moisture removed by drying, % initial moisture (im) initial handsheet sample mass..., and the effects on the paper sheet and drying felt can be detrimental. Elevated temperatures reduce water viscosity which permits reduced resistance to water flow in the sheet. Pressing with a drying temperature of 95 C gives increased drying capacity, reduced...

  16. October 2013 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, IMPACTS, AND MITIGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jason R.

    October 2013 4-1 CHAPTER 4 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING, IMPACTS, AND MITIGATION MEASURES This chapter discusses the environmental setting, impacts, and mitigation measures for the 14 fully evaluated to measure changes that would result #12;Chapter 4 Environmental Setting, Impacts, and Mitigation Measures

  17. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  18. Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, James S.

    Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong A Thesis Submitted;Level Set Implementations on Unstructured Point Cloud by HO, Hon Pong This is to certify that I have implementations on unstructured point cloud 15 3.1 Level set initialization

  19. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  20. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chilled water cooling coil, and supply fan. The fan is aspecify the VAV box cooling design supply air temperature (the underfloor supply plenum (thereby, reducing room cooling

  1. advanced low-temperature heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only...

  2. ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX: NEURONAL REPRESENTATION OF ORAL TEMPERATURE AND CAPSAICIN IN ADDITION TO TASTE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    to the temperature of a liquid in the mouth. The temperature stimuli consisted of water at 10 °C, 23 °C, 37 °C and 42, and soup when hot. Although part of the effect of temperature on food palat- ability may be secondary refreshing when the core temperature is high (Cabanac, 1971). In this investigation we discovered neurons

  3. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  4. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  5. The energy-water tug of war: Drought exacerbates the paradox of efficiently producing energy while conserving water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Architec- tural and Environmental Engineering, said, ?Lack of stream#18;ow or declining lake or reservoir levels can mean there is not enough water physically available for power plant cooling. #30;e high temperatures have also increased water...20 tx H2O Fall 2011 Story by Danielle Kalisek and Leslie Lee 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 The Sabine River Authority and the city of Dallas sign a contract to move water to the Dallas Water Utilities Eastside Water...

  6. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  7. A Hybrid Model and MIMO Control for Intelligent Buildings Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Hybrid Model and MIMO Control for Intelligent Buildings Temperature Regulation over WSN Emmanuel is to propose a model-based feedback control strategy for indoor temperature regulation in buildings equipped. In order to set a model-based Fig. 1. UFAD ventilation control approach, we first investigate

  8. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  9. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  10. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  11. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  12. Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    T Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between atmosphere and ocean References coefficient of heat in water determine the heat transfer velocity: *t Infrared images of the water surface: a-Karls-Universität Heidelberg www.uni-heidelberg.de Active controlled flux technique (ACFT) Continuous heat flux Periodic heat

  13. The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature futures Conclusions The Volatility of Temperature and Pricing of Weather Derivatives Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration with J Universit¨at Ulm, April 2007 #12;The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature

  14. Experimental investigations of the viscosity of nanofluids at low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Experimental investigations of the viscosity of nanofluids at low temperatures Bahadir Aladag a nanofluids at low concentration and low temperatures are experimentally investigated. The viscosity data were stress ramp. CNT and Al2O3 water based nanofluids exhibited hysteresis behaviour when the stress

  15. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  16. Measurement of wind set-up on an open coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, William Howard

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or electrical systems. The term 'obvious malfunctioning' does not cover the re? cording of unexpected data. For instance, it is certain that for a wind blowing offshore, an onshore slope should not occur. Nevertheless, such does occur, or rather is indicated... VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 48 iii FIGURES 1 Caplen Pier 16 2 Measuring Circuit 17 3 Stillwell Installation 20 4 Onshore Synchro 24 5 Offshore Synchro and Water Level Recorder 24 6 Differential Generator 25 7 Sample Record of Wind, Wind Set-Up, and 39...

  17. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  18. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  19. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  20. A stock water solar heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nydahl, J.; Carlson, B.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the progress in the development of an inexpensive but rugged solar system to heat stock water. Insulation encased in fiber reinforced concrete is the main structural component for the collector and the partition between the unheated stock tank and the heated section. A fully wetted, drain-back collector was designed to produce a high optical efficiency and to permit its water passage to be opened for cleaning. A unique double-glazed design is used in which the inner glazing is a film with a large thermal expansion coefficient. This causes a significant drop in the stagnation temperatures since a single glazed configuration is approached at high temperatures. The collector and the partially covered insulated tank prevented freezing, and held the average water temperature at 6.4 C (44 F) during the day while the mean daily ambient temperature was {minus}5.4 C (22 F) over a nine day test.

  1. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  2. Fluctuations in Water and their Relation to the Hydrophobic Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varilly, Patrick Stephen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cavities of radius R in SPC/E water. After Ref. [49].hydrophobic polymer, in explicit SPC/E water. The collectiveA 60 × 60 × 60 ? A 3 slab of SPC/E water is set up in a 60 ×

  3. Bright Water- hydrosols, water conservation and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitz, Russell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since air-water and water-air interfaces are equally refractive, cloud droplets and microbubbles dispersed in bodies of water reflect sunlight in much the same way. The lifetime of sunlight-reflecting microbubbles, and hence the scale on which they may be applied, depends on Stokes Law and the influence of ambient or added surfactants. Small bubbles backscatter light more efficiently than large ones, opening the possibility of using highly dilute micron-radius hydrosols to substantially brighten surface waters. Such microbubbles can noticeably increase water surface reflectivity, even at volume fractions of parts per million and such loadings can be created at an energy cost as low as J m-2 to initiate and milliwatts m-2 to sustain. Increasing water albedo in this way can reduce solar energy absorption by as much as 100 W m-2, potentially reducing equilibrium temperatures of standing water bodies by several Kelvins. While aerosols injected into the stratosphere tend to alter climate globally, hydrosols can be...

  4. The water supercooled regime as described by four common water models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malaspina, David C; Pereyra, Rodolfo G; Szleifer, Igal; Carignano, Marcelo A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature scale of simple water models in general does not coincide with the natural one. Therefore, in order to make a meaningful evaluation of different water models a temperature rescaling is necessary. In this paper we introduce a rescaling using the melting temperature and the temperature corresponding to the maximum of the heat capacity to evaluate four common water models (TIP4P-Ew, TIP4P-2005, TIP5P-Ew and Six-Sites) in the supercooled regime. Although all the models show the same general qualitative behavior, the TIP5P-Ew appears as the best representation of the supercooled regime when the rescaled temperature is used. We also analyze, using thermodynamic arguments, the critical nucleus size for ice growth. Finally, we speculate on the possible reasons why atomistic models do not usually crystalize while the coarse grained mW model do crystallize.

  5. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  6. A Study on Set-Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Kok; K. P. Chithra; N. K. Sudev; C. Susanth

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A \\textit{primitive hole} of a graph $G$ is a cycle of length $3$ in $G$. The number of primitive holes in a given graph $G$ is called the primitive hole number of that graph $G$. The primitive degree of a vertex $v$ of a given graph $G$ is the number of primitive holes incident on the vertex $v$. In this paper, we introduce the notion of set-graphs and study the properties and characteristics of set-graphs. We also check the primitive hole number and primitive degree of set-graphs. Interesting introductory results on the nature of order of set-graphs, degree of the vertices corresponding to subsets of equal cardinality, the number of largest complete subgraphs in a set-graph etc. are discussed in this study. A recursive formula to determine the primitive hole number of a set-graph is also derived in this paper.

  7. The Boson peak in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar; K. Thor Wikfeldt; Daniel Schlesinger; Lars G. M. Pettersson; H. E. Stanley

    2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line $T_W$. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih.

  8. Low temperature properties of holographic condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallab Basu

    2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the current work we study various models of holographic superconductors at low temperature. Generically the zero temperature limit of those models are solitonic solution with a zero sized horizon. Here we generalized simple version of those zero temperature solutions to small but non-zero temperature T. We confine ourselves to cases where near horizon geometry is AdS^4. At a non-zero temperature a small horizon would form deep inside this AdS^4 which does not disturb the UV physics. The resulting geometry may be matched with the zero temperature solution at an intermediate length scale. We understand this matching from separation of scales by setting up a perturbative expansion in gauge potential. We have a better analytic control in abelian case and quantities may be expressed in terms of hypergeometric function. From this we calculate low temperature behavior of various quatities like entropy, charge density and specific heat etc. We also calculate various energy gaps associated with p-wave holographic superconductor to understand the underlying pairing mechanism. The result deviates significantly from the corresponding weak coupling BCS counterpart.

  9. Water solubility data for 151 hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Pan, Xiang; Lin, Xiaoyin (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of a hydrocarbon in water is important from both an environmental and a safety perspective. This information is required by engineers who design or operate stripping processes that remove hydrocarbons from air or water, or who must determine the amount of a hydrocarbon that has dissolved in water following a chemical spill. In particular, the water solubilities of paraffins are increasingly important because of more-stringent government regulations. Paraffins, along with naphthenes and aromatics, are the three major components of unrefined fuels. The water solubilities of 151 paraffins are listed in tables. The data are valid between 25 and 121 C, typical temperature in air- and steam-stripping operations. Also included is a correlation equation that allows users to estimate hydrocarbon solubilities above the given temperature range.

  10. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus afternoon NWRA board of director's meeting. Plains farmers survey their land in western Nebraska, probably

  11. About uniform regularity of collections of sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    About uniform regularity of collections of sets. Alexander Y. Kruger · Nguyen H. Thao. Dedicated to Asen Dontchev on the occasion of his 65th birthday and.

  12. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Food Processors Association today set ambitious goals to reduce energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial sector. DOE Industrial Technologies Program Manager Douglas Kaempf...

  13. Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Development Set-Aside (EDSA) program provides financial assistance to those businesses and industries requiring such assistance in order to create new job opportunities. Assistance is...

  14. On Test Sets for Nonlinear Integer Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    On Test Sets for Nonlinear. Integer Maximization. July 2007; revised February 2008. Jon Leea, Shmuel Onnb, Robert Weismantelc a IBM T.J. Watson Research

  15. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  16. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  17. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  18. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  19. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  20. Design and Operation of Fan-Coil Units in Using River Water as Chilled Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, A.; Chen, H.; Ma, W.; Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) in the system. An approximate formula is proposed for computing the cooling capacity of FCUs when the temperature of water supply is a little higher than designed temperature. Finally, recommendations are given for the design of the FCUs to follow dry operating...

  1. Organizational Setting II.A External

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharfstein, Daniel

    Chapter II Organizational Setting II.A External CEPH Criterion The School shall be an integral part to professional schools in that institution #12;External Organizational Setting CEPH Expected Documentation 1 bodies (other than CEPH) to which the institution responds 2 An organizational chart of the University

  2. Multiverse Set Theory and Absolutely Undecidable Propositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Väänänen, Jouko

    Multiverse Set Theory and Absolutely Undecidable Propositions Jouko V¨a¨an¨anen University of Helsinki and University of Amsterdam Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Background 4 3 The multiverse of sets 6 3.1 The one universe case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3.2 The multiverse

  3. Observation-based test set generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cobb, Jeffrey Lee

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    . Current test set generation relies primarily on the "stuck-at" model, which both excites and observes every site of the circuit. However, a test set with good stuck-at fault coverage will not necessarily find all the defects in a circuit. Other models...

  4. Index Sets of Computable Structures Wesley Calvert #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvert, Wesley

    the isomorphic copies of A (see [11]). Such a sentence is called a Scott sentence for A. A Scott sentence The index set of a computable structure A is the set of all indices for computable isomorphic copies of A, Archimedean ordered fields, Abelian p­groups, and the models of the original Ehrenfeucht theory. 1

  5. Index Sets of Computable Structures Wesley Calvert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvert, Wesley

    copies of A (see [11]). Such a sentence is called a Scott sentence for A. A Scott sentence set of a computable structure A is the set of all indices for computable isomorphic copies of A. We, Archimedean ordered fields, Abelian p-groups, and the models of the original Ehrenfeucht theory. 1

  6. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  7. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  8. At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you'reInc.:memo memorializes the meeting between AHAM and

  9. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo. 195 -PuebloEnergyWinter? |

  10. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Site Environmental Reports Portsmouth| DepartmentQAReduction Scenarios |JulyQuarterly

  11. Water Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm On December 12, 2014, in Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water...

  13. Water Management Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

  14. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  15. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight...

  16. Energy Savings with High Temperature Water Generation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manicke, A. C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    maintenance and operating cost, as well as some of the unfavorable o~erating conditions common to steam systems. A few! of the items and conditions are elimination 01 steam traps, condensate return systems, return I system corros;on, deaerati ng feedwater... systems an~ thei r maintenance, elimination of b10wdown requi~ements, e1 imination of vent and f1 ash losses, a ~ubstan? tia1 reduction in feedwater makeup requi~ements, feedwater treatment equipment, and feedwater chemical additives. I...

  17. GROUND WATER USE FOR COOLING: ASSOCIATED AQUIFER TEMPERATURE CHANGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    94720 ABSTRACT In steam-electric power plants, large voluMesaverage lOOO~MIJ steam-electric power plant would consume

  18. Energy Savings with High Temperature Water Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manicke, A. C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~lation and cost savings can be real i zed by all us~rs and markets. With the application of cogeneration, HTW can be added to provide very high system I effic iencies firing all types of fuel s. Saving energy has and will continue to be uppermost in our mind...

  19. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwide Permit webpageWalthallFacility | Open Energy Information

  20. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter Principal InvestigatorsSave Energy onof EnergyLower

  1. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps toValidatingCloud PropertiesObservations

  2. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: ThomasDepartmentOn January 18,SRPO| Department ofEasy Energy Savings

  3. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department ofDepartment| Department

  4. AME 101 Fall 2013 Problem Set #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    points) (from a previous midterm) I calculated the power production from a new type of steam turbine, Pin and Uin are the temperature, pressure and velocity of the steam going into the turbine, Tout, Pout and Uout are the temperature, pressure and velocity of the steam leaving the turbine, CP is the heat

  5. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Solar Desalination of Brackish Water Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    It was found that the solar water heater could increase the brackish water temperature to above 170 F during://wrri.nmsu.edu Solar Desalination of Brackish Water Using Membrane Distillation Process Shuguang Deng, NMSU from brackish water by using solar energy assisted membrane distillation processes. Problem

  6. THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY The University recognises the challenge posed by climate change, and will identify and set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, Jon

    Energy and Water We will reduce by the annual target our consumption of energy and water We will set an exemplar of good practice and a leader in environmental management within the HE sector. This environmental policy will be reviewed every three years and made publicly available. Vice Chancellor January 2013 #12;

  7. Decision analysis of polluted sites -- A fuzzy set approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, A.M.O.; Cote, K.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A decision analysis based model (DAPS 1.0, Decision Analysis of Polluted Sites) has been developed to evaluate risks that polluted sites might pose to human health. Pollutants present in soils and sediments can potentially migrate from source to receptor(s), via different pathways. in the developed model, pathways are simulated via transport models (i.e., groundwater transport model, runoff-erosion model, air diffusion model, and sediment diffusion, and resuspension model in water bodies). Humans can be affected by pollutant migration through land and water use. health risks can arise from ingestion of and dermal contact with polluted water and soil, as well as through inhalation of polluted air. Quantitative estimates of risks are calculated for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants. Being very heterogeneous, soil and sediment systems are characterized by uncertain parameters. Concepts of fuzzy set theory have been adopted to account for uncertainty in the input parameters which are represented by fuzzy numbers. An inference model using fuzzy logic has been constructed for reasoning in the decision analysis.

  8. EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property analysis of the three samples, there is no clear conclusion about transporting the samples before they are set; however, experience with saltstone grout indicates the samples should sit and develop some structure before being transported to SRNL for curing.

  9. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  10. Deuterium adsorption on water preadsorbed uranium-niobium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jachimowski, T. A. (Thomas Alan); Paffett, M. T. (Mark T.); Kelly, D. (Daniel); Hanrahan, R. J. (Robert J.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the adsorptiodreaction of deuterium on water pre-adsorbed oxidized uranium-niobium alloys at pressures near 1 Torr. Deuterium exposures were conducted at pressures from 1 to 4 Torr at surface temperatures between 300 and 600 K using a fixed dosing time of 30 seconds. Water is preadsorbed at room temperature at a pressure of {approx} 1 Torr for 30 seconds. Subsequent to gaseous exposure the surface temperature of the alloy was increased in a controlled manner and deuterium desorption was monitored using mass spectroscopy. Deuterium is observed to adsorb both at the surface and in the bulk of the uranium-niobium alloys. Water preadsorption prevents deuterium adsorption on all surfaces. The water forms a surface passivation layer at low temperatures that prevents deuterium uptake into the bulk and surface of the sample. As the adsorption temperature of the deuterium increases the amount of deuterium that adsorbs also increases.

  11. Almost Periodic Measures and Meyer Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolae Strungaru

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first part, we construct a cut and project scheme from a family $\\{P_\\varepsilon\\}$ of sets verifying four conditions. We use this construction to characterize weighted Dirac combs defined by cut and project schemes and by continuous functions on the internal groups in terms of almost periodicity. We are also able to characterise those weighted Dirac combs for which the internal function is compactly supported. Lastly, using the same cut and project construction for $\\varepsilon$-dual sets, we are able to characterise Meyer sets in $\\sigma$-compact locally compact Abelian groups.

  12. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  13. Holographic conductivity of zero temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the recently found by G. Horowitz and M. Roberts (arXiv:0908.3677) numerical model of the ground state of holographic superconductors (at zero temperature), we calculate the conductivity for such models. The universal relation connecting conductivity with the reflection coefficient was used for finding the conductivity by the WKB approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the frequency and charge density is discussed. Numerical calculations confirm the general arguments of (arXiv:0908.3677) in favor of non-zero conductivity even at zero temperature. In addition to the Horowitz-Roberts solution we have found (probably infinite) set of extra solutions which are normalizable and reach the same correct RN-AdS asymptotic at spatial infinity. These extra solutions (which correspond to larger values of the grand canonical potential) lead to effective potentials that also vanish at the horizon and thus correspond to a non-zero conductivity at zero temperature.

  14. Drinking Water Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  15. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  16. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  17. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  18. Finite Temperature Effective Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present, from first principles, a direct method for evaluating the exact fermion propagator in the presence of a general background field at finite temperature, which can be used to determine the finite temperature effective action for the system. As applications, we determine the complete one loop finite temperature effective actions for 0+1 dimensional QED as well as the Schwinger model. These effective actions, which are derived in the real time (closed time path) formalism, generate systematically all the Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory and also show that the retarded (advanced) amplitudes vanish in these theories.

  19. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  20. It has been hot! In some places in Tennessee this summer, records have been set for "hot weather." According to the Weather Service in Morristown, there has been 59 days of tempera-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    degrees. The high temperature during the days and the nights above 70, this is tough on cattle. They have water is needed to cool the cattle's internal or- gans. Internal temperature will have an impact on feed and especially, forage intake. Water from ponds will be elevated in temperature and therefore will be reduced

  1. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  2. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  3. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to determine the influence...

  4. Designing a low cost XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu Ibrahim, Fadi, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis guides the reader through the design of an inexpensive XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting machine starting with a set of functional requirements and ending with a product. Abrasive water jet cutting allows ...

  5. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  6. Tight extended formulations for independent set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    3. there is finite set Q and a mapping f : V ? 2Q such that. (a) f is “consistent” with the acyclicity, namely, for every hyperarc (J, i) ?. A and for every j ? J, we ...

  7. Constructing Roadmaps of Semi-algebraic Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    4 A Uniform Algorithm. 4.1 Combinatorial Level. Given a polynomial Q and a set of polynomials P = fP1;:::;Psg we de ne the combinatorial level. of the system (Q;

  8. A note on three dimensional good sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Gowri Navada

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that as in the case of n- fold Cartesian product for n greater than or equal to 4, even in 3-fold Cartesian product, a related component of a good set need not be a full component.

  9. Fourier restriction phenomenon in thin sets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadimitropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Fourier restriction phenomenon in settings where there is no underlying proper smooth subvariety. We prove an (Lp, L2) restriction theorem in general locally compact abelian groups and apply it in groups ...

  10. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  11. Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling with WRAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    File Name Description SIM Input Files DAT root1.DAT Required input file containing data describing water resources development, management, and use. FLO root2.FLO Monthly naturalized stream flows. EVA root2.EVA Monthly net evaporation... strategies and practices being described by sets of input data. A simulation is performed with SIM using input files of water right (DAT file) and hydrology (INF, EVA, DIS files) data provided by the model user. Program TABLES reads the SIM output OUT...

  12. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  13. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  14. Temperature in the Throat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dariush Kaviani; Amir Esmaeil Mosaffa

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating D-branes in warped Calabi-Yau throats have induced metrics with thermal horizons and Hawking temperatures a la Unruh effect. We solve the equations of motion for slow rotating probe branes and derive their induced metrics in the UV/IR solutions of warped conifold throats. Our analysis shows that horizons and temperatures of expected features form on the world volume of the rotating probe brane in terms of conserved charges in the UV solutions of the conifold throat. In certain limits, we find world volume horizons and temperatures of the form similar to those of rotating probes in the AdS throat.

  15. Generalized measurement on size of set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua-Rong Peng; Da-Hai Li; Qiong-Hua Wang

    2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We generalize the measurement using an expanded concept of cover, in order to provide a new approach to size of set other than cardinality. The generalized measurement has application backgrounds such as a generalized problem in dimension reduction, and has reasons from the existence of the minimum of both the positive size and the positive graduation, i.e., both the minimum is the size of the set ${0}$. The minimum of positive graduation in actual measurement provides the possibility that an object cannot be partitioned arbitrarily, e.g., an interval $[0, 1]$ cannot be partitioned by arbitrarily infinite times to keep compatible with the minimum of positive size. For the measurement on size of set, it can be assumed that this minimum is the size of ${0}$, in symbols $|{0}|$ or graduation 1. For a set $S$, we generalize any graduation as the size of a set $C_i$ where $\\exists x \\in S (x \\in C_i)$, and $|S|$ is represented by a pair, in symbols $(C, N(C))$, where ${C} = \\cup {C_i}$ and $N(C)$ is a set function on $C_i$, with $C_i$ independent of the order $i$ and $N(C)$ reflecting the quantity of $C_i$. This pair is a generalized form of box-counting dimension. The yielded size satisfies the properties of outer measure in general cases, and satisfies the properties of measure in the case of graduation 1; while in the reverse view, measure is a size using the graduation of size of an interval. As for cardinality, the yielded size is a one-to-one correspondence where only addition is allowable, a weak form of cardinality, and rewrites Continuum Hypothesis using dimension as $\\omega \\dot |{0,1}| = 1$. In the reverse view, cardinality of a set is a size in the graduation of the set. The generalized measurement provides a unified approach to dimension, measure, cardinality and hence infinity.

  16. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  17. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  18. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Dedrick, Daniel E. (Berkeley, CA); Anderson, David W. (Riverbank, CA)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  19. The effect of temperature on the development, growth and survival of Psorophora columbiae (Dyar and Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHugh, Chad Patrick

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and plastic lids to prevent evaporative cooling or water loss in the rearing pans, The temperature in the pans was moniz. ored with a Rustrak 2144 temperature recorder and a 1411 temp- erature probe (Gulton Ind. Inc. , Manchester, N. H...

  20. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

  1. The effect of bottom sediment transport on wave set-up

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is confined to the bottom boundary layer, or is suspended throughout a larger portion of the water column the oscillatory wave field over the wave phase to obtain a set of equations describing the evolution of the mean). To remedy this, we modify the well-known wave-averaged mean field equations by a 2 #12;bottom boundary

  2. The Dynamic Transition of Protein Hydration Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Doster; S. Busch; A. M. Gaspar; M. -S. Appavou; J. Wuttke; H. Scheer

    2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin layers of water on biomolecular and other nanostructured surfaces can be supercooled to temperatures not accessible with bulk water. Chen et al. [PNAS 103, 9012 (2006)] suggested that anomalies near 220 K observed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering can be explained by a hidden critical point of bulk water. Based on more sensitive measurements of water on perdeuterated phycocyanin, using the new neutron backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, and an improved data analysis, we present results that show no sign of such a fragile-to-strong transition. The inflection of the elastic intensity at 220 K has a dynamic origin that is compatible with a calorimetric glass transition at 170 K. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times is highly sensitive to data evaluation; it can be brought into perfect agreement with the results of other techniques, without any anomaly.

  3. Temperature-aware Task Partitioning for Real-Time Scheduling in Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, Prabhat

    Temperature-aware Task Partitioning for Real-Time Scheduling in Embedded Systems Zhe Wang, Sanjay-chip systems are in- creasing exponentially with Moore's Law. High temperature negatively affects reliability way to reduce the peak temperature in embedded systems running either a set of periodic heterogeneous

  4. Bubble formation in water with addition of a hydrophobic solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2015-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that phase separation can occur in a one-component liquid outside its coexistence curve (CX) with addition of a small amount of a solute. The solute concentration at the transition decreases with increasing the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas. As a typical bubble-forming solute, we consider ${\\rm O}_2$ in ambient liquid water, which exhibits mild hydrophobicity and its critical temperature is lower than that of water. Such a solute can be expelled from the liquid to form gaseous domains while the surrounding liquid pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure $p_{cx}$. This solute-induced bubble formation is a first-order transition in bulk and on a partially dried wall, while a gas film grows continuously on a completely dried wall. We set up a bubble free energy $\\Delta G$ for bulk and surface bubbles with a small volume fraction $\\phi$. It becomes a function of the bubble radius $R$ under the Laplace pressure balance. Then, for sufficiently large solute densities above a threshold, $\\Delta G$ exhibits a local maximum at a critical radius and a minimum at an equilibrium radius. We also examine solute-induced nucleation taking place outside CX, where bubbles larger than the critical radius grow until attainment of equilibrium.

  5. Adaptation of US Maize to Temperature Variations Ethan E. Butler1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybers, Peter

    @fas.harvard.edu High temperatures are associated with reduced crop yields1,2 , and predictions for future warming3 have maize is locally adapted to hot temperatures across U.S. counties. Using this spatial adaptation. This result does not ac- count for possible changes in temperature variability or water resources, nor does

  6. A single-electron tunneling reset-set flip-flop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alencar, Bianca M. S. M. de; Guimarães, Janaina G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, P.O. Box 4386, Brasilia-DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a new Reset-Set flip-flop fully implemented with single-electron devices is proposed. Its topology derived from NAND gates and was validated at room temperature by simulation. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed single-electron device and MOS devices in terms of power consumption and occupied area is presented.

  7. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  8. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  9. Preferred temperature of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, relative to changing ambient temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Arthur Freeman

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Changes in Ambient Tempezature Figure 5. Relationship of Rate Parameters KC and KW to 21 23 Ambient Tempezatuze Figure 6. Relationship of the Time-Lag Parameter, LAMBDA, to Ambient Temperature 36 Figure 7. Relative Contribution of' the "Warm" (BWE) and "Cold... and cold components of temperature preference are treated separately in the simulation model. Their steaQ-state contributions 39 to TP, which were labeled BWE and BCE, were computed. by 1) arbitrarily setting BWE=O. O C at TA=10. 0 0 and BCE=O. O C...

  10. Leaf water potential in Pinus taeda L. as related to fluctuating soil water and atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Stanley Lee

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    growing on Bienville loamy fine sand near Rusk, Texas. The average available water storage capacity was 9. 50 inches in the 8-foot profile. Siruiltaneous measurements of leaf water potential and environmental variables were made weekly at two hour... pressure 2 deficit, temperature, and wind (R 0. 78). A regression equation relating total daily water stress to only vapor pressure deficit and soil water content in the 0- to 4-foot soil layer was also signifi- 2= cant (R = 0. 76). The total daily...

  11. Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Control of Chilled Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supply temperatures may improve the efficiency while meeting cooling requirements for cleanroom for cleanrooms and their adjacent spaces. Chillers 39% Cooling Towers 7% Pumps 17% MUAH + RCU Fans 9% Hot Water;chilled water pumps, secondary loop chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and cooling towers

  12. The Adjustment of Avian Metabolic Rates and Water Fluxes to Desert Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    ambient air temperatures (Ta), low primary productivity, and lack of surface water place deserts among and Seely 1982; Williams and Tieleman 2000b). Likewise, lack of surface water ostensibly limits water intake461 The Adjustment of Avian Metabolic Rates and Water Fluxes to Desert Environments B. Irene

  13. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Phillip, Bradley L. (Shaker Heights, OH)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100.degree. C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  14. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Phillip, Bradley L. (20976 Fairmount Blvd., Shaker Heights, Cuyahoga County, OH 44120)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  15. Hybrid fuzzy and optimal modeling for water quality evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dong; Singh, Vijay P.; Zhu, Yuansheng

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Water quality evaluation entails both randomness and fuzziness. Two hybrid models are developed, based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME) and engineering fuzzy set theory (EFST). Generalized weighted distances are defined for considering...

  16. Improved Water and Nutrient Management Through HighFrequency Irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, T. A.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Redden, D. L.; McFarland, M. J.

    High frequency irrigation implies the uniform, frequent application of water to crops. The fequency may range from several irrigations per week to daily irrigation to even several irrigations per day in greenhouse and nursery settings. Most...

  17. Experimental investigation of over-expanded supersonic steam jet submerged in quiescent water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xin-Zhuang; Yan, Jun-Jie; Li, Wen-Jun; Pan, Dong-Dong; Liu, Guang-Yao [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was designed to determine the behaviour of an over-expanded supersonic steam jet in quiescent water. Only two shapes of steam plume were observed and an analytical model was constructed. The axial and radial temperature distributions were measured in the steam plume and in the surrounding water. The flow pattern and temperature distributions were influenced mainly by steam mass flux and water temperature. The results confirmed the occurrence of compression and expansion waves in the steam plume, and indicated that the temperature distributions reflected the steam plume shapes. The axial temperature distributions in the forepart of the steam plume were independent of water temperature. Empirical correlations were found that predicted the dimensionless axial and radial temperatures of the turbulent jet region. Moreover, prediction of the steam plume length by the dimensionless axial temperature showed good agreement with the experimental results. (author)

  18. Temperature Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, David

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

  19. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  20. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  1. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

  2. Appalachian State University Water Resources Planning Committee Impacts of Urbanization on Headwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Temperature surges (Summer Months): · Contact and runoff from impervious surfaces during afternoon rain storms by groundwater influx UPSTREAM MIDSTREAM DOWNSTREAM #12;Appalachian State University ­ Water Resources Planning

  3. Modern hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Barnes, M.H.; Kadrmas, C.; Nyman, H.O.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of district heating in Europe is drastically different from that in the United States. The development of district heating in northern and eastern Europe started in the early 1950s. Hot water rather than steam was used as the transport medium and the systems have proven to be more economical. Recently, the northern European concept has been introduced into two US cities - St. Paul and Willmar, Minnesota. The hot water project in St. Paul started construction and operation in the summer and fall of 1983, respectively. The entire first phase of the St. Paul project will take two summers to construct and will connect approximately 80 buildings for a total of 150 MW(t). The system spans the entire St. Paul business district and includes privately owned offices and retail buildings, city and county government buildings, hospitals, the state Capitol complex, and several industrial customers. The City of Willmar, Minnesota, replaced an old steam system with a modern hot water system in the summer of 1982. The first phase of the hot water system was constructed in the central business district. The system serves a peak thermal load of about 10 MW(t) and includes about 12,000 ft of network. The Willmar system completed the second stage of development in the fall of 1983. These two new systems demonstrate the benefits of the low-temperature hot water district heating technology. The systems are economical to build, have high reliability, and have low maintenance and operating cost.

  4. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling Coil Efficiency Water viscosity at the water bulk temperature Water fluid viscosity at the pipe wall temperature Fin Pitch ix TABLE OF CONTENTS... of the analysis will be compared with the weather data and chilled water system data of the DFW Airport during 2010. Other possible causes of the reduced delta-T at low loads exist and will be investigated. 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Heat transfer...

  5. Reasoning about Actions with Temporal Answer Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giordano, Laura; Dupré, Daniele Theseider

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we combine Answer Set Programming (ASP) with Dynamic Linear Time Temporal Logic (DLTL) to define a temporal logic programming language for reasoning about complex actions and infinite computations. DLTL extends propositional temporal logic of linear time with regular programs of propositional dynamic logic, which are used for indexing temporal modalities. The action language allows general DLTL formulas to be included in domain descriptions to constrain the space of possible extensions. We introduce a notion of Temporal Answer Set for domain descriptions, based on the usual notion of Answer Set. Also, we provide a translation of domain descriptions into standard ASP and we use Bounded Model Checking techniques for the verification of DLTL constraints.

  6. Instruction sets for Parallel Random Access Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trahan, J.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computational powers of time-bounded Parallel Random Access Machines (PRAMs) with different instruction sets are compared. A basic PRAM can perform the following operations in unit-time: addition, subtraction, Boolean operations, comparisons, and indirect addressing. Multiple processors may concurrently read and concurrently write a single cell. This thesis establishes that the class of languages accepted in polynomial time on a PRAM(*, {up arrow}, {down arrow}) contains the class of languages accepted in exponential time on a nondeterministic Turing machine (NEXPTIME) and is contained in the class of languages accepted in exponential space on a Turing machine. Efficient simulations are presented of PRAMs with enhanced instruction sets by sequential RAMs with the same instruction sets; also simulations of probabilistic PRAMs by deterministic PRAMs, using parallelism to replace randomness. Also given are simulations of PRAM(op)s by PRAMs, where both the simulated machine and the simulating machine are exclusive-read, exclusive-write machines.

  7. Savannah River Site TEP-SET tests uncertainty report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, D.J.N.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a measurement uncertainty analysis for the instruments used for the Phase I, II and III of the Savannah River One-Fourth Linear Scale, One-Sixth Sector, Tank/Muff/Pump (TMP) Separate Effects Tests (SET) Experiment Series. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory conducted the tests for the Savannah River Site (SRS). The tests represented a range of hydraulic conditions and geometries that bound anticipated Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents in the SRS reactors. Important hydraulic phenomena were identified from experiments. In addition, code calculations will be benchmarked from these experiments. The experimental system includes the following measurement groups: coolant density; absolute and differential pressures; turbine flowmeters (liquid phase); thermal flowmeters (gas phase); ultrasonic liquid level meters; temperatures; pump torque; pump speed; moderator tank liquid inventory via a load cells measurement; and relative humidity meters. This document also analyzes data acquisition system including the presampling filters as it relates to these measurements.

  8. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Engl; O. Biebel; R. Hertenberger; R. Mameghani; D. Merkl; F. Rauscher; D. Schaile; R. Stroehmer

    2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber the thermal expansion has been reconstructed and the result shows agreement with the theoretical expansion coefficient. As the wires are fixed at the end of the chamber, the wire position calculation can not provide a conclusion for the chamber middle. The complete deformation has been identified with the analysis of the monitoring system RasNik, whose measured values have shown a homogeneous expansion of the whole chamber, overlayed by a shift and a rotation of the chamber middle with respect to the outer part of the chamber. The established results of both methods are in agreement. We present as well a model for the position-drifttime correction as function of temperature.

  9. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  10. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  11. Tower systems for Linearly repetitive Delone sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José Aliste-Prieto; Daniel Coronel

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we study linearly repetitive Delone sets and prove, following the work of Bellissard, Benedetti and Gambaudo, that the hull of a linearly repetitive Delone set admits a properly nested sequence of box decompositions (tower system) with strictly positive and uniformly bounded (in size and norm) transition matrices. This generalizes a result of Durand for linearly recurrent symbolic systems. Furthermore, we apply this result to give a new proof of a classic estimation of Lagarias and Pleasants on the rate of convergence of patch-frequencies.

  12. Sustained concrete attack by low-temperature, fragmented core debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Bradley, D.R.; Blose, R.E.; Ross, J.W.; Gilbert, D.W.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four experiments were performed to study the interactions between low-temperature core debris and concretes typical of reactor structures. The tests addressed accident situations where the core debris is at elevated temperature, but not molten. Concrete crucibles were formed in right-circular cylinders with 45 kg of steel spheres (approx.3-mm diameter) as the debris simulant. The debris was heated by an inductive power supply to nominal temperatures of 1473 K to 1673 K. Two tests were performed on each of two concrete types using either basalt or limestone aggregate. For each concrete, one test was performed with water atop the debris while the second had no water added. The results show that low-temperature core debris will erode either basalt or limestone-common sand concretes. Downward erosion rates of 3 to 4 cm/hr were recorded for both concrete types. The limestone concrete produced a crust layer within the debris bed that was effective in preventing the downward intrusion of water. The basalt concrete crust was formed above the debris and consisted of numerous, convoluted, thin layers. Carbon dioxide and water release from the decomposition of concrete were partially reduced by the metallic debris to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen, respectively. The overlying water pool did not effect the reduction reactions.

  13. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  14. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  15. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

  16. Breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Water displays breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation at low temperatures. We hypothesize that the breakdown is a result of the structural changes and a sharp rise in dynamic heterogeneities that occurs low T upon crossing the Widom line.

  17. Modelling of unidirectional thermal diffusers in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joseph Hun-Wei

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an experimental and theoretical investigation of the temperature field and velocity field induced by a unidirectional thermal diffuser in shallow water. A multiport thermal diffuser is essentially a pipe laid ...

  18. Geochemistry And Geothermometry Of Spring Water From The Blackfoot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a direct result of high potassium concentrations in the water. A correction for carbon dioxide applied to the Na-K-Ca geothermometer lowers the estimated temperatures of the...

  19. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    of common minerals and contaminants found in Arizona water sources. · Adescriptionofdrinkingwaterregulations...............................................15 2. Properties of Water 2.1 Minerals in Water...............................................23 2.2 Contaminants in Water......................................27 3. Water Quality and Regulations 3.1 Major Water

  20. Microbial impacts on geothermometry temperature predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiko Fujita; David W. Reed; Kaitlyn R. Nowak; Vicki S. Thompson; Travis L. McLing; Robert W. Smith

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional geothermometry approaches assume that the composition of a collected water sample originating in a deep geothermal reservoir still reflects chemical equilibration of the water with the deep reservoir rocks. However, for geothermal prospecting samples whose temperatures have dropped to <120°C, temperature predictions may be skewed by the activity of microorganisms; microbial metabolism can drastically and rapidly change the water’s chemistry. We hypothesize that knowledge of microbial impacts on exploration sample geochemistry can be used to constrain input into geothermometry models and thereby improve the reliability of reservoir temperature predictions. To evaluate this hypothesis we have chosen to focus on sulfur cycling, because of the significant changes in redox state and pH associated with sulfur chemistry. Redox and pH are critical factors in defining the mineral-fluid equilibria that form the basis of solute geothermometry approaches. Initially we are developing assays to detect the process of sulfate reduction, using knowledge of genes specific to sulfate reducing microorganisms. The assays rely on a common molecular biological technique known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which allows estimation of the number of target organisms in a particular sample by enumerating genes specific to the organisms rather than actually retrieving and characterizing the organisms themselves. For quantitation of sulfate reducing genes using qPCR, we constructed a plasmid (a piece of DNA) containing portions of two genes (known as dsrA and dsrB) that are directly involved with sulfate reduction and unique to sulfate reducing microorganisms. Using the plasmid as well as DNA from other microorganisms known to be sulfate reducers or non-sulfate reducers, we developed qPCR protocols and showed the assay’s specificity to sulfate reducers and that a qPCR standard curve using the plasmid was linear over >5 orders of magnitude. As a first test with actual field samples, the assay was applied to DNA extracted from water collected at springs located in and around the town of Soda Springs, Idaho. Soda Springs is located in the fold and thrust belt on the eastern boundary of the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot, where a deep carbon dioxide source believed to originate from Mississippian limestone contacts acidic hydrothermal fluids at depth. Both sulfate and sulfide have been measured in samples collected previously at Soda Springs. Preliminary results indicate that sulfate reducing genes were present in each of the samples tested. Our work supports evaluation of the potential for microbial processes to have altered water chemistry in geothermal exploration samples.