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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

3

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Alternate Water Supply System  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Office of Legacy Management DOE M/1570 2008 - -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management U.S. Department of Energy This page intentionally left blank DOE-LM/1570-2008 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado This page intentionally left blank

5

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a caselosses to 5% of total drinking water supply for threeResearch Council. Drinking Water Distribution Systems:

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Water preheater system  

SciTech Connect

A heat transfer liquid collects heat in a solar collector and transfers the heat to water in a preheater heat exchanger. Use of a negative-pressure collector by means of an ejector and pressure relief valve allows inexpensive and readily available materials to be used in the collector. Preferably, the preheat heat exchanger is a converted gas hot water heater in which the heat transfer liquid is sprayed onto a portion of the storage tank and is collected in a reservoir. The negative-pressure solar collector can also be used to heat swimming pool water.

Dunstan, Ph.E.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

7

Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A central chilled water / hot water system provides cooling / heating energy from central utility plants to multiple customers (buildings) through campus distribution loops. To effectively transport the chilled water and hot water to the buildings...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water in clay-water systems (1) Philip F. LOW Department of Agronomy, Purdue University. Agric. Exp. Stn., West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. SUMMARY The swelling of clay-water systems and the thermodynamic, hydrodynamic and spectroscopic properties of water in these systems are discussed. The swelling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-Family Water Heating.. 4 Pipe HeatBuilding Energy Efficiency Standards The scope of this task included the following subtasks; Multi-Family Water Heating, Pipe Heat

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

Mays, Larry W.

11

Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demonstrate an advanced water treatment and reuse process in a single hybrid system that combines forward osmosis with membrane distillation to achieve greater efficiency and increased water reuse.

12

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from controlling heat loss through the distribution pipes.distribution system configurations; a collection of analytical heat lossdistribution system configurations; a collection of analytical heat loss

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Milli-Q Reference Water Purification System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System The reference for ultrapure water systems EMD the requirements of the most demanding norms. We've achieved all this with a new purification strategy. Water. This water is sent through a small recirculation loop to the POD pak, where a final purification step

Woodall, Jerry M.

14

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The DLM accounts for the distribution heat loss within eachHot-Water Distribution System Piping Heat Loss FactorsPhaseHot Water Distribution System Piping Heat Loss Factors-

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Rate Setting for Small Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in detail the many resources that are available to help managers of small water systems make wise business decisions....

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

18

Chapter 5 - Solar Water-Heating Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chapter 5 is on solar water-heating systems. Both passive and active systems are described. Passive systems include thermosiphon and integrated collector storage systems. The former include theoretical performance of thermosiphon solar water heaters, reverse circulation in thermosiphon systems, vertical against horizontal tank configurations, freeze protection, and tracking thermosiphons. Subsequently, active systems are described, which include direct circulation systems, indirect water-heating systems, air water-heating systems, heat pump systems and pool heating systems, which include the analysis of various heat losses like evaporation, radiation, convection heat losses, make-up water load, and solar radiation-heat gain. Then the characteristics and thermal analysis of heat storage systems for both water and air systems are presented. The module and array design methods are then described and include the effects of shading, thermal expansion, galvanic corrosion, array sizing, heat exchangers, pipe and duct losses, partially shaded collectors and over-temperature protectionfollowed by an analysis of the characteristics of differential thermostats. Finally, methods to calculate the hot water demand are given as well as a review of international standards used to evaluate the solar water heaters performance. The chapter includes also simple system models and practical considerations for the setup of solar water-heating systems, which include: pipes, supports and insulation; pumps; valves and instrumentation.

Soteris A. Kalogirou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Optimization of Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the absorption chiller has the least increase in COP per degree change in supply water. METHODS OF IMPLEMENTATION Using Space Conditions. (Figure 2). By evaluating the performance of all the cooling coils through a selector switch, then establishing.....::::.....L-...L-....L..-...L..-+--"""---.L.--"----"------1 15~--1---~-+---+---+---+-7' Reciprocating Absorption 40 c Leaving chIlled water temperature - C F Fig. 1 Effect of chilled water temperature on chiller coefficient of performance Using Return Water Temperature. (Figure 3). This method...

Gidwani, B. N.

20

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency heated water before it is circulated through the building Two gas boilers (GWB-1,2; basement) can be used

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health ...........................................................................................5 Priority Environmental Public Health Challenges for Small Drinking Water Systems

22

Submersible purification system for radioactive water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

Abbott, Michael L. (Fort Collins, CO); Lewis, Donald R. (Pocatello, ID)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer  

SciTech Connect

A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

Griffith, P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Emergy Synthesis and Its Application on Water Efficiency of Water Ecological-Economic System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water ecological-economic system (WEES) is a coupling system of traditional water resource system (WS) and eco-environment, social economy system. Water efficiency is an important index and comprehensively reflec...

Cuimei Lv; Minhua Ling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

[Waste water heat recovery system  

SciTech Connect

The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

Not Available

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

26

Resources for Small Water Systems in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supply and wastewater treatment projects through state bonds and federal grants. TWDB administers the Economically Distressed Areas Program (EDAP), which provides fi nancial assistance to eligible counties and communities. Some counties are eligible.... The U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service has a Water and Wastewater Disposal Program that gives loans and grants to water systems in rural areas and to towns with fewer than 10,000 people. Emergency Community Water Assistance...

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

27

Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession  

SciTech Connect

Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Robot design for leak detection in water-pipe systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leaks are major problem that occur in the water pipelines all around the world. Several reports indicate loss of around 20 to 30 percent of water in the distribution of water through water pipe systems. Such loss of water ...

Choi, Changrak

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Renewable Energy Powered Water Treatment Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are many motivations for choosing renewable energy technologies to provide the necessary energy to power water treatment systems for reuse and desalination. These range from the lack of an existing electricity grid, ...

Richards, Bryce S.; Schfer, Andrea

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

INTEGRATED WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of an evaluation of the current Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) operation against design performance and a determination of short term and long term actions recommended to sustain IWTS performance.

SEXTON RA; MEEUWSEN WE

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

32

Distribution of bacteria within operating laboratory water purification systems.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...within operating laboratory water purification systems. G A McFeters S C...within operating laboratory water purification systems. | Experiments were...within Operating Laboratory Water Purification Systems GORDON A. McFETERS...

G A McFeters; S C Broadaway; B H Pyle; Y Egozy

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Vulnerability assessment of water supply systems for insufficient fire flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Generally speaking, SCADA systems are the monitoring and control systems in the utility industries which help in operating the water system components with proper timing and sequence, measuring water quality... parameters, etc., without physically accessing the network. Thus, SCADA systems can reduce operating cost for a water utility and thereby increase a water system?s efficiency. The proposed hardening methodology of the water supply system was based...

Kanta, Lufthansa Rahman

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America...

35

New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases Reliability New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases...

36

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

37

Energy optimization of water distribution system  

SciTech Connect

In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Practical Approach to Water System Optimal Operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Optimal pump scheduling is a major consideration when dealing with minimizing operational costs of a water distribution system. Pump operation must balance between three factors. Water balance constraints, including consumer demand and water tank volumes. Hydraulic constraints determining water pump operating point. Electrical tariff rate effecting energy cost. Optimization models may assume linear or discrete pump operation, depending on type and accuracy of the model in use. Linear operation assumes the pump may operate during part of the time step while discrete operation requires the pump to be either on or off during the entire time step. Linear optimization models commonly have short solution times, but cannot contain non-linear constraints such as hydraulic headloss. By such, linear model results may be difficult to implement in a real water system as the hydraulic behavior of the system may render the optimal solution impractical. Likewise, if the pump operation partially uses the time step the pump may be forced to come in and out of duty often causing mechanical ware and tare. Discrete operation provides smooth pump operation and may contain non-linear hydraulic constraint to calculate a more realistic working point for the pump. Discrete models have long solution times due the vast amount of pump operating combinations, which must be explored. Heuristic techniques may be used to shorten solution times but these do not assure global minimization of the solution. The goal of the research is to create a minimum cost optimal operation water distribution system model that utilizes the short solution time of a linear model but also includes non-linear hydraulic constraints effecting pump energy consumption and discrete pump operation. The motivation is to use the model for real-time pump scheduling and for water system design.

E. Price; A. Ostfeld

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California, Center for Ocean Health, Long Marine Lab GREGOR CAILLIET, Moss Landing Marine Laboratories DAVID MAYER be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like

42

Integrated Planning for Water and Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy 2. Energy Intensity of Water 3. Water Intensity of Energy 1. Integrated Energy and Water Policy 2. Energy Intensity of Water 3. Water Intensity of Energy #12;Total Water Withdrawals, 2000Total Water at Edmonston #12;Energy Intensity of WaterEnergy Intensity of Water Energy intensity, or embedded energy

Keller, Arturo A.

43

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

Chastagner, P.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

44

Acid mine water aeration and treatment system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

Ackman, Terry E. (Finleyville, PA); Place, John M. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Study on Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method of Cooling Water System of Surface Water Source Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Water source heat pump system is a green air-conditioning system which has high efficiency, energy saving, and environmental protection, but inappropriate design of the system type of water intake will impact on ...

Jibo Long; Siyi Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating with other existing data sources, thus minimizing manually entered data.

Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Modeling Water Resource Systems under Climate Change: IGSM-WRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Through the integration of a Water Resource System (WRS) component, the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework has been enhanced to study the effects of climate change on managed water-resource systems. ...

Strzepek, K.

48

Chapter 7 - Test Cell Cooling Water and Exhaust Gas Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Part 1 considers the thermodynamics of water cooling systems, water quality, typical cooling water circuits, and engine coolant control units. Also covered are the commissioning cooling circuits, thermal shock, and chilled water systems. Part 2 covers the design of test cell exhaust systems, exhaust silencers, exhaust gas volume flow, exhaust silencers, and exhaust cowls. Part 3 briefly covers the testing of turbochargers.

A.J. Martyr; M.A. Plint

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

Bond, D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Hedgehog(tm) Water Contaminant Removal System - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recirculating treatment system reduces the levels of contaminants in water storage tanks. A recirculation pump continually sends water though a treatment in order to reduce...

51

New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Water Reuse ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water Purification Introduction As population growth and associated factors...

52

Mycobacteria in Water and Loose Deposits of Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...acid-fast organisms in water supply, treatment, and...distribution systems. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 75: 139-144...mycobacteria from indoor swimming pools in Finland. APMIS 107...mycobacteria in brook waters. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...

Eila Torvinen; Sini Suomalainen; Markku J. Lehtola; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Outi Zacheus; Lars Paulin; Marja-Leena Katila; Pertti J. Martikainen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Reverse-Osmosis Filtration Based Water Treatment and Special Water Purification for Nuclear Power Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development and operation of specialized water treatment and water purification systems, based on the principle of reverse-osmosis filtration of water, for the operation of ... P. Ale...

V. N. Epimakhov; M. S. Oleinik; L. N. Moskvin

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Advanced Water Treatment System: Technological and Economic Evaluations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The supply of potable water from polluted rivers, lakes, unsafe wells, ... most effective methods to obtain low cost drinking water is desalination. In this chapter, an advanced water treatment system, based on electrodialysis

Artak Barseghyan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Statistical estimation of water distribution system pipe break risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deterioration of pipes in urban water distribution systems is of concern to water utilities throughout the world. This deterioration generally leads to pipe breaks and leaks, which may result in reduction in the water-carrying capacity...

Yamijala, Shridhar

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Derivation of a viscous Boussinesq system for surface water waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Derivation of a viscous Boussinesq system for surface water waves Hervé Le Meur 26 mai 2013 Abstract. In this article, we derive a viscous Boussinesq system for surface water waves from Navier equation from our viscous Boussinesq system. We also extend the system to the 3-D case. Key words: water

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Ensuring the Resiliency of Our Future Water and Energy Systems...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Ensuring the Resiliency of Our Future Water and Energy Systems Ensuring the Resiliency of Our Future Water and Energy Systems June 18, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Infographic by

58

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems January 21, 2015 3:00PM to 4:30PM EST This...

59

Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems January 21, 2015 3:00PM to 4:30PM EST The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost,...

60

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems January 21, 2015 11:00AM to 12:30PM MST...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems October 7, 2014 - 2:39pm Q&A What do you want to...

62

Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Managing Uncertainty in Operational Control of Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managing Uncertainty in Operational Control of Water Distribution Systems A. Bargiela Department. There are system management decisions concerning the regulatory measures such as water pricing principles, effluent in water distribution systems con- cern reservoir(s) management with associated pump scheduling

Bargiela, Andrzej

64

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

SciTech Connect

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

65

Conference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conference Topic: Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Areas Management National Water Information Systems: A Tool to Support Integrated Water Resources Management in the Caribbean Marie-Claire St of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in the Caribbean and to address the problems

Barthelat, Francois

66

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

67

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

68

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Graywater Use and Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

their homes in their landscapes. This reuse of graywater can reduce the amount of wastewater entering sewers or treatment systems, reduce the amount of fresh water used on landscapes and help preserve limited fresh water supplies. Onsite wastewater...-washing machines ? The code excludes water that has washed materials soiled with human waste, such as diapers, and water that has been in contact with toilet waste. This water, known as blackwater, includes flush water from toilets and urinals and wastewater...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin; Alexander, Rachel

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

V. King

2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

70

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

71

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

72

Design package for solar domestic hot water system  

SciTech Connect

Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

None

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula trihalomethanes (THMs). Drinking water providers do frequent, costly testing for THMs. Field real-time sensors PROJECT GOALS The goal of this project was to bring a team of experts in drinking water, polymers

Fay, Noah

74

Thermal performance of an ammonia-water refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect

The conservation and efficient use of energy has led to alternate methods for air conditioning in buildings. Presently, two types of absorption air conditioning systems are widely used: the lithium-bromide-water system and the ammonia-water system. The first type is typically a water fired absorption chiller while the second one is a gas fired chiller. Some of the lithium-bromide-water systems use as a source of heat a stream of hot water supplied from solar collectors at a temperature level of the order of 95-100 {degrees}C. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities to use solar energy to operate an ammonia-water system and to predict its thermodynamic performance. The results indicate that it is feasible to use solar energy to operate an ammonia-water absorption-refrigeration system.

Manrique, J.A. (Inst. Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Monterrey, NL (MX))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hosted by DOE's Building America program, this webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution.

76

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation is from the Building America research team BA-PIRC webinar on September 30, 2011 providing informationprovide information about how to achieve energy savings from solar water heating, electric dedicated heat pump water heating, and gas tankless systems.

77

A DC Brushless PM Motor Driven Phptovoltaic Water Pumping System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Along with the worldwide more attention to environment and rapid development of photovoltaic industry, the PV water pumping system has rapidly developed, the economic ... estimated, up to now the operating PV water

Yu Shijie; Xie Lei; He Huiruo; Zhang Hualin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd systems Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

79

Effective Ship Ballast Water Treatment System Management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Besides its great effect on ship stability, ballast water causes an important problem. While a ship loads ballast water from any sea, it ... species. These species may have a great effect on the local ecological ...

Levent Bilgili; Kaan nlgeno?lu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

show about it, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all the results of our water-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even

Duchowski, Andrew T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

show about it, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all of our water-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even

Duchowski, Andrew T.

82

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 1 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Buildings Technologies Program Date: September 30, 2011 ENERGY STAR ® Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 11:00 AM Eastern. There is no call in number. The audio will be sent through your computer speakers. All questions will be submitted via typing. Video of presenters Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 3 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Building America Program: Introduction Building Technologies Program Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

83

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

84

Quality Modeling of Water Distribution Systems using Sensitivity Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quality Modeling of Water Distribution Systems using Sensitivity Equations P. Fabrie1 ; G. Gancel2 and the associated sensitivity equa- tions are solved for Water Distribution Systems (WDS). A new solution algorithm presented in this study permits global sensitivity analysis of the system to be performed and its efficiency

Boyer, Edmond

85

Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment.

Polidoroff, C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Protected Water Area System (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Protected Water Area System (Iowa) Protected Water Area System (Iowa) Protected Water Area System (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Iowa Department of Natural Resources The Natural Resource Commission maintains a state plan for the design and

87

Towards a Design of a Complete Solar Water Splitting System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Water Splitting System 1 Feb 2013 BISfuel : A team of Bisfuel researchers led by Devens Gust, Ana Moore and Tom Moore has designed and characterized an artificial...

88

Sensor Networks for Monitoring and Control of Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water distribution systems present a significant challenge for structural monitoring. They comprise a complex network of pipelines buried underground that are relatively inaccessible. Maintaining the integrity of these ...

Whittle, Andrew

89

Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems, will take place on January 21, 2015.

90

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum- and Bio-based Semi for petroleum and bio-based MWFs that improve fluid lifetime by providing emulsion stability under hard water. The newly developed petroleum and bio-based formulations with improved hard water stability are competitive

Clarens, Andres

91

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF WATER SOURCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF WATER SOURCES Nejc Trdin1, 2 , Marko Bohanec1 , Mitja.bohanec}@ijs.si, mitja.janza@geo-zs.si ABSTRACT Meeting the quality criteria for drinking water is one of the areas which of data collected while monitoring water adequacy, an expert carries a large burden and also his decisions

Bohanec, Marko

92

Energy Audit of a Water System Network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy audit of water networks has to be focused... i - Operational schedule of pumping stations and available storage to atte...

Edmundo Koelle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A Changing Framework for Urban Water Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

? Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States ... Although many challenges remain with regard to environmental impacts, desalination is now considered a viable option for urban water supply, particularly in situations where either climate change or short-term events (e.g., catastrophic floods) compromise water quantity and quality. ... Stormwater harvesting couples flood control and urban runoff management with urban water supply by capturing runoff and recharging it to drinking water aquifers or by reusing stormwater for nonpotable uses. ...

Janet G. Hering; T. David Waite; Richard G. Luthy; Jrg E. Drewes; David L. Sedlak

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

94

Clemson University Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental the results of our water-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even of such contamination, footnotes explaining our findings, and a key to units of measurement. Definitions of MCL and MCLG

Duchowski, Andrew T.

95

Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict the results of our water-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even of such contamination, footnotes explaining our findings, and a key to units of measurement. Definitions of MCL and MCLG

Duchowski, Andrew T.

96

Improving water and energy metabolism efficiency in urban water supply system through pressure stabilization by optimal operation on water tanks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Water supply consumes 23% of the worldwide energy. Water distribution system, which accounts for 70% electricity consumption of water supply, is a key link of urban water and energy metabolism. The operation of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) has great influence on the pressure stability and associated energy consumption as well as water loss of urban water distribution. This research developed an approach based on the hydraulic solver EPANET and genetic algorithm (GA) to investigate the impacts of two different operation strategies, user demand regulation (UDR) and tank level regulation (TLR) of SWSS, on pressure stability and energy efficiency. The results showed that the strategy of TLR could reduce the pressure fluctuations and increase the minimal pressure of the distribution network under the same supplydemand condition. Reduction of the pressure fluctuations is beneficial to the reliability and leakage control of pipe networks. Increase of the minimal pressure indicates that less energy is lost during the distribution. Therefore, the TLR strategy of SWSS can support to initiatively lower the water pressure of the pumps at the water plant outlet, thus improves the water and energy metabolism efficiency in urban water supply system.

Qiang Xu; Qiuwen Chen; Siliang Qi; Desuo Cai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Homeland Security Challenges Facing Small Water Systems in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with small water systems to develop volun- tary assessments of the homeland security threats that they face. EPA provides assistance to small systems through education work- shops and seminars, reports and guidelines, and tutorials on CD. In 2005 EPA...

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

98

Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to solve the imbalance problem of a heating system, brought about by consumer demand and regulation, and save the electricity energy consumed by a circulation pump, a water mixing and pressure difference control heating system is proposed...

Li, F.; Han, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Minimizing Energy Consumption in a Water Distribution System: A Systems Modeling Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a water distribution system from groundwater supply, the bulk of energy consumption is expended at pump stations. These pumps pressurize the water and transport it from the aquifer to the distribution system and to elevated storage tanks. Each...

Johnston, John

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

100

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Water Supply Planning Using an Expert Geographic Information System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An expert geographic information system (expert GIS) for long-term regional water supply planning has been developed. This system has been evaluated through a case study examining a l9-county study region in South Texas with several water supply...

McKinney, Daene C.; Burgin, John F.; Maidment, David R.

102

Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar energy systems require periodic inspections and routine maintenance to keep them operating efficiently. Also, from time to time, components may need repair or replacement. You should also take steps to prevent scaling, corrosion, and freezing. You might be able to handle some of the inspections and maintenance tasks on your own, but others may require a qualified technician. Ask for a cost estimate in writing before having any work done. For some systems, it may

103

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

104

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

105

Salt and Light Water Purification System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The need for a proposed solution to help mitigate the worlds water crisis is presented. This need is not a new development in the 21st (more)

Ewing, Emile

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Small solar (thermal) water-pumping system  

SciTech Connect

A small solar (thermal) water pump phototype was tested. The pump works on an organic Rankine cycle using refrigerant R113. The design of the pump is described. Detailed temperature and pressure measurements of the working fluid for different operating conditions are performed. The behaviour of the cycle is analysed to get a clear picture of the thermodynamic process. Power-characteristic curves are obtained by a systematic variation of water temperature, pumping head and heat input. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Spindler, K.; Hahne, E. [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)] [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Chandwalker, K. [Stiletto Engineers, Hyderabad (India)] [Stiletto Engineers, Hyderabad (India)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description Butte, Montana, like many other mining towns that developed because of either hard-rock minerals or coal, is underlain by now-inactive water-filled mines. In Butte's case, over 10,000 miles of underground workings have been documented, but as in many other mining communities these waters are regarded as more of a liability than asset. Mine waters offer several advantages:

108

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all drinking water contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces, is listed here. The table contains

Duchowski, Andrew T.

109

Fant's Grove Water System System No, SC390112  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all drinking water contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces, is listed here. The table contains

Duchowski, Andrew T.

110

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) have strict standards for all drinking water contaminant that was detected in the water, even the most minute trace, is listed here. The table contains

Duchowski, Andrew T.

111

Clemson University Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces), the ideal goals for public health, the amount detected, the usual sources of such contamination, footnotes

Duchowski, Andrew T.

112

Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces), the ideal goals for public health, the amount detected, the usual sources of such contamination, footnotes

Duchowski, Andrew T.

113

Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting All public water supply and wastewater disposal systems are subject to classification and regulation by the State of North Dakota, and must obtain certification from the State Department of Health

114

Reduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residence time for contaminated ground- water to degrade VC to below its maximum contamination levelReduction of Vinyl Chloride in Metallic Iron-Water Systems B A O L I N D E N G * Department). Remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlori- nated ethylenes, including vinyl chloride, has been chal

Deng, Baolin

115

Optimal water quality management in surface water systems and energy recovery in water distribution networks.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Two of the most important environmental challenges in the 21st century are to protect the quality of fresh water resources and to utilize renewable energy (more)

Telci, Ilker Tonguc

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) have strict standards for all drinking-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even in the most minute traces

Duchowski, Andrew T.

117

Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) have strict standards for all drinking-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even the most minute trace, is listed

Duchowski, Andrew T.

118

Economic Representation of Agricultural Activities in Water Resources Systems Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i Economic Representation of Agricultural Activities in Water Resources Systems Engineering. #12;iii Guilherme Fernandes Marques January 2004 Civil and Environmental Engineering Economic of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Engineering in the OFFICE OF GRADUATE STUDIES of the UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Lund, Jay R.

119

EA-1093: Surface Water Drainage System, Golden, Colorado  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats...

120

Split system CO2 heat pump water heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Split-system-CO2-heat-pump-water-heaters- Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Strategic indicators for characterization of water system infrastructure and management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shifts in the US water industry are characteristic of the flux found across all infrastructure sectors. Economic, environmental, market, regulatory and systemic forces are pushing the industry toward a different future ...

Garvin, Michael J. (Michael Joseph)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution (in multi-family buildings); efficiency (eithercentral systems in multi- family buildings are assigned a54 C (130 F) for multi-family buildings that have central

Lutz, Jim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Biofuels, Land, and Water: A Systems Approach to Sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biofuels, Land, and Water: A Systems Approach to Sustainability ... This study presents a systems approach to the challenge of biofuel sustainability where environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. ... There are suggestions that water quantity and quality impacts are likely to be significant as a result of increased biofuel production, especially when grain-based biofuels are the feedstock of choice (16, 17). ...

Gayathri Gopalakrishnan; M. Cristina Negri; Michael Wang; May Wu; Seth W. Snyder; Lorraine LaFreniere

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

Energy Conservation in Process Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption of the chiller and cooling tower in a process cooling application was analyzed using the TRNSYS computer code. The basic system included a constant speed centrifugal chiller and an induced-draft, counterflow cooling tower...

Ambs, L. L.; DiBella, R. A.

126

New mud system produces solids-free, reusable water  

SciTech Connect

The Corpus Christi, Texas, based Cameron Equipment Co., Inc., has developed a closed-loop mud treating system that removes solids from water-based systems and leaves the separated fluid clean and chemical free enough to be re-used directly on the rig. The system has been successfully applied by a Gulf of Mexico operator in areas where zero discharge is required. The alternative mud conditions program offered by the developers is called the Cameron Fluid Recycling System. Designed for closed-loop water-based fluids, the system is a new method of removing solids from normally discharged fluids such as drilling mud, waste and wash water, or any other water-based fluid that contains undesirable solids. The patented method efficiently produces end products that are (1) dry solids; and (2) essentially 100% solids-free fluid that can be re-used in the same mud system. All excess drilling mud, and all wash water that would normally go to the reserve pit or a cuttings barge are collected in a tank. Recycled fluid is compatible with the mud system fluid, no harmful chemicals are used, and pH is not altered.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Small angle x-ray scattering study of fluctuations in 1-propanol-water and 2-propanol-water systems  

SciTech Connect

Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been carried out on the 1-propanol (NPA)-water system and on the 2-propanol (IPA)-water system at 20{degree}C. In the NPA-water system, the zero angle intensity, the concentration fluctuation, the Kirkwood-Buff parameters, and Debye's correlation lengths have been determined at various concentrations. In the IPA-water system, the zero angle intensity and Debye's correlation lengths have also been determined. In both the NPA-water and IPA-water systems, all obtained parameters have maxima at about 0.2 of the mole fraction of alcohol. In terms of these parameters, the mixing state of the NPA-water and IPA-water systems is discussed and compared with that of the TBA-water system.

Hayashi, Hisashi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Iijima, Takao (Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

128

Mining Gold from your Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be achieved. GPM 2 /GPM 1 = RPM 2 /RPM 1 Equation (1) (RPM 2 /RPM 1 ) 3 = HP 2 /HP 1 Equation (2) ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty-ninth Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 2007. COOLING WATER PUMPING Pumping... Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Months Ri ver l eve l ( f t ) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 T e mp er at ur e ( F) Average River Level Average River Temperature ESL-IE-07-05-25 Proceedings from the Twenty...

Mendez, T.

129

LANSCE Drift Tube Linac Water Control System Refurbishment  

SciTech Connect

There are several refurbishment projects underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANSCE linear accelerator. Systems involved are: RF, water cooling, networks, diagnostics, timing, controls, etc. The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) portion of the accelerator consists of four DTL tanks, each with three independent water control systems. The systems are about 40 years old, use outdated and non-replaceable equipment and NIM bin control modules, are beyond their design life and provide unstable temperature control. Insufficient instrumentation and documentation further complicate efforts at maintaining system performance. Detailed design of the replacement cooling systems is currently in progress. Previous design experience on the SNS accelerator water cooling systems will be leveraged, see the SNS DTL FDR. Plans call for replacement of water piping, manifolds, pumps, valves, mix tanks, instrumentation (flow, pressure and temperature) and control system hardware and software. This presentation will focus on the control system design with specific attention on planned use of the National Instruments Compact RIO platform with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control system (EPICS) software toolkit.

Marroquin, Pilar S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

System analysis of membrane facilitated water generation from air humidity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The use of water vapor selective membranes can reduce the energy requirement for extracting water out of humid air by more than 50%. We performed a system analysis of a proposed unit, that uses membranes to separate water vapor from other atmospheric gases. This concentrated vapor can then be condensed specifically, rather than cooling the whole body of air. The driving force for the membrane permeation is maintained with a condenser and a vacuum pump. The pump regulates the total permeate side pressure by removing non-condensable gases that leak into the system. We show that by introducing a low-pressure, recirculated, sweep stream, the total permeate side pressure can be increased without impairing the water vapor permeation. This measure allows energy efficiency even in the presence of leakages, as it significantly lowers the power requirements of the vacuum pump. Such a constructed atmospheric water generator with a power of 62kW could produce 9.19m3/day of water (583MJ/m3) as compared to 4.45m3/day (1202MJ/m3) that can be condensed without membranes. Due to the physical barrier the membrane imposes, fresh water generated in this manner is also cleaner and of higher quality than water condensed directly out of the air.

D. Bergmair; S.J. Metz; H.C. de Lange; A.A. van Steenhoven

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Improve Chilled Water System Performance, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - auxiliary water systems Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

including drinking water distribution systems (esp. in small rural communities... ), wastewater treatment, storm runoff, irrigation systems, dams, levees, and canals. 9. Water...

133

Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Florida Florida A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin , Texas March 1st, 2012 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Cocoa, Florida 3 2009 -Present (Currently in third testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Underground Circulation Loop * Solar circulation Loop 140+ feet of ½" copper tubing * Encased in PVC tubing with R-2.4 insulation * ICS to 50 gallon storage tank path need to

134

OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water...

135

Lessons and Measures Learned from Continuous Commissioning(SM) of Central Chilled/Hot Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water and hot water system operation. It can be performed before, during, or after building side continuous commissioning. Successful central chilled/hot water system CC not only results in improved production and distribution, but also achieves...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Bruner, H.; Chen, H.; Wei, G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Water Use in Agricultural Watersheds Derrel Martin, Professor, Irrigation and Water Resources Engineer, Dept. of Biological Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Use in Agricultural Watersheds Derrel Martin, Professor, Irrigation and Water Resources Engineer, Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering, UNL Background Concerns about water use have intensified and Republican River Basins, and the implementation of LB 962. To understand water use it is helpful to consider

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

137

Reduction of corrosivity of reused water in refinery water circulating systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the problem of controlling scale formation in heat transfer equipment in refinery recirculating water systems. One of the effective methods for reducing the degree of pitting is acidification of the medium to pH 6-6.5, thus suppressing the activity of the sulfide and manganese inclusions in the metal that play the role of pitting centers. The authors investigated the effects of the AOC and TPP on the characteristics of refinery recirculating water and combined treatment to reduce the amount of scaling and lower the corrosivity. The untreated recirculating water was unstable; the water treated with AOC or with AOC+TPP is capable of dissolving carbonate deposits.

Sorochenko, V.F.; Beskorovainaya, N.J.; Shut'ko, A.P.; Slipchenko, O.G.; Zorina, N.E.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.  

SciTech Connect

Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward achieving the technology development goals of this center.

Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

(The fate of nuclides in natural water systems)  

SciTech Connect

Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented.

Turekian, K.K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)  

SciTech Connect

This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

DERUSSEAU, R.R.

2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System This hydrated EGR system reduces NOx and enhances fuel efficiency, and the DPF is catalyzed by the...

142

Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demonstrate an advanced water treatment and reuse process in a single hybrid system that combines forward osmosis with membrane distillation to achieve greater efficiency and increased water reuse.

143

Life Cycle Assessment for Sustainable Metropolitan Water Systems Planning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. ... Water systems supply additional functions includ ing the following:? (1) nutrient recovery ? the treatment and land application of biosolids brings back the nutrients to the natural cycle in agriculture, horticulture, and forest systems, which can prevent the need for chemical fertilizers and thus avoid their production; (2) energy recovery ? which can include the generation of electricity or the cogeneration of thermal energy and electricity from biogas at sewage treat ment plants (STPs) or biosolids combustion off-site [This generation activity replaces the production of electrical and thermal energy from other energy sources.]; ...

Sven Lundie; Gregory M. Peters; Paul C. Beavis

2004-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solar hot water system installed at Mobile, Alabama. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This final report describes the solar energy hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Mobile, Alabama. The building is a 122 unit motel. The system consists of six rows of ten collectors and three rows of eleven collectors (1990 square feet) mounted on the roof. Griswald flow control valves were installed to regulate the flow to each row. Two Heliotrope electronic thermometers with a combined capability of measuring the temperatures of 22 different locations were installed for monitoring purposes. Engineering drawings, component specifications, and operator instructions are included.

None

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Catalytic. System design final report. Volume 1. System requirement definition and system analysis  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic Inc. was awarded a contract to conduct a preliminary system design and cost analysis for a brackish water desalination project to be located in Brownsville, Texas. System analyses and economic analyses were performed to define the baseline solar energy desalination system. The baseline system provides an average daily product water capacity of 6000 mT. The baseline system is optimal relative to technological risk, performance, and product water cost. Subsystems and their interfaces have been defined and product water cost projections made for commercial plants in a range of capacities. Science Applications, Inc. (SAI), subcontractor to Catalytic, had responsibility for the solar power system. This, the final report, summarizes the work performed under the Phase I effort.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Efficiency and Evolution of Water Transport Systems in Higher Plants: A Modelling Approach. II. Stelar Evolution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...July 1994 research-article Efficiency and Evolution of Water Transport Systems in Higher...protostele and siphonostele in water conduction was analysed numerically...identical with regard to water transport efficiency. The Royal Society is collaborating...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

SYSTEM OPTIMIZTION OF HOT WATER CONCENTRATED SOLAR THERMOELECTRIC GENERATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this report, we describe the design of a concentrated solar thermoelectric (TE) system which can provide both electricity and hot water. Todays thermoelectric materials have a relatively low efficiency (~6 % for temperature difference across the thermoelement on the order of 300 o C). However since thermoelectrics dont need their cold side to be near room temperature, (in another word, one can chose the particular thermoelectric material to match to the operational temperature) it is possible to use the waste heat to provide hot water and this makes the overall efficiency of the combined system to be quite high. A key factor in the optimization of the thermoelectric module is the thermal impedance matching with the incident solar radiation, and also with the hot water heat exchanger on the cold side of the thermoelectric module. We have developed an analytic model for the whole system and optimized each component in order to minimize the material cost. TE element fill factor is found to be an important parameter to optimize at low solar concentrations (generated per mass of the thermoelectric elements. Similarly the co-optimization of the microchannel heat exchanger and the TE module can be used to minimize the amount of material in the heat exchanger and the pumping power required for forced convection liquid cooling. Changing the amount of solar concentration, changes the input heat flux and this is another parameter that can be optimized in order to reduce the cost of heat exchanger (by size), the tracking requirement and the whole system. A series of design curves for different solar concentration are obtained. It is shown that the overall efficiency of the system can be more than 80 % at 200x concentration which is independent of the material ZT (TE figure-of-merit). For a material with ZThot~0.9, the electrical conversion efficiency is ~10%. For advanced materials with ZThot ~ 2.8, the electrical conversion efficiency could reach ~21%. 1.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

149

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

151

A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam distillation, or vaporization of crude oil in porous media is on of the major mechanisms responsible for high oil recovery by steamflooding from heavy oil as well as light oil reservoir systems. Several authors have reported steam dsitillation...-phase equilibrium data for hydrocarbon/water systems ranging from light to heavy crude oil fractions. ! Experimental data describing the phase behavior and the hydrocarbon/water separation process for multi-component hydrocarbon/water and crude oil...

Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

A solid polymer water electrolysis system utilizing natural circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solid Polymer Water Electrolysis (SPWE) is a method to efficiently produce high-purity hydrogen gas using a polymer electrolyte membrane-based system. SPWE systems that utilize natural water circulation (resulting from a difference in buoyancy) are a promising technology, which need no additional circulation pump for water supply to the electrolysis cells, and generate no pressure difference between the hydrogen generation and oxygen generation chambers. However, despite not needing an accurate pressure control, gas bubbles formed and trapped within the cell stacks can inhibit heat convection, leading to hot-spot formation and consequent destructive degradation. Improving the reliability is therefore one of the most important technological issues in natural circulation SPWEs. In this study, hot-spot formation is studied both by numerical heat and flow analysis, and by experimental in-situ visualization. This leads to insights into the degradation mechanisms of SPWE stacks, and their possible solutions. An improved design for an SPWE cell stack is successfully fabricated, and reliable operation up to 5000h is demonstrated.

Yoshinori Kobayashi; Kenichiro Kosaka; Takashi Yamamoto; Yuya Tachikawa; Kohei Ito; Kazunari Sasaki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recommendations for Applying Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i This report received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

155

Comparative study of power and water cogeneration systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of three combined systems using reverse osmosis to produce drinkable water and a Rankine cycle which produces mechanical power have been analyzed and compared. The RO subsystem incorporates a power recovery unit (a hydraulic turbine in the first two cases and a pressure exchange unit in the third case). The coupling between the RO and Rankine subsystems is only mechanical in the first case (the Rankine cycle provides mechanical power to the pumps of the RO subsystem), while in the two other cases the coupling is both mechanical and thermal (the heat rejected by the condenser of the Rankine cycle is transferred to the seawater). The minimum values of the Rankine cycle mass ratio for the three systems and the maximum operating temperature for the two last systems have been established. Energy and exergy efficiencies are also compared for identical entering parameters.

N. Bouzayani; N. Galanis; J. Orfi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a positive or negative effect on the design teams decision to implement a grey water reuse system: capital cost, maintenance cost, LEED credits, local plumbing codes, project schedule, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc...

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Efficiency and Evolution of Water Transport Systems in Higher Plants: A Modelling Approach. I. The Earliest Land Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1994 research-article Efficiency and Evolution of Water Transport Systems in Higher...transport vascular taxa water water pressure GeoRef, Copyright...1098/rstb.1994.0093 Efficiency and evolution of water transport systems in higher...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water  

SciTech Connect

This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

Michael Corradini; Mark Anderson; Yassin Hassan; Akira Tokuhiro

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

159

Graduate Opportunities in Earth Systems Modeling and Climate Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graduate Opportunities in Earth Systems Modeling and Climate Impacts on Hydrology and Water research assistantships available in the general area of earth systems modeling and climate impacts

160

Application of the Colorado River Simulation System Model to Evaluate Water Shortage Conditions in the Central Arizona Project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Colorado River system water management and reservoir operations ... following categories: water allocations, water deliveries, flood control, reservoir operating requirements and criteria,...

Jess R. Gastlum; Chuck Cullom

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Long-Term Succession of Structure and Diversity of a Biofilm Formed in a Model Drinking Water Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation in a model drinking water distribution system. J.and activity in drinking water distribution networks underbacterial species from drinking water biofilms and proof of

Martiny, A. C; Jorgensen, T. M; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Arvin, E.; Molin, S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis NREL has a long history of successful research to understand and improve the cost of renewable energy technologies, their possible deployment scenarios, and the economic impacts of this deployment. As a research laboratory, NREL is a neutral third party and can provide an unbiased perspective of methodologies and approaches used to estimate direct and indirect economic impacts of offshore renewable energy projects. Deployment and Economic Impact NREL's economic analysis team is working to provide stakeholders with the tools necessary to understand potential deployment scenarios of water power technologies and the economic impacts of this deployment. The team is working to improve the representation of marine and

163

The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with automatic inspection, control the condense times and installing toroidal swirl type filtering water purifier. We have solved the water quality fundamentally of the circulation cooling water. This way will make the chem..with medicine more reliable...

Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Automation of Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation Systems to More Efficiently Utilize Rainfall and Irrigation Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study was conducted to develop automated pivot sprinkler irrigation systems and determine if such systems use less water and energy than manually operated systems. The study was conducted near Earth, Texas, using irrigation systems located...

Wendt, C. W.; Runkles, J. R.; Gerst, M. D.; Harbert, H. P. III; Hutmacher, R. B.

165

Water geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, Wood River District, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal systems of the Wood River District, central Idaho, have been studied by geologic mapping of thermal spring areas and geochemical investigations of thermal and non-thermal waters. This report summarizes the new geochemical data gathered during the study. Integration of the results of geological and geochemical studies has led to development of a target model for hydrothermal resources on the margin of the Idaho Batholith. Warfield Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 58/sup 0/C, flow from a major shear zone along the margin of an apophysis of the batholith. Hailey Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C, occur in an area of multiple thrust faults and newly recognized, closely spaced normal faults in the Paleozoic Milligen and Wood River Formations, 2.5 km from a highly brecciated batholith contact. Other Wood River district hydrothermal systems also occur along the margins of batholith apophyses or in adjacent highly fractured Paleozoic rocks, where there are indications of batholith rocks at shallow depths (100 to 300 m) in water wells.

Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.; Blackett, R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A shallow-water system for sampling macrobenthic infauna  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Oct 1, 1973 ... of materials between water and sediments. ... water estuarine areas penetrated to a depth of 2O- .... pelled by a 7 hp outboard motor, which.

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

168

Charles J. Vrsmarty & the UNH Water Systems Analysis Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and environmental flows? Pollution? Poor governance? #12;Provision of Clean Water and Sanitation: A Millennium #12;Food security Global Water Resource Challenges "Engineered" water Sanitation and access to clean.1 billion people lack clean drinking water 2.6 billion people lack basic sanitation

Slatton, Clint

169

Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

170

Performances of photovoltaic water pumping systems: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a mathematical motor-pump model for photovoltaic (PV) applications which allow us to contribute in the studies of PV pumping sizing. The modelled motor-pump characteristic is flow rate-power (Q, P). The model is established for centrifugal pump (CP) coupled to DC motor. The non-linear relation between flow rate and solar power has been obtained experimentally in a first step and then used for performance prediction. The model proposed enabled us to simulate the electric and hydraulic performances of CP pumps versus the total water heads for different PV array configuration. The experimental data are obtained with our pumping test facility. The performances are calculated using the measured meteorological data of different sites located in Saudi Arabia. The size of the PV array is varied to achieve the optimum performance of the proposed system.

M. Benghanem

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

Lutz, James D.

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Modeling the Global Water Resource System in an Integrated Assessment Modeling Framework: IGSM-WRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability of water resources affects energy, agricultural and environmental systems, which are linked together as well as to climate via the water cycle. As such, watersheds and river basins are directly impacted ...

Strzepek, Kenneth M.

173

Thermal performance of phase change material energy storage floor for active solar water-heating system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conventional active solar water-heating floor system contains a big water tank to store energy in the day time for heating at night, which takes much building space and is very heavy. In order to reduce the w...

Ruolang Zeng; Xin Wang; Wei Xiao

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Techno-Economic Evaluation of Renewable Energy Systems for Irrigation Water Pumping in India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attempt to develop a simple framework for techno-economics evaluation of renewable energy (RE) systems for irrigation water pumping has been made. The unit cost of water delivered and unit cost of useful energy

Ishan Purohit; Pallav Purohit

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 Low Low - - Cost Cost Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 IIPS Number 16910 Ward TeGrotenhuis, Susie Stenkamp, Curt Lavender Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Richland, WA HFCIT Kick Off Meeting February 2007 2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective: Project objective: Create a low cost Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

176

Reservoir/River System Reliability Considering Water Rights and Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective management of the highly variable water resources of a river basin requires an understanding of the amount of suitable quality water that can be provided under various conditions within institutional constraints. Although much research has...

Wurbs, Ralph A.; Sanchez-Torres, Gerardo; Dunn, David D.

177

Adapting to Less Water: Household Willingness to Pay for Decentralised Water Systems in Urban Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In South East Queensland (SEQ), extended periods of drought and unprecedented population growth have resulted in a water strategy reliant on permanent water conservation measures. As a result, there has been i...

Sorada Tapsuwan; Michael Burton; Aditi Mankad; David Tucker

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler...

Bloom, D.

179

Optimum Energy Management of a Photovoltaic Water Pumping System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a new management of the energy of a photovoltaic water pumping installation composed of a battery, a water pump and a photovoltaic panel. The approach makes decision on the optimum connecti...

Souhir Sallem; Maher Chaabene; M. B. A. Kamoun

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Modeling the water consumption of Singapore using system dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water resources are essential to life, and in urban areas, the high demand density and finite local resources often engender conditions of relative water scarcity. To overcome this scarcity, governments intensify infrastructure ...

Welling, Karen Noiva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Cyanobacterial System  

SciTech Connect

Photobiological processes are attractive routes to renewable H2 production. With the input of solar energy, photosynthetic microbes such as cyanobacteria and green algae carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using sunlight energy to extract protons and high energy electrons from water. These protons and high energy electrons can be fed to a hydrogenase system yielding H2. However, most hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases are inhibited by O2, which is an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The rate of H2 production is thus limited. Certain photosynthetic bacteria are reported to have an O2-tolerant evolving hydrogenase, yet these microbes do not split water, and require other more expensive feedstocks. To overcome these difficulties, the goal of this work has been to construct novel microbial hybrids by genetically transferring O2-tolerant hydrogenases from other bacteria into a class of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria. These hybrid organisms will use the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterial hosts to perform the water-oxidation reaction with the input of solar energy, and couple the resulting protons and high energy electrons to the O2-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase, all within the same microbe (Fig. 1). The ultimate goal of this work has been to overcome the sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme to O2 and address one of the key technological hurdles to cost-effective photobiological H2 production which currently limits the production of hydrogen in algal systems. In pursuit of this goal, work on this project has successfully completed many subtasks leading to a greatly increased understanding of the complicated [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. At the beginning of this project, [NiFe] hydrogenases had never been successfully moved across wide species barriers and had never been heterologously expressed in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the idea that whole, functional genes could be extracted from complicated, mixed-sequence meta-genomes was not established. In the course of this work, we identified a new hydrogenase from environmental DNA sequence and successfully expressed it in a variety of hosts including cyanobacteria. This was one of the first examples of these complicated enzymes being moved across vastly different bacterial species and is the first example of a hydrogenase being brought to life from no other information than a DNA sequence from metagenomic data. The hydrogenase we identified had the molecular signature of other O2-tolerant hydrogenases, and we discovered that the resulting enzyme had exceptionally high oxygen- and thermo-tolerance. The new enzyme retained 80% of its activity after incubation at 80 C for 2 hours and retained 20% activity in 1% O2. We performed detailed analysis on the maturation genes required for construction of a functional enzyme of this class of hydrogenase, and found that seven additional maturation genes were required for minimal activity and a total of nine genes besides the hydrogenase were required for optimal maturation efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the maturation genes are functional on closely-related hydrogenase enzymes such as those from Alteromonas macleodii and Thiocapsa roseopersicina. Finally, we have extensively modified the hydrogenase to engineer new traits including higher H2 production and better interaction with electron donors. For example, combining two strategies increased hydrogenase activity in cyanobacteria by at least 20-fold over our initial expression level. The activity of this combined strain is almost twice that of the native hydrogenase activity in S. elongatus. This work validates the idea that these enzymes are broadly tolerant to modifications that may help integrate them into a successful photobiological H2 production system. While we did not achieve our ultimate goal of integrating the functional hydrogenase with the cyanobacterial photosynthetic apparatus, the work on this project has led to significant advances in the understanding of these complicated enzymes. This work will greatly benefit future

Weyman, Philip D [J. Craig Venter Institute; Smith, Hamillton O.

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

182

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

None

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Numerical simulation of Large Solar Hot Water system in storage tank.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research is aimed to study the storage tank design parameters effects on the efficiency of the large solar hot water system. Detailed CFD simulation (more)

Shue, Nai-Shen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Assessing resilience of water supply systems under the impacts of climate change.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This project was a step forward in developing the scientific basis for a methodology to assess the resilience of water supply systems under the impacts (more)

Jofreh, Venus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Resilience of water supply systems in meeting the challenges posed by climate change and population growth.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research project provides a scientifically robust approach for assessing the resilience of water supply systems, which are critical infrastructure, to impacts of climate change (more)

Amarasinghe, Pradeep

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) Process Flow Diagram Mass Balance Calculations for K West Basin  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to develop the rational for the material balances that are documented in the KW Basin water system Level 1 process flow diagrams.

REED, A.V.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

187

Effectiveness of solar water-lift system with parabolic cylindrical solar energy collector and jet pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formulas are presented and a computer calculation program is implemented for determining the energy efficiency of a solar water-lift system module with a parabolic...

S. F. Ergashev

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Electrolysis of Water in a System with a Solid Polymer Electrolyte at Elevated Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrolysis of water in a system with a solid polymer ... of the effect of elevated pressure on the electrolysis electrochemistry is proposed. A mathematical model and...

S. A. Grigor'ev; M. M. Khaliullin; N. V. Kuleshov

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Feasibility Analysis of Two Indirect Heat Pump Assisted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is an analysis of the simulated performance of two indirect heat pump assisted solar domestic hot water (i-HPASDHW) systems compared to two base (more)

Sterling, Scott Joseph

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Simulation and Validation of a Single Tank Heat Pump Assisted Solar Domestic Water Heating System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is a study of an indirect heat pump assisted solar domestic hot water (I-HPASDHW) system, where the investigated configuration is called the Dual (more)

Wagar, William Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation efficiency of the bentonite membrane for each of the dilutions. We found that membrane efficiency decreased with increasing solute concentration and with increasing TDS. The rejection of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was greater than Cl{sup -}. This may be because the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentration was much lower than the Cl{sup -} concentration in the waters tested. The cation rejection sequence varied with solute concentration and TDS. The solute rejection sequence for multi-component solutions is difficult to predict for synthetic membranes; it may not be simple for clay membranes either. The permeate flows in our experiments were 4.1 to 5.4% of the total flow. This suggests that very thin clay membranes may be useful for some separations. Work on development of a spiral-wound clay membrane module found that it is difficult to maintain compaction of the membrane if the membrane is rolled and then inserted in the outer tube. A different design was tried using a cylindrical clay membrane and this also proved difficult to assemble with adequate membrane compaction. The next step is to form the membrane in place using hydraulic pressure on a thin slurry of clay in either water or a nonpolar organic solvent such as ethanol. Technology transfer efforts included four manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals, two abstracts, and chairing a session on clays as membranes at the Clay Minerals Society annual meeting.

T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Numerical simulation of an innovated building cooling system with combination of solar chimney and water spraying system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, passive cooling of a room using a solar chimney and water spraying system in the room ... a hot and arid city with very high solar radiation). The performance of this system ... some parameters suc...

Ramin Rabani; Ahmadreza K. Faghih; Mehrdad Rabani; Mehran Rabani

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Theoretical model for evaluation of variable frequency drive for cooling water pumps in sea water based once through condenser cooling water systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In sea water based once through cooling water system for power plants, sea water is pumped through the condenser and the return hot water is let back to sea. The cooling water pumps (CWP) in power plants generally operate at constant speed, pumping variable quantities of water depending on the tide level in the sea. The variable flow causes variation in condenser back pressure resulting in changes in the turbine cycle heat rate. If the pump speed is controlled using a variable frequency drive (VFD) to maintain design flow irrespective of the tide level, the CWP power consumption can be reduced compared to the case with constant speed CWP. However, the turbine cycle heat rate benefit that could have accrued at tide levels above the pre defined level (for fixing the CWP head) with constant speed CWP would have to be sacrificed. This paper provides a theoretical model with a typical case study to establish viability of providing VFD for \\{CWPs\\} in power plants with sea water based once through condenser cooling water system.

R. Harish; E.E. Subhramanyan; R. Madhavan; S. Vidyanand

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

195

Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models  

SciTech Connect

A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Ground water monitoring system for effluent irrigated areas : a case study of Hawkesbury water recycling scheme.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water recycling schemes are increasingly being implemented across Australia as an effective means of converting wastewater into a valuable resource. There is currently a lack (more)

Beveridge, Gavin John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water/air cooled condenser with low water consumption and 2) an enhanced turbine with high efficiency.

198

University of Arizona Geography and Regional Development 696O Adaptation and Resilience in Water Resources Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, urban growth, energy demand, and global food trade alter water in coupled human-natural systemsUniversity of Arizona Geography and Regional Development 696O 1 Adaptation and Resilience in Water syllabus] As we enter an era of drastically heightened pressure on water resources combined with greater

Scott, Christopher

199

Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as a solvent for pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements for the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process ... Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Fault Isolation, Matching, Structural Analysis

Morten Laursen; Mogens Blanke; Dilek D?TegR

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Drinking Water Systems, Hydrology, and Childhood GastrointestinalIllnessinCentralandNorthernWisconsin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drinking Water Systems, Hydrology, and Childhood Gastrointestinal, MD, and Jonathan A. Patz, MD Contaminated drinking water is responsible for a widespread disease gastrointestinal illness (GI) attributable to drinking water in the range of 2 to 19 million cases per year.2

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Distrbuted Sensing Systems for Water Quality Assesment and Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for environmental management, and in particular, waterenvironmental management efforts at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with a special focus on water-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Tomographic Detection of Water in Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present method and results for in situ characterization of water diffusion and other degradation mechanisms in fuel cell membranes using interferometric phase ...

Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-Horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George

203

Tomographic Detection of Water in Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present method and results for in situ characterization of water diffusion and other degradation mechanisms in fuel cell membranes using interferometric phase tomography.

Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-Horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George

204

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

SciTech Connect

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

205

Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy cost optimization of a water-supply network is a very important ..... ci(t) is the cost of pumping in a unit of water from source # i in period t (in ... of the pump, ? is an appropriate constant factor, and ?(t) is the price of energy (H is measured.

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

207

Performance Evaluation of Hot Water Efficiency Plumbing System Using Thermal Valve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Korea two popular water distribution systemsthe branch type and the separate type systemshave serious drawbacks. The branch type suffers from temperature instability while the separate type suffers from excessive piping. Neither of them re...

Cha, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Seo, H. Y.

208

Development and Application of Engineering-Scale Solar Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on ... . The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, ... Energy source...

Xiufeng Gao; Shiyu Feng; Wei Hu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Conservation of Energy Through The Use of a Predictive Performance Simulator of Operating Cooling Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical treatment program for the prevention of corrosion, scale and deposit accumulations. Calgon has made available a computerized performance simulator of operating cooling water systems which reliably predicts system corrosion rates, percent scale...

Schell, C. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Water Distribution System Monitoring and Decision Support Using a Wireless Sensor Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water distribution systems comprise labyrinthine networks of pipes, often in poor states of repair, that are buried beneath our city streets and relatively inaccessible. Engineers who manage these systems need reliable ...

Allen, Michael

211

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems May 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional change in length (or sometimes in volume, when specified) of a material for a unit change in temperature Viscosity - resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow) Thermal capacity - the ability of matter to store heat Freezing point - the temperature below which a liquid turns into a

212

Design of dual column water purification system for industrial gamma irradiator based of PUROLITE resins  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract When gamma irradiators are not in use, they have to be stored in nuclear grade water pool. This water serves as shielding and the medium for the removal of generated heat. To prevent corrosion damage to the gamma source and other equipment a purification system controls the water quality. Also, this system serves as the make-up water system for supplies and maintains the de-ionized water level in the gamma source storage pool. In this paper, the design of the dual system for purification and make-up water for optimal water supply and its chemical parameters in the gamma source storage pool is presented. For this purpose, the characteristics of activated carbon purifier, anionic and cationic demineralizers have been determined. Aerb Safety Standard, Purolite Ion Exchange Design Code and Canadian Water Refining Company Manual have been used to design IR-136 gamma irradiator storage pool purification and make-up water system. The main objective of the design is to maintain water purity throughout the storage time.

Reza Gholizadeh Aghoyeh; Hossein Khalafi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Responses to Ecological and Human Threats to a California Water Basin Governance System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W06-41 Responses to Ecological and Human Threats to a California Water Basin Governance System to the management regime as well. This paper describes the threats to water management arrangements in the San increasingly robust to certain disturbances (or threats), the complex social ecological system has remained

Janssen, Marco

214

Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2009-2010 Evaluation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems was compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period. The Hot Water System Laboratory (HWS Lab) test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for the tests.

215

Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Leak and backflow detection are essential aspects of Water Distribution System (WDS) monitoring. Most existing solutions for leak/backflow detection in WDSs focus on the placement of expensive static sensors located strategically. In contrast to these, ... Keywords: water distribution systems, mobile sensors, leak and backflow detection, optimization, algorithms, simulations

M. Agumbe Suresh, L. Smith, A. Rasekh, R. Stoleru, M. K. Banks, B. Shihada

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Ternary Oil-Water-Amphiphile Systems: Self-Assembly and Phase Equilibria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ternary Oil-Water-Amphiphile Systems: Self-Assembly and Phase Equilibria Seung-Yeon Kim surfactant - oil - water systems were studied by grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations assisted H represents hydrophilic and T hydrophobic groups. In contrast to earlier studies, we studied oil

217

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

replacing its central plant with a combination of distributed boilers and ground source heat pumps. The results saved more than 1 million MBtu in energy and 19,574 Kgal of water...

218

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DWR Bulletin 194. Hydroelectric Energy Potential inmore than 6 bil- of hydroelectric poweL of view of energyfrom peak demand Daytime hydroelectric Two wate:r age) would

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Identification of Bacteria in Biofilm and Bulk Water Samples from a Nonchlorinated Model Drinking Water Distribution System: Detection of a Large Nitrite-Oxidizing Population Associated with Nitrospira spp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation in a model drinking water distribution system. J.and activity in drinking water distribution networks underbacterial species from drinking water biofilms and proof of

Martiny, A. C; Albrechtsen, H.-J.; Arvin, E.; Molin, S.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A Systems-Integration Approach to the Optimal Design and Operation of Macroscopic Water Desalination and Supply Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the escalating levels of water demand, there is a need for expansion in the capacity of water desalination infrastructure and for better management and distribution of water resources. This dissertation introduces a systems approach...

Atilhan, Selma

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Integration of Nontraditional Isotopic Systems Into Reaction-Transport Models of EGS For Exploration, Evaluation of Water-Rock Interaction, and Impacts of Water Chemistry on Reservoir Sustainability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

223

Coagulationultrafiltration system for river water treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The in-line coagulationultrafiltration hybrid process has been investigated using three different coagulants, viz. FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3 and Al2(SO4)3. The coagulants were dosed in the amounts of 2.4 mg Fe/dm3, 2.8 mg Fe/dm3 and 2.9 mg Al/dm3, respectively. Surface water from the Czarna Przemsza river (Silesia region, Poland) was used as raw water. The ultrafiltration membrane module with capillary polyethersulphone membranes was applied. It has been shown that the application of coagulant in-line contributes to the improvement of the quality of water as a result of growth of the removal of organic matter. It has also been statistically proven that the proper choice of the coagulant is of significant importance for the degree of removal of organic matter from the water. The highest efficiency of the process was achieved when the aluminum coagulant was used. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of in-line coagulation and ultrafiltration with the most proper coagulant restricts the fouling of the membranes, so that contaminations deposited on the membrane can easily be removed using deionized water.

Krystyna Konieczny; Dorota S?kol; Joanna P?onka; Mariola Rajca; Micha? Bodzek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site More Documents & Publications Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable

225

Building America Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

226

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

227

Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies  

SciTech Connect

According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

Jenna N. Schroeder

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

None

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Modelling a feed-water control system of a steam generator in the framework of the dynamic reliability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modelling a feed-water control system of a steam generator in the framework of the dynamic with the exploration of an industrial complex system behaviour and its prob- abilistic safety assessment (PSA critical systems), the feed-water control system of a steam generator of a pressurised water nuclear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FLEXIBILITY IN WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT: REVIEW OF CONCEPTS AND DEVELOPMENT OF ASSESSMENT around adapting water management systems to climate change often express the need to increase system it means to have a flexible water management system, what features of a system make it more flexible than

Tullos, Desiree

231

Use of electromagnetic clutch water pumps in vehicle engine cooling systems to reduce fuel consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In general, when the internal combustion engine of a vehicle is started, its operationally connected cooling system provides excessive cooling, resulting in unnecessary energy consumption and excessive emission of exhaust gas. If the rotational speed of the engine is high, the excessive cooling causes the combustion efficiency to decrease. Therefore, better control of the operating temperature range of the engine through use of an active cooling system can achieve better fuel economy and reduction of exhaust gas emission. Effective control of the cooling system in accordance with the operating conditions of the engine can be realized by changing the mass flow rate of the coolant. In this study, we designed electromagnetic clutch water pumps that can control the coolant flow. We made two types of water pump: (1) a planetary gear (PG)-type water pump which can reduce the rotation speed of the water pump by 65%, compared with a pulley; and (2) an on/off-type water pump which can completely stop the rotation of the impeller. The performance evaluation of these pumps consisted of a warm-up test and the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Warm-up test results showed that the time required to achieve a temperature of approximately 80C with the PG water pump and the on/off water pump was improved by 7.3% and 24.7% respectively, compared with that of a conventional water pump. Based on the NEDC results, we determined that the fuel economy of the engine using the PG water pump and the on/off water pump was improved by 1.7% and 4.0% compared with the fuel economy when using the conventional water pump. The application of clutch water pumps is expected to contribute to the improvement of engine cooling system performance, because their effect in reducing the fuel consumption rate is similar to that of an electric water pump.

Yoon Hyuk Shin; Sung Chul Kim; Min Soo Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

Mycobacteria in Water and Loose Deposits of Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Finland  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...concentration of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was 23 mug/liter, the concentration...presented in Table 2. The concentration of AOC in the water was analyzed with the addition...between the number of mycobacteria and the AOC content, the growth value proposed by Falkinham...

Eila Torvinen; Sini Suomalainen; Markku J. Lehtola; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Outi Zacheus; Lars Paulin; Marja-Leena Katila; Pertti J. Martikainen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

elasticity of demand rather than the customer behaviors that drive responses. At times, price, simultaneity of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration

Pasternack, Gregory B.

236

Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system  

SciTech Connect

A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

Kim, S.Y.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

237

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been...

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Addition of a Water Reuse Aquaculture System (WRAS) into a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

filter Reservoir tank Aeration tower Carbon dioxide removal Make-up water supply Oxygen cone in tanks or cages (phase I, II, and III culture) Hold fish overwinter (cold-bank) and grow a second season limitations: Construct an WRAS to fit into an 6 ft x 18 ft area within the existing tank room. Construct

239

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001)Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

Nordlund, D

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

240

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

SciTech Connect

We present an x-ray absorption spectroscopy results for fully broken to a complete H-bond network of water molecules on Ru(0001) by varying the morphology from isolated water molecules via two-dimensional clusters to a fully covered monolayer as probed by scanning tunneling microscopy. The sensitivity of x-ray absorption to the symmetry of H-bonding is further elucidated for the amino (-NH{sub 2}) group in glycine adsorbed on Cu(110) where the E-vector is parallel either to the NH donating an H-bond or to the non-H-bonded NH. The results give further evidence for the interpretation of the various spectral features of liquid water and for the general applicability of x-ray absorption spectroscopy to analyze H-bonded systems.

Nordlund, D.; Ogasawara, H.; Andersson, K.J.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Salmeron, M.; Pettersson, L. G. M.; Nilsson, A.

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Consideration of Reliability in System Design for Ground Water Remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A remedial action design system is described that may be used to evaluate candidate remediation systems and select the preferred alternative under conditions of uncertainty. The remedial action design method i...

W. Woldt; I. Bogardi; L. Duckstein

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

[Waste water heat recovery system]. Final report, September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

Not Available

1993-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

243

Environmental loads from water-sprinkled softwood timber. 1: Characteristics of an open and a recycling watering system  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of a number of organic and inorganic compounds in the wastewater from sprinkling of landstored softwood timber was monitored during a period of up to 18 weeks. A recycling system using a watering intensity of 160 mm/24 h, and an open system with intensities between 55 to 12 mm/24 h were studied. The compound classes investigated included dissolved organic carbon; distillable phenols; resin acids; bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); organic and inorganic phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen; and a number of metal ions. In the recycling system, the peak concentrations occurred after 4 to 6 weeks, and the amounts accumulated through refilling of water largely exceeded those present in the wastewater at the end of the storage. In the open system, net loads of compounds occurred during the first weeks, which thereafter turned into uptakes for most compounds. The PLFA increased during the first weeks and clearly responded to the peak concentrations in the waters. Already from the start there were strong uptakes of nitrate, sulfate, and many minerals in the piles, suggesting that the supply of macro- and micronutrients necessary for microbial growth, as well as available terminal electron acceptors, may be a limiting factor for the extent of microbial degradation performed in the pile.

Borga, P.; Elowson, T.; Liukko, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

245

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

246

Interdependent infrastructures and multi-mode attacks and failures: improving the security of urban water systems and fire response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation examines the interdependence between urban water distribution systems and urban fire response. The focus on interdependent critical infrastructures is driven by concern for security of water systems and the effects on related...

Bristow, Elizabeth Catherine

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

University of Arizona Geography and Regional Development 696O Adaptation and Resilience in Water Resources Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

demand, and global food trade alter water in coupled human-natural systems. This seminar addressesUniversity of Arizona Geography and Regional Development 696O 1 Adaptation and Resilience in Water-4393) Office hours: by appointment Seminar summary [from course catalog] Climate change, urban growth, energy

248

DEVELOPMENT OF A UHT WATER PASTEURIZATION SYSTEM USING MICROCHANNEL HEAT EXCHANGER TECHNOLOGY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stages of proposal development for DaVita, leveraging the OSU Venture Fund money for a small-scale system+ that a small-scale system is feasible with microchannel technology. These past activities, as footnoted below, significant interest exists in a stand-alone water purification system in the 1000 ml

Escher, Christine

249

An evaluation of household drinking water treatment systems in Peru : the table filter and the safe water system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) storage, and education. Tests on the SWSs in Peru demonstrated 99.6% E.coli removal and 95% total coliform removal. Only 30% of the SWSs tested contained water at or above the WHO-recommended concentration of free ...

Coulbert, Brittany, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Evaluation of Buildup of Activated Corrosion Products for Highly Compact Marine Reactor DRX without Primary Coolant Water Purification System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Buildup of Activated Corrosion Products for Highly Compact Marine Reactor DRX without Primary Coolant Water Purification System

Odano, N

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems: Life-Cycle Analyses and Opportunities for Cost Reduction  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper regarding research in potential cost-savings measures for cold-climate solar domestic water hearing systems.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Renewable Energy Resources and a Greener Future, Vol.VIII-8-1 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-conditioning System Chunlei Zhang Suilin Wang Hongbing Chen...

Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

254

EIS-0268: Shutdown of River Water System at the Savannah River Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to shut down the Savannah R]ver Site River Water System in order to save money; that is, to prevent further expenditure of the...

255

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Analysis of recoverable waste heat of circulating cooling water in hot-stamping power system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article studies the possibility of using heat pump instead of cooling tower to decrease temperature and recover waste heat of circulating cooling water of power system. Making use of heat transfer theory ......

Panpan Qin; Hui Chen; Lili Chen; Chong Wang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

THE SYSTEM THORIUM NITRATE-WATER-NITRIC ACID AT 25 AND THE HYDRATES...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SYSTEM THORIUM NITRATE-WATER-NITRIC ACID AT 25 AND THE HYDRATES OF THORIUM NITRATE Re-direct Destination: Temp Data Fields Ferraro, J.R.; Katzin, L.I. Temp Data Storage 3: Argonne...

259

Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System ...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

today, according to Lockheed Martin. The technology in play: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Lockheed Martin is developing a design for an OTEC system that would produce...

260

Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Impact of Two Water Management Systems on Arsenic Speciation and Microbial Populations in Rice Rhizosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPACT OF TWO WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON ARSENIC SPECIATION AND MICROBIAL POPULATIONS IN RICE RHIZOSPHERE A Dissertation by ANIL KUMAR C. SOMENAHALLY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2010 Major Subject: Soil Science Impact of Two Water Management Systems on Arsenic Speciation and Microbial...

Somenahally, Anil Kumar C.

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

Simulating the Effect of Water on the Fracture System of Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMULATING THE EFFECT OF WATER ON THE FRACTURE SYSTEM OF SHALE GAS WELLS A Thesis by HASSAN HASAN H. HAMAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SIMULATING THE EFFECT OF WATER ON THE FRACTURE SYSTEM OF SHALE GAS WELLS A Thesis by HASSAN HASAN H. HAMAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

Hamam, Hassan Hasan H.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

263

Development of a Combined Hot Water and Sorption Store for Solar Thermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The motivation for the development of a combined hot water and sorption store is to complement the advantages and to reduce the disadvantages of the two particular storage technologies. Hot water stores offer high heat supply rates but are particularly suitable for short term storage due to heat losses whereas for a sorption store the power drain is low but it shows the advantage of a high storage density and long-term heat storage almost without losses. The combined hot water and sorption store has been developed using the example of a solar thermal system for domestic hot water preparation. The store consists of a radial stream adsorber integrated in a hot water store. Adsorption and desorption experiments in laboratory have been conducted with a prototype store in full-scale. A numerical model of the combined store has been developed and annual simulations of a solar thermal system including a combined hot water and sorption store have been conducted. The thermal performance has been compared to those of reference hot water stores. The results of the experimental and numerical investigations will be presented in this paper and the benefit of a combined hot water and sorption store applied for solar thermal systems will be discussed.

Rebecca Weber; Henner Kerskes; Harald Drck

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Water gate array for current flow or tidal movement pneumatic harnessing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention, which provides a system for harnessing power from current flow or tidal movement in a body of water, comprises first and second hydro-pneumatic chambers each having ingress and egress below the water surface near the river or ocean floor and water gates operative to open or seal the ports to the passage of water. In an exemplary embodiment, the gates are sychronized by shafts so that the ingress ports of each chamber are connected to the egress ports of each other chamber. Thus, one set of gates is closed, while the other is open, thereby allowing water to flow into one chamber and build air pressure therein and allowing water to flow out of the other chamber and create a partial vacuum therein. A pipe connects the chambers, and an air turbine harnesses the air movement within the pipe. When water levels are equilibrated, the open set of gates is closed by a counterweight, and the other set is allowed to open by natural force of the water differential. The water gates may be comprised of a plurality of louvers which are ganged for simultaneous opening and closing. The system is designed to operate with air turbines or other pneumatic devices. Its design minimizes construction cost and environmental impact, yet provides a clean renewable energy source.

Gorlov, Alexander M. (Brookline, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer water flush system (POTP-001)  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of the testing performed per POTP-001, for the Cross-Site Transfer Water Flush System. (HNF-1552, Rev. 0) The Flush System consists of a 47,000 gallon tank (302C), a 20 hp pump, two 498kW heaters, a caustic addition pump, various valves, instruments, and piping. The purpose of this system is to provide flush water at 140 F, 140gpm, and pH 11-12 for the Cross-Site Transfer System operation.

Parsons, G.L.

1998-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

266

Analyzing risk and uncertainty for improving water distribution system security from malevolent water supply contamination events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pipe network, valve installation, and an emergency purging system. Findings show that reasonable uncertainties in model inputs produce high variability in exposure levels. It is also shown that exposure level distributions experience noticeable...

Torres, Jacob Manuel

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Wheaton, MD (United States)

1989-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

269

Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect

PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

Mark K. Gee

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis NREL's Economic Analysis and power system modeling integrates data from device deployment and programmatic research into deployment and scenario models to quantify the economic and societal benefits of developing cost-competitive marine and hydrokinetic systems. It also identifies policy mechanisms, market designs, and supply chain needs to support various deployment scenarios, provide information and training to potential members of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry and effectively collaborate with all associated stakeholders. JEDI Modeling NREL worked with industry members to develop and provide public access to an easy-to-use input-output model that estimates the jobs and economic development impacts (JEDI) of MHK projects in the United States. The JEDI

271

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait...

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

273

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider City of San Jose Building, Planning and Electrical Permits are required for Photovoltiac (PV) systems installed in San Jose. In most cases, PV systems must also undergo a Building Plan Review and an Electrical Plan Review. Building Plan Reviews are not required for installations that meet all of the following criteria: 1. Total panel weight (including frame) is not greater than 5 lbs. per

274

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

STATE OF CALIFORNIA AIR, WATER SIDE SYSTEM, SERVICE HOT WATER & POOL REQUIREMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/Cool 144(d) Economizer 144(e) Heat and Cool Air Supply Reset 144(f) Electric Resistance Heating1 144(g) Heat Rejection System §144 (h) Air Cooled Chiller Limitation §144 (i) Duct Leakage Sealing. If Yes, a MECH-4-A must be submitted 144(k) 1. Total installed capacity (MBtu/hr) of all electric heat

276

Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown from the existing SJGS Unit 3 tower--during the summer months of 2005. If successful, there may be follow-on testing using produced water. WSAC is discussed in this deliverable. Recall that Deliverable 4, Emerging Technology Testing, describes the pilot testing conducted at a salt water disposal facility (SWD) by the CeraMem Corporation. This filtration technology could be a candidate for future demonstration testing and is also discussed in this deliverable.

Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin  

SciTech Connect

Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

Luce, Robert G. (Glenville, NY); McCoy, Daniel F. (Latham, NY); Merriman, Floyd C. (Rotterdam, NY); Gregurech, Steve (Scotia, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

The Montana University System Water Center, located at Montana State University-Bozeman, was established by a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Montana University System Water Center, located at Montana State University to resolve the state's water problems. It does this by sponsoring water-related research, providing training Development program, so that Montana water professionals can acquire specialized training within the state

Maxwell, Bruce D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Comparison Between TRNSYS Software Simulation and F-Chart Program on Solar Domestic Hot Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study presents the accuracy test of a TRNSYS Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System simulation. The testing is based on comparing the results with the F-Chart software. The selected system to carry out the tests was the Active Solar Domestic...

Haberl, J. S.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mao, C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Development of pipe deterioration models for water distribution systems using EPR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of pipe deterioration models for water distribution systems using EPR L. Berardi, O diameter D, Dclass Equivalent diameter of the pipe class DSS Decision support system EPR Evolutionary polynomial regression ES Matrix of exponents of EPR input variables f, g Functions selected by user

Fernandez, Thomas

283

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from Households  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wastewater Effluent Polishing Systems of Anaerobic Baffled Reactor Treating Black-water from of different integrated low-cost wastewater treatment systems, comprising one ABR as first treatment step filter and a vertical flow constructed wetland. A mixture of septage and domestic wastewater was used

Richner, Heinz

284

Investigation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and bacterial regrowth in drinking water distribution system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigated the variation of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentrations in water from several typical water treatment plants and distribution systems in a northern city of China. It is concluded from this study that: (1) The AOC in most of the product water of the studied water treatment plants and the water from the associated distribution systems could not meet the biostability criteria of 50100?g/L. (2) Only 4% of the measured AOC concentrations were less than 100?g/L. However, about half of the measured AOC values were less than 200?g/L. (3) Better source water quality resulted in lower AOC concentrations. (4) The variation of AOC concentrations in distribution systems was affected by chlorine oxidation and bacterial activity: the former resulted in an increase of AOC value while the latter led to a reduction in AOC. (5) The variation of AOC concentration followed different patterns in different distribution systems or different seasons due to their respective operational characteristics. (6) Less than 30% of AOC could be removed by a conventional treatment process, whereas 3060% with a maximum of 5060% could be removed by granular activated carbon (GAC). (7) The observation via scanning electron microscope (SEM) on distribution pipe tubercle samples demonstrated that the pipe inner wall was not smooth and bacteria multiplied in the crevice as well as in the interior wall of distribution pipes.

W Liu; H Wu; Z Wang; S.L Ong; J.Y Hu; W.J Ng

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

A computerized storage and retrieval system for water quality data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A C'MPUTER!Z'-, 9 ST('RA E ANG P. ;TR I h'!AL SYSTEM FGR ljATER QUAL!'luf ')Al A A The"= is Ted Martin Spal'r Submit t ed to the C, . ':uate Co i iege or Texas ASH University in part in I f! If i 1 inane oF lhe requireaent i'ol the -leuree...

Sparr, Ted M

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Appropriate Technologies and Systems to respond to Climate Change, Improved Water Resources Management, Waste Management and Sanitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resources Management, Waste Management and Sanitation A Review of Water Information Systems in the English to adequately manage the resource and institute measures to equitably allocate water among the various competing in the management of the resource. This paper examines the water information systems of St. Lucia, Jamaica

Barthelat, Francois

287

Correlation between Electric Potential and Interfacial Tension Oscillations in a Water?Oil?Water System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laboratoire des IMRCP, UMR au CNRS No. 5623, Universit Paul Sabatier, 118, route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex, France, and Centro de Investigaciones Qumicas, Universidad Autnoma del Estado de Morelos, Avenida Universidad No. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mxico ... The experimental setup to observe potential oscillations was improved by Yoshikawa and co-workers9 by using a three-phase (U-tube) reactor geometry. ... To improve this, a Marangoni coeff. is proposed, the magnitude of which predicts well the presence of surfactant induced Marangoni convection in the systems studied. ...

Vronique Pimienta; Dominique Lavabre; Thomas Buhse; Jean-Claude Micheau

2004-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

288

Underground Mine Water Heating and Cooling Using Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

SciTech Connect

In many regions of the world, flooded mines are a potentially cost-effective option for heating and cooling using geothermal heat pump systems. For example, a single coal seam in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio contains 5.1 x 1012 L of water. The growing volume of water discharging from this one coal seam totals 380,000 L/min, which could theoretically heat and cool 20,000 homes. Using the water stored in the mines would conservatively extend this option to an order of magnitude more sites. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce annual costs for heating by 67% and cooling by 50% over conventional methods (natural gas or heating oil and standard air conditioning).

Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Inflow performance relationships for oil-water systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the wellbore. The inflow performance of the oil phase is therefore reduced by the evolution of free gas. The general flow equation foz saturated oil systems may be written as kh ro ~p 141. 2 [In(ze/rw) -0. 75+s+Dqo] )( B Pwf . . 10 Fetkovich5 suggested... in high rate wells. The empirical Eq. 11 was later substant. iated by Fetkovichs It can be written as [1- ( ? ) qo pwf 2 " qo max Pr 13 This equation contains two factors, qo max and n, that define the productivity of a particular well. These can...

Mukerji, Parijat

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

291

Phase Behavior and Characterization of the System Acetic Acid?Dodecylamine?Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Furthermore, a characterization of the different phases present in the system was considered important, especially the water-rich region of the isotropic solution region, to verify whether these systems form micelles or not. ... The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were carried out at 298.2 0.5 K with an integrated camera system equipped with Kratky slit collimation and a linear, position-sensitive detector. ...

S. Karlsson; R. Friman; M. Bjrkqvist; B. Lindstrm; S. Backlund

2001-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

Research on Optimal Operation Method of Large Scale Urban Water Distribution System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In consideration of using fewer decision variables in building least cost pumping operation optimal, the two-phase optimal method is used as the frame. By abstracting pump stations into high level reservoirs, the water distribution system hydraulic model can be modified into a modality, which can be used in first optimal phase of two-phase optimal method. And by building on feasible pump combination database, a new optimal method in the second optimal phase will be proposed. And the proposed new method in the second optimal phase will be embedded into the first optimal phase, so that the problem of results discordant in different phases of two-phase optimal method will be solved. By introducing new concept and improving present optimal method, a more practical optimal operation method of water distribution system (WDS) will be established. By applying to a large scale water distribution system, the practicability of proposed method has been evaluated.

X. Jin; W. Wu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Global Evaluation of the ISBA-TRIP Continental Hydrological System. Part I: Comparison to GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In earth system models, the partitioning of precipitation among the variations of continental water storage climate system sim- ulated by earth system models (ESMs). The continental freshwater reservoirs represent

Ribes, Aurélien

294

Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study to determine waste of water and energy in residential30 percent. The average waste of energy in the hot water ispaper examines the waste of water and energy associated with

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Pilot Phase of a Field Study to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential Hot-Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

understanding the waste of energy and water in residentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in ResidentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Impact of extensive residential solar water heating on power system losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

South Africa is in the grips of an electricity crisis. Currently, the bulk of power is produced at coal fired power stations which are located far from the large load centres. Solar energy is widely available in South Africa, and could be used to complement this coal based generation, and supply energy at the point of use. This paper aims to investigate the impact of residential solar water heating on power system transmission losses. Initially simulations were carried out in order to determine the impact of solar water heating on a household's electricity demand. These were done for households located in Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban. A number of solar water heating installations in Cape Town were also monitored, in order to validate the simulation results. Lastly, a power system model was developed in order to investigate the possible impact of large-scale implementation of solar water heating, at varied penetration levels, on a transmission system. Using the model and the results obtained from the simulations, a utility impact analysis was carried out in order to determine the effect on transmission losses. It was concluded that large-scale implementation of solar water heating can be used as a means to alleviate loading and losses on power systems' transmission lines particularly during peak demand.

K.P. Ijumba; A.B. Sebitosi; P. Pillay; K. Folly

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Efficiency of a parabolic trough collector as a water heater system in Yucatn, Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of a parabolic trough collector (PTC) manufactured in Merida Yucatn was evaluated under the ANSI/ASHRAE 93-1986 standard. The water heating system for testing with a constant flow limited to a maximum temperature of 55 C was built; thus the tests were at low temperatures. Using water as working fluid it was found that the maximum efficiency of the collector was 5.43% with a flow rate of 0.022?kg/s at a direct solar irradiance with incidence angle 0. The evaluation methodology and design of the system for testing the collector is reported in this paper.

N. Rosado Hau; M. A. Escalante Soberanis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

Not Available

1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

299

Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan  

SciTech Connect

More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reducing booster-pump-induced contaminant intrusion in Indian water systems with a self-actuated, back-pressure regulating valve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intermittently-operated water systems struggle to equitably and effectively distribute clean water to customers. One common customer response to intermittency is to supplement the water system's pressure by using a household, ...

Taylor, David Donald James

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Analysis and removal of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) from treated drinking water using a biological activated carbon filter system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study is focused on reducing the concentration of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in treated drinking water. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of AOC removal by biological activated carbon filters (BACF) in a pilot-scale system. The results show that BACF reduces the total concentration of AOC. The concentration of AOC primarily indicates microorganism growth in a water supply network, and the amount of AOC in water is significantly reduced after BACF treatment. The predicted and measured values of AOC in output water treated by the BACF system show linear relationships, and their correlation coefficients are high. An AOC empirical equation was established by determining the relationship between water quality parameters such as total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV254, ammonia nitrogen, and total phosphorous. These findings may be relevant to conventional water treatment plants or to water distribution systems to provide treated drinking water with a high level of biological stability.

Jie-Chung Lou; Chih-Yuan Yang; Che-Jung Chang; Wei-Hsiang Chen; Wei-Bin Tseng; Jia-Yun Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ/MBR/RO system may be a feasible alternative to current methods for produced water treatment and disposal.

Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Effectiveness of AOC removal by advanced water treatment systems: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, the appearance of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in the water treatment system and effluent of the treatment plant has brought more attention to the environmental engineers. In this study, AOC removal efficiency at the Cheng-Ching Lake water treatment plant (CCLWTP) was evaluated. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the treatability of AOC by the advanced treatment system at the CCLWTP, (2) assess the relativity of AOC and the variations of other water quality indicators, (3) evaluate the effects of sodium thiosulfate on AOC analysis, and (4) evaluate the efficiency of biofiltration process using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anthracite as the fillers. Results show that the averaged influent and final effluent AOC concentrations at the CCLWTP were approximately 124 and 30 ?g acetate-C/L, respectively. Thus, the treatment plant had an AOC removal efficiency of about 76%, and the AOC concentrations in the final effluent met the criteria established by the CCLWTP (50 ?g acetate-C/L). Results indicate that the biofiltration process might contribute to the removal of the trace AOC in the GAC filtration process. Moreover, the removal of AOC had a correlation with the decrease in concentrations of other drinking water indicators. Results from a column test show that GAC was a more appropriate material than anthracite for the AOC removal. Results from this study provide us insight into the mechanisms of AOC removal by advanced water treatment processes. These findings would be helpful in designing a modified water treatment system for AOC removal and water quality improvement.

C.C. Chien; C.M. Kao; C.D. Dong; T.Y. Chen; J.Y. Chen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 71. Nitromethane with Water or Organic Solvents: Binary Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mutual solubilities and liquidliquid equilibrium of nitromethane binary systems with liquidsolvents are reviewed. The solvents include water inorganic compounds and a variety of organic compounds as hydrocarbons halogenated hydrocarbons alcohols acids esters and nitrogen compounds. A total 474 systems published through 1993 are compiled. For 39 systems sufficient data were available to allow critical evaluation. All data are expressed as mass and mole fractions as well as the originally reported units. Similar reviews of gas liquid and solid solubilities for other systems were published in the frame of Solubility Data Series.

Valerii P. Sazonov; Kenneth N. Marsh; Glenn T. Hefter

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Details Activities (5) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Two hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been created by hydraulic fracturing of Precambrian granitic rock between two wells on the west flank of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. Heat is extracted by injecting water into one well,

307

Solar-assisted heat pump A sustainable system for low-temperature water heating applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems (DX-SAHP) have been widely used in many applications including water heating. In the DX-SAHP systems the solar collector and the heat pump evaporator are integrated into a single unit in order to transfer the solar energy to the refrigerant. The present work is aimed at studying the use of the DX-SAHP for low temperature water heating applications. The novel aspect of this paper involves a detailed long-term thermo-economic analysis of the energy conservation potential and economic viability of these systems. The thermal performance is simulated using a computer program that incorporates location dependent radiation, collector, economic, heat pump and load data. The economic analysis is performed using the life cycle cost (LCC) method. Results indicate that the DX-SAHP water heaters systems when compared to the conventional electrical water heaters are both economical as well as energy conserving. The analysis also reveals that the minimum value of the system life cycle cost is achieved at optimal values of the solar collector area as well as the compressor displacement capacity. Since the cost of SAHP system presents a barrier to mass scale commercialization, the results of the present study indicating that the SAHP life cycle cost can be minimized by optimizing the collector area would certainly be helpful in lowering, if not eliminating, the economic barrier to these systems. Also, at load temperatures higher than 70C, the performance of the single stage heat pump degrades to the extent that its cost and efficiency advantages over the electric only system are lost.

S.K. Chaturvedi; V.D. Gagrani; T.M. Abdel-Salam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A Simple and Quick Chilled Water Loop Balancing for Variable Flow System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. It was built in 1995 with a modem EMCS control for the HVAC systems. The building was mostly occupied in late 1996. The whole complex primarily consists of outpatient clinic rooms, pharmacy, nuclear medicine, ICUs, CCUs, surgical areas, inpatient beds... the building owner, facility engineers or HVAC operators more opportunities to run the chilled water system more efficiently. Generally, the pump speeds are controlled by the EMCS or a stand-alone controller to maintain the differential pressure setpoints...

Zhu, Y.; Batten, T.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Water Chemistry Control System for Recovery of Damaged and Degraded Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the government of Serbia have led the project cosponsored by the U.S, Russia, European Commission, and others to repackage and repatriate approximately 8000 spent fuel elements from the RA reactor fuel storage basins at the VIN?A Institute of Nuclear Sciences to Russia for reprocessing. The repackaging and transportation activities were implemented by a Russian consortium which includes the Sosny Company, Tekhsnabeksport (TENEX) and Mayak Production Association. High activity of the water of the fuel storage basin posed serious risk and challenges to the fuel removal from storage containers and repackaging for transportation. The risk centered on personnel exposure, even above the basin water, due to the high water activity levels caused by Cs-137 leached from fuel elements with failed cladding. A team of engineers from the U.S. DOE-NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Vinca Institute, and the IAEA performed the design, development, and deployment of a compact underwater water chemistry control system (WCCS) to remove the Cs-137 from the basin water and enable personnel safety above the basin water for repackaging operations. Key elements of the WCCS system included filters, multiple columns containing an inorganic sorbent, submersible pumps and flow meters. All system components were designed to be remotely serviceable and replaceable. The system was assembled and successfully deployed at the Vinca basin to support the fuel removal and repackaging activities. Following the successful operations, the Cs-137 is now safely contained and consolidated on the zeolite sorbent used in the columns of the WCCS, and the fuel has been removed from the basins. This paper reviews the functional requirements, design, and deployment of the WCCS.

Sindelar, R.; Fisher, D.; Thomas, J.

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

310

Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water+lithium bromide+potassium acetate) system and (water+lithium bromide+sodium lactate) system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water+lithium bromide+potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH3COOK=2:1 by mass ratio and the (water+lithium bromide+sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH3CH(OH)COONa=2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr+CH3COOK) or (LiBr+CH3CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H2O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T=(293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T=(293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

Antonio de Lucas; Marina Donate; Juan F. Rodrguez

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCR systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detailed modeling of the evaporation and thermal decomposition of urea-water-solution in SCRE Journal. Keywords: Multi-component, , evaporation, UWS, Adbue, urea decomposition, thermolysis SCR Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. In the multi-component evaporation model, the influence of urea

Boyer, Edmond

312

Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

merge to form water thin film on tube condenser surface. The condensing mechanism will change from high efficiency dropwise condensation to low efficiency filmwise condensation. In this proposal, surface system is one of the most important facilities in power plants. High efficiency waste heat

Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

313

Application of a solar desiccant/collector system for water recovery from atmospheric air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integrated desiccant/solar collector system for production of fresh water from atmospheric air is described. The solar driven system provided about 1.5 l of fresh water per square meter per day. The system involves the absorption of water vapor from ambient air during the night and simultaneous desiccant regeneration and water vapor condensation during the day. To enhance the mass transfer surface, a thick corrugated layer of cloth was used as a bed to carry the liquid absorbent. In the nocturnal phase of operation, air is allowed to penetrate the desiccant bed. The airflow is driven by fans supported on one side of the desiccant/solar collector unit. In this study, the effects of different parameters on the absorption and regeneration processes are discussed, and operational conditions for the proposed equipment evaluated. Radiation intensity, ambient temperature, bed temperature and temperature of the glass surface were recorded. Also, the productivity of the system during the day and under the given operation conditions was plotted. A mathematical model was prepared and its output compared with the analyzed experimental data.

H.E Gad; A.M Hamed; I.I El-Sharkawy

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Impacts of the Reduction of Nutrient Levels on Bacterial Water Quality in Distribution Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increase when assimilable organic carbon (AOC) levels were lower than 10 mug/liter...bacteria in chlorinated water may be limited by AOC levels of less than 50 to 100 mug/liter...levels of treatment. For systems with high AOC or BDOC levels (e.g., an AOC level...

Christian J. Volk; Mark W. LeChevallier

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Statement of work for definitive design of the K basins integrated water treatment system project  

SciTech Connect

This Statement of Work (SOW) identifies the scope of work and schedule requirements for completing definitive design of the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment Systems (IWTS) Subproject. This SOW shall form the contractual basis between WHC and the Design Agent for the Definitive Design.

Pauly, T.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

316

Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-peak months to minimize demand charges. By optimizing the operation of the building air handling units (AHUs), chilled water pumps, chiller plant and the thermal storage system, the storage tank is better charged while chiller run time is reduced. Both on...

Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Designing a wastewater and storm water management system for a new sealed lead acid battery facility  

SciTech Connect

Design of a new lead acid battery manufacturing facility requires careful planning to ensure compliance with wastewater, storm water, air quality and hazardous waste regulations. A case history is presented describing the planning approach to development of a wastewater and storm water management system for an SLA (sealed lead acid) battery plant in Columbus, Georgia. Several pollution prevention concepts were utilized in the design of the wastewater management system, which resulted in an 80% reduction in wastewater volume, and at the same time ensured compliance with the mass-based federal categorical effluent limits. Storm water management features were focused on eliminating any outdoor areas of industrial activity by avoiding outdoor storage areas to the extent possible, containment of remaining areas, and stringent air emission control concepts. Federal effluent guidelines for the battery manufacturing point source category as well as federal regulations governing the industrial storm water discharge permitting program were the key factors in motivating the design concepts utilized. Areas affected by the design concepts included facility layout, HVAC system design, process recovery systems, chemical storage and containment, and wastewater treatment technology. The facility has been in compliance with all applicable environmental regulations since startup in August, 1992 and has been awarded the 1995 Matsushita Electric Corporation`s President`s Award for Environmental Excellence.

Nichols, C.P.; Langan, M.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

320

Preliminary design report for the K basins integrated water treatment system  

SciTech Connect

This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a revised concept for the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment Systems (IWTS). This PDR incorporates the 11 recommendations made in a May 1996 Value Engineering session into the Conceptual Design, and provides new flow diagrams, hazard category assessment, cost estimate, and schedule for the IWTS Subproject.

Pauly, T.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

322

Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SYSTEM FOR POTENTIAL SPACE FLIGHT APPLICATION A Thesis by HASAN IMTIAZ CHOWDHURY Approved as to style and content by: G. P. Peterson (Chair of Committee) T. D. Rogers (Member) R. D. pence (Member) W. Bradley (Head of Department) December... 1989 ABSTRACT Reduced Pressure and Temperature Reclamation of Water Using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for Potential Space Flight Application. (December 1989) Hasan Imtiaz Chowdhury, B. S. , Prairie View AlkM University Chair...

Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic, wind-electric, diesel powered), few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) and solar photovoltaic (PV) array water pumping systems were analyzed individually and combined as a hybrid system. The objectives were to determine: (1) advantages or disadvantages of using a hybrid system over using a WT or a solar PV array alone; (2) if the WT or solar PV array interfered with the output of the other; and (3) which hybrid system was the most efficient for the location. The WT used in the analysis was rated at 900W alternating current (AC). There were three different solar PV arrays analyzed, and they were rated at 320, 480, and 640W direct current (DC). A rectifier converted the 3-phase variable voltage AC output from the WT to DC before combining it with the solar PV array DC output. The combined renewable energies powered a single helical pump. The independent variable used in the hybrid WT/PV array analysis was in units of W/m2. The peak pump efficiency of the hybrid systems at Bushland, TX occurred for the 900W WT combined with the 640W PV array. The peak pump efficiencies at a 75m pumping depth of the hybrid systems were: 47% (WT/320W PV array), 51% (WT/480W PV array), and 55% (WT/640W PV array). Interference occurred between the WT and the different PV arrays (likely due to voltage mismatch between WT and PV array), but the least interference occurred for the WT/320W PV array. This hybrid system pumped 28% more water during the greatest water demand month than the WT and PV systems would have pumped individually. An additional controller with a buck/boost converter is discussed at end of paper for improvement of the hybrid WT/PV array water pumping system.

Brian D. Vick; Byron A. Neal

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Solar heating and hot water system installed at office building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System Installed at the First Solar Heated Office Building, One Solar Place, Dallas, Texas. The Solar System was designed to provide 87 percent of the space heating needs, 100 percent of the potable hot water needs and is sized for future absorption cooling. The collection subsystem consists of 28 Solargenics, series 76, flat plate collectors with a total area of 1596 square feet. The solar loop circulates an ethylene glycol-water solution through the collectors into a hot water system heat exchanger. The hot water storage subsystem consists of a heat exchanger, two 2300 gallon concrete hot water storage tanks with built in heat exchangers and a back-up electric boiler. The domestic hot water subsystem sends hot water to the 10,200 square feet floor area office building hot water fixtures. The building cold water system provides make-up to the solar loop, the heating loop, and the hot water concrete storage tanks. The design, construction, cost analysis, operation and maintenance of the solar system are described. The system became operational July 11, 1979.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.  

SciTech Connect

Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

326

Primary energy consumption of the dwelling with solar hot water system and biomass boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents a new methodology, based on the energy performance of buildings Directive related European norms. It is developed to overcome ambiguities and incompleteness of these standards in determining the delivered and primary energy. The available procedures from the present Algorithm for determining the energy demands and efficiency of technical systems in buildings, normally used for energy performance certification of buildings, also allow detailed analyzes of the influence of particular system components on the overall system energy efficiency. The calculation example is given for a Croatian reference dwelling, equipped with a solar hot water system, backed up with a biomass boiler for space heating and domestic hot water purposes as a part of the dwelling energy performance certification. Calculations were performed for two cases corresponding to different levels of the dwelling thermal insulation with an appropriate heating system capacity, in order to investigate the influence of the building heat losses on the system design and energy consumption. The results are compared against those obtained for the conventional system with a gas boiler in terms of the primary energy consumption as well as of investment and operating costs. These results indicate great reduction in both delivered and primary energy consumption when a solar system with biomass boiler is used instead of the conventional one. Higher savings are obtained in the case of the dwelling with higher energy need for space heating. Such dwellings also have a shorter payback period than the ones with better thermal insulation.

Mihaela Berkovi?-ubi?; Martina Rauch; Damir Dovi?; Mladen Andrassy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

The integration of water vane pump and hydraulic vane motor for a small desalination system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An integration of water vane pump and hydraulic vane motor was introduced in small reverse osmosis (RO) system, in which the hydraulic vane motor was used as energy recovery device. The hydraulic performance and energy consumption of one combination of pump and hydraulic motor were investigated under different operation conditions. This type of integration pump reduces energy cost and simplifies the system setup, thus it could be an alternative choice for small RO desalination system. Our results demonstrated that the improvement of volumetric efficiencies of the pump and the hydraulic motor was the main factor to increase the prototype pump performance.

Yong Lu; Yuanyang Zhao; Gaoxuan Bu; Pengcheng Shu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Natural removal of added N-nutrients, reactive phosphorus, crude oil, and heavy metals from the water phase in a simulated water/sediment system  

SciTech Connect

Water/sediment simulation systems were constructed by using an aquarium (0.45 x 0.29 x 0.35 m{sup 3}), filled with suitable amounts of water and sediment collected from three selected locations: Lan Hau Shan (LHS), Tai Hu (TH), and Loong Yu Tao (LYT) of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) Estuary of China in November 1992 at low-tide period. The salinities of the water samples collected form LHS, TH, LYT were found to be 0.2, 4.6, 16.2 g L{sup -1}, respectively. Known amounts of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, reactive phosphorous, crude oil, arsenate(III), cadmium (II), copper(II), and zinc(II) were added as pollutants into each of the water/sediment simulation systems. The rates of the natural removal of each added pollutant in all water/sediment simulation systems were studied by monitoring their concentrations at various intrevals in the investigation period. Except for Cr(III) and reactive phosphorous in the water/sediment systems of the LHS, TH, and LYT sites, and nitrate in the TH and LYT sites, the concentrations of the added pollutants in the water phase of the studied systems under a flow-condition simulation were reduced to 8% or less of the corresponding added amount on or before the 12th day by natural processes. The rate of self-purification and the estimated assimulative capacity of each added pollutant in all water/sediment simulation systems is discussed. 30 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Cheung, M.T. [Hong Kong Baptist Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Hong Kong Baptist Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong); He, Y.Q. [South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Guangzhou (China)] [and others] [South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Guangzhou (China); and others

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Use of caged fish for mariculture and environmental monitoring in a power-plant cooling-water system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-nydrocarbon pesticides in fishes cultured at various locations within the cooling system. 203 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Map of the research site ~g the location of the power plant, cooling-water system, and research facilities 17 Schematic representation... quality might conceivably be available considering the large number of power plants utilizing coastal waters for cooling. Other important benefits of thermal fish-culture include ample water supply, and reduced pumping costs as a result of the massive...

Chamberlain, George William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

330

Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Primary Tank System Wash Water Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Developmental Pre-Developmental INL EBR-II Wash Water Treatment Technologies (PBS # ADSHQTD0100 (0003199)) EBR-II Wash Water Workshop - The majority of the sodium has been removed, remaining material is mostly passivated. Similar closure projects have been successfully completed. Engineering needs to be developed to apply the OBA path. Page 1 of 2 Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Primary Tank System Wash Water Workshop Challenge In 1994 Congress ordered the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and a closure project was initiated. The facility was placed in cold shutdown, engineering began on sodium removal, the sodium was drained in 2001 and the residual sodium chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005. Since that time, approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. The

331

Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Ground water impact assessment report for the 216-B-3 Pond system  

SciTech Connect

Ground water impact assessments were required for a number of liquid effluent receiving sites according to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestones M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed upon by the US Department of Energy. This report is one of the last three assessments required and addresses the impact of continued discharge of uncontaminated wastewater to the 216-B-3C expansion lobe of the B Pond system in the 200 East Area until June 1997. Evaluation of past and projected effluent volumes and composition, geohydrology of the receiving site, and contaminant plume distribution patterns, combined with ground water modeling, were used to assess both changes in ground water flow regime and contaminant-related impacts.

Johnson, V.G.; Law, A.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Evelo, S.D.; Barnett, D.B.; Sweeney, M.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A Gis-based system for assessing marine water quality around offshore platforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, a GIS-based system (MWQ-FES) is developed for marine water quality assessment around offshore oil platforms. The developed method consists of a fuzzy risk assessment model, a eutrophication assessment module, a heavy metal assessment module, a dynamic database, the ArcGIS Engine, and a graphical user interface (GUI). The developed GIS-based GUI system integrates the fuzzy risk calculation, eutrophication risk assessment and heavy metal risk evaluation and both spatially and visually presents the results in the form of contour maps and color-coded maps that indicate the risk levels. The assessment modules analyze a large amount of data with both spatial and temporal distributions; these data are managed by the developed system. An application of the developed MWQ-FES to a real case study in China is presented in this study. The MWQ-FES produces risk maps that depict the spatial distribution of the integrated water quality index values, the eutrophication risk level and the heavy metal risk level in the study area. The primary factors that affect the water quality are subsequently examined using the visualized results. The results of the fuzzy risk assessment model show that the general water quality status in the study area was good in Oct. 2005, May 2006, and Sept. 2007, while fair water quality occurred in May 2007. For Oct. 2005, May 2006, and Sept. 2007, the eutrophication risk levels were oligotrophic, slightly eutrophic and mesotrophic, respectively. However, the eutrophication risk level at most of the sites in May 2007 was highly eutrophic. These findings agreed with previously reported water quality variations in the study area. The heavy metal risk level in the study area exhibited a slight risk during all four investigations. As for the ecological risk in the mariculture zone near the study area, the heavy metal risk exhibited a slight risk; the eutrophication risk level ranged from eutrophic to slightly mesotrophic. A comparison with previous environmental assessment results for the same study area confirms that the developed MWQ-FES can provide a better understanding of the distribution of the water quality status and ecological risk levels. Moreