National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water temperature setting

  1. WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY 1939-1948 Marine Biological i STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;a WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM arid to avoid delay in publication. Washington D. CWATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

  2. Remote temperature-set-point controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burke, W.F.; Winiecki, A.L.

    1984-10-17

    An instrument is described for carrying out mechanical strain tests on metallic samples with the addition of means for varying the temperature with strain. The instrument includes opposing arms and associated equipment for holding a sample and varying the mechanical strain on the sample through a plurality of cycles of increasing and decreasing strain within predetermined limits, circuitry for producing an output signal representative of the strain during the tests, apparatus including a a set point and a coil about the sample for providing a controlled temperature in the sample, and circuitry interconnected between the strain output signal and set point for varying the temperature of the sample linearly with strain during the tests.

  3. Rate Setting for Small Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

    2007-03-28

    Knowing how to set the proper rate for water service is a challenge for small water systems. They must generate enough revenue to remain solvent, but offer affordable service. This publication describes the various types of rates and explains...

  4. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings 12-30 annually for each 10F...

  5. Room temperature water Leidenfrost droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Celestini; Thomas Frisch; Yves Pomeau

    2013-08-05

    We experimentally investigate the Leidenfrost effect at pressures ranging from 1 to 0.05 atmospheric pressure. As a direct consequence of the Clausius-Clapeyron phase diagram of water, the droplet temperature can be at ambient temperature in a non-sophisticated lab environment. Furthermore, the lifetime of the Leidenfrost droplet is significantly increased in this low pressure environment. The temperature and pressure dependance of the evaporation rate are successfully tested against a recently proposed model. These results may pave a way to reach efficient Leidenfrost micro-fluidic and milli-fluidic applications.

  6. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Ridge, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  7. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermostats Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Where to insulate. Adding insulation in the areas shown here may be...

  8. Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

  9. Managing water temperatures below hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.L.; Vermeyen, T.B.; O`Haver, G.G.

    1995-05-01

    Due to drought-related water temperature problems in the Bureau of Reclamation`s California Central Valley Project in the early 1990`s, engineers were forced to bypass water from the plants during critical periods. This was done at considerable cost in the form of lost revenue. As a result, an alternative method of lowering water temperature was developed and it has successfully lowered water temperatures downstream from hydroelectric facilities by using flexible rubber curtains. This innovative technology is aiding the survival of endangered fish populations. This article outlines the efforts and discusses the implementation of this method at several hydroelectric facilities in the area.

  10. WATER TEMPERATURES Marine BiolOiical Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    =temperature data are valuable to several agencies working in the Sacramento River basin,, Fishery researchers collection is further restricted to waters of the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta the exceotion of readings from Sacramento River near the Sacramento Water Works and Sacramento River at Hay

  11. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

  12. Diversity of deep-water cetaceans in relation to temperature: implications for ocean warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Ransom A.

    LETTER Diversity of deep-water cetaceans in relation to temperature: implications for ocean warming anthropogenic change. Here we analyse a large, long-term data set of sightings of deep-water cetaceans from that deep-water oceanic communities that dominate > 60% of the planetÕs surface may reorganize in response

  13. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Wednesday, 24 September 2008 00:00...

  14. Effects of drinking water temperature on water consumption, respiration rates, and body temperatures of lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanham, Jeffrey Kent

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by JEFFREY KENT LANHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON WATER CONSUMPTION, RESPIRATION RATES, AND BODY TEMPERATURES OF LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis...

  15. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  16. Effects of Storage Container Color and Shading on Water Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, James Brent

    2012-07-16

    of the middle storage container block ........................................................................................................... 16 5 Mean water temperature inside storage containers painted with different colors kept at varying... of every organism together, while giving that organism flexibility and structure. Water is the universal solvent, carrying oxygen, nutrients, and other important chemicals needed by organisms. Water moderates the earth?s temperature, allowing life...

  17. Bacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    bodies that support oyster harvesting, called oyster waters, have four clas- sifications which determineBacteria and Surface Water Quality Standards Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each state set water quality standards to ensure all uses of a water body have the ap- propriate water

  18. Occurrence of Low-Temperature Geothermal Waters in the United...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Occurrence of Low-Temperature Geothermal Waters in the United States, in Assessment of Geothermal Resources of the United States -- 1978 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  19. Low temperature barrier wellbores formed using water flushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II; John, Billy [Houston, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2009-03-10

    A method of forming an opening for a low temperature well is described. The method includes drilling an opening in a formation. Water is introduced into the opening to displace drilling fluid or indigenous gas in the formation adjacent to a portion of the opening. Water is produced from the opening. A low temperature fluid is applied to the opening.

  20. Natural Swimming Speed of Dascyllus reticulatus Increases with Water Temperature1 Cigdem Beyan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Bob

    Abstract13 Recent research on the relationship between coral reef water temperature and fish14 swimming; Lough, 2007; Johansen and Jones,18 2011). Evaluating the behaviour of coral reef associated fish species, the speed20 of freely swimming fish in a natural setting is investigated as a function of seasonal21 changes

  1. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  2. Energy Savings with High Temperature Water Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manicke, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    rapidly. This paper will present and evaluate the use of a high temperature water (HTW) system and a conventional steam system. Solid, liquid and gaseous fuel applications will be presented along with the application of HTW to Cogeneration Systems. Life...

  3. Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analysis of Wivenhoe Dam Water Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Percival, Don

    Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Analysis of Wivenhoe Dam Water Temperatures Don Percival Applied monitoring program recently upgraded with perma- nent installation of vertical profilers at Lake Wivenhoe dam in a subtropical dam as a function of time and depth · will concentrate on a 600+ day segment of temperature fluc

  4. Temperature impacts on the set pressure of soft seated pressure relief valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, J.J.; Zirps, G.T.; Gleason, R.B. [and others

    1995-11-01

    From a safety standpoint, regardless of plant or facility type, the most important pieces of equipment are the pressure relief devices. The most critical characteristics of a pressure relief device are its set pressure and the related relieving capacity. The Set Pressure of a pressure relief device is defined as that value of increasing inlet static pressure at which the discharge becomes continuous (ASME PTC 25-1994, Performance Test Codes). To preclude an unsafe overpressure situation, the set pressure of the pressure relief device must not exceed the maximum allowable working pressure of the equipment or system being protected. Because of testing facility limitations, size or pressure, pressure relief valves intended for elevated temperature service are often set using ambient temperature air. Adjustments are made to the ambient valve opening pressures to compensate for the temperature differences. The extent of the adjustments to the pressure relief valve set pressure is important to ensure the valve will provide the required overpressure protection at the elevated in-service temperature.

  5. Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

    2011-01-01

    Health effects of beach water pollution in Hong Kong. ”for river recreational waters. ” Int J Epidemiol 18 (1):Health effects of white-water canoeing. ” Lancet 339 (8809):

  6. Analytical and experimental study of a liquid desiccant heat and mass exchanger operating near water freezing temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pineda Vargas, Sergio Manuel

    2009-01-01

    exchanger operating near water freezing temperature A Thesisoperating near water freezing temperature Copyright © 2009operating near water freezing temperature Sergio M. Pineda

  7. SUMMARY: When temperature differences across the system create a gravitation-ally unstable stratification (top-heavy fluid), convection sets in. Two kinds of con-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

    temperatures and pressures are tabulated below. Table 7.1: Values of physical properties of fresh water (at 10- ally unstable stratification (top-heavy fluid), convection sets in. Two kinds of con- vection are distinguished here: top-bottom convection and penetrative convection. The chapter closes with remarks

  8. Water Body Temperature Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climatological data and thermal pollution from river-based power plants to historical river flow data in orderWater Body Temperature Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Thermal Cooling Ken Strzepek Climate Change Impacts on Thermal Cooling Ken Strzepek* , Charles Fant* , Yohannes Gebretsadik , Megan

  9. Technologies for Upgrading Light Water Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Piyush Sabharwall; Vivek Utgikar

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy could potentially be utilized in hybrid energy systems to produce synthetic fuels and feedstocks from indigenous carbon sources such as coal and biomass. First generation nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) technology will most likely be based on conventional light water reactors (LWRs). However, these LWRs provide thermal energy at temperatures of approximately 300°C, while the desired temperatures for many chemical processes are much higher. In order to realize the benefits of nuclear hybrid energy systems with the current LWR reactor fleets, selection and development of a complimentary temperature upgrading technology is necessary. This paper provides an initial assessment of technologies that may be well suited toward LWR outlet temperature upgrading for powering elevated temperature industrial and chemical processes during periods of off-peak power demand. Chemical heat transformers (CHTs) are a technology with the potential to meet LWR temperature upgrading requirements for NHESs. CHTs utilize chemical heat of reaction to change the temperature at which selected heat sources supply or consume thermal energy. CHTs could directly utilize LWR heat output without intermediate mechanical or electrical power conversion operations and the associated thermodynamic losses. CHT thermal characteristics are determined by selection of the chemical working pair and operating conditions. This paper discusses the chemical working pairs applicable to LWR outlet temperature upgrading and the CHT operating conditions required for providing process heat in NHES applications.

  10. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Accelerating the Convergence of Replica Exchange Simulations Using Gibbs Sampling and Adaptive Temperature Sets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, Thomas; Perez, Danny

    2015-08-28

    We recently introduced a novel replica-exchange scheme in which an individual replica can sample from states encountered by other replicas at any previous time by way of a global configuration database, enabling the fast propagation of relevant states through the whole ensemble of replicas. This mechanism depends on the knowledge of global thermodynamic functions which are measured during the simulation and not coupled to the heat bath temperatures driving the individual simulations. Therefore, this setup also allows for a continuous adaptation of the temperature set. In this paper, we will review the new scheme and demonstrate its capability. The methodmore »is particularly useful for the fast and reliable estimation of the microcanonical temperature T (U) or, equivalently, of the density of states g(U) over a wide range of energies.« less

  12. Geography of international water conflict and cooperation: Data sets and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    , a unique set of tools was created that links water-specific event data with a geographic information system Information Related to Geographic Region: Large bodies of water (e.g., lakes and inland seas); 9399 Information Related to Geographic Region: General or miscellaneous; KEYWORDS: conflict, cooperation, event

  13. Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    the assumption that the densities of the two uids are di#11;erent and that the viscosity of the oil core is veryLevel Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes Hyeseon Shim July 31, 2000 Abstract We simulate the axisymmetric pipeline transportation of oil and water numerically under

  14. Temperature dependence of bulk viscosity in water using acoustic spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Holmes; N. G. Parker; M. J. W. Povey

    2010-02-16

    Despite its fundamental role in the dynamics of compressible fluids, bulk viscosity has received little experimental attention and there remains a paucity of measured data. Acoustic spectroscopy provides a robust and accurate approach to measuring this parameter. Working from the Navier-Stokes model of a compressible fluid one can show that the bulk viscosity makes a significant and measurable contribution to the frequency-squared acoustic attenuation. Here we employ this methodology to determine the bulk viscosity of Millipore water over a temperature range of 7 to 50 degrees Celsius. The measured attenuation spectra are consistent with the theoretical predictions, while the bulk viscosity of water is found to be approximately three times larger than its shear counterpart, reinforcing its significance in acoustic propagation. Moreover, our results demonstrate that this technique can be readily and generally applied to fluids to accurately determine their temperature dependent bulk viscosities.

  15. Comparison of infinite and wedge fringe settings in Mach Zehnder interferometer for temperature field measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haridas, Divya [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India); P, Vibin Antony; Sajith, V.; Sobhan, C. B. [School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Interferometric method, which utilizes the interference of coherent light beams, is used to determine the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a vertical heater plate. The optical components are arranged so as to obtain wedge fringe and infinite fringe patterns and isotherms obtained in each case were compared. In wedge fringe setting, image processing techniques has been used for obtaining isotherms by digital subtraction of initial parallel fringe pattern from deformed fringe pattern. The experimental results obtained are compared with theoretical correlations. The merits and demerits of the fringe analysis techniques are discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  16. HOT PHENOL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL 1) Set the water bath to 800

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Kulvinder

    HOT PHENOL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOL 1) Set the water bath to 800 C. 2) Make 50 mL Extraction bufferL SDS = 0.5 gm DEPC treated water = 43.2 mL Total = 50 mL 3) Add 50 mL phenol (pH = 4.7), in 50 mL extraction buffer (final concentration of 1:1). For small sample add 200 to 300ul of 1Extraction buffer: 1

  17. Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kai

    2009-05-15

    . After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

  18. Electron drift velocities in He and water mixtures: Measurements and an assessment of the water vapour cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urquijo, J. de; Juárez, A. M. [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 62251, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Basurto, E. [División de Ciencias Básicas e Ingeniería, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, 02200, México, D.F. (Mexico); Ness, K. F.; Robson, R. E.; White, R. D. [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 5063 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-07-07

    The drift velocity of electrons in mixtures of gaseous water and helium is measured over the range of reduced electric fields 0.1–300 Td using a pulsed-Townsend technique. Admixtures of 1% and 2% water to helium are found to produce negative differential conductivity (NDC), despite NDC being absent from the pure gases. The measured drift velocities are used as a further discriminative assessment on the accuracy and completeness of a recently proposed set of electron-water vapour cross-sections [K. F. Ness, R. E. Robson, M. J. Brunger, and R. D. White, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 024318 (2012)]. A refinement of the momentum transfer cross-section for electron-water vapour scattering is presented, which ensures self-consistency with the measured drift velocities in mixtures with helium to within approximately 5% over the range of reduced fields considered.

  19. Diagnosis of Solar Water Heaters Using Solar Storage Tank Surface Temperature Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Magnuson, L.; Barker, G.; Bullwinkel, M.

    2009-04-01

    Study of solar water heaters by using surface temperature data of solar storage tanks to diagnose proper operations.

  20. Control of the water fugacity at high pressures and temperatures: Applications to the incorporation mechanisms of water in olivine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Control of the water fugacity at high pressures and temperatures: Applications to the incorporation t A new method is developed to control water fugacity at a fixed pressure and temperature. We use two. The chemical environment of the olivine crystal was controlled by the water fugacity buffer, the Ni­NiO oxygen

  1. Simulating the water content and temperature changes in an experimental embankment using meteorological data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Simulating the water content and temperature changes in an experimental embankment using on the soil response such as changes in water content and temperature as well as the induced vertical from the base of embankment. In this study, the changes in temperature, volumetric water content

  2. Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winant, Clinton D.

    Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods. G. Monismith (2004), Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual the relationship between water temperature and fecal pollution in the surf zone at Huntington and Newport Beach

  3. Airborne thermal remote sensing for water temperature assessment in rivers and streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    ). Stream temperature monitoring presents challenges for water resource managers charged with the taskAirborne thermal remote sensing for water temperature assessment in rivers and streams Christian E are needed to assess spatial patterns of stream temperature at scales relevant to issues in water quality

  4. Monitoring water stress using time series of observed to unstressed surface temperature difference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    Monitoring water stress using time series of observed to unstressed surface temperature difference to monitor stress have shifted from establishing empirical relationships between combined vegetation cover/temperature surface temperature as a baseline to monitor water stress. The unstressed temperature is the equilibrium

  5. Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, L.

    2014-01-01

    d design en enclosure ex exchanger f fuel h heater int internal n number of HES o outside r return s supply sp set point sols solar radiation from south side v verify w, w2i water, water in secondary system for each HES z zone ESL... temperatures, solar radiation and wind speed; the heat balance has been regulated based on the average water temperature in the secondary system by adjusting the water mass flow rate (u1) of each HES in the primary system; and the water mass flow rate...

  6. Analysis of temperatures and water levels in wells to estimatealluvial aquifer hydraulic conductivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Grace W.; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2003-06-19

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.28C in two wells to {approx}88C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  7. Solar High Temperature Water-Splitting Cycle with Quantum Boost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Robin; Davenport, Roger; Talbot, Jan; Herz, Richard; Genders, David; Symons, Peter; Brown, Lloyd

    2014-04-25

    A sulfur family chemical cycle having ammonia as the working fluid and reagent was developed as a cost-effective and efficient hydrogen production technology based on a solar thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The sulfur ammonia (SA) cycle is a renewable and sustainable process that is unique in that it is an all-fluid cycle (i.e., with no solids handling). It uses a moderate temperature solar plant with the solar receiver operating at 800°C. All electricity needed is generated internally from recovered heat. The plant would operate continuously with low cost storage and it is a good potential solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle for reaching the DOE cost goals. Two approaches were considered for the hydrogen production step of the SA cycle: (1) photocatalytic, and (2) electrolytic oxidation of ammonium sulfite to ammonium sulfate in aqueous solutions. Also, two sub-cycles were evaluated for the oxygen evolution side of the SA cycle: (1) zinc sulfate/zinc oxide, and (2) potassium sulfate/potassium pyrosulfate. The laboratory testing and optimization of all the process steps for each version of the SA cycle were proven in the laboratory or have been fully demonstrated by others, but further optimization is still possible and needed. The solar configuration evolved to a 50 MW(thermal) central receiver system with a North heliostat field, a cavity receiver, and NaCl molten salt storage to allow continuous operation. The H2A economic model was used to optimize and trade-off SA cycle configurations. Parametric studies of chemical plant performance have indicated process efficiencies of ~20%. Although the current process efficiency is technically acceptable, an increased efficiency is needed if the DOE cost targets are to be reached. There are two interrelated areas in which there is the potential for significant efficiency improvements: electrolysis cell voltage and excessive water vaporization. Methods to significantly reduce water evaporation are proposed for future activities. Electrolysis membranes that permit higher temperatures and lower voltages are attainable. The oxygen half cycle will need further development and improvement.

  8. Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi that the water cluster is transported with the average acceleration proportional to the temperature gradient of the confined water is sufficient to realize the transport. Particularly for the system with hydrophobic

  9. Interpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy, Water Resour. ResInterpreting the temperature of water at cold springs and the importance of gravitational potential energy Michael Manga and James W. Kirchner Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University

  10. Water temperature and acidity regime shape dominance and beta-diversity patterns in the plant communities of springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweiger, Andreas H.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    related to spring types? Fresh- water Science, 31, 481–498.Beierkuhnlein — Acidity, water temperature and oligarchySpring fen vegetation and water chemistry in the Western

  11. Effect of temperature and glycerol on the hydrogen-bond dynamics of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavan K. GhattyVenkataKrishna; Edward C. Uberbacher

    2015-08-27

    The effect of glycerol, water and glycerol-water binary mixtures on the structure and dynamics of biomolecules has been well studied. However, a lot remains to be learned about the effect of varying glycerol concentration and temperature on the dynamics of water. We have studied the effect of concentration and temperature on the hydrogen bonded network formed by water molecules. A strong correlation between the relaxation time of the network and average number of hydrogen bonds per water molecules was found. The radial distribution function of water oxygen and hydrogen atoms clarifies the effect of concentration on the structure and clustering of water.

  12. New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Polymeric Proton Conductors for Water-free and High-temperature Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  13. The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagar, Christopher Flint

    1990-01-01

    the exotherm initiation temperatures (EIT) of leaf sections. The effect of 2 growth temperatures (5 and 25oC) on the absolute water content and EIT of T. recurvata and T. usneoides was also determined. All p * * pt T. mb'1 ', f o t ld temperatures at 80... minimum winter temperatures of their different northern boundaries. Cooling rate affected the EIT of T. recurvata and T. d* b t t T. b~l' T. o tll . L f t of the former 2 species froze at colder temperatures when cooled at a rate of 25oC per hour than...

  14. Numerical Analysis of Water Temperature Distribution in the Tank of ASHPWH it ha Cylindrical Condenser 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, D.; Shan, S.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01

    Air source heat pump water heaters (ASHPWH) are becoming increasingly popular for saving energy, protecting the environment and security purposes. The water temperature distribution in the tank is an important parameter for an ASHPWH. This paper...

  15. Species-specific phenological responses to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazer, SJ; Gerst, KL; Matthews, ER; Evenden, A

    2015-01-01

    to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limitedthe timing and magnitude of precipitation (i.e. , larger butof monthly and annual precipitation (PPT, mm), mean monthly

  16. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01

    The Pipe vs. The Shed Waste Water compared with Naturalfuture storm water and waste water can be dealt with throughlevels was unknown. EBMUD Waste Water Treatment Process and

  17. Reaction kinetics for the high temperature oxidation of Pu--1wt%Ga in water vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stakebake, J L; Saba, M A

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation of plutonium metal is greatly accelerated by the presence of water vapor. The magnitude of the effect of water vapor on oxidation kinetics is determined by temperature, water concentration, and oxygen concentration. Most of the previous work has been directed toward evaluating the effect of moisture on the atmospheric oxidation of plutonium. Work on the isolation and characterization of the water reaction with plutonium has been very limited. The present work was undertaken to determine the kinetics of the plutonium--water reaction over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Reaction kinetics were measured using a vacuum microbalance system. The temperature range investigated was 100--500/degree/C. The effect of water vapor pressure on reaction kinetics was determined at 300/degree/C by varying the water pressure from 0.1 to 15 Torr. 2 figs.

  18. A Modular High Temperature Measurement Set-Up for Semiconductor Device Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as combustion engines, car brake systems, turbines or well drilling. Therefore, the high temperature to the exposure to the oxygen in the surrounding air. Apart from measuring device terminal characteristics chambers has several ports for electrical feedthroughs as well as a feedthrough for the cooling liquid

  19. NMR Studies on the Temperature-Dependent Dynamics of Confined Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Sattig; Stefan Reutter; Franz Fujara; Mayke Werner; Gerd Buntkowsky; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-16

    We use $^2$H NMR to study the rotational motion of supercooled water in silica pores of various diameters, specifically, in the MCM-41 materials C10, C12, and C14. Combination of spin-lattice relaxation, line-shape, and stimulated-echo analyses allows us to determine correlation times in very broad time and temperature ranges. For the studied pore diameters, 2.1-2.9 nm, we find two crossovers in the temperature-dependent correlation times of liquid water upon cooling. At 220-230 K, a first kink in the temperature dependence is accompanied by a solidification of a fraction of the confined water, implying that the observed crossover is due to a change from bulk-like to interface-dominated water dynamics, rather than to a liquid-liquid phase transition. Moreover, the results provide evidence that $\\alpha$ process-like dynamics is probed above the crossover temperature, whereas $\\beta$ process-like dynamics is observed below. At 180-190 K, we find a second change of the temperature dependence, which resembles that reported for the $\\beta$ process of supercooled liquids during the glass transition, suggesting a value of $T_g\\!\\approx\\!185$ K for interface-affected liquid water. In the high-temperature range, $T\\!>\\!225$ K, the temperature dependence of water reorientation is weaker in the smaller C10 pores than in the larger C12 and C14 pores, where it is more bulk-like, indicating a significant effect of the silica confinement on the $\\alpha$ process of water in the former 2.1 nm confinement. By contrast, the temperature dependence of water reorientation is largely independent of the confinement size and described by an Arrhenius law with an activation energy of $E_a\\!\\approx\\!0.5\\ $eV in the low-temperature range, $T\\!water.

  20. Response of fish to different simulated rates of water temperature increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L.D.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1992-08-01

    We initiated this study to define the limits of effluent-temperature rate increases during reactor restart, which will help minimize fish kills. We constructed an apparatus for exposing fish to various temperature-increase regimens and conducted two experiments based on information from system tests and scoping runs. In the rate experiment, we acclimated the fish to 20{degree}C, and then raised the temperature to 40{degree}C at varying rates. Because scoping runs and literature suggested that acclimation temperature may affect temperature-related mortality, we conducted an acclimation experiment. We acclimated the fish to various temperatures, then raised the temperatures to 39--40{degree}C at a rate of 2{degree}C every 12 hours. Based on the analysis of the data, we recommend temperature-increase rates during reactor restart of 2.5{degree}C every nine hours if ambient water temperatures are over 20{degree}C. If water temperatures are at or below 20{degree}C, we recommend temperature-increase rates of 2.5{degree}C every 12 hours. No regulation of temperature is required after effluent temperatures reach 40{degree}C. We recommend further studies, including expanded testing with the simulation system and behavioral and bioenergetic investigations that may further refine acceptable rates of effluent-temperature increases.

  1. The Pipe vs. The Shed: Waste Water compared with Natural Hydrology in an Urban Setting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lather, Alaska; Wozniak, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Friends of Temescal Creek Water Quality Monitoring Report.The Pipe vs. The Shed Waste Water compared with Naturalvary greatly in scale and in water usage. This projects aims

  2. Low-Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low-Temperature Geothermal Water in Utah: A compilation of Data for Thermal Wells and Springs Through 1993 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web...

  3. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but ...

  4. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  5. Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

    We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

  6. Water Body Temperature Model for Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Thermal Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strzepek, K.

    We develop and test a physically based semi-Lagrangian water body temperature model to apply climatological data and thermal pollution from river-based power plants to historical river flow data in order to better understand ...

  7. Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boushell, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator ...

  8. Water heat pipe frozen startup and shutdown transients with internal temperature, pressure and visual observations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinarts, Thomas Raymond

    1989-01-01

    WATER HEAT PIPE FROZEN STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN TRANSIENTS WITH INTERNAL TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND VISUAL OBSERVATIONS A Thesis by THOMAS RAYMOND REINARTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering WATER HEAT PIPE FROZEN STARTUP AND SHUTDOWN TRANSIENTS WITH INTERNAL TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND VISUAL OBSERVATIONS A Thesis THOMAS RAYMOND REINARTS...

  9. Molecular tagging thermometry for transient temperature mapping within a water droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    temperature measurements within a small water droplet over a solid surface. For MTT measurement, a pulsed-induced phosphorescence is imaged at two successive times after the same laser excitation pulse. The temperature measurements of liquid droplets for combustion applications [1­3]. Laser- induced phosphorescence (LIP

  10. Calibration factor of track etch detectors at different temperatures of water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasmeen, Nuzhat

    1997-01-01

    Research was performed to determine track density as a function of radon exposure in water and exposure temperature for the track etch detectors Kodak LR II 5 Type 2 and CR-39. Films were submerged in water containing a known concentration...

  11. Influence of Water Content and Temperature on Molecular Mobility and Intracellular Glasses in Seeds and Pollen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    Influence of Water Content and Temperature on Molecular Mobility and Intracellular Glasses in Seeds heating. This temperature increased with decreasing water content of the samples. Differential scanning water content, the molecular mobility reached a minimum, and increased again at very low water content

  12. Supraoptimal root-zone temperature effects on water use of three Cercis spp 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Beth Jez

    1993-01-01

    Committee: Dr. Jayne M. Zajicek Stem flow rates of three Cercis spp. exposed to supraoptimal root- zone temperatures were characterized in a controlled environment chamber using a water bath to maintain treatment temperatures. Flow rates of sap... in the xylem were measured every 15 sec and averaged over 15 min intervals. Sap flow measurements were correlated to root-zone temperatures recorded during the same time intervals. Whole plant transpiration was also measured gravimetrically. Root...

  13. Diffusion Dynamics of Water Molecules in a LiCl Solution: a Low-Temperature Crossover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A quasielastic neutron scattering experiment probing the dynamics of water molecules on the pico- to nanosecond time scale in an aqueous solution of lithium chloride has detected a crossover at about 220-230 K between the high-temperature non-Arrhenius and low-temperature Arrhenius behavior. This is the first experiment where the crossover in the dynamics of water molecules is detected in bulk rather than in confinement. The results suggest that the dynamic crossover observed in the current and many recent experiments is not linked to the specific properties of water; instead, it may represent a more general dynamic transition.

  14. Risk assessment and evaluation of the conductor setting depth in shallow water, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Yong B.

    2006-08-16

    Factors related to operations of a well that impact drilling uncertainties in the shallow water region of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) can be directly linked to the site specific issues; such as water depth and local geological ...

  15. Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milam, Kyle Zohn

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN...

  16. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  17. Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

    2009-01-01

    Water uptake and electro-osmosis are investigated to improve the understanding and aid the modeling of water transport in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) below 0 C. Measurements of water sorption isotherms show a significant reduction in the water capacity of polymer electrolytes below 0 C. This reduced water content is attributed to the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid water. At -25 C, 1100 equivalent weight Nafion in equilibrium with vapor over ice has 8 moles of water per sulfonic acid group. Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion and both random and multiblock copolymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of BPSH chemistries is found to be {approx}0.4, and that of Nafion is {approx}1. No significant temperature effect on the drag coefficient is found. The implication of an electro-osmotic drag coefficient less than unity is discussed in terms of proton conduction mechanisms. Simulations of the ohmically limited current below 0 C show that a reduced water uptake below 0 C results in a significant decrease in PEMFC performance.

  18. A new water anomaly: the temperature dependence of the proton mean kinetic energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Flammini; Fabio Bruni; Maria Antonietta Ricci

    2009-01-28

    The mean kinetic energy of protons in water is determined by Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments, performed above and below the temperature of maximum density and in the supercooled phase. The temperature dependence of this energy shows an anomalous behavior, as it occurs for many water properties. In particular two regions of maximum kinetic energy are identified: the first one, in the supercooled phase in the range 269 K - 272 K, and a second one above 273 K. In both these regions the measured proton kinetic energy exceedes the theoretical prediction based on a semi-classical model. Noteworthy, the proton mean kinetic energy has a maximum at 277 K, the temperature of the maximum density of water. In the supercooled metastable phase the measured mean kinetic energy and the proton momentum distribution clearly indicate proton delocalization between two H-bonded oxygens.

  19. Evaluation of Ice Water Content Retrievals from Cloud Radar Reflectivity and Temperature Using a Large Airborne In Situ Microphysical Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protat, Alain

    Evaluation of Ice Water Content Retrievals from Cloud Radar Reflectivity and Temperature Using the performances of the proposed ice water content (IWC)­radar reflectivity Z and IWC­Z­temperature T relationships produce a very different ice water path, spanning an order of magnitude (Stephens et al. 2002). Clouds

  20. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  1. Effect of GOR, Temperature, and Initial Water Saturation on Solution-Gas Drive in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    of the stock-tank oil from Hamaca field (in Venezuela) used in our tests are 560,000 cp (at 24°C) and 8 on the effect of initial water saturation, solution GOR, and temperature. We used Hamaca stock-tank crude (from of the paper, we will discuss the results, followed by a number of conclusions. Experimental Live Oil. Stock

  2. Temperature and Water Vapor Variance Scaling in Global Models: Comparisons to Satellite and Aircraft Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are compared to those generated by state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction controlling cloud processes at the subgrid scale in NWP and climate models (Cusack et al. 1999; Tompkins 2002Temperature and Water Vapor Variance Scaling in Global Models: Comparisons to Satellite

  3. Model to Predict Temperature and Capillary Pressure Driven Water Transport in PEFCs After Shutdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Model to Predict Temperature and Capillary Pressure Driven Water Transport in PEFCs After Shutdown-912 Korea To enhance durability and cold-start performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs in the PEFC components after shutdown, which for the first time includes thermo-osmotic flow in the membrane

  4. Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air rises.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Cari

    Warm Air Rises Use food coloring and different temperatures of water to demonstrate that warm air of the cold water because warm air (or water) is less dense than cold air (or water). This concept can be seen the bottom floor of a house. Less dense warm air settles on top of cold air when winds are light

  5. T emporal structure in the deep-water temperature of four Swiss lakes: A short-term climatic change indicator?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingstone, David M.

    7 T emporal structure in the deep-water temperature of four Swiss lakes: A short-term climatic in the hypolimnion. Since in temperate latitudes coupling between deep water and atmosphere is at its strongest in atmospheric forcing on the deep-water temper- ature may well be greater than any seasonal influences. The deep-water

  6. MODELING GROUNDWATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTIONS IN AN OPERATIONAL SETTING BY LINKING RIVERWARE WITH MODFLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flow periods in riparian environments in the semi-arid southwestern United States. This thesis presents a modeling tool with significant potential to modeling groundwater-surface interactions in riparian zones, including riparian evapotranspiration

  7. Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

    2002-10-10

    Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

  8. Gille-MAE 127 1 Problem Set 1: MAE 127

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    they had done. 2. The rest of this problem set will look at temperature data from a buoy in the Santa, and take account of missing data. Here's a set of command lines to load and plot the data. load buoy('air temperature','water temperature') title('buoy measurements: Santa Monica Basin') print -depsc buoy

  9. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, J.; Read, William G.; Massie, Steven T.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Colarco, Peter; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Santee, Michelle L.

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region during boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.

  10. Recycling nickel electroplating rinse waters by low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, T.C.; Randall, P.M.

    1993-08-01

    Low temperature evaporation and reverse osmosis systems were each evaluated (on a pilot scale) on their respective ability to process rinse water collected from a nickel electroplating operation. Each system offered advantages under specific operating conditions. The low temperature evaporation system was best suited to processing solutions with relatively high (greater than 4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentrations. The reverse osmosis system was best adapted to conditions where the feed solution had a relatively low (less than4,000 to 5,000 mg/L) nickel concentration. In electroplating operations where relatively dilute rinse water solutions must be concentrated to levels acceptable for replacement in the plating bath, a combination of the two technologies might provide the best process alternative.

  11. A thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of carnot engines operating between the same temperature levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Belandria

    2009-01-06

    A theoretical thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of Carnot engines is presented. This result is unexpected from the point of view of classical thermodynamics.

  12. A thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of carnot engines operating between the same temperature levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belandria, J

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical thermodynamic cycle more efficient than an infinite set of Carnot engines is presented. This result is unexpected from the point of view of classical thermodynamics.

  13. One-Dimensional Ceria as Catalyst for the Low-Temperature Water-Gas Shift Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.; Wen, W; Hanson, J; Teng, X; Marinkovic, N; Rodriguez, J

    2009-01-01

    Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to study pure ceria and Pd-loaded ceria nanotubes and nanorods (1D-ceria) as catalysts for the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. While bulk ceria is very poor as WGS catalysts, pure 1D-ceria displayed catalytic activity at a temperature as low as 300 C. The reduction of the pure 1D-ceria in pure hydrogen started at 150 C, which is a much lower temperature than those previously reported for the reduction of 3D ceria nanoparticles. This low reduction temperature reflects the novel morphology of the oxide systems and may be responsible for the low-temperature WGS catalytic activity seen for the 1D-ceria. Pd-loaded 1D ceria displayed significant WGS activity starting at 200 C. During pretreatment in H{sub 2}, the ceria lattice parameter increased significantly around 60 C, which indicates that Pd-oxygen interactions may facilitate the reduction of Pd-loaded 1D-ceria. Pd and ceria both participate in the formation of the active sites for the catalytic reactions. The low-temperature hydrogen pretreatment results in higher WGS activity for Pd-loaded 1D-ceria.

  14. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design was then implemented on a prototype heater that was being developed simultaneously with the controller development. (The prototype's geometry and components are based on a currently marketed heater, but several improvements have been made.) The MPC's temperature control performance was a vast improvement over the existing controller. With a benchmark for superior control performance established, five additional control methods were tested. One problem with MPC control is that it was found to be extremely difficult to implement in a TWH, so that it is unlikely to be widely adopted by manufacturers. Therefore the five additional control methods were selected based on their simplicity; each could be implemented by a typical manufacturer. It was found that one of these methods performed as well as MPC, or even better under many circumstances. This method uses a Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward algorithm that was developed for this project. Due to its simplicity and excellent performance this method was selected as the controller of choice. A final higher-capacity prototype heater that uses Feedback-Compensated Feed-Forward control was constructed. This prototype has many improvements over the currently marketed heaters: (1) excellent control; (2) a modular design that allows for different capacity heaters to be built easily; (3) built-in fault detection and diagnosis; (4) a secondary remote user-interface; and (5) a TRIAC switching algorithm that will minimize 'flicker factor'. The design and engineering of this prototype unit will allow it to be built without an increase in cost, compared with the currently marketed heater. A design rendering of the new product is shown below. It will be launched with a new marketing campaign by Keltech in early 2009.

  15. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  16. Nuclear spin conversion of water inside fullerene cages detected by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamone, Salvatore Concistrè, Maria; Carignani, Elisa; Meier, Benno; Krachmalnicoff, Andrea; Johannessen, Ole G.; Denning, Mark; Carravetta, Marina; Whitby, Richard J.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Goh, Kelvin; Horsewill, Anthony J.

    2014-05-21

    The water-endofullerene H{sub 2}O@C{sub 60} provides a unique chemical system in which freely rotating water molecules are confined inside homogeneous and symmetrical carbon cages. The spin conversion between the ortho and para species of the endohedral H{sub 2}O was studied in the solid phase by low-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance. The experimental data are consistent with a second-order kinetics, indicating a bimolecular spin conversion process. Numerical simulations suggest the simultaneous presence of a spin diffusion process allowing neighbouring ortho and para molecules to exchange their angular momenta. Cross-polarization experiments found no evidence that the spin conversion of the endohedral H{sub 2}O molecules is catalysed by {sup 13}C nuclei present in the cages.

  17. Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 2 3 Effect of temperature, WPS (water-phase salt) and phenolic contents on4 Listeria models, taking into account the effects of temperature, water24 phase salt content, phenolic content

  18. SIZE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE IN THE FAR-IR SPECTRA OF WATER ICE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medcraft, Chris; McNaughton, Don; Thompson, Chris D. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Appadoo, Dominique [Australian Synchrotron, Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Bauerecker, Sigurd [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Robertson, Evan G., E-mail: E.Robertson@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)

    2012-10-10

    Spectra of water-ice aerosol particles have been measured in the far-IR region using synchrotron radiation. The particles in the nanoscale size regime of 1-100 nm were formed by rapid collisional cooling at temperatures ranging from 4 to 190 K. The spectra show the characteristic bands centered near 44 {mu}m (230 cm{sup -1}) and 62 {mu}m (160 cm{sup -1}) associated with the intermolecular lattice modes of crystalline ice at all temperatures, in contrast to previous studies of thin films formed by vapor deposition where amorphous ice is generated below 140 K. The bands shift to higher wavenumber values as the temperature is reduced, consistent with the trend seen in earlier studies, but in our experiments the actual peak positions in the aerosol particle spectra are consistently higher by ca. 4 cm{sup -1}. This finding has implications for the potential use of these spectral features as a temperature probe. The particle sizes are small enough for their spectra to be free of scattering effects, and therefore provide a means to assess imaginary refractive index values obtained through Kramers-Kronig analyses of thin film spectra.

  19. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  20. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Menicucci, David; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  1. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

  2. The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01

    mode, setting outer curtain can conserve energy for 40.9% and 20.4% compared with no curtain and inner curtain states, respectively. In winter high speed mode is the most efficient for saving energy which can decrease 40.3% and 30.9% compared with low...

  3. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  4. An experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect of water addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    . Introduction Synthetic gas (syngas) is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in various compositionsAn experimental and kinetic study of syngas/air combustion at elevated temperatures and the effect 20 December 2011 Keywords: Syngas combustion Elevated temperatures Water addition Laminar flame speed

  5. Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck, Arnold L. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Robin

    Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea Robin Robertson*, Martin Visbeck November 28, 2001 #12;Long-term Temperature Trends in the Deep Waters of the Weddell Sea 2 Abstract Warming of the deep water in the Weddell Sea has important implications for Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation

  6. Low-temperature chemistry between water and hydroxyl radicals: H/D isotopic effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamberts, T; Puletti, F; Ioppolo, S; Cuppen, H M; Linnartz, H

    2015-01-01

    Sets of systematic laboratory experiments are presented -- combining Ultra High Vacuum cryogenic and plasma-line deposition techniques -- that allow us to compare H/D isotopic effects in the reaction of H2O (D2O) ice with the hydroxyl radical OD (OH). The latter is known to play a key role as intermediate species in the solid-state formation of water on icy grains in space. The main finding of our work is that the reaction H2O + OD --> OH + HDO occurs and that this may affect the HDO/H2O abundances in space. The opposite reaction D2O + OH --> OD + HDO is much less effective, and also given the lower D2O abundances in space not expected to be of astronomical relevance. The experimental results are extended to the other four possible reactions between hydroxyl and water isotopes and are subsequently used as input for Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. This way we interpret our findings in an astronomical context, qualitatively testing the influence of the reaction rates.

  7. Plot size and location within a cotton block: their effects on the canopy temperature function and crop water stress index 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaitan, Camilo Alberto

    1988-01-01

    in the cotton block, using the theoretical lower baseline. Table 23. CWSI and linear regression of the CTF for two 0. 6 PET water treatment plots randomly located in the cotton block, using the theoretical lower baseline. . . . . 82 Table 24. Summary... to evaluate the effects of a randomized plot design on the crop water stress index (CWSI) and canopy temperature function (CTF) of cotton. Trickle irrigated cotton at the Agricultural Research Station near Pecos Texas was used to investigate...

  8. Species-specific phenological responses to winter temperature and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazer, SJ; Gerst, KL; Gerst, KL; Matthews, ER; Matthews, ER; Evenden, A

    2015-01-01

    and precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem S USAN J. Mand precipitation in a water-limited ecosystem. Ecosphere 6(information is available from water-limited ecosystems. In

  9. New constraints on water temperature at Lake Bonneville from carbonate clumped isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mering, John Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Wilkinson, B.H. , 1986. Water chemistry and sedimentologicalmarl deposition. Environ. Geol. Water Sci. 8, 229–236. doi:of Great Salt Lake: History, Water Balance, Conditions, Lake

  10. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  11. Temperature and Length Scale Dependence of Solvophobic Solvation in a Single-site Water-like Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John R. Dowdle; Sergey V. Buldyrev; H. Eugene Stanley; Pablo G. Debenedetti; Peter J. Rossky

    2012-11-01

    The temperature and length scale dependence of solvation properties of spherical hard solvophobic solutes is investigated in the Jagla liquid, a simple liquid that consists of particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential combining a hard core repulsion and a longer ranged soft core interaction, yet exhibits water-like anomalies. The results are compared with equivalent calculations for a model of a typical atomic liquid, the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, and with predictions for hydrophobic solvation in water using the cavity equation of state and the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) model. We find that the Jagla liquid captures the qualitative thermodynamic behavior of hydrophobic hydration as a function of temperature for both small and large length scale solutes. In particular, for both the Jagla liquid and water, we observe temperature-dependent enthalpy and entropy of solvation for all solute sizes as well as a negative solvation entropy for sufficiently small solutes at low temperature. The results suggest that, compared to a simple liquid, it is the presence of a second thermally accessible repulsive energy scale, acting to increasingly favor larger separations for decreasing temperature, that is the essential characteristic of a liquid that favors low-density, open structures and models hydrophobic hydration, and that it is the presence of this second energy scale that leads to the similarity in the behavior of water and the Jagla liquid. The implications of the temperature and length scale dependence of solvation free energies in water-like liquids are explored with a simple model for the aggregation of solvophobic solutes. We show how aggregate stability depends upon the size of the aggregate and the size of its constituent solutes, and we relate this dependence to cold-induced destabilization phenomena such as the cold-induced denaturation of proteins.

  12. Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase-Change-Induced Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase and durability for polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs . The most commonly used polymer electrolyte membranes-Change-Induced Flow Soowhan Kim* and M. M. Mench**,z Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics Laboratory, Department

  13. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured radiation was associated with the concurrent changes measured in specific humidity; the remaining quarter was associated with increases in the concentrations of carbon dioxide and other anthropogenic radiatively active

  14. Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1976-01-01

    Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

  15. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  16. Electro-Osmosis and Water Uptake in Polymer Electrolytes in Equilibrium with Water Vapor at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, K. G.; Pivovar, B. S.; Fuller, T. F.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the electro-osmotic drag coefficient for Nafion{reg_sign} and both random and multi-block co-polymer sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) chemistries are reported for vapor equilibrated samples below 0 C. No significant change in the drag coefficient behavior for Nafion from that reported above 0 C is found. However BPSH is found to have a drag coefficient of 0.4. The implication of a drag coefficient less than unity in the interpretation of conduction mechanisms is discussed. Measurements of water sorption isotherms below 0 C are also presented. A significant reduction in the capacity of polymer electrolytes to store water below 0 C is found. This reduced water content is a result of the lower vapor pressure of ice compared to supercooled liquid.

  17. Deserts are water-controlled ecosystems characterized by high ambient temperature (Ta), intense solar radiation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    , it can be argued that rates of energy flow through desert ecosystems are controlled by available water dominated by, the availability of water in desert ecosystems. Animals that occupy arid climes face the challenge of meeting their daily energy and water requirements in an environment that, on average, provides

  18. Minimization of steam requirements and enhancement of water-gas shift reaction with warm gas temperature CO2 removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V; Fisher, II, James C

    2013-12-31

    The disclosure utilizes a hydroxide sorbent for humidification and CO.sub.2 removal from a gaseous stream comprised of CO and CO.sub.2 prior to entry into a water-gas-shift reactor, in order to decrease CO.sub.2 concentration and increase H.sub.2O concentration and shift the water-gas shift reaction toward the forward reaction products CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2. The hydroxide sorbent may be utilized for absorbtion of CO.sub.2 exiting the water-gas shift reactor, producing an enriched H.sub.2 stream. The disclosure further provides for regeneration of the hydroxide sorbent at temperature approximating water-gas shift conditions, and for utilizing H.sub.2O product liberated as a result of the CO.sub.2 absorption.

  19. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  20. An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Paul Lawrence

    1978-01-01

    in the precipitation of Fe-sulfides (pyri te and pyrrhoti te) in both 5/1 and 50/1 water/rock ratio systems. As a result of this precipitation, Fe was effectively fractionated from Mn and the Fe/Mn ratio of the fluid decreased. Because the 50/1 systems had lower pH.... EPR). This investi- gation also provides data potentially useful in predicting the occur- rence and kind of mineralization at ocean spreading centers as a function of the temperature and water/rock ratio regime of that system. 11 METHODS Ex...

  1. Integration of numerical modeling and Bayesian analysis for setting water quality criteria in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada Maryam Ramin a , Serguei Stremilov a , Tanya Labencki b , Alexey Gudimov & Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M1C 1A4 b Water Monitoring & Reporting Section, Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto

  2. Unusual Low Temperature Reactivity of Water. The CH + H2O Reaction as a Source of Interstellar Formaldehyde?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickson, Kevin; Caubet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Water is an important reservoir species for oxygen in interstellar space and plays a key role in the physics of star formation through cooling by far-infrared emission. Whilst water vapour is present at high abundances in the outflows of protostars, its contribution to the chemical evolution of these regions is a minor one due to its limited low temperature reactivity in the gas-phase. Here, we performed kinetic experiments on the barrierless CH + H2O reaction in a supersonic flow reactor down to 50 K. The measured rate increases rapidly below room temperature, confirming and extending the predictions of earlier statistical calculations. The open product channels for this reaction suggest that this process could be an important gas-phase route for formaldehyde formation in protostellar envelopes.

  3. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    and transport properties of carbon dioxide for molecularinterfacial properties of binary carbon dioxide – waterCarbon dioxide’s liquid—vapor coexistence curve and critical properties

  4. COMPACT THERMAL MODEL FOR THE TRANSIENT TEMPERATURE PREDICTION OF A WATER-COOLED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    heating application (process indus- try, district heating, etc.). After this, the resulting lower cooled with a heat sink, exploring the concept of hot water cooled electronics as a strategy to reduce as the heat sink outlet water tem- peratures during transient heat loads. The model is validated

  5. Rheological behavior of heavy oil and water mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setiadarma, Agustinus

    2002-01-01

    mixtures. The second part of this study evaluated the same heavy oil sample with water mixtures. This research was done to predict the in-situ rheological behavior of heavy oil emulsions that always occurs in water or steam flooding processes. It is shown...

  6. Antarctic Science page 1 of 16 (2010) & Antarctic Science Ltd 2010 doi:10.1017/S0954102010000234 A dynamic physical model for soil temperature and water in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    of capillary flows below the top 0.5 cm soil layer. Beginning with a completely saturated soil profile, soil A dynamic physical model for soil temperature and water in Taylor Valley, Antarctica H.W. HUNT1 , A and longwave radiation. Water fluxes included snowmelt, freezing/thawing of soil water, soil capillary flow

  7. Temperature programmed desorption and infrared spectroscopic studies of thin water films on MgO(100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reisler, Hanna

    solid to cubic ice is known to take place, and then re-cooling. Temperature programmed desorption traces annealed. Ó 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V. 1. Introduction Physical and chemical processes that transpire

  8. Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredrick Michael

    2010-10-26

    Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones potential and where we have relaxed or generalized the potential to arbitrary and possibly fractional powers. The theory then is a semi-classical theory as the repulsion of particles is incorporated in the Lennard-Jones -like potential's energy required to bring two molecules together, a repulsion of sorts. We derive distributions for the molecular species that are exactly solved, and are derived from maximum entropy, here the semi-classical analogue of the Hamiltonian superposition of quantum phase theory of fluids. We also derive the similar statistics from the microscopic SDEs stochastic differential dynamics equations, verifying the macroscopic state function entropic-thermodynamic derivation.

  9. A singular thermodynamically consistent temperature at the origin of the anomalous behavior of liquid water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallamace, Francesco

    The density maximum of water dominates the thermodynamics of the system under ambient conditions, is strongly P-dependent, and disappears at a crossover pressure P[subscript cross] ~ 1.8 kbar. We study this variable across ...

  10. Insight into the molecular mechanism of water evaporation via the finite temperature string method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musolino, Nicholas

    The process of water's evaporation at its liquid/air interface has proven challenging to study experimentally and, because it constitutes a rare event on molecular time scales, presents a challenge for computer simulations ...

  11. Hydrogen embrittlement, grain boundary segregation, and stress corrosion cracking of alloy X-750 in low- and high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, W. J.; Lebo, M. R.; Kearns, J. J. [Bettis Atomic Power Lab., West Mifflin, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The nature of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of alloy X-750 was characterized in low- and high-temperature water by testing as-notched and precracked fracture mechanics specimens. Materials given the AH, BH, and HTH heat treatments were studied. While all heat treatments were susceptible to rapid low-temperature crack propagation (LTCP) below 150 C, conditions AH and BH were particularly susceptible. Low-temperature tests under various loading conditions (e.g., constant displacement, constant load, and increasing load) revealed that the maximum stress intensity factors (K{sub P{sub max}}) from conventional rising load tests provide conservative estimates of the critical loading conditions in highly susceptible heats, regardless of the load path history. For resistant heats, K{sub P{sub max}} provides a reasonable, but not necessarily conservative, estimate of the critical stress intensity factor for LTCP. Testing of as-notched specimens showed that LTCP will not initiate at a smooth surface or notch, but will readily occur if a cracklike defect is present. Comparison of the cracking response in water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air demonstrated that LTCP is associated with hydrogen embrittlement of grain boundaries. The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth does occur in high-temperature water (>250 C), but crack growth rates are orders of magnitude lower than LTCP rates. The SCC resistance of HTH heats is far superior to that of AH heats as crack initiation times are two to three orders of magnitude greater and growth rates are one to two orders of magnitude lower.

  12. Identification of mixing effects in stratified chilled-water storage tanks by analysis of time series temperature data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, J.S.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    Several one-dimensional models of mixing in stratified chilled-water thermal energy storage tanks have been proposed. In the simplest models, mixing is assumed to be uniform throughout the tank. Other models permit spatial variation of mixing intensity. Published models were developed by adjusting model parameters to achieve qualitative agreement with measured profiles. The literature does not describe quantitative criteria for evaluating the performance of mixing models. This paper describes a method that can be used to determine the relative spatial distribution of mixing effects directly from experimental data. It also illustrates a method for quantitative comparison of experimental and modeled temperature profiles. The mixing calculation procedure may be applied to instantaneous spatial temperature data if temperature sensor spacing is sufficiently small. When sensors are widely spaced, time series data taken at individual sensors provide better accuracy. A criterion for maximum sensor spacing is proposed. The application of these procedures to time series charge-cycle operating data from a full-scale chilled-water thermal storage system serving a large medical center is described. Results of this analysis indicate that mixing is localized near the inlet diffuser and that one-dimensional flow with streamwise conduction predominates in most of the tank.

  13. Evolution of temperature distributions in a full-scale stratified chilled-water storage tank with radial diffusers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1998-10-01

    Temperature profiles in a full-scale, naturally stratified, chilled-water thermal storage tank are described. Tests were performed using a 1.4 million gallon (5,300 m{sup 3}), 44.5 ft (13.56 m) water depth cylindrical tank with radial diffusers. Nine charge and discharge cycle tests were performed for various flow rates, covering and extending beyond the normal operating range of the system. A method for obtaining thermocline thickness from field data was derived, and a relationship between inlet flow rate and initial thermocline thickness was established. Significant differences between profiles obtained for charge and discharge cycles at similar flow rates suggest that the free surface at the top of the tank allows more mixing to occur near the upper diffuser. A study of thermocline growth compares measured temperature profiles with those predicted by a numerical conduction model that uses temperature profiles measured early in the cycle as an initial condition. Comparison with the numerical study shows that, for high flow rate tests, large-scale mixing induced by the inlet diffuser can have significant effects on thermocline development, even after the thermocline has moved away from the inlet diffuser.

  14. Hydrogen Ingress in Steels During High-Temperature Oxidation in Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Fayek, Mostafa [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that hydrogen derived from water vapour can penetrate oxidizing alloys with detrimental effect. However, the complexities of tracking hydrogen in these materials have prevented the direct profiling of hydrogen ingress needed to understand these phenomena. Here we report hydrogen profiles in industrially-relevant alumina- and chromia- forming steels correlated with the local oxide-metal nano/microstructure by use of SIMS D2O tracer studies and experimental protocols to optimize D retention. The D profiles unexpectedly varied markedly among the alloys examined, which indicates mechanistic complexity but also the potential to mitigate detrimental water vapour effects by manipulation of alloy chemistry.

  15. Experimental Analysis of Water Based Drilling Fluid Aging Processes at High Temperature and High Pressure Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zigmond, Brandon

    2012-10-19

    , drilling fluid is of most importance and a technological challenge that can greatly affect the outcome of the overall operational efficiency. It is necessary to have a sound fundamental understanding of the behavior that water-based muds (WBM) exhibit when...

  16. 2H and 13C NMR studies on the temperature-dependent water and protein dynamics in hydrated elastin, myoglobin and collagen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Lusceac; C. R. Herbers; M. Vogel

    2009-04-28

    2H NMR spin-lattice relaxation and line-shape analyses are performed to study the temperature-dependent dynamics of water in the hydration shells of myoglobin, elastin, and collagen.

  17. Global study of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) behaviour and the tuning of a 1-dimensional model to determine the LSWTs of large lakes worldwide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layden, Aisling

    2014-11-27

    Lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) of 246 globally distributed large lakes were derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) for the period 1991 to 2011. These LSWTs, derived in a systematic manner, presents ...

  18. Steam-water two-phase flow in large diameter vertical piping at high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanein, H.A.; Kawaji, Masahiro [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chan, A.M.C. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yoshioka, Yuzuru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    No information on steam/water two-phase flow behavior in large diameter pipes (10 inch or larger) at elevated pressures is available in the open literature. However, there are many applications, in the nuclear, chemical and petroleum industries among others where two-phase flows in large diameter pipes at elevated pressures and temperatures are encountered routinely or under accident scenarios. Experimental data on steam-water two-phase flow in a large diameter (20 inch, 50.08 cm I.D.) vertical pipe at elevated pressures and temperatures (2.8 MPa/230 C--6.4 MPa/280 C) have been obtained. Void fraction, two-phase mass flux, phase and velocity distributions as well as pressure drop along the test pipe have been measured using the Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) Pump Test Loop. The void fraction distributions were found to be axially symmetric and nearly flat over a wide range of two-phase flow conditions. The two-phase flow regime could be inferred from the dynamic void fluctuations data. For the 280 C tests, the flow was found to be relatively stable with bubbly flow at low average void fractions and churn turbulent or wispy-annular flow at higher void fractions. At 230 C, the flow became rather oscillatory and slugging was suspected at relatively low voids. It has also been found that the average void fractions in the test section can be determined reasonably accurately using the axial pressure drop data.

  19. Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation byIs a SmallIsotope and Temperature

  20. Design of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonar, Scott A.

    in fish tanks to a desired set temperature and then calculated the amount of hot or cold water to addDesign of a computerized, temperature-controlled, recirculating aquaria system Ann M. Widmer to tanks to reach or maintain the desired temperature. Intellifaucet1 three-way mixing valves controlled

  1. Molecular properties by Quantum Monte Carlo: an investigation on the role of the wave function ansatz and the basis set in the water molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Zen; Ye Luo; Sandro Sorella; Leonardo Guidoni

    2013-09-02

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are accurate and promising many body techniques for electronic structure calculations which, in the last years, are encountering a growing interest thanks to their favorable scaling with the system size and their efficient parallelization, particularly suited for the modern high performance computing facilities. The ansatz of the wave function and its variational flexibility are crucial points for both the accurate description of molecular properties and the capabilities of the method to tackle large systems. In this paper, we extensively analyze, using different variational ansatzes, several properties of the water molecule, namely: the total energy, the dipole and quadrupole momenta, the ionization and atomization energies, the equilibrium configuration, and the harmonic and fundamental frequencies of vibration. The investigation mainly focuses on variational Monte Carlo calculations, although several lattice regularized diffusion Monte Carlo calculations are also reported. Through a systematic study, we provide a useful guide to the choice of the wave function, the pseudo potential, and the basis set for QMC calculations. We also introduce a new strategy for the definition of the atomic orbitals involved in the Jastrow - Antisymmetrised Geminal power wave function, in order to drastically reduce the number of variational parameters. This scheme significantly improves the efficiency of QMC energy minimization in case of large basis sets.

  2. Problem set 2: Constructing a nutrient budget for Bellingham Bay In recent years the concentration of dissolved oxygen in bottom water in Bellingham Bay has been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shull, David H.

    (NO3 ) was highest in the deep water entering Bellingham Bay from the Strait of Georgia. Ammonium was slightly lower than that in deep water (Table 1). However, in much of the surface water in Bellingham Bay Nooksack River water and deep water (Fig.2). Nitrite concentrations (NO2 ) were generally low. Water

  3. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  4. Numerical simulation of the water bubble rising in a liquid column using the combination of level set and moving mesh methods in the collocated grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Water boils inside the BWRs. Although water in the nuclear industry, more than 90% power generated by nuclear is from water-cooled nuclear reactors either is in subcooled condition in the PWRs, the subcooled boiling occurs inside the reactor which makes the Departure

  5. Interactions of gaseous HNO3 and water with individual and mixed alkyl self-assembled monolayers at room temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Noriko; Hollingsworth, Scott A; Stern, Abraham C; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    of gaseous HNO 3 and water with individual and mixed alkylon all SAM surfaces when water is removed. Results ofof gas-phase HNO 3 and water on organic films using a C8

  6. Interactions of gaseous HNO3 and water with individual and mixed alkyl self-assembled monolayers at room temperature.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nishino, Noriko; Hollingsworth, Scott A; Stern, Abraham C; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, Douglas J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    of even small amounts of water vapor (revised Fig.  of the CI and POZ by water under tropospheric http://mechanism and the effects of water and irradiation remain 

  7. Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Spanning Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PRETEX (Halifax NS) #1 1054 1999 Mar 05 10:59:16

    2010-02-12

    Feb 16, 2007 ... 2007/2 page 2 i i i i. 258 CHAPTER 4. Vector Spaces. 23. Show that the set of all solutions to the nonhomoge- neous differential equation.

  9. The effect of environment, chemistry, and microstructure on the corrosion fatigue behavior of austenitic stainless steels in high temperature water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Lindsay Beth

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sulfur on the corrosion fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steel was evaluated under Light Water Reactor (LWR) conditions of 288°C deaerated (less than 5ppb O?) water, to shed light on the accelerating ...

  10. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 212408 (2015) Dynamics of water, methanol, and ethanol in a room temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 212408 (2015) Dynamics of water, methanol, and ethanol with increasing alkyl chain length: water, methanol, and ethanol, diluted to low concentration in the room is increased: 23 ps for water, 28 ps for methanol, and 34 ps for ethanol. Although in each case, only a single

  11. Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

    1989-01-01

    hardware and verify the results previously reported by GE, the following series of tests were performed: 1) Disassemble, clean, and reassemble the system. 2) Determine the condensation rate as a function of temperature of the evaporator and the condenser... derivative (PID) feedback control sensor. The cooling system devised has a capacity of 1465 W and is controlled by an on/otf temperature sensor operating through a time delay relay. B. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The system characterization procedure consisted...

  12. Ozone, water vapor, and temperature in the upper tropical troposphere: Variations over a decade of MOZAIC measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bortz, Sarah E; Prather, Michael J; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie; Smit, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An extension of the measurement of ozone and water vapour byin-service Aircraft (MOZAIC) ozone climatologies usingcomparison with SHADOZ ozone and MODIS aerosol, J. Geophys.

  13. Orbits Complete Sets D-Maximal Sets Low Sets The computably enumerable sets: the tardy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cholak, Peter

    Orbits Complete Sets D-Maximal Sets Low Sets The computably enumerable sets: the tardy sets, the D@nd.edu October 2012 #12;Orbits Complete Sets D-Maximal Sets Low Sets The Computably Enumerable Sets from in . #12;Orbits Complete Sets D-Maximal Sets Low Sets Definable Sets · A set A is simple iff

  14. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  15. Effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony and bisphenol A from polyethylene terephthalate drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    polyethylene terephthalate drinking water bottles of China Ying-Ying Fan a , Jian-Lun Zheng a , Jing-Hua Ren Accepted 9 May 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate Antimony Bisphenol A Release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water

  16. Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore C. Hsiao

    1998-08-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.

  17. Meteorological Tables for Determination of Precipitable Water, Temperatures and Pressures Aloft for a Saturated Pseudoadiabatic Atmosphere -- in the Metric System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eihle, W. O.; Powers, R. J.; Clark, R.A.

    1968-01-01

    The hydrometeorologist is often confronted with the problem of determination of precipitable water in the atmosphere based on surface dewpoints and the assumption of a saturated atmosphere with a pseudoadiabatic lapse rate. ...

  18. Three-phase K-values for n-alkanes co-existing with water at high temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forero Reyes, Helber Alfonso

    1992-01-01

    . Model. Heptane in all Billman's Runs. . Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical Model. Heptane in all Billman's Runs. . Three-phase K-value vs. Temperature. Model. Octane in all Billman's Runs. Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical... Model. Octane in all Billman's Runs. Three-phase K-value vs. Temperature. Model. Nonane in all Billman's Runs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-phase K-value vs. Pressure. Semiempirical Model, Nonane in all Billman's Runs. . Three...

  19. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  20. Features of temperature control of fuel element cladding for pressurized water nuclear reactor “WWER-1000” while simulating reactor accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, P. A.; Priymak, S. V.; Usachev, V. B.; Oleynikov, P. P.; Soldatkin, D. M. [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11

    During the experiments simulating NPR (nuclear power reactor) accidents with a coolant loss fuel elements behavior in a steam-hydrogen medium was studied at the temperature changed with the rate from 1 to 100K/s within the range of 300÷1500 °C. Indications of the thermocouples fixed on the cladding notably differ from real values of the cladding temperatures in the area of measuring junction due to thermal resistance influence of the transition zones “cladding-junction” and “junction-coolant”. The estimating method of a measurement error was considered which can provide adequate accounting of the influence factors. The method is based on thermal probing of a thermocouple by electric current flashing through thermoelements under the coolant presence or absence, a response time registration and processing, calculation of thermal inertia value for a thermocouple junction. A formula was derived for calculation of methodical error under stationary mode and within the stage of linear increase in temperature, which will determine the conditions for the cladding depressurization. Some variants of the formula application were considered, and the values of methodical errors were established which reached ?5% of maximum value by the final moment of the stage of linear increase in the temperature.

  1. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  2. Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary alloy exposed to high-temperature water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-10-30

    Intergranular oxidation of a Ni-4Al alloy exposed to hydrogenated, high-temperature water was characterized using directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. These combined analyses revealed that discrete, well-separated oxides (NiAl2O4) precipitated along grain boundaries in the metal. Aluminum was depleted from the grain boundary between oxides and also from one side of the boundary as a result of grain boundary migration. The discrete oxide morphology, disconnected from the continuous surface oxidation, suggests intergranular solid-state internal oxidation of Al. Keywords: oxidation; grain boundaries; nickel alloys; atom probe tomography; transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  3. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore »changed to plate-shape around 2 ?m in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  4. Alteration of rhyolite in CO{sub 2} charged water at 200 and 350{degree}C: The unreactivity of CO{sub 2} at higher temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Geochemical and hydrologic modeling indicates that geothermal waters in the T > 270{degrees}C reservoirs beneath Yellowstone National Park have HCO{sub 3} {much_lt} Cl and contrast with waters in reservoirs at lower temperatures which attain HCO{sub 3} about equal to Cl. Experiments reacting rhyolite with 0.5 molal solutions of CO{sub 2} at 200{degrees} and 350{degrees}C were carried out to test the hypothesis of Fournier to explain the chemistry of these springs: that CO{sub 2} is relatively unreactive with volcanic rocks at temperatures >270{degrees}C. The experimental results strongly support this hypothesis. Extent of alteration is twenty-seven times greater at 200{degrees}C than at 350{degrees}C. The dominant process in the experiments appears to be the alteration of the albitic component of the rhyolite by dissolved CO{sub 2} to form a kaolinite-like alteration product plus quartz: 2NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} + 2CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2Na{sup +} + 2HCO{sub 3}{sup -} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4} + 4SiO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} reacts with water to form H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which dissociates to H{sup +} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, more so at lower temperatures. Kinetic and thermodynamic considerations suggest that the reactivity of H{sub 2}CO{sub 3} with wallrocks is at its maximum between 150{degrees} and 200{degrees}C, consuming most of the H{sup +} and liberating equivalent amounts of cations and bicarbonate. Wallrocks in higher temperature reservoirs are relatively unreactive to dissolved CO{sub 2} which is eventually lost from the system by boiling. These observations also offer a possible explanation for the change in chemical sediments from chloride-dominated to bicarbonate-dominated salts found in the stratigraphic section at Searles Lake, California, the terminus of the Owens River which derives its dissolved load from hot springs of the Long Valley caldera. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Experimental investigations at high temperatures and pressures on melting and mineral solubility in systems of feldspars with water, with special reference to the origin of granite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makhluf, Adam Rafiq

    2015-01-01

    mixing properties of albite-water melts. Transactions of themelting and activities of water at high pressures. Americanfor determining the solubility of water in silicate melts.

  6. Modeled Interactive Effects of Precipitation, temperature, and [CO2] on Ecosystem Carbon and Water Dynamics in Different Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Gerten, Dieter [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Le Maire, Guerric [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Parton, William [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Zhou, Xuhuui [University of Oklahoma; Keough, Cindy [University of Colorado, Fort Collins; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Cramer, Wolfgang [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Dukes, Jeff [University of Massachusetts, Boston; Emmett, Bridget [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, Gwynedd, United Kingdom; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Linder, Sune [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Upsalla, Sweden; Nepstad, Daniel [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Rustad, Lindsey [USDA Forest Service

    2008-01-01

    Interactive effects of multiple global change factors on ecosystem processes are complex. It is relatively expensive to explore those interactions in manipulative experiments. We conducted a modeling analysis to identify potentially important interactions and to stimulate hypothesis formulation for experimental research. Four models were used to quantify interactive effects of climate warming (T), altered precipitation amounts [doubled (DP) and halved (HP)] and seasonality (SP, moving precipitation in July and August to January and February to create summer drought), and elevated [CO2] (C) on net primary production (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (Rh), net ecosystem production (NEP), transpiration, and runoff.We examined those responses in seven ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, and heathlands in different climate zones. The modeling analysis showed that none of the threeway interactions among T, C, and altered precipitation was substantial for either carbon or water processes, nor consistent among the seven ecosystems. However, two-way interactive effects on NPP, Rh, and NEP were generally positive (i.e. amplification of one factor s effect by the other factor) between T and C or between T and DP. A negative interaction (i.e. depression of one factor s effect by the other factor) occurred for simulated NPP between T and HP. The interactive effects on runoff were positive between T and HP. Four pairs of two-way interactive effects on plant transpiration were positive and two pairs negative. In addition, wet sites generally had smaller relative changes in NPP, Rh, runoff, and transpiration but larger absolute changes in NEP than dry sites in response to the treatments. The modeling results suggest new hypotheses to be tested in multifactor global change experiments. Likewise, more experimental evidence is needed for the further improvement of ecosystem models in order to adequately simulate complex interactive processes.

  7. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  8. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  9. Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley

    2008-01-01

    of predicted water contents and water management in ani.e . , temperature and water content), and thus many modelsfor the water uptake and water content using macroscopic

  10. A countable set derived by fuzzy set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huan Huang

    2015-10-19

    In this paper, it shows that for each fuzzy set $u$ on $\\mathbb{R}^m$, the set $D(u)$ is at most countable. Based on this, it modifies the proof of assertion (I) in step 2 of the sufficiency part of Theorem 4.1 in paper: Characterizations of compact sets in fuzzy sets spaces with $L_p$ metric, http://arxiv.org/abs/1509.00447.

  11. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S. CoalMexicoConference Tight Oil1 Soil Water and Temperature

  12. Field application of an interpretation method of downhole temperature and pressure data for detecting water entry in horizontal/highly inclined gas wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achinivu, Ochi I.

    2009-05-15

    and temperature gauges and fiber optic sensors. The monitoring instruments are increasingly incorporated as part of the intelligent completion in oil wells where they provide bottomhole temperature, pressure and sometimes volumetric flow rate along the wellbore...

  13. Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency The water...

  14. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmonid (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower at Cougar Dam in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower for fisheries resource managers to use to make decisions on bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from February 1, 2010 through January 31, 2011 to evaluate juvenile salmonid behavior year-round in the immediate forebay surface layer of the WTC tower (within 20 m, depth 0-5 m). From October 28, 2010 through January 31, 2011 a BlueView acoustic camera was also deployed in an attempt to determine its usefulness for future studies as well as augment the DIDSON data. For the DIDSON data, we processed a total of 35 separate 24-h periods systematically covering every other week in the 12-month study. Two different 24-hour periods were processed for the BlueView data for the feasibility study. Juvenile salmonids were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout 2010. The juvenile salmonid abundance index was low in the spring (<200 fish per sample-day), began increasing in late April and peaked in mid-May. Fish abundance index began decreasing in early June and remained low in the summer months. Fish abundance increased again in the fall, starting in October, and peaked on November 8-9. A second peak occurred on December 22. Afterwards, abundance was low for the rest of the study (through January 2011). Average fish length for juvenile salmonids during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 39 mm), after which average lengths increased to 294 {+-} 145 mm for mid-November though early December. Fish behavior analysis indicates milling in front of the intake tower was the most common behavior observed throughout the study period (>50% of total fish events). The next most common movement patterns were fish traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east. The proportion of fish events seen moving into (forebay to tower) or out of (tower to forebay) the tower was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall for both directions combined. From mid-December 2010 through the end of the study, the combined proportions of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher than previous months of this study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring from late April through mid-June. Schooling events were present in 30 - 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak in mid-May. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring, fall, and winter months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours. No schooling was observed at night. Predator activity was observed during late spring, when fish abundance and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months. For the two days of BlueView data analyzed for vertical distribution in the forebay, a majority of fish (>50%) were present in the middle of the water column (10 - 20 m deep). Between 20 and 41 % of total fish abundance were found in the bottom of the water column (20 - 30 m deep). Few fish were observed in the top 10 m of the water column.

  15. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The supply air temperature set point for a singleduct constant air volume air handling unit (AHU) system is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature in order to reduce simultaneous cooling and heating energy...

  16. Electrical utilities relay settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HACHE, J.M.

    1999-02-24

    This document contains the Hanford transmission and distribution system relay settings that are under the control of Electrical Utilities.

  17. Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures and Temperatures up to 300 MPa and 600 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Phase Behaviour of Carbon Dioxide + Benzene + Water Ternary Mixtures at High Pressures for the phase coexistence of carbon dioxide + benzene + water ternary mixtures. Phase coexistence was observed exceptions are the systematic studies6-9 of ternary mixtures containing carbon dioxide with large alkanes

  18. Interaction of Water with Titania: Implications for High-Temperature Gas Sensing Joseph Trimboli, Matthew Mottern, Henk Verweij, and Prabir K. Dutta*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    show potential for optimization of combustion processes, resulting in efficient energy use the resistance change in anatase due to water for designing a sensor for detecting propane in the presence of CO.

  19. Speeding up solar disinfection : effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli in Charles River water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Michael Benjamin, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Sunlight efficiently disinfects drinking water in plastic bottles over two days, but simple additives may show promise for reducing this time to several hours. This study found that adding up to 500 [micro]M hydrogen ...

  20. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  1. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    B: Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1.no baffle present SCREEN G: WATER SUPPLY AND DRAW PIPEfor EIDs (sec) 0.0 9. Supply Water Temperature (F) 58.00 10.

  2. IRCS/Subaru Observations of Water in the Inner Coma of Comet 73P-B/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3: Spatially Resolved Rotational Temperatures and Ortho-Para Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boncho P . Bonev; Michael J. Mumma; Hideyo Kawakita; Hitomi Kobayashi; Geronimo L. Villanueva

    2008-03-28

    Comet 73P-B/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 was observed with IRCS/Subaru at geocentric distance of 0.074 AU on UT 10 May 2006. Multiple H2O emission lines were detected in non-resonant fluorescence near 2.9 microns. No significant variation in total H2O production rate was found during the (3 hour) duration of our observations. H2O rotational temperatures and ortho-to-para abundance ratios were measured for several positions in the coma. The temperatures extracted from two different time intervals show very similar spatial distributions. For both, the rotational temperature decreased from ~110 K to ~90 K as the projected distance from the nucleus increased from ~5 to ~30 km. We see no evidence for OPR change in the coma. The H2O ortho-para ratio is consistent with the statistical equilibrium value (3.0) for all spatially resolved measurements. This implies a nuclear spin temperature higher than ~ 45 K.

  3. Acoustic Imaging Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Behavior in the Immediate Forebay of the Water Temperature Control Tower at Cougar Dam, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Phillips, Nathan RJ; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Ham, Kenneth D.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) behavior at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon in 2010. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The overall goal of the study was to characterize juvenile salmonid behavior and movement patterns in the immediate forebay of the Water Temperature Control (WTC) tower of the dam for USACE and fisheries resource managers use in making decisions about bioengineering designs for long-term structures and/or operations to facilitate safe downstream passage for juvenile salmonids. We collected acoustic imaging (Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar; DIDSON) data from March 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. Juvenile salmonids (hereafter, called 'fish') were present in the immediate forebay of the WTC tower throughout the study. Fish abundance index was low in early spring (<200 fish per sample-day), increased in late April, and peaked on May 19 (6,039 fish). A second peak was observed on June 6 (2904 fish). Fish abundance index decreased in early June and remained low in the summer months (<100 fish per sample-day). During the fall and winter, fish numbers varied with a peak on November 10 (1881 fish) and a minimum on December 7 (12 fish). A second, smaller, peak occurred on December 22 (607 fish). A univariate statistical analysis indicated fish abundance index (log10-transformed) was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with forebay elevation, velocity over the WTC tower intake gate weirs, and river flows into the reservoir. A subsequent multiple regression analysis resulted in a model (R2=0.70) predicting fish abundance (log-transformed index values) using two independent variables of mean forebay elevation and the log10 of the forebay elevation range. From the approximate fish length measurements made using the DIDSON imaging software, the average fish length during early spring 2010 was 214 {+-} 86 mm (standard deviation). From May through early November, the average fish length remained relatively consistent (132 {+-} 54 mm), after which average lengths increased to 295 {+-} 148 mm for mid-November though early December. From mid-December through January the average fish length decreased to 151 {+-} 76 mm. Milling in front of the WTC tower was the most common fish behavior observed throughout the study period. Traversing along the front of the tower, east-to-west and west-to-east, was the next common behavior. The percentage of fish events showing movement from the forebay to the tower or from the tower to the forebay was generally low throughout the spring, summer, and early fall (0 to 30% for both directions combined, March through early November). From mid-November 2010 through the end of the study (January 31, 2011), the combined percentages of fish moving into and out of the tower were higher (25 to 70%) than during previous months of the study. Schooling behavior was most distinct in the spring. Schooling events were present in 30 to 96% of the fish events during that period, with a peak on May 19. Schooling events were also present in the summer, but at lower numbers. With the exception of some schooling in mid-December, few to no schooling events were observed in the fall and winter months. Diel distributions for schooling fish during spring and fall months indicate schooling was concentrated during daylight hours and no schooling was observed at night. However, in December, schooling occurred at night, after midnight, and during daylight hours. Predator activity, most likely bull trout or rainbow trout according to a USACE biologist, was observed during late spring, when fish abundance index and schooling were highest for the year, and again in the fall months when fish events increased from a summer low. No predator activity was observed in the summer, and little activity occurred during the winter months.

  4. Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, F.; Han, J.

    2006-01-01

    indicates that consumer- regulated indoor temperature is the primary factor that affects the flow rate and temperature of return water....

  5. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  6. MODELING THE EFFECT OF WATER VAPOR ON THE INTERFACIAL BEHAVIOR OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE AIR IN CONTACT WITH Fe20Cr SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to provide an atomistic view, via molecular dynamic simulation, of the contrasting interfacial behavior between high temperature dry- and (10-40 vol%) wet-air in contact with stainless steels as represented by Fe20Cr. It was found that H2O preferentially adsorbs and displaces oxygen at the metal/fluid interface. Comparison of these findings with experimental studies reported in the literature is discussed. Keywords: Fe-Cr alloys, metal-fluid interfacial behavior, wet-air, molecular simulation

  7. Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korn, Andreas

    Stellar Atmospheres, Ht 2007 Problem Set 1 Due date: Monday, 24 September 2007 at 10.15 1. LTE of how temperature is defined. (b) Where in the solar atmosphere would you expect the strongest for the photosphere? (c) How does the relation between matter and radiation differ between LTE and NLTE? What must

  8. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  9. Water in protoplanetary disks: Deuteration and turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-12-10

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in a vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and is destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r ? 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of water ice from ?2 × 10{sup –2}, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10{sup –4}-10{sup –2} in 10{sup 6} yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the strength of mixing and the radial distance from the central star. Our finding suggests that the D/H ratio of cometary water (?10{sup –4}) could be established (i.e., cometary water could be formed) in the solar nebula, even if the D/H ratio of water ice delivered to the disk was very high (?10{sup –2}).

  10. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  11. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  12. Critical review of water based radiant cooling system design methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    buildings CRITICAL REVIEW OF WATER BASED RADIANT COOLINGare two primary types of water-based radiant systems: (1)cooling/heating output, water supply temperatures Notes NA

  13. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich (Moscow, RU); Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich (Moscow, RU); Ivanov, Igor Borisovich (Moscow, RU); Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich (Moscow, RU)

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  14. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  15. A study of the influence of isotopic substitution on the melting point and temperature of maximum density of water by means of path integral simulations of rigid models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, Carl; Noya, Eva G; Vega, Carlos; 10.1039/C2CP42393F

    2012-01-01

    The melting point of ice Ih, as well as the temperature of maximum density (TMD) in the liquid phase, has been computed using the path integral Monte Carlo method. Two new models are introduced; TIP4PQ_D2O and TIP4PQ_T2O which are specifically designed to study D2O and T2O respectively. We have also used these models to study the "competing quantum effects" proposal of Habershon, Markland and Manolopoulos; the TIP4PQ/2005, TIP4PQ/2005 (D2O) and TIP4PQ/2005 (T2O) models are able to study the isotopic substitution of hydrogen for deuterium or tritium whilst constraining the geometry, while the TIP4PQ_D2O and TIP4PQ_T2O models, where the O-H bond lengths are progressively shortened, permit the study of the influence of geometry (and thus dipole moment) on the isotopic effects. For TIP4PQ_D2O - TIP4PQ/2005 we found a melting point shift of 4.9 K (experimentally the value is 3.68K) and a TMD shift of 6K (experimentally 7.2K). For TIP4PQ_T2O - TIP4PQ/2005 we found a melting point shift of 5.2 K (experimentally the ...

  16. Water Quality Modeling Hydraulics and Hydrology Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : ­ Streamflows ­ Lake basin ­ Meteorology (wind/sun/precip...) · Outputs: ­ Vertical Temperature distribution ­ E. Coli · Temperature changes ­ Long term and short term · Lake circulation ­ Lake circulation ­ Outputs: · Oxygen distribution in water column · Nutrient distribution in water column (N

  17. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are: · Monitor streambed temperatures in the Lower Bull Run River to characterize vertical Focus Category: Models, Sediments, Water Quality Descriptors: TMDLs, water quality modeling, Bull Run River, temperature modeling Principal Investigators: Scott A. Wells, Robert L. Annear Publication #12

  18. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  19. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  20. Setting up File Permissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation ofAlbuquerque|Sensitive Species SensitiveSeth Darling Nanoscientist -Setting up

  1. The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program : Variation (Status and Trend) of Stream Water Temperature within th Entiat River Subbasin : January 2008 - October 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, Pierre

    2008-01-29

    The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP - BPA project No.2003-017-00) has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, analytical, data management and communication tools and skills, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-wide Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) program to assess the status of anadromous salmonid populations, their tributary habitat and restoration and management actions. The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and trend monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods, requires the testing of multiple approaches. Thus, the approach ISEMP has adopted is to develop a broad template that may differ in the details among subbasins, but one that will ultimately lead to the formation of a unified RME process for the management of anadromous salmonid populations and habitat across the Columbia River Basin. ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot subbasins, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon. To balance replicating experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that apply as broadly as possible across the Pacific Northwest, these subbasins were chosen as representative of a wide range of potential challenges and conditions, e.g., differing fish species composition and life histories, ecoregions, institutional settings, and existing data. ISEMP has constructed a framework that builds on current status and trend monitoring infrastructures in these pilot subbasins, but challenges current programs by testing alternative monitoring approaches. In addition, the ISEMP is: (1) Collecting information over a hierarchy of spatial scales, allowing for a greater flexibility of data aggregation for multi-scale recovery planning assessments, and (2) Designing methods that: (a) Identify factors limiting fish production in watersheds; (b) Determine restoration actions to address these problems; (c) Implement actions as a large-scale experiment (e.g. Before After Control Impact, or BACI design), and (d) Implement intensive monitoring and research to evaluate the action's success. The intent of the ISEMP project is to design monitoring programs that can efficiently collect information to address multiple management objectives over a broad range of scales. This includes: Evaluating the status of anadromous salmonids and their habitat; Identifying opportunities to restore habitat function and fish performance, and Evaluating the benefits of the actions to the fish populations across the Columbia River Basin. The multi-scale nature of this goal requires the standardization of protocols and sampling designs that are statistically valid and powerful, properties that are currently inconsistent across the multiple monitoring programs in the region. Other aspects of the program will aid in the ability to extrapolate information beyond the study area, such as research to elucidate causal mechanisms, and a classification of watersheds throughout the Columbia River Basin. Obviously, the scale of the problem is immense and the ISEMP does not claim to be the only program working towards this goal. As such, ISEMP relies heavily on the basin's current monitoring infrastructure to test and develop monitoring strategies, while acting as a coordinating body and providing support for key elements such as data management and technical analyses. The ISEMP also ensures that monitoring programs can address large-scale management objectives (resulting largely from the ESA) through these local efforts. While the ISEMP maintains a regional focus it also returns the necessary information to aid in management at the smaller spatial scales (individual projects) where manipulations (e.g., habitat restoration actions) actually occur. The work captur

  2. Steam-Water Relative Permeability

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Separation and Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Low Temperature Geothermal Water 500,000 64,061 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Engineering Thermophilic...

  3. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  4. Water, water everywhere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    1 Water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink? An Inquiry-based unit investigating the journey of your drinking water from source to tap of drinking water will contain different contaminants, based on surrounding land uses (guided inquiry activity

  5. Water Resources Forests & Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Forests & Water More than half of the nation's freshwater supply originates on forestland. Healthy and sustainable forests can help ensure a continuous supply of clean and abundant water. Not only does forestland provide the cleanest water of any land use, it also helps absorb rainfall

  6. DOES CRITICAL MASS DECREASE AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES: A REVIEW OF FIVE BENCHMARK EXPERIMENTS THAT SPAN A RANGE OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND CRITICAL CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, K.

    2009-06-10

    Five sets of benchmark experiments are reviewed herein that cover a diverse set of fissile system configurations. The review specifically focused on the change in critical mass of these systems at elevated temperatures and the temperature reactivity coefficient ({alpha}{sub T}) on the system. Because plutonium-based critical benchmark experiments at varying temperatures were not found at the time this review was prepared, only uranium-based systems are included, as follows: (1) HEU-SOL-THERM-010 - UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} solutions with high U{sup 235} enrichment; (2) HEU-COMP-THERM-016 - uranium-graphite blocks with low U concentration; (3) LEU-COMP-THERM-032 - water moderated lattices of UO{sub 2} with stainless steel cladding, and intermediate U{sup 235} enrichment; (4) IEU-COMP-THERM-002 - water moderated lattices of annular UO{sub 2} with/without absorbers, and intermediate U{sup 235} enrichment; and (5) LEU-COMP-THERM-026 - water moderated lattices of UO{sub 2} at different pitches, and low U{sup 235} enrichment. In three of the five benchmarks (1, 3 and 5), modeling of the critical system at room temperature is conservative compared to modeling the system at elevated temperatures, i.e., a greater fissile mass is required at elevated temperature. In one benchmark (4), there was no difference in the fissile mass between the room temperature system and the system at the examined elevated temperature. In benchmark (2), the system clearly had a negative temperature reactivity coefficient. Some of the high temperature benchmark experiments were treated with appropriate (and comprehensive) adjustments to the cross section sets and thermal expansion coefficients, while other experiments were treated with partial adjustments. Regardless of the temperature treatment, modeling the systems at room temperature was found to be conservative for the examined systems, i.e., a smaller critical mass was obtained. While the five benchmarks presented herein demonstrate that, for the conditions examined, modeling of the systems at room temperature is conservative as compared to modeling the systems at elevated temperatures, it is possible to design a system in which the critical mass at room temperature is non-conservative compared to a system at elevated temperatures. As the temperature of the systems evaluated in this review was increased, the system's overall {alpha}{sub T} was negative at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the review demonstrates that to accurate asses the effect of increased temperature on a system's k{sub eff}, changes in fissile, moderator, cladding, and, in some cases, structural material cross sections must be combined with other factors that influence reactivity, such as volumetric thermal expansion of fissile, moderating, reflector, and other interacting media. Altering the microscopic cross sections of fissile and moderating regions for temperature changes, without adjusting the corresponding densities at elevated temperatures can lead to an incorrect assessment of the impact of elevated temperature on a fissile system.

  7. c:\\documents and settings\\pp50\\local settings\\temporary internet files\\content.outlook\\inxu401f\\finalised resit september ntc timetable 2013.docx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    c:\\documents and settings\\pp50\\local settings\\temporary internet files\\content.outlook\\inxu401f calculator (see below). Pencil cases should be clear plastic and if you bring in water bottles the labels should be removed. #12;c:\\documents and settings\\pp50\\local settings\\temporary internet files\\content

  8. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  9. Graphical analysis facilitates evaluation of stream-temperature monitoring data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Kenneth W.; Lile, David F.; Lancaster, Donald L.; Porath, Marni L.; Morrison, Julie A.; Sado, Yukako

    2005-01-01

    of Forestry. 1994. Water temperature monitoring proto- col.evaluation of stream-temperature monitoring data Kenneth W.Service Fig. 1. Stream-temperature monitoring loca- tions on

  10. Graphical Analysis Facilitates Evaluation of Stream Temperature Monitoring Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Kenneth W; Lile, David; Lancaster, Donald; Porath, Marni; Morrison, Julie; Sado, Yukako

    2005-01-01

    of Forestry. 1994. Water temperature monitoring proto- col.evaluation of stream-temperature monitoring data Kenneth W.Service Fig. 1. Stream-temperature monitoring loca- tions on

  11. Impact of a retrofitted heat-recovery unit on an existing residential heat pump and water heater. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, K.M.; Fischler, S.

    1980-01-01

    Two heat-recovery units were retrofitted, one at a time, with one heat pump and one storage-type water heater to produce two integrated heat pump - heat recovery unit - water heater systems. Each system was operated with appropriate measuring devices to determine the effect(s) of using the retrofit heat recovery unit on the performance of the heat pump and water heater. The system was operated with the outdoor unit of the heat pump in an environmental chamber with outdoor temperatures of 75, 85, 95, and 20F. The indoor unit of the heat pump was in an environmental chamber whose indoor temperature was set at 80F when the outdoor temperature was 75, 85, 95F, and 70F when the outdoor temperature was set at 20F. The indoor relative humidity was maintained at approximately 50%. The heat recovery unit and water heater were in an environmental chamber set at the basement temperature of 65F with 50% relative humidity.

  12. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  13. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities at different concentration levels of added contaminant.

  14. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral

    2009-12-30

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analogue is introduced in chapter two. In chapter three the notion of special set semigroup linear algebra is introduced. The concept of special set n-vector spaces, n greater than or equal to three is defined and their fuzzy analogue is their fuzzy analogue is given in chapter four. The probable applications are also mentioned. The final chapter suggests 66 problems.

  15. Improved Geothermometry Through Multivariate Reaction-path Modeling and Evaluation of Geomicrobiological Influences on Geochemical Temperature Indicators: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, Earl; Smith, Robert; Fujita, Yoshiko; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Palmer, Carl; Reed, David; Thompson, Vicki

    2015-03-01

    The project was aimed at demonstrating that the geothermometric predictions can be improved through the application of multi-element reaction path modeling that accounts for lithologic and tectonic settings, while also accounting for biological influences on geochemical temperature indicators. The limited utilization of chemical signatures by individual traditional geothermometer in the development of reservoir temperature estimates may have been constraining their reliability for evaluation of potential geothermal resources. This project, however, was intended to build a geothermometry tool which can integrate multi-component reaction path modeling with process-optimization capability that can be applied to dilute, low-temperature water samples to consistently predict reservoir temperature within ±30 °C. The project was also intended to evaluate the extent to which microbiological processes can modulate the geochemical signals in some thermal waters and influence the geothermometric predictions.

  16. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  17. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  18. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  19. Water in Protoplanetary Disks: Deuteration and Turbulent Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furuya, Kenji; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r < 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the D/H ratio of water ice from 2x10^-2, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10^-4-10^-2 in 10^6 yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the ...

  20. Set Linear Algebra and Set Fuzzy Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral

    2008-06-17

    In this book, the authors define the new notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized form of vector spaces. Set vector spaces make use of the least number of algebraic operations, therefore, even a non-mathematician is comfortable working with it. It is with the passage of time, that we can think of set linear algebras as a paradigm shift from linear algebras. Here, the authors have also given the fuzzy parallels of these new classes of set linear algebras. This book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter briefly recalls some of the basic concepts in order to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces the notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized concept of vector spaces. Set vector spaces lends itself to define new classes of vector spaces like semigroup vector spaces and group vector spaces. These are also generalization of vector spaces. The fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in Chapter three. In Chapter four, set vector spaces are generalized to biset bivector spaces and not set vector spaces. This is done taking into account the advanced information technology age in which we live. As mathematicians, we have to realize that our computer-dominated world needs special types of sets and algebraic structures. Set n-vector spaces and their generalizations are carried out in Chapter five. Fuzzy n-set vector spaces are introduced in the sixth chapter. The seventh chapter suggests more than three hundred problems.

  1. Quantum Chemistry at Finite Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liqiang Wei

    2006-05-23

    In this article, we present emerging fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. We discuss its recent developments on both experimental and theoretical fronts. First, we describe several experimental investigations related to the temperature effects on the structures, electronic spectra, or bond rupture forces for molecules. These include the analysis of the temperature impact on the pathway shifts for the protein unfolding by atomic force microscopy (AFM), the temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of electrons in solvents, and the temperature influence over the intermolecular forces measured by the AFM. On the theoretical side, we review advancements made by the author in the coming fields of quantum chemistry at finite temperature. Starting from the Bloch equation, we have derived the sets of hierarchy equations for the reduced density operators in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. They provide a law according to which the reduced density operators vary in temperature for the identical and interacting many-body systems. By taking the independent particle approximation, we have solved the equations in the case of a grand canonical ensemble, and obtained an energy eigenequation for the molecular orbitals at finite temperature. The explicit expression for the temperature-dependent Fock operator is also given. They form a mathematical foundation for the examination of the molecular electronic structures and their interplay with finite temperature. Moreover, we clarify the physics concerning the temperature effects on the electronic structures or processes of the molecules, which is crucial for both theoretical understanding and computation. Finally, ....

  2. Timescales and settings for alteration of chondritic meteorites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, A N; Hutcheon, I D; Brearley, A J; Pravdivtseva, O V; Petaev, M I; Hohenberg, C M

    2005-11-16

    Most groups of chondritic meteorites experienced diverse styles of secondary alteration to various degrees that resulted in formation of hydrous and anhydrous minerals (e.g., phyllosilicates, magnetite, carbonates, ferrous olivine, hedenbergite, wollastonite, grossular, andradite, nepheline, sodalite, Fe,Ni-carbides, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, Ni-rich metal). Mineralogical, petrographic, and isotopic observations suggest that the alteration occurred in the presence of aqueous solutions under variable conditions (temperature, water/rock ratio, redox conditions, and fluid compositions) in an asteroidal setting, and, in many cases, was multistage. Although some alteration predated agglomeration of the final chondrite asteroidal bodies (i.e. was pre-accretionary), it seems highly unlikely that the alteration occurred in the solar nebula, nor in planetesimals of earlier generations. Short-lived isotope chronologies ({sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg, {sup 53}Mn-{sup 53}Cr, {sup 129}I-{sup 129}Xe) of the secondary minerals indicate that the alteration started within 1-2 Ma after formation of the Ca,Al-rich inclusions and lasted up to 15 Ma. These observations suggest that chondrite parent bodies must have accreted within the first 1-2 Ma after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud and provide strong evidence for an early onset of aqueous activity on these bodies.

  3. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

    2010-09-30

    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

  4. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  5. Transition temperature in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.; Christ, N. H.; Mawhinney, R. D. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Datta, S.; Jung, C.; Schmidt, C.; Umeda, T. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Heide, J. van der; Kaczmarek, O.; Laermann, E.; Miao, C. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Karsch, F. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Petreczky, P. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Petrov, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-09-01

    We present a detailed calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed for various light to strange quark mass ratios in the range, 0.05{<=}m-circumflex{sub l}/m-circumflex{sub s}{<=}0.5, and with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m-circumflex{sub l}{yields}0) and continuum (aT{identical_to}1/N{sub {tau}}{yields}0) limits we find for the transition temperature at the physical point T{sub c}r{sub 0}=0.457(7) where the scale is set by the Sommer-scale parameter r{sub 0} defined as the distance in the static quark potential at which the slope takes on the value (dV{sub qq}(r)/dr){sub r=r{sub 0}}=1.65/r{sub 0}{sup 2}. Using the currently best known value for r{sub 0} this translates to a transition temperature T{sub c}=192(7)(4) MeV. The transition temperature in the chiral limit is about 3% smaller. We discuss current ambiguities in the determination of T{sub c} in physical units and also comment on the universal scaling behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the chiral limit.

  6. Extensions of Answer Set Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Logic Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Preference Set4.1 The Dynamic Programming Algorithm . . . . . . . . . .of predicate logic as a programming language. J. ACM, 23(4):

  7. SHM Data Sets and Software

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a set of functions organized into modules according to the three primary stages of Structural Health Monitoring: Data Acquisition, Feature Extraction, and Feature...

  8. Tunas (Scombridae, Thunnini) are unique among teleosts because of their ability to elevate the temperature of their

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Block, Barbara A.

    ambient water temperature (bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, Carey and Lawson, 1973). In Katsuwonus pelamis

  9. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  10. NON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF DEEP TISSUE TEMPERATURE CHANGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yodh, Arjun G.

    deep tissue temperature using subtle spectral features of the water peak at 975 nm.3 A signi- ging (DOSI) to measure deep tissue temperature, using spectral features of the water absorption peakNON-INVASIVE MEASUREMENT OF DEEP TISSUE TEMPERATURE CHANGES CAUSED BY APOPTOSIS DURING BREAST

  11. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the outer part of the self-consistent potential in such a way that in the final state after photoexcitation or photoionization the newly occupied orbital sees the hole left in the initial state. This is very important to account for the large number of Rydberg states in the case of low densities. In the next Section we show calculated photoabsorptions compared with experimental data in figures with some rudimentary explanations.

  12. FREQUENT SET MINING Bart Goethals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    Chapter 17 FREQUENT SET MINING Bart Goethals Departement of Mathemati1cs and Computer Science, University of Antwerp, Belgium bart.goethals@ua.ac.be Abstract Frequent sets lie at the basis of many Data Mining algorithms. As a result, hun- dreds of algorithms have been proposed in order to solve

  13. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, VH

    2014-01-01

    tube Flue Temperature Varies with water heater Air inletnear water heater Air inlet near water heater APT: Automated99 Figure 56. Air intake for water heater AW07. Temperature

  14. Investigating Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity...

  15. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1989-01-01

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed.

  16. High temperature lightweight foamed cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1989-10-03

    Cement slurries are disclosed which are suitable for use in geothermal wells since they can withstand high temperatures and high pressures. The formulation consists of cement, silica flour, water, a retarder, a foaming agent, a foam stabilizer, and a reinforcing agent. A process for producing these cements is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  17. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  18. Water purification using organic salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  19. Impact of externally forced changes on temperature extremes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morak, Simone

    2013-07-01

    This thesis investigates changes in temperature extremes between 1950-2005, analysing gridded data sets of observations and climate model simulations. It focuses on changes in the frequency of extreme temperatures occurring ...

  20. Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    2014-12-08

    We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

  1. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; James, Darryl L.

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  2. Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles Support for Cost Analyses on Solar-Driven High Temperature Thermochemical...

  3. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

  4. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  5. COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COLLABORATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF WATER QUALITY POLLUTION PATTERNS: WORKING WITH THE KYUQUOT and Environmental Management Title of Research Project: Collaborative Investigations of Water Quality Pollution about water quality sampling and policy agenda setting. Through time and repeated interactions

  6. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    -012-1336-1 #12;affected by warm water temperatures. Long-term stream temperature monitoring is useful biological surveys; thus, using temperature is appealing as a first-cut metric for monitoring fishPRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Summer stream temperature metrics for predicting brook trout (Salvelinus

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  8. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  9. Better Plants Water Pilot- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is expanding the Better Buildings Challenge to help partners demonstrate successful approaches to saving water and decrease their utility bills. The commercial and industrial sectors account for more than 25 percent of the withdrawals from public water supplies and many organizations in these sectors may have savings opportunities of 20 to 40%. The efficient use of water resources results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. Additionally, because energy is required to transport and treat water, saving water also saves energy. Through this pilot, DOE will work with a small, diverse group of Better Buildings Challenge Partners to expand their resource management strategies to include water in addition to energy, set water savings goals, track progress and showcase solutions.

  10. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBNL collected water and waste water tariffs in Californiastate. Current water and waste water tariffs for these areaswas based on water and waste water tariffs in California

  11. Water heater control module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  12. Introduction Importance of temperature in streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    , fish reproduction, and aquatic metabolism rates. Nearly every species is temperature sensitive a downstream gradient as the surface water is exposed to solar radiation. Theurer et al. (1984) listed sources-radiation. Inverted temperature gradients (downstream cooling) have been observed where clear cutting exposed head

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE CONTROL OF BODY TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    , is limited by the maximal oxygen consumption of an animal. If the demand for energy exceeds that which can in endotherms at relatively high levels. In this paper, I wish to discuss Comparative Physiology: Life in Water temperatures? Do animals necessarily have increased speed and stamina with increasing body temperatures

  14. Jacobi Sets of Multiple Morse Functions Herbert Edelsbrunner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    solar system [18]. At the critical points of that potential, the grav- itational forces and gain insight into global climate changes [4]. One such attribute is temperature, another is salinity potential are then the Jacobi set of the two functions defined on a common portion of space- time. Results

  15. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  16. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  17. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  18. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01

    Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

  19. Low-temperature geothermal database for Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.

    1994-11-01

    The goals of the low-temperature assessment project, performed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) is aimed primarily at updating the inventory of the nation's low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. The study has begun in Oregon, where the areas of Paisley, Lakeview, Burns/Hines, Lagrande, and Vale were identified over 40 sites as having potential for direct heat utilization. Specifics sites are outlined, detailing water temperature, flow, and current uses of the sites.

  20. Random sets and confidence procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnett, William A.

    1979-06-01

    ) —* (Y, -T, (Qe)eee) be a random set with Y C ^ ( 0 ) - {0} and with Qe the probability distribution of S induced on Y by P0. Assume that S is surjective. The relation of statistical confidence sets to the following definition will be investigated... of confidence procedures now can be defined. DEFINITION 6. Let S be a confidence procedure. Then S has (lower) confidence level y — inl{Q6{êe) \\ 6 ^ Q). If S is a confidence pro­ cedure, and if x E ST, then S(x) will be called a confidence subset of 0...

  1. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  2. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    of heat to vaporize drops. Power is supplied to coil to maintain a constant temperature. P ­ Total Power #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize;Liquid Water Content Formula Combine the Wet and Dry Power Terms PC Ts-TaPv x Mldv[Lvcw Tv-Ta] · M

  3. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees - a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material - can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  4. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  5. Wavelet Based Density Estimators for Modeling Multidimensional Data Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    the distribution of this random variable. We exhibit an estimator for the wavelet coeÃ?cients of this density and ionospheric data. After three levels of o#11;-line pre-processing, observations of temperature, water vapor agreement nr. F30602-99-1-0524, and unrestricted cash/equipment gifts from NCR, IBM, Intel and SUN. #12; 1

  6. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  7. A Study of the Occurrence of Supercooling of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. -C. Tan; W. Ho; J. I. Katz; S. -J. Feng

    2014-12-30

    Water supercooling has received considerable research attention. The parameters influencing supercooling include the initial temperature of the water and the temperature of the chilling medium. In this study, we investigated an additional parameter, the type of chilling medium. We correlated the occurrence of supercooling with the minimum temperature anywhere in the water. If the minimum temperature is higher, ice nucleation is unlikely and supercooling will take place. Besides distilled water, we also investigated supercooling of water found in nature, and found that impurities in such water do not facilitate ice nucleation.

  8. Maintenance and Dissemination of a Water Transfer Data Base for 12 Western States, 1987-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libecap, Gary

    2009-01-01

    and Dissemination of a Water Transfer Data Base for 12glibecap@bren.ucsb.edu UC Water Resources Center Technicalavailable data set on water transfers and water markets for

  9. How can we use MODIS land surface temperature to validate long-term urban model simulations?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Leiqiu; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Barlage, Michael; Wilhelmi, Olga V.

    2014-03-27

    performed over metropolitan Houston for 2003–2012, preceded by a 1 year (2002) “spin-up” period to allow the soil temperature and moisture states to equilibrate [Chen et al., 2007]. The upper boundary conditions for HRLDAS were derived from one-eighth degree... hourly meteorological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) [Cosgrove et al., 2003; Xia et al., 2012] forcing data set. It was assumed that watering and irrigation was applied to all vegetated surfaces, a process...

  10. Water, salt water and alkaline solution uptake in epoxy thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, P.; Lees, Janet M.

    2013-05-10

    type and temperature, are explored. Experimental results, where the solution uptake in desiccated (D) or undesiccated (U) thin films of a commercially available epoxy matrix subjected to water (W), salt water (SW), or alkali concrete pore solution (CPS...

  11. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  12. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  13. Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-09-01

    Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7.5{angstrom} and 5.5{angstrom} to give two different time resolutions. All the spectra have been measure at room temperature. The spectra were corrected for the sample holder contribution and normalized using the vanadium standard. The resulting data were analyzed with DAVE programs (http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/). The AMBER force field and SPCE water model were used for modeling the NALMA solute and water, respectively. For the analysis of the water dynamics in the NALMA aqueous solutions, we performed simulations of a dispersed solute configuration consistent with our previous structural analysis, where we had primarily focused on the structural organization of these peptide solutions and their connection to protein folding. Further details of the QENS experiment and molecular dynamics simulations are reported elsewhere.

  14. Optical set-reset latch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2013-01-29

    An optical set-reset (SR) latch is formed from a first electroabsorption modulator (EAM), a second EAM and a waveguide photodetector (PD) which are arranged in an optical and electrical feedback loop which controls the transmission of light through the first EAM to latch the first EAM in a light-transmissive state in response to a Set light input. A second waveguide PD controls the transmission of light through the second EAM and is used to switch the first EAM to a light-absorptive state in response to a Reset light input provided to the second waveguide PD. The optical SR latch, which may be formed on a III-V compound semiconductor substrate (e.g. an InP or a GaAs substrate) as a photonic integrated circuit (PIC), stores a bit of optical information and has an optical output for the logic state of that bit of information.

  15. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  16. SIDON SETS IN Nd JAVIER CILLERUELO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cilleruelo, Javier

    . The additive energy of two sets is used to obtain new upper bounds for the cardinalities of finite Sidon the largest car- dinality of a Sidon set contained in a given finite set. For d 1 we let Fd(n) denote-dimensional finite Sidon sets. We use the additive energy of two finite sets to obtain upper bounds for the largest

  17. Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

    2011-01-01

    cutoff for groundwater and solar radiation) and then in thecutoff points for solar radiation and groundwater dischargethe cutoff for groundwater and solar radiation). Using those

  18. Clearing Up Murky Waters: Clarifying the Relationship Between Indicator Organisms and Disease in Recreational Water Settings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yau, Vincent Ming-Dao

    2011-01-01

    and tidal patterns. Data on solar radiation and other skydata and the SuperLearner, comparing swimmers who had both indicator and solar radiationData collected by Boehm et al. on groundwater flow and solar radiation

  19. Experimental study of internal wave generation by convection in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bars, Michael Le; Perrard, Stéphane; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Rodet, Laetitia; Aurnou, Jonathan M; Gal, Patrice Le

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the dynamics of water cooled from below at 0^oC and heated from above. Taking advantage of the unusual property that water's density maximum is at about 4^oC, this set-up allows us to simulate in the laboratory a turbulent convective layer adjacent to a stably stratified layer, which is representative of atmospheric and stellar conditions. High precision temperature and velocity measurements are described, with a special focus on the convectively excited internal waves propagating in the stratified zone. Most of the convective energy is at low frequency, and corresponding waves are localized to the vicinity of the interface. However, we show that some energy radiates far from the interface, carried by shorter horizontal wavelength, higher frequency waves. Our data suggest that the internal wave field is passively excited by the convective fluctuations, and the wave propagation is correctly described by the dissipative linear wave theory.

  20. Set Multicover The Set Multicover problem is the same as set cover except

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    during that step. Notice that the average cost can not decrease. Then 8e 2 U price(e; 1) Ÿ price(e; 2) Ÿ to be covered a specified number of times. That is we want to pick a minimum­cost set cover such that element e algorithm to multi­ cover A Greedy MultiCover algorithm U / X C / ; select a F 2 F that minimizes Cost(F ) j

  1. Set Multicover The Set Multicover problem is the same as set cover except

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    price(e; j) = Cost(F ) jF ``U j If j = r e remove e from U: return(C) This algorithm is very similar during that step. Notice that the average cost can not decrease. Then 8e 2 U price(e; 1) Ÿ price(e; 2) Ÿ to be covered a specified number of times. That is we want to pick a minimum­cost set cover such that element e

  2. WATER INTRUSION POLICY Procedure: 6.22

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    WATER INTRUSION POLICY Procedure: 6.22 Version: 2.0 Effective: 6/28/2013 1 A. Purpose: 1. To prevent microbial amplification from water damage affecting the safety and comfort of area occupants. 2 in affected areas. 3. To describe a unified set of procedures for addressing water intrusions. B

  3. Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    ) in these mixtures shows a non-monotonic behavior with water content which is consistent with experimental than 38 Æ 4% w/w [5] while the diffusion of water and sucrose decouples for water contents below $50% w/w [6]. Water diffusion in- creases with water content and decreases with temperature

  4. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for...

  5. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  6. Water isotopes and the general circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, David

    quantities are equator to pole temperature gradient, and the vertical thermal stratification #12;Isotopic" is the fractionation factor is a function of temperature F depends on large scale circulation and thermal state Both, temperature gradient/condensation) 2. Entrainment of non-depleted water (humidity, stratification/sheer) #12

  7. DEPOSITION OF SILICA FROM GEOTHERIAL WATERS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    DEPOSITION OF SILICA FROM GEOTHERIAL WATERS ON HEAT T RAN5FER SU R FACES by J.S, GUDMtJNDSSQN & T in specia1l designed equipment have been carried out on deposition from hot geothermal water from two, it was stated that low temperature waters (8O--ll0°C) have traditionally been used for district heating purposes

  8. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen; Morozovska, A. N.; Kalinin, Sergei V; Eliseev, E. A.; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Tebano, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  9. BASIS Set Exchange (BSE): Chemistry Basis Sets from the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) Basis Set Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Feller, D; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Didier, Brett T.; Elsethagen, Todd; Sun, Lisong; Gurumoorthi, Vidhya; Chase, Jared; Li, Jun

    The Basis Set Exchange (BSE) provides a web-based user interface for downloading and uploading Gaussian-type (GTO) basis sets, including effective core potentials (ECPs), from the EMSL Basis Set Library. It provides an improved user interface and capabilities over its predecessor, the EMSL Basis Set Order Form, for exploring the contents of the EMSL Basis Set Library. The popular Basis Set Order Form and underlying Basis Set Library were originally developed by Dr. David Feller and have been available from the EMSL webpages since 1994. BSE not only allows downloading of the more than 200 Basis sets in various formats; it allows users to annotate existing sets and to upload new sets. (Specialized Interface)

  10. AN OPERATIONS MODEL FOR TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUCKEE RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 AN OPERATIONS MODEL FOR TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT OF THE TRUCKEE RIVER Authors: David Neumann and local agencies have agreed to purchase water rights to be used to help manage water quality in the river to threatened and endangered fish. Through the Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), the federal government

  11. LOGISMOS Cost Functions Surface set feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boykov, Yuri

    9/14/2014 1 LOGISMOS ­ Cost Functions 9/14/2014 1 Surface set feasibility A surface set { f1(x constraints Each pair of surfaces satisfies surface interaction constraints. #12;9/14/2014 2 Cost Function ­ Surface Costs One-to-one correspondence between each feasible surface set and each closed set

  12. Contagious Sets in Random Graphs Uriel Feige

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contagious Sets in Random Graphs Uriel Feige Michael Krivelevich Daniel Reichman August 10, 2014. A contagious set is a set whose activation results with the entire graph being active. Given a graph G, let m(G, 2) be the minimal size of a contagious set. We consider the binomial random graph G := G(n, p

  13. New results on water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    contract as temperature decreases, liquid bulk water begins to expand when its temperature drops below 4°C remains at 4°C while colder layers of 0°C water "float" on top (cf.. Fig. 1 of Ref. [2]). The mysterious properties of liquid bulk water become more pronounced in the supercooled region below 0°C [3-5]. For example

  14. Achieving High Chilled Water Delta T Without Blending Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Wang, G.; Xu, K.; Yu, Y.; Liu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Typically a blending station is designed to ensure that its user is able to avoid low chilled water return temperature in the district cooling system. When the chilled water return temperature drops to a low limit, building return water is blended...

  15. Evolution of Water Marketing in California: Formal vs. Informal Property Rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bickett, Damian Blase

    2011-01-01

    Plan to Bring Water to Brewery Could Set Precedent. ” Lostheir groundwater to their brewery in Van Nuys, CA throughPlan to Bring Water to Brewery Could Set Precedent,” Los

  16. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies are used for agriculture, natural resources, salt water intrusion protection, drinking water, industry

  17. Initial Commissioning of a Water-to-Water GHP System in KIER 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, J.; Jang, J.C.; Kang, E.C.; Chang, K.C.; Lee, E.J.; Kim, Y.

    2011-01-01

    (entering water temperature), LWT(leaving water temperature), capacity, flow rate, power and COP. This technique has been verified to a w to w GHP system designed and installed at KIER site. The verification study showed that actual performance was lower than...

  18. Reclamation Rural Water Act 56th Annual NM Water Conf., New Water New Energy: A Conference Linking Desalination and Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Desalination and Renewable Energy 71 Reclamation Rural Water Act: Southwestern Navajo Rural Water Supply Index); the energy and water nexus in Arizona; renewable energy for water transmission; and is now researching new techniques for using renewable energy for desalination in an off grid setting. Kevin Black Sr

  19. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  20. Finite Temperature Schrödinger Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Yan Wang

    2011-06-11

    We know Schr\\"{o}dinger equation describes the dynamics of quantum systems, which don't include temperature. In this paper, we propose finite temperature Schr\\"{o}dinger equation, which can describe the quantum systems in an arbitrary temperature. When the temperature T=0, it become Shr\\"{o}dinger equation.

  1. Nondestructive Monitoring of Setting and Hardening of Portland Cement Mortar with Sonic Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nondestructive Monitoring of Setting and Hardening of Portland Cement Mortar with Sonic Methods of Portland cement mortar, represented by setting time, dynamic elastic moduli, compressive strength analysis and adiabatic heat release. The water/cement ratio was varied for the tested mixture composition

  2. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  3. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  4. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  5. Breakthrough: Record-Setting Cavity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2014-05-21

    Gianluigi "Gigi" Ciovati, a superconducting radiofrequency scientist, discusses how scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, used ARRA funds to fabricate a niobium cavity for superconducting radiofrequency accelerators that has set a world record for energy efficiency. Jefferson Lab's scientists developed a new, super-hot treatment process that could soon make it possible to produce cavities more quickly and at less cost, benefitting research and healthcare around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.around the world. Accelerators are critical to our efforts to study the structure of matter that builds our visible universe. They also are used to produce medical isotopes and particle beams for diagnosing and eradicating disease. And they offer the potential to power future nuclear power plants that produce little or no radioactive waste.

  6. PROBLEM SET 3 Due 2:40pm Wednesday 30 July

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    figure below), so you would say that at standard atmospheric pressure, water boils at 373 K. Use yourPROBLEM SET 3 Due 2:40pm Wednesday 30 July Astro/EPS C12 -- Mike Wong Write your name at the top studies to discover that this comet is made entirely of water ice. What is the mass of the comet

  7. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  8. Computerized Waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    supply diversions, several hydroelectric plants and numerous environ- mental instream flow requirements. Each of these active permits is included in the datasets. Besides the commission using the WAM/WRAP modeling system in water rights permiting... actions be consistent with relevant regional plans. River authorities, water districts and other water management organizations are beginning to use the WRAP model in operational planning studies to optimize operations of their facilities...

  9. Carbon and Water Cycling in a Texas Hill Country Woodland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamps, Ray Herbert

    2014-12-11

    -dominant species partition the scarce water resource under varying annual precipitation patterns. Eddy covariance and dendrochronology techniques were used to investigate carbon and water cycling from 2004 to 2012 in this setting. Essential information...

  10. Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Developments and Issues

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The previous drinking water standard for arsenic, 50 ppb, was set by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1942. EPA adopted that level and issued an interim drinking water...

  11. Covered Product Category: Residential Electric Resistance Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP sets federal efficiency requirements and provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential electric resistance water heaters.

  12. Coordinated Management: Power, Performance, Energy, and Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keckler, Stephen W.

    Coordinated Management: Power, Performance, Energy, and Temperature Heather Hanson Stephen W and energy lim- its" and enable a coherent set of management mechanisms to achieve the goal. The closed at Austin IBM Technical Contact : Rob Bell, Jr. Abstract We are developing a next-generation power manager

  13. Temperature Influence on Commercial Lake Whitefish Harvest in Eastern Lake Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the relationship between lake whitefish harvest, water temperature statistics, and fishing effort. Several vari in describing the fish harvest with surface water temperatures is most likely the consequence of warm surfaceTemperature Influence on Commercial Lake Whitefish Harvest in Eastern Lake Michigan Holly Price1

  14. Water at interface with proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giancarlo Franzese; Valentino Bianco; Svilen Iskrov

    2010-12-07

    Water is essential for the activity of proteins. However, the effect of the properties of water on the behavior of proteins is only partially understood. Recently, several experiments have investigated the relation between the dynamics of the hydration water and the dynamics of protein. These works have generated a large amount of data whose interpretation is debated. New experiments measure the dynamics of water at low temperature on the surface of proteins, finding a qualitative change (crossover) that might be related to the slowing down and stop of the protein's activity (protein glass transition), possibly relevant for the safe preservation of organic material at low temperature. To better understand the experimental data several scenarios have been discussed. Here, we review these experiments and discuss their interpretations in relation with the anomalous properties of water. We summarize the results for the thermodynamics and dynamics of supercooled water at an interface. We consider also the effect of water on protein stability, making a step in the direction of understanding, by means of Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical calculations, how the interplay of water cooperativity and hydrogen bonds interfacial strengthening affects the protein cold denaturation.

  15. ESAIM: PROCEEDINGS, Vol. ?, 2012, 1-10 Editors: Will be set by the publisher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    variables (like temperature) within the reactor. Let us rst present the normal functioning of a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) see Fig. 1. In a PWR, the primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure circuit of a PWR. where steam is generated and ows to a turbine which, in turn, spins an electric

  16. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  17. Setting-less Protection Final Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setting-less Protection Final Project Report Power Systems Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;#12;Setting-less Protection Final Project Report

  18. Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

  19. Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D activities for water heating systems. The proposed activities address the major unfulfilled needs regarding the latest equipment and...

  20. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  1. COMPLEXITY OF RAMSEY NULL SETS MARCIN SABOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabok, Marcin

    COMPLEXITY OF RAMSEY NULL SETS MARCIN SABOK Abstract. We show that the set of codes for Ramsey that the -ideal of Ramsey null sets is not ZFC-correct. This solves a problem posed by Ikegami, Paw- likowski and Zapletal. 1. Introduction Ramsey measurability was introduced by Galvin and Prikry [4] to prove a Ramsey

  2. Sets and Constraint Logic Programming Agostino Dovier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Gianfranco

    are embedded in a Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) language which provides #12;nite sets|along with basic set by programming in CLP(SET ). Categories and Subject Descriptors: D.3.2 [Programming Languages]: Constraint and Logic Languages; D.3.3 [Programming Languages]: Language Constructs and Features; F.4 [Math- ematical

  3. Local Constructive Set Theory and Inductive Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aczel, Peter

    Local Constructive Set Theory and Inductive Definitions Peter Aczel 1 Introduction Local Constructive Set Theory (LCST) is intended to be a local version of con- structive set theory (CST principles, is also acceptable in topos mathematics, the mathematics that can be carried out in an arbi

  4. System for controlling the operating temperature of a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fabis, Thomas R.; Makiel, Joseph M.; Veyo, Stephen E.

    2006-06-06

    A method and system are provided for improved control of the operating temperature of a fuel cell (32) utilizing an improved temperature control system (30) that varies the flow rate of inlet air entering the fuel cell (32) in response to changes in the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32). Consistent with the invention an improved temperature control system (30) is provided that includes a controller (37) that receives an indication of the temperature of the inlet air from a temperature sensor (39) and varies the heat output by at least one heat source (34, 36) to maintain the temperature of the inlet air at a set-point T.sub.inset. The controller (37) also receives an indication of the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) and varies the flow output by an adjustable air mover (33), within a predetermined range around a set-point F.sub.set, in order to maintain the operating temperature of the fuel cell (32) at a set-point T.sub.opset.

  5. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Healy, Francis E. (Massapequa, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  6. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  7. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field....

  8. CC Retrofits and Optimal Controls for Hot Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, L.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous Commissioning (CC) technologies, three old boilers (13.39 MMBH each) were replaced by three new boilers (1.675 MMBH each) and hot water pumps. Optimal controls for the hot water systems included optimal hot water temperature reset, hot water pump...

  9. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greminger, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    pressure, and this energy can be partially recovered in the exchanger.pressure of water at feed temperature, the heat exchangerin the exchanger. However, as column pressure is lowered

  11. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lack fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).

  12. Local, smooth, and consistent Jacobi set simplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhatia, Harsh; Wang, Bei; Norgard, Gregory; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer -Timo

    2014-10-31

    The relation between two Morse functions defined on a smooth, compact, and orientable 2-manifold can be studied in terms of their Jacobi set. The Jacobi set contains points in the domain where the gradients of the two functions are aligned. Both the Jacobi set itself as well as the segmentation of the domain it induces, have shown to be useful in various applications. In practice, unfortunately, functions often contain noise and discretization artifacts, causing their Jacobi set to become unmanageably large and complex. Although there exist techniques to simplify Jacobi sets, they are unsuitable for most applications as they lackmore »fine-grained control over the process, and heavily restrict the type of simplifications possible. In this paper, we introduce a new framework that generalizes critical point cancellations in scalar functions to Jacobi set in two dimensions. We present a new interpretation of Jacobi set simplification based on the perspective of domain segmentation. Generalizing the cancellation of critical points from scalar functions to Jacobi sets, we focus on simplifications that can be realized by smooth approximations of the corresponding functions, and show how these cancellations imply simultaneous simplification of contiguous subsets of the Jacobi set. Using these extended cancellations as atomic operations, we introduce an algorithm to successively cancel subsets of the Jacobi set with minimal modifications to some user-defined metric. We show that for simply connected domains, our algorithm reduces a given Jacobi set to its minimal configuration, that is, one with no birth–death points (a birth–death point is a specific type of singularity within the Jacobi set where the level sets of the two functions and the Jacobi set have a common normal direction).« less

  13. Managing Swimming Pool Temperature for Energy Efficiency | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    affects the size of the pool's heater, but also your heating costs if use a gas or heat pump pool heater. Pool water temperatures typically range from 78F to 82F. The...

  14. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  15. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  16. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  17. Grabbing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  18. The Relationship between Land Use and Temperature Change in Dallas County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hee Ju

    2010-10-12

    different temperature averages and those patterns were observed similarly in both 2000 and 2005. Parking, airport, commercial, industrial, and residential areas have relatively high temperatures. In contrast, water, undeveloped area and parks showed...

  19. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2014-09-28

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  20. High Temperature Evaluation of Tantalum Capacitors - Test 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    Tantalum capacitors can provide much higher capacitance at high-temperatures than the ceramic capacitors. This study evaluates selected tantalum capacitors at high temperatures to determine their suitability for you in geothermal field. This data set contains results of the first test where three different types of capacitors were evaluated at 260C.

  1. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Three research projects were, bioremediation of contaminated soils and baseline monitoring of contaminants in a regional watershed. The technical transfer project set up a RI Water Resources Center Website to allow easy access to the Center

  2. An open source controlled environment agriculture platform : exploration of root zone temperature effects and thermal management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richman, Camille (Camille E.)

    2015-01-01

    A first prototype of a GRObot open source controlled environment agriculture platform was built with air and water temperature control systems. Caesar basil seedlings were grown in the GRObot with a shallow water culture ...

  3. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  4. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  5. Diffusion barriers in the kinetics of water vapor adsorption/desorption on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, A.W.; Foley, N.J.; Thomas, K.M. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Norman, P.R.; Francis, D.C. [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)] [CBD, Salisbury (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-07

    The adsorption of water vapor on a highly microporous coconut-shell-derived carbon and a mesoporous wood-derived carbon was studied. These carbons were chosen as they had markedly different porous structures. The adsorption and desorption characteristics of water vapor on the activated carbons were investigated over the relative pressure range p/p{degree} = 0--0.9 for temperatures in the range 285--313 K in a static water vapor system. The adsorption isotherms were analyzed using the Dubinin-Serpinski equation, and this provided an assessment of the polarity of the carbons. The kinetics of water vapor adsorption and desorption were studied with different amounts of preadsorbed water for set changes in pressure relative to the saturated vapor pressure (p/p{degree}). The adsorption kinetics for each relative pressure step were compared and used to calculate the activation energies for the vapor pressure increments. The kinetic results are discussed in relation to their relative position on the equilibrium isotherm and the adsorption mechanism of water vapor on activated carbons.

  6. A Study on Set-Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Kok; K. P. Chithra; N. K. Sudev; C. Susanth

    2015-04-09

    A \\textit{primitive hole} of a graph $G$ is a cycle of length $3$ in $G$. The number of primitive holes in a given graph $G$ is called the primitive hole number of that graph $G$. The primitive degree of a vertex $v$ of a given graph $G$ is the number of primitive holes incident on the vertex $v$. In this paper, we introduce the notion of set-graphs and study the properties and characteristics of set-graphs. We also check the primitive hole number and primitive degree of set-graphs. Interesting introductory results on the nature of order of set-graphs, degree of the vertices corresponding to subsets of equal cardinality, the number of largest complete subgraphs in a set-graph etc. are discussed in this study. A recursive formula to determine the primitive hole number of a set-graph is also derived in this paper.

  7. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures in Southeastern Idaho using Multicomponent Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neupane, Ghanashyam; Mattson, Earl D.; McLing, Travis L.; Palmer, Carl D.; Smith, Robert W.; Wood, Thomas R.; Podgorney, Robert K.

    2015-03-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water within oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. Although the area exhibits several thermal expressions, the measured geothermal gradients vary substantially (19 – 61 ºC/km) within this area, potentially suggesting a redistribution of heat in the overlying ground water from deeper geothermal reservoirs. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from measured water compositions using an inverse modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. Compositions of a selected group of thermal waters representing southeastern Idaho hot/warm springs and wells were used for the development of temperature estimates. The temperature estimates in the the region varied from moderately warm (59 ºC) to over 175 ºC. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho resulted in the highest temperature estimates in the region.

  8. A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nitrogen gas often provides a reducing atmosphere for these processes. High-temperature fuel cells directly convert the chemical energy in its fuel to electricity, with water,...

  9. Sandia Energy - New CREW Database Receives First Set of Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREW Database Receives First Set of Data

  10. Automatic Sets of Rational Numbers Eric Rowland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowland, Eric

    Automatic Sets of Rational Numbers Eric Rowland Universit´e de Li`ege D´epartement de Math Abstract The notion of a k-automatic set of integers is well-studied. We develop a new notion -- the k-automatic recall a well-studied concept, that of k-automatic set (see, e.g., [8, 9, 2]): Definition 1. We say

  11. Automatic Sets of Rational Numbers Eric Rowland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowland, Eric

    Automatic Sets of Rational Numbers Eric Rowland Universitâ??e de Liâ??ege Dâ??epartement de Math Abstract The notion of a k­automatic set of integers is well­studied. We develop a new notion --- the k­automatic, as follows: [L] k = {[w] k : w # L}. (2) We now recall a well­studied concept, that of k­automatic set (see

  12. Liquid-liquid phase transition model incorporating evidence for ferroelectric state near the lambda-point anomaly in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter O. Fedichev; Leonid I. Menshikov

    2012-01-30

    We propose a unified model combining the first-order liquid-liquid and the second-order ferroelectric phase transitions models and explaining various features of the $\\lambda$-point of liquid water within a single theoretical framework. It becomes clear within the proposed model that not only does the long-range dipole-dipole interaction of water molecules yield a large value of dielectric constant $\\epsilon$ at room temperatures, our analysis shows that the large dipole moment of the water molecules also leads to a ferroelectric phase transition at a temperature close to the lambda-point. Our more refined model suggests that the phase transition occurs only in the low density component of the liquid and is the origin of the singularity of the dielectric constant recently observed in experiments with supercooled liquid water at temperature T~233K. This combined model agrees well with nearly every available set of experiments and explains most of the well-known and even recently obtained results of MD simulations.

  13. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  14. On Test Sets for Nonlinear Integer Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-02-05

    On Test Sets for Nonlinear. Integer Maximization. July 2007; revised February 2008. Jon Leea, Shmuel Onnb, Robert Weismantelc a IBM T.J. Watson Research

  15. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  16. Superconductivity at Any Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anber, Mohamed M; Sabancilar, Eray; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    We construct a 2+1 dimensional model that sustains superconductivity at all temperatures. This is achieved by introducing a Chern Simons mixing term between two Abelian gauge fields A and Z. The superfluid is described by a complex scalar charged under Z, whereas a sufficiently strong magnetic field of A forces the superconducting condensate to form at all temperatures. In fact, at finite temperature, the theory exhibits Berezinsky-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition due to proliferation of topological vortices admitted by our construction. However, the critical temperature is proportional to the magnetic field of A, and thus, the phase transition can be postponed to high temperatures by increasing the strength of the magnetic field. This model can be a step towards realizing the long sought room temperature superconductivity.

  17. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District: Third Research Category: Water Quality Focus Category: Toxic Substances, Groundwater, Treatment and Pesticides in Soils, Sludges, DNAPLs and Bulk With Na/NH3 at Ambient Temperature, Mississippi Water Resources creasote wood treatment plants and nitrated organic residues from munitions

  18. Climate and Water: from the perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Climate and Water: from the perspective of the Colorado State Climatologist August 31, 2010 Nolan Climatologist do? · Climate vs. Weather · Some highlights of our Colorado climate · The Water Year and why we use it · Seasonality and variability · Detecting Climate trends ­ not so easy ­ Temperature varies

  19. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  20. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  1. TRIMOLECULAR REACTIONS OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE WITH WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, M.; Becnel, J.; Garrison, S.

    2010-02-25

    The hydrolysis reaction of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) is a key step in the synthesis of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) powder for nuclear fuels. Mechanisms for the hydrolysis reactions are studied here with density functional theory and the Stuttgart small-core scalar relativistic pseudopotential and associated basis set for uranium. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with a water molecule in the gas phase has been previously predicted to proceed over a relatively sizeable barrier of 78.2 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}, indicating this reaction is only feasible at elevated temperatures. Given the observed formation of a second morphology for the UO{sub 2} product coupled with the observations of rapid, spontaneous hydrolysis at ambient conditions, an alternate reaction pathway must exist. In the present work, two trimolecular hydrolysis mechanisms are studied with density functional theory: (1) the reaction between two UF{sub 6} molecules and one water molecule, and (2) the reaction of two water molecules with a single UF{sub 6} molecule. The predicted reaction of two UF{sub 6} molecules with one water molecule displays an interesting 'fluorine-shuttle' mechanism, a significant energy barrier of 69.0 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} to the formation of UF{sub 5}OH, and an enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of +17.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The reaction of a single UF{sub 6} molecule with two water molecules displays a 'proton-shuttle' mechanism, and is more favorable, having a slightly lower computed energy barrier of 58.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and an exothermic enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub 298}) of -13.9 kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}. The exothermic nature of the overall UF{sub 6} + 2 {center_dot} H{sub 2}O trimolecular reaction and the lowering of the barrier height with respect to the bimolecular reaction are encouraging; however, the sizable energy barrier indicates further study of the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis reaction mechanism is warranted to resolve the remaining discrepancies between the predicted mechanisms and experimental observations.

  2. Protecting Your Precious Recuperators in High Temperature Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    -water-with a high latent heat, making it very forgiving. The flow of air coolant through a recuperator diminishes as the burner input is turned down to lower firing rates. But, the furnace temperature, and therefore the flue gas temperature, stays at about...

  3. Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University Cleveland, Ohio #12;2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0oC ·Transport processesMembranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed

  4. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  5. International Review of Frameworks for Standard Setting & Labeling Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Use Annual Energy and Water Expense Energy and Water Pricesinfrastructure including energy, water, telecommunications,Electricity Heating energy Water Resources Waste Process

  6. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  7. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    in order to reduce the water and energy wasted in hot waterhot water) and 17% if hot water energy is included. The datafrom the delivered hot water energy of 66% to provide the

  8. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

  9. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... are partnering with federal and state agencies and universities to develop new programs or market existing ones. In North Central Texas, the city of McKin- ney and Texas AgriLife Research and Exten- sion Urban Solutions Center at Dallas recently began...

  10. At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u tCorporationIt's PotentialDepartment of Energy<of

  11. Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget ||Department of Energy Question of the Week: Are

  12. Electric Water Heater Modeling and Control Strategies for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Zhang, Yu; Samaan, Nader A.

    2012-07-22

    Abstract— Demand response (DR) has a great potential to provide balancing services at normal operating conditions and emergency support when a power system is subject to disturbances. Effective control strategies can significantly relieve the balancing burden of conventional generators and reduce investment on generation and transmission expansion. This paper is aimed at modeling electric water heaters (EWH) in households and tests their response to control strategies to implement DR. The open-loop response of EWH to a centralized signal is studied by adjusting temperature settings to provide regulation services; and two types of decentralized controllers are tested to provide frequency support following generator trips. EWH models are included in a simulation platform in DIgSILENT to perform electromechanical simulation, which contains 147 households in a distribution feeder. Simulation results show the dependence of EWH response on water heater usage . These results provide insight suggestions on the need of control strategies to achieve better performance for demand response implementation. Index Terms— Centralized control, decentralized control, demand response, electrical water heater, smart grid

  13. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  14. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  15. AME 101 Fall 2013 Problem Set #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    points) (from a previous midterm) I calculated the power production from a new type of steam turbine, Pin and Uin are the temperature, pressure and velocity of the steam going into the turbine, Tout, Pout and Uout are the temperature, pressure and velocity of the steam leaving the turbine, CP is the heat

  16. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  17. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  18. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Wade, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  19. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300°C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 ºC based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 ºC system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 °C.

  20. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  1. Energy use and domestic hot water consumption - Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, F.S.

    1994-11-01

    New York State Energy Research & Development Authority has sponsored a project to develop comprehensive operating data on combined domestic hot water (DHW) and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications. The new, more precise DHW flow data (broken down on a per capita basis) result in a better foundation for sizing decisions. Thirty New York City multifamily buildings with combined steam heating and DHW plants were instrumented to monitor apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures, and burner on-off times. In nine buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil and boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing valve and on the return line. The data set collected for 14 months amounts to a data base of over 110 megabytes. This report presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15-, 60-, 120-, and 180- minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels, as well as figures for energy to generate DHW. The format of guidelines presented in this report differs from those currently in use. The {open_quotes}Low - Medium - High{close_quotes} (LMH) users set of guidelines provide a range, rather than a specific, singular gallonage standard. By providing LMH tables and guidelines for their application the design engineer or contractor can then use these as a tool from which to select the appropriate level that matches the site being served. Values are presented for both New York sizing guidelines (developed from this study), as well as a set of {open_quote}National{close_quote} figures (derived from a compilation of studies conducted in other cities). The LMH approach and {open_quote}National{close_quote} guidelines were adopted for inclusion in the 1995 ASHRAE Handbook revision.

  2. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  3. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  4. Enabling better water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    CASE STUDY Enabling better water management Seasonal Streamflow Forecast Service influencing water decisions Water management decisions made with confidence Using the Bureau's streamflow forecasting, ACTEW Water confidently removed temporary water restrictions after the millennium drought. Millennium drought

  5. EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2013-05-21

    The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property analysis of the three samples, there is no clear conclusion about transporting the samples before they are set; however, experience with saltstone grout indicates the samples should sit and develop some structure before being transported to SRNL for curing.

  6. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  7. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  8. Indiana Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the treatment of non-point source pollution. In addition to the purposes for which they were originallyIndiana Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction Research Program #12;Water Quality Management and Improvement in the Urban Setting Basic Information Title: Water

  9. Water Quality 101 Dr. Mike Mallin and Matthew McIver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Solids A measure of suspended particles in water, similar to turbidity Filter volume of water and weigh1 Water Quality 101 Dr. Mike Mallin and Matthew McIver Aquatic Ecology Laboratory UNCW-Center for Marine Science Common Water Quality Sampling Parameters and Analytical Procedures Water temperature

  10. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar CoFacility | Open Energy

  11. EFFECTS OF INCREASED WATER TEMPERATURE ON DAPHNIA PULEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling has created concern that the aquatic biota is endangered by thermal pollution. North and Adams. Study methods simulated prolonged exposure to constant high tempera· tures in thermal discharges (1969) have de- scribed thermal conditions at outfalls and in con- denser cooling systems of some

  12. Temperature of Multibubble Sonoluminescence in Water (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback SystemGimbaled X-RayChina (Conference)Connect

  13. Validation of TES Temperature and Water Vapor Retrievals with ARM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewingValidating extended

  14. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report AppendicesA TokenCommercialSTEMSarah L.Department of

  15. Fourier restriction phenomenon in thin sets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadimitropoulos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    We study the Fourier restriction phenomenon in settings where there is no underlying proper smooth subvariety. We prove an (Lp, L2) restriction theorem in general locally compact abelian groups and apply it in groups ...

  16. Limitations with Activity Recognition Methodology & Data Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Gary

    raw AR sensor data, but the methodology used to build and evaluate AR systems. In this paper we focus, not just in metadata associated with the data sets. A key concern of this paper is not just the underlying

  17. Informationally complete sets of Gaussian measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jukka Kiukas; Jussi Schultz

    2013-08-09

    We prove necessary and sufficient conditions for the informational completeness of an arbitrary set of Gaussian observables on continuous variable systems with finite number of degrees of freedom. In particular, we show that an informationally complete set either contains a single informationally complete observable, or includes infinitely many observables. We show that for a single informationally complete observable, the minimal outcome space is the phase space, and the observable can always be obtained from the quantum optical $Q$-function by linear postprocessing and Gaussian convolution, in a suitable symplectic coordinatization of the phase space. In the case of projection valued Gaussian observables, e.g., generalized field quadratures, we show that an informationally complete set of observables is necessarily infinite. Finally, we generalize the treatment to the case where the measurement coupling is given by a general linear bosonic channel, and characterize informational completeness for an arbitrary set of the associated observables.

  18. Segmentation strategies for polymerized volume data sets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Venkata Purna

    2006-04-12

    A new technique, called the polymerization algorithm, is described for the hierarchical segmentation of polymerized volume data sets (PVDS) using the Lblock data structure. The Lblock data structure is defined as a ...

  19. LEVEL SET REGULARIZATION IN POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY 1 Level Set Method for Positron Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Thomas S.

    LEVEL SET REGULARIZATION IN POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY 1 Level Set Method for Positron Emission for integrated Petroleum Research). #12;LEVEL SET REGULARIZATION IN POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY 2 Abstract In positron emission tomography (PET) a radioactive compound is injected into the body to promote a tissue

  20. Decision analysis of polluted sites -- A fuzzy set approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, A.M.O.; Cote, K.

    1999-07-01

    A decision analysis based model (DAPS 1.0, Decision Analysis of Polluted Sites) has been developed to evaluate risks that polluted sites might pose to human health. Pollutants present in soils and sediments can potentially migrate from source to receptor(s), via different pathways. in the developed model, pathways are simulated via transport models (i.e., groundwater transport model, runoff-erosion model, air diffusion model, and sediment diffusion, and resuspension model in water bodies). Humans can be affected by pollutant migration through land and water use. health risks can arise from ingestion of and dermal contact with polluted water and soil, as well as through inhalation of polluted air. Quantitative estimates of risks are calculated for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants. Being very heterogeneous, soil and sediment systems are characterized by uncertain parameters. Concepts of fuzzy set theory have been adopted to account for uncertainty in the input parameters which are represented by fuzzy numbers. An inference model using fuzzy logic has been constructed for reasoning in the decision analysis.

  1. Abstract Answer Set Solvers with Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lierler, Yuliya

    2010-01-01

    Nieuwenhuis, Oliveras, and Tinelli (2006) showed how to describe enhancements of the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland algorithm using transition systems, instead of pseudocode. We design a similar framework for several algorithms that generate answer sets for logic programs: Smodels, Smodels-cc, Asp-Sat with Learning (Cmodels), and a newly designed and implemented algorithm Sup. This approach to describing answer set solvers makes it easier to prove their correctness, to compare them, and to design new systems.

  2. The Boson peak in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar; K. Thor Wikfeldt; Daniel Schlesinger; Lars G. M. Pettersson; H. E. Stanley

    2013-05-19

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the TIP4P/2005 model of water to investigate the origin of the Boson peak reported in experiments on supercooled water in nanoconfined pores, and in hydration water around proteins. We find that the onset of the Boson peak in supercooled bulk water coincides with the crossover to a predominantly low-density-like liquid below the Widom line $T_W$. The frequency and onset temperature of the Boson peak in our simulations of bulk water agree well with the results from experiments on nanoconfined water. Our results suggest that the Boson peak in water is not an exclusive effect of confinement. We further find that, similar to other glass-forming liquids, the vibrational modes corresponding to the Boson peak are spatially extended and are related to transverse phonons found in the parent crystal, here ice Ih.

  3. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  4. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  5. PERSPECTIVES would come from the effects of water.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    1340 PERSPECTIVES would come from the effects of water. Furthermore, the independent observations it is released through faults in the overriding lithosphere. Or perhaps it stays put. Resolving the water in or out. Areas with temperatures below the mantle melting point would also be too cold for the water

  6. DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DERIVING PROGNOSTIC EQUATIONS FOR CLOUD FRACTION AND LIQUID WATER CONTENT Vincent E. Larson1 1 that accounts for how liquid water varies with both total water content and temperature. The variable s has- ter content, ql , and cloud fraction, C. This provides in- formation about partial cloudiness. Tiedtke

  7. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in thermal waters at Zunil, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, R.O.; Hanshaw, B.B.; Urrutia Sole, J.F.

    1982-10-01

    Enthalpy-chloride relations suggest that a deep reservoir exists at Zunil with a temperature near 300/sup 0/C. Water from that reservoir moves to shallower and cooler local reservoirs, where it mixes with diluted water and then attains a new water-rock chemical equilibrium. This mixed water, in turn, generally is further diluted before being discharged from thermal springs. The stable-isotopic composition of the thermal water indicates that recharge for the deep water at Zunil comes mainly from local sources. The presence of measurable tritium, which suggests that the deep water has been underground about 20 to 30 years, also indicates a local source for the recharge.

  8. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  9. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  10. Definition of a moist entropic potential temperature. Application to FIRE-I data flights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A moist entropy potential temperature -- denoted by ${\\theta}_{s}$ -- is defined analytically in terms of the specific entropy for moist air. The expression for ${\\theta}_{s}$ is valid for a general mixing of dry air, water vapour and possible condensed water species. It verifies the same conservative properties as the moist entropy, even for varying dry air or total water content. The moist formulation for ${\\theta}_{s}$ is equal to the dry formulation $\\theta$ if dry air is considered and it verifies new properties valid for the moist air cases, both saturated or under-saturated ones. Exact and approximate versions of ${\\theta}_{s}$ are evaluated for several Stratocumulus cases, in particular by using the aircraft observations FIRE-I experiment data sets. It appears that there is no (or small) jump in ${\\theta}_{s}$ at the top of the PBL. The mixing in moist entropy is almost complete in the PBL, with the same values observed in the clear air and the cloudy regions, including the very top of the entrainment...

  11. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D.; Lay, K.

    2013-03-01

    This report discusses the observed variability in indoor space temperature in a set of 60 homes located in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Washington. Temperature data were collected at 15-minute intervals for an entire year, including living room, master bedroom, and outdoor air temperature (Arena, et. al). The data were examined to establish the average living room temperature for the set of homes for the heating and cooling seasons, the variability of living room temperature depending on climate, and the variability of indoor space temperature within the homes. The accuracy of software-based energy analysis depends on the accuracy of input values. Thermostat set point is one of the most influential inputs for building energy simulation. Several industry standards exist that recommend differing default thermostat settings for heating and cooling seasons. These standards were compared to the values calculated for this analysis. The data examined for this report show that there is a definite difference between the climates and that the data do not agree well with any particular standard.

  12. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1

  13. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    they join tributaries to the Mississippi River. · The deep ground water divide is the underground boundary Deep ground water divide Racine Kenosha Walworth Waukesha Washington Ozaukee Milwaukee LAKE MICHIGANGround water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also

  14. The relation of octane number, compression ratio, and exhaust temperature in the gasoline engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jentsch, Donald George

    1951-01-01

    THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMHER& COMPRESSION RATIO& AND EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE A Tbeaie Donald George Jentsch THE RELATION OF OCTANE NUMBER, COMHKSSION RATIO, EXHAUST TEMPERATURE IN THE GASOLINE ENGINE By Donald George... throttle settings) a. Table VI - Aviation Gasolines 22 26 b. Table VI (a) ? Automotive Gasolines . . . 33 2. Spark set for maximum power at full throttle (Speed 2000 RPH at various throttle settings) a. Table VII ? Aviation Gasolines . . . . . 34 b...

  15. The Mauna Kea Observatories Near-Infrared Filter Set. I: Defining Optima 1-5m Bandpasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with obtaining precision photometry with the relatively wide infrared filters in use to date. Water vapor plays to be relatively immune to water vapor contamination, thereby driving filter bandwidths to be fairly narrowThe Mauna Kea Observatories Near-Infrared Filter Set. I: Defining Optima 1-5µm Bandpasses D. A

  16. Nanoplasmonics simulations at the basis set limit through completeness-optimized, local numerical basis sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Tuomas P; Sakko, Arto; Puska, Martti J; Nieminen, Risto M

    2015-01-01

    We present an approach for generating local numerical basis sets of improving accuracy for first-principles nanoplasmonics simulations within time-dependent density functional theory. The method is demonstrated for copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles that are of experimental interest but computationally demanding due to the semi-core d-electrons that affect their plasmonic response. The basis sets are constructed by augmenting numerical atomic orbital basis sets by truncated Gaussian-type orbitals generated by the completeness-optimization scheme, which is applied to the photoabsorption spectra of homoatomic metal atom dimers. We obtain basis sets of improving accuracy up to the complete basis set limit and demonstrate that the performance of the basis sets transfers to simulations of larger nanoparticles and nanoalloys as well as to calculations with various exchange-correlation functionals. This work promotes the use of the local basis set approach of controllable accuracy in first-principles nanoplasmon...

  17. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  18. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    8 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water HeaterAssess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heater Marketassess California’s small gas storage water heater market.

  19. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos/01/2012 Page 1Water Power

  20. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  1. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,Saving Water Saves Energy James E. McMahon, Camilla Dunhamavailable products. The energy savings associated with water

  2. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    paper describing produced water from production of crudeEmerging Issues Paper: Mine Water Pollution. Dep. Environ.40. Vine G. 2010. Cooling water issues and opportunities at

  3. Terrestrial Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, Jay

    2013-01-01

    with Subantarctic Mode Water. J. Geophys. Res. , 116,Global Climate] Stratospheric water vapor [in “State of the18 2. Total column water

  4. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Permit Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial...

  5. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    connections between water and energy, advances in knowledgeimportant nexus between water and energy. The demand fortwo reports on the water and energy nexus highlighting the

  6. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,shorter showers). Water- and energy- conserving activitiesstress imposed on limited water (and energy) supplies from

  7. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  8. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  9. Dynamical Crossover in Supercritical Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. D. Fomin; V. N. Ryzhov; E. N. Tsiok; V. V. Brazhkin

    2015-02-10

    Dynamical crossover in water is studied by means of computer simulation. The crossover temperature is calculated from the behavior of velocity autocorrelation functions. The results are compared with experimental data. It is shown that the qualitative behavior of the dynamical crossover line is similar to the melting curve behavior. Importantly, the crossover line belongs to experimentally achievable $(P,T)$ region which stimulates the experimental investigation in this field.

  10. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  11. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  12. Emergence of spatial structure from causal sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Rideout; Petros Wallden

    2009-04-30

    There are numerous indications that a discrete substratum underlies continuum spacetime. Any fundamentally discrete approach to quantum gravity must provide some prescription for how continuum properties emerge from the underlying discreteness. The causal set approach, in which the fundamental relation is based upon causality, finds it easy to reproduce timelike distances, but has a more difficult time with spatial distance, due to the unique combination of Lorentz invariance and discreteness within that approach. We describe a method to deduce spatial distances from a causal set. In addition, we sketch how one might use an important ingredient in deducing spatial distance, the `$n$-link', to deduce whether a given causal set is likely to faithfully embed into a continuum spacetime.

  13. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  14. Implementation of a near-optimal global set point control method in a DDC controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cascia, M.A.

    2000-07-01

    A near-optimal global set point control method that can be implemented in an energy management system's (EMS) DDC controller is described in this paper. Mathematical models are presented for the power consumption of electric chillers, hot water boilers, chilled and hot water pumps, and air handler fans, which allow the calculation of near-optimal chilled water, hot water, and coil discharge air set points to minimize power consumption, based on data collected by the EMS. Also optimized are the differential and static pressure set points for the variable speed pumps and fans. A pilot test of this control methodology was implemented for a cooling plant at a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility near Dallas, Texas. Data collected at this site showed good agreement between the actual power consumed by the chillers, chilled water pumps, and air handlers and that predicted by the models. An approximate model was developed to calculate real-time power savings in the DDC controller. A third-party energy accounting program was used to track savings due to the near-optimal control, and results show a monthly KWH reduction ranging from 3% to 14%.

  15. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  16. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  17. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  18. Influence of thermal conditioning media on Charpy specimen test temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanstad, R.K.; Swain, R.L.; Berggren, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact test is used extensively for determining the toughness of structural materials. Research programs in many technologies concerned with structural integrity perform such testing to obtain Charpy energy vs temperature curves. American Society for Testing and Materials Method E 23 includes rather strict requirements regarding determination and control of specimen test temperature. It specifies minimum soaking times dependent on the use of liquids or gases as the medium for thermally conditioning the specimen. The method also requires that impact of the specimen occur within 5 s removal from the conditioning medium. It does not, however, provide guidance regarding choice of conditioning media. This investigation was primarily conducted to investigate the changes in specimen temperature which occur when water is used for thermal conditioning. A standard CVN impact specimen of low-alloy steel was instrumented with surface-mounted and embedded thermocouples. Dependent on the media used, the specimen was heated or cooled to selected temperatures in the range {minus}100 to 100{degree}C using cold nitrogen gas, heated air, acetone and dry ice, methanol and dry ice, heated oil, or heated water. After temperature stabilization, the specimen was removed from the conditioning medium while the temperatures were recorded four times per second from all thermocouples using a data acquisition system and a computer. The results show that evaporative cooling causes significant changes in the specimen temperatures when water is used for conditioning. Conditioning in the other media did not result in such significant changes. The results demonstrate that, even within the guidelines of E 23, significant test temperature changes can occur which may substantially affect the Charpy impact test results if water is used for temperature conditioning. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Resistance of a water spark.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2005-11-01

    The later time phase of electrical breakdown in water is investigated for the purpose of improving understanding of the discharge characteristics. One dimensional simulations in addition to a zero dimensional lumped model are used to study the spark discharge. The goal is to provide better electrical models for water switches used in the pulse compression section of pulsed power systems. It is found that temperatures in the discharge channel under representative drive conditions, and assuming small initial radii from earlier phases of development, reach levels that are as much as an order of magnitude larger than those used to model discharges in atmospheric gases. This increased temperature coupled with a more rapidly rising conductivity with temperature than in air result in a decreased resistance characteristic compared to preceding models. A simple modification is proposed for the existing model to enable the approximate calculation of channel temperature and incorporate the resulting conductivity increase into the electrical circuit for the discharge channel. Comparisons are made between the theoretical predictions and recent experiments at Sandia. Although present and past experiments indicated that preceding late time channel models overestimated channel resistance, the calculations in this report seem to underestimate the resistance relative to recent experiments. Some possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP OF WINTER TEMPERATURE AND SPRING LANDINGS OF PINK SHRIMP, PENAEUS DUORARUM,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de- scribed by a sine-cosine curve in which minimum temperatures generally occurred during the 5th week and maximum temperatures occurred during the 31st week of the year. Weekly mean air temperatures not useful as proxy data for predicting pink shrimp landings (r2 = 0.50) because the air-water relation

  1. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  2. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28

    at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/water/ az9420.pdf. ?Drinking Water Treatment: Distillation.? Nebraska Cooperative Extension. Available at http://ianrpubs. unl.edu/water/g1493.htm. ?Electrodyalisis.? GE Infrastructure Water & Process Technologies. General...

  3. Energy and Society (ER100/PP184/ER200/PP284) Fall 2011 Topics: Thermodynamics of energy systems; Peak Oil; Energy economics. Problem Set #3 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    . Turbine: Drops pressure and temperature; produces work; no heat loss. Exhaust/Heat Exchanger: temperature or extracted. Pump: Pushes water with high pressure into boiler or heat exchanger; requires work; no heat loss Rankine and Brayton: Compressor: Compresses gases to high pressure; increases the temperature; requires

  4. Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    the water quality and waste water elements. At the sameAll water supply, waste water, and flood control agenciesprovide services like waste water treatment and drinking

  5. Water watch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

  6. FRAMEWORK DATA SETS FOR THE NSDI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    the users of geographic and land information systems that common sets of geographic data on which users players in the geographic information system (GIS) community (NRC 1994). They would thus present geographic information community there has been protracted debate in the past two years over the value

  7. Common Data Set 2009 GENERAL INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi

    applications should be sent, please provide: #12;Common Data Set 2009 A2. Source of institutional control--Men and Women Provide numbers of students for each of the following categories as of the institution's official of the following categories as of the institution's official fall reporting date or as of October 15, 2009. Include

  8. Transformations between symmetric sets of quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vedran Dunjko; Erika Andersson

    2012-06-22

    We investigate probabilistic transformations of quantum states from a `source' set to a `target' set of states. Such transforms have many applications. They can be used for tasks which include state-dependent cloning or quantum state discrimination, and as interfaces between systems whose information encodings are not related by a unitary transform, such as continuous-variable systems and finite-dimensional systems. In a probabilistic transform, information may be lost or leaked, and we explain the concepts of leak and redundancy. Following this, we show how the analysis of probabilistic transforms significantly simplifies for symmetric source and target sets of states. In particular, we give a simple linear program which solves the task of finding optimal transforms, and a method of characterizing the introduced leak and redundancy in information-theoretic terms. Using the developed techniques, we analyse a class of transforms which convert coherent states with information encoded in their relative phase to symmetric qubit states. Each of these sets of states on their own appears in many well studied quantum information protocols. Finally, we suggest an asymptotic realization based on quantum scissors.

  9. Technical Report Mining Interesting Sets and Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antwerpen, Universiteit

    Technical Report 09.02 Mining Interesting Sets and Rules in Relational Databases Bart Goethals, Wim Middelheimlaan 1 B-2020 Antwerp ­ Belgium #12;1 Abstract In this paper we propose a new and elegant approach toward the generalization of frequent itemset mining to the multi-relational case. We define relational

  10. ADAPTIVE DENSITY ESTIMATION WITH MASSIVE DATA SETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, David W.

    recognition, density estima­ tion, and data visualization. However, one already hears stories of logistic the data, and some require the data to be in core. 1.1 Reversing Efficiency Roles What general solution can we propose? It is our po­ sition that massive data sets reverse our usual focus This research

  11. Chemistry 593: Problem Set 1 David Ronis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronis, David M.

    Chemistry 593: Problem Set 1 © David Ronis McGill University DUE: Friday, January 23, 2015 1). What does = 1 signify? In Eq. (1.1), the first 4 terms were evaluated analytically, while in class. 4. Near a critical point, experiment shows that S(q) 1 + (q)2 , Winter, 2015 #12;Chemistry 593

  12. SETTING A COURSE FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    330 CHAPTER 22 SETTING A COURSE FOR SUSTAINABLE MARINE AQUACULTURE A s world consumption of seafood continues to increase, the farming of marine species has become a rapidly growing domestic and international industry. There are, however, a number of challenges that this industry presents. Nearshore marine

  13. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal . 20 Energy Used for Water Services . 20 Transporting Water 21 Pumping Groundwater. 22 Treating Wastewater 23 Desalination ..

  14. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  15. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  16. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Phillip, Bradley L. (20976 Fairmount Blvd., Shaker Heights, Cuyahoga County, OH 44120)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compostions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  17. Materials for the scavanging of hydrogen at high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Phillip, Bradley L. (Shaker Heights, OH)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen getter composition comprising a double or triple bonded hydrocarbon with a high melting point useful for removing hydrogen gas, to partial pressures below 0.01 torr, from enclosed spaces and particularly from vessels used for transporting or containing fluids at elevated temperatures. The hydrogen getter compositions disclosed herein and their reaction products will neither melt nor char at temperatures in excess of 100.degree. C. They possess significant advantages over conventional hydrogen getters, namely low risk of fire or explosion, no requirement for high temperature activation or operation, the ability to absorb hydrogen even in the presence of contaminants such as water, water vapor, common atmospheric gases and oil mists and are designed to be disposed within the confines of the apparatus. These getter materials can be mixed with binders, such as fluropolymers, which permit the getter material to be fabricated into useful shapes and/or impart desirable properties such as water repellency or impermeability to various gases.

  18. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  19. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  20. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive and diverse water resources 54,836 miles of rivers and streams 1.8 million acres of lakes, reservoirs

  1. The Influence of Residential Solar Water Heating on Electric Utility Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Askey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Similar sets of residences in Austin, Texas with electric water heaters and solar water heaters with electric back-up were monitored during 1982 to determine their instantaneous electric demands, the purpose being to ...

  2. Pipe dream : why Utah's water managers continue to prioritize supply-side solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    More than 150 years ago, the Mormon pioneers entered the Salt Lake Valley and immediately set to work digging irrigation ditches and canals to harness what water there was for their farms. Since then, Utah water managers ...

  3. Designing a low cost XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu Ibrahim, Fadi, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis guides the reader through the design of an inexpensive XY stage for abrasive water jet cutting machine starting with a set of functional requirements and ending with a product. Abrasive water jet cutting allows ...

  4. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  5. Interstellar water chemistry: from laboratory to observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Neufeld, David A

    2013-01-01

    Water is observed throughout the universe, from diffuse interstellar clouds to protoplanetary disks around young stars, and from comets in our own solar system and exoplanetary atmospheres to galaxies at high redshifts. This review summarizes the spectroscopy and excitation of water in interstellar space as well as the basic chemical processes that form and destroy water under interstellar conditions. Three major routes to water formation are identified: low temperature ion-molecule chemistry, high-temperature neutral-neutral chemistry and gas-ice chemistry. The rate coefficients of several important processes entering the networks are discussed in detail; several of them have been determined only in the last decade through laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. Astronomical examples of each of the different chemical routes are presented using data from powerful new telescopes, in particular the Herschel Space Observatory. Basic chemical physics studies remain critically important to analyze ast...

  6. The Dynamic Transition of Protein Hydration Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Doster; S. Busch; A. M. Gaspar; M. -S. Appavou; J. Wuttke; H. Scheer

    2010-02-12

    Thin layers of water on biomolecular and other nanostructured surfaces can be supercooled to temperatures not accessible with bulk water. Chen et al. [PNAS 103, 9012 (2006)] suggested that anomalies near 220 K observed by quasi-elastic neutron scattering can be explained by a hidden critical point of bulk water. Based on more sensitive measurements of water on perdeuterated phycocyanin, using the new neutron backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, and an improved data analysis, we present results that show no sign of such a fragile-to-strong transition. The inflection of the elastic intensity at 220 K has a dynamic origin that is compatible with a calorimetric glass transition at 170 K. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times is highly sensitive to data evaluation; it can be brought into perfect agreement with the results of other techniques, without any anomaly.

  7. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  8. Bubble formation in water with addition of a hydrophobic solute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryuichi Okamoto; Akira Onuki

    2015-05-29

    We show that phase separation can occur in a one-component liquid outside its coexistence curve (CX) with addition of a small amount of a solute. The solute concentration at the transition decreases with increasing the difference of the solvation chemical potential between liquid and gas. As a typical bubble-forming solute, we consider ${\\rm O}_2$ in ambient liquid water, which exhibits mild hydrophobicity and its critical temperature is lower than that of water. Such a solute can be expelled from the liquid to form gaseous domains while the surrounding liquid pressure is higher than the saturated vapor pressure $p_{cx}$. This solute-induced bubble formation is a first-order transition in bulk and on a partially dried wall, while a gas film grows continuously on a completely dried wall. We set up a bubble free energy $\\Delta G$ for bulk and surface bubbles with a small volume fraction $\\phi$. It becomes a function of the bubble radius $R$ under the Laplace pressure balance. Then, for sufficiently large solute densities above a threshold, $\\Delta G$ exhibits a local maximum at a critical radius and a minimum at an equilibrium radius. We also examine solute-induced nucleation taking place outside CX, where bubbles larger than the critical radius grow until attainment of equilibrium.

  9. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  10. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1998-06-02

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma. 5 figs.

  11. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, F. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Ku?ák, L. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Bereznai, J. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Závodný, Z. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Muškát, P. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk

    2014-08-06

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  12. FORMATION OF CALCIUM AND SILICA FROM PERCOLATION IN A HYDROLOGICALLY UNSATURATED SETTING, Y.M.,NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Paces; J.F. Whelan; Z.E. Peterman; B.D. Marshall

    2000-07-27

    Geological, mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic evidence from coatings of calcite and silica on open fractures and lithophysal cavities within welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain indicate an origin from meteoric water percolating through a thick (500 to 700 m) unsaturated zone (UZ) rather than from pulses of ascending ground water. Geologic evidence for a UZ setting includes the presence of coatings in only a small percentage of cavities, the restriction of coatings to fracture footwalls and cavity floors, and an absence of mineral high-water marks indicative of water ponding. Systematic mineral sequences (early calcite, followed by chalcedony with minor quartz and fluorite, and finally calcite with intercalated opal forming the bulk of the coatings) indicate progressive changes in UZ conditions through time, rather than repeated saturation by flooding. Percolation under the influence of gravity also results in mineral textures that vary between steeply dipping sites (thinner coatings of blocky calcite) and shallowly dipping sites (thicker coatings of coarse, commonly bladed calcite, with globules and sheets of opal). Micrometer-scale growth banding in both calcite and opal reflects slow average growth rates (scale of mm/m.y.) over millions of years rather than only a few rapidly deposited growth episodes. Isotopic compositions of C, O, Sr, and U from calcite and opal indicate a percolation-modified meteoric water source, and collectively refute a deeper ground-water source. Chemical and isotopic variations in coatings also indicate long-term evolution of water compositions. Although some compositional changes are related to shifts in climate, growth rates in the deeper UZ are buffered from large changes in meteoric input. Coatings most likely formed from films of water flowing down connected fracture pathways. Mineral precipitation is consistent with water vapor and carbon dioxide loss from films at very slow rates. Data collectively indicate that mineral coatings formed in a UZ setting that has been hydrologically stable over million-year time scales.

  13. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Dedrick, Daniel E. (Berkeley, CA); Anderson, David W. (Riverbank, CA)

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  14. Water value in power generation: Experts distinguish water use and consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, D

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info Water value in power generation.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10063 Content-Encoding windows-1252 stream_name Water value in power generation.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset...=windows-1252 Winter 2013 tx H2O 11 ] Story by Danielle Kalisek In Grimes County, the sun sets over Gibbons Creek Reservoir, the cooling water supply for an adjacent power plant. Photo by Leslie Lee. WATER VALUE IN POWER GENERATION Experts...

  15. The Physics of Water Masers observable with ALMA and SOFIA: Model Predictions for Evolved Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, M D; Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M L; Sobolev, A M; Yates, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of models that were designed to study all possible water maser transitions in the frequency range 0-1.91THz, with particular emphasis on maser transitions that may be generated in evolved-star envelopes and observed with the ALMA and SOFIA telescopes. We used tens of thousands of radiative transfer models of both spin species of H2O, spanning a considerable parameter space in number density, kinetic temperature and dust temperature. Results, in the form of maser optical depths, have been summarized in a master table, Table 6. Maser transitions identified in these models were grouped according to loci of inverted regions in the density/kinetic temperature plane, a property clearly related to the dominant mode of pumping. A more detailed study of the effect of dust temperature on maser optical depth enabled us to divide the maser transitions into three groups: those with both collisional and radiative pumping schemes (22,96,209,321,325,395,941 and 1486\\,GHz), a much larger set that are pr...

  16. Sustainable Soil and Water, Adjunct Professor Marcha Johnson Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Sustainable Soil and Water, Adjunct Professor Marcha Johnson Spring 2014 Syllabus (subject to refinement/updating) 1 Spring 2014 SUS- 7700A: SUSTAINABLE SOIL AND WATER Course: Sustainable Soil and Water water, and groundwater in urban settings; understanding floodplains; treating polluted brownfields

  17. Shower and Decide How much water is going down your shower drain?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shower and Decide How much water is going down your shower drain? Much of the water we use in our homes is used in our bathrooms. Did you know that taking a shower without a water-saver showerhead uses about seven gallons of water per minute? The next time you begin a shower, set a stopwatch or timer

  18. Microbial impacts on geothermometry temperature predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshiko Fujita; David W. Reed; Kaitlyn R. Nowak; Vicki S. Thompson; Travis L. McLing; Robert W. Smith

    2013-02-01

    Conventional geothermometry approaches assume that the composition of a collected water sample originating in a deep geothermal reservoir still reflects chemical equilibration of the water with the deep reservoir rocks. However, for geothermal prospecting samples whose temperatures have dropped to <120°C, temperature predictions may be skewed by the activity of microorganisms; microbial metabolism can drastically and rapidly change the water’s chemistry. We hypothesize that knowledge of microbial impacts on exploration sample geochemistry can be used to constrain input into geothermometry models and thereby improve the reliability of reservoir temperature predictions. To evaluate this hypothesis we have chosen to focus on sulfur cycling, because of the significant changes in redox state and pH associated with sulfur chemistry. Redox and pH are critical factors in defining the mineral-fluid equilibria that form the basis of solute geothermometry approaches. Initially we are developing assays to detect the process of sulfate reduction, using knowledge of genes specific to sulfate reducing microorganisms. The assays rely on a common molecular biological technique known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which allows estimation of the number of target organisms in a particular sample by enumerating genes specific to the organisms rather than actually retrieving and characterizing the organisms themselves. For quantitation of sulfate reducing genes using qPCR, we constructed a plasmid (a piece of DNA) containing portions of two genes (known as dsrA and dsrB) that are directly involved with sulfate reduction and unique to sulfate reducing microorganisms. Using the plasmid as well as DNA from other microorganisms known to be sulfate reducers or non-sulfate reducers, we developed qPCR protocols and showed the assay’s specificity to sulfate reducers and that a qPCR standard curve using the plasmid was linear over >5 orders of magnitude. As a first test with actual field samples, the assay was applied to DNA extracted from water collected at springs located in and around the town of Soda Springs, Idaho. Soda Springs is located in the fold and thrust belt on the eastern boundary of the track of the Yellowstone Hotspot, where a deep carbon dioxide source believed to originate from Mississippian limestone contacts acidic hydrothermal fluids at depth. Both sulfate and sulfide have been measured in samples collected previously at Soda Springs. Preliminary results indicate that sulfate reducing genes were present in each of the samples tested. Our work supports evaluation of the potential for microbial processes to have altered water chemistry in geothermal exploration samples.

  19. Sustained concrete attack by low-temperature, fragmented core debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Bradley, D.R.; Blose, R.E.; Ross, J.W.; Gilbert, D.W.

    1987-07-01

    Four experiments were performed to study the interactions between low-temperature core debris and concretes typical of reactor structures. The tests addressed accident situations where the core debris is at elevated temperature, but not molten. Concrete crucibles were formed in right-circular cylinders with 45 kg of steel spheres (approx.3-mm diameter) as the debris simulant. The debris was heated by an inductive power supply to nominal temperatures of 1473 K to 1673 K. Two tests were performed on each of two concrete types using either basalt or limestone aggregate. For each concrete, one test was performed with water atop the debris while the second had no water added. The results show that low-temperature core debris will erode either basalt or limestone-common sand concretes. Downward erosion rates of 3 to 4 cm/hr were recorded for both concrete types. The limestone concrete produced a crust layer within the debris bed that was effective in preventing the downward intrusion of water. The basalt concrete crust was formed above the debris and consisted of numerous, convoluted, thin layers. Carbon dioxide and water release from the decomposition of concrete were partially reduced by the metallic debris to yield carbon monoxide and hydrogen, respectively. The overlying water pool did not effect the reduction reactions.

  20. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  1. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  2. Dirac Equation at Finite Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bo-Jun Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Si-Qi Zhang; Jing Wang; Chun-Hong Li

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose finite temperature Dirac equation, which can describe the quantum systems in an arbitrary temperature for a relativistic particle of spin-1/2. When the temperature T=0, it become Dirac equation. With the equation, we can study the relativistic quantum systems in an arbitrary temperature.

  3. Model Based Building Chilled Water Loop Delta-T Fault Diagnosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, L.; Watt, J.; Zhao, J.

    2012-01-01

    -thirds of design at low loads (Taylor, 2002) due to various causes, such as air entering and leaving temperatures, chilled water supply temperature, type and effectiveness of flow control valves, tertiary connection configuration types and operation, coil cooling...

  4. Alliance free sets in Cartesian product graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yero, Ismael G; Bermudo, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Let $G=(V,E)$ be a graph. For a non-empty subset of vertices $S\\subseteq V$, and vertex $v\\in V$, let $\\delta_S(v)=|\\{u\\in S:uv\\in E\\}|$ denote the cardinality of the set of neighbors of $v$ in $S$, and let $\\bar{S}=V-S$. Consider the following condition: {equation}\\label{alliancecondition} \\delta_S(v)\\ge \\delta_{\\bar{S}}(v)+k, \\{equation} which states that a vertex $v$ has at least $k$ more neighbors in $S$ than it has in $\\bar{S}$. A set $S\\subseteq V$ that satisfies Condition (\\ref{alliancecondition}) for every vertex $v \\in S$ is called a \\emph{defensive} $k$-\\emph{alliance}; for every vertex $v$ in the neighborhood of $S$ is called an \\emph{offensive} $k$-\\emph{alliance}. A subset of vertices $S\\subseteq V$, is a \\emph{powerful} $k$-\\emph{alliance} if it is both a defensive $k$-alliance and an offensive $(k +2)$-alliance. Moreover, a subset $X\\subset V$ is a defensive (an offensive or a powerful) $k$-alliance free set if $X$ does not contain any defensive (offensive or powerful, respectively) $k$-allianc...

  5. Lead Isotopic Variations of the Pacific and Implications for Paleogene Water Mass Composition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subt, Cristina

    2013-11-13

    meridional temperature gradients. Nd isotopes indicate high-latitude convection in the Pacific Ocean during this interval, with deep waters mixing in the tropical Pacific. Here we investigate the evolution of the Pb isotopic composition of water masses...

  6. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Efficient Hot Water Distribution II...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the Challenge Home program and here to set this up for you. Today's session on hot water distribution is one of a continuing series of tech training webinars to support our...

  7. The Determination of the Water Vapor Content in the Pulkovo VKM-100 Multipass Vacuum Cell Using Polymer Sensors of Humidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galkin, V D; Nikanorova, I N; Sal'nikov, I B; Leiterer, U; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Dauß, D

    2010-01-01

    In spectral studies of water vapor under laboratory conditions (determination of molecular constants, measurement for spectral transmission functions), the amount of water vapor in the time of the measurements is one of the most essential parameters, which should be determined accurately. We discuss the application for this purpose of polymer sensors of humidity manufactured by Praktik-NC (Moscow) and used in the Pulkovo VKM-100 multipass vacuum cell. These sensors were examined in the laboratory of Lindenberg Meteorological observatory (Germany) by comparison between their readings and those of standard measuring devices for various values of relative humidity, pressure, and temperature. We also carried out measurements of relative humidity in boxes with saline solution, in which the relative humidity that corresponds to a given solution is guaranteed with the accuracy of several tenths of percent. The analysis of the results of the laboratory examination of the sensors and extended sets of measurements made...

  8. BEST Winery Guidebook: Benchmarking and Energy and Water Savings Tool for the Wine Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Radspieler, Anthony; Healy, Patrick; Zechiel, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    temperature (and thus the best energy efficiency) and lowerindustry called “BEST (Benchmarking and Energy and waterR EPORT BEST WINERY GUIDEBOOK: BENCHMARKING AND ENERGY AND

  9. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01

    become significant. The general conclusion is that, while the benefit to an individual using this concept may be positive, the impact on water temperature is excessive....

  10. Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 495512 Variability of Antarctic bottom water flow into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenedese, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    Deep-Sea Research II 52 (2005) 495­512 Variability of Antarctic bottom water flow into the North a 500-m-deep layer of bottom water. The deep Antarctic bottom water current into the North Atlantic as earlier at revisited locations. The long-term drift of the deep Antarctic bottom water temperature

  11. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  12. High temperature expanding cement composition and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Erik B. (Tulsa County, OK); Eilers, Louis H. (Rogers County, OK)

    1982-01-01

    A hydratable cement composition useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expanding cement at temperatures above about 150.degree. C. comprising a water soluble sodium salt of a weak acid, a 0.1 molar aqueous solution of which salt has a pH of between about 7.5 and about 11.5, a calcium source, and a silicon source, where the atomic ratio of sodium to calcium to silicon ranges from about 0.3:0.6:1 to about 0.03:1:1; aqueous slurries prepared therefrom and the use of such slurries for plugging subterranean cavities at a temperature of at least about 150.degree. C. The invention composition is useful for preparing a pectolite-containing expansive cement having about 0.2 to about 2 percent expansion, by volume, when cured at at least 150.degree. C.

  13. Low temperature route to uranium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Darien, IL); Yeamans, Charles (Berkeley, CA); Hartmann, Thomas (Idaho Falls, ID); Silva, G. W. Chinthaka (Las Vegas, NV); Cerefice, Gary (Henderson, NV); Czerwinski, Kenneth R. (Henderson, NV)

    2009-09-01

    A method of preparing an actinide nitride fuel for nuclear reactors is provided. The method comprises the steps of a) providing at least one actinide oxide and optionally zirconium oxide; b) mixing the oxide with a source of hydrogen fluoride for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the oxide to a fluoride salt; c) heating the fluoride salt to remove water; d) heating the fluoride salt in a nitrogen atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to convert the fluorides to nitrides; and e) heating the nitrides under vacuum and/or inert atmosphere for a period of time sufficient to convert the nitrides to mononitrides.

  14. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, J.E. [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources] [Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA (United States). Div. of Geology and Earth Resources; Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)] [Washington State Energy Office, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  15. Laser induced ponderomotive convection in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shneider, M N

    2015-01-01

    A new mechanism for inducing convection during IR laser interaction with water or any absorbing polar liquid is described theoretically. The numerical simulations performed using the developed model show that the ponderomotive force produces water flow in the direction of the laser beam propagation. In the later stage of interaction, when water temperature rises, the Archimedes force becomes first comparable and then dominant producing convection directed against the vector of gravitational acceleration (upward). The theoretical estimates and the numerical simulations predict fluid dynamics that is similar to the observed in the previous experiments.

  16. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  17. Sandia Energy - Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &Water Power ProgramLargeLow-Temperature Diesel

  18. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  19. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  20. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 9: Water in Agriculture () January 13, 2010 1 / 14 #12;Water in Agriculture Historically: Biggest consumer of water, in developed kilos of sugar. Though the source of water in all the three cases is usually different. Agriculture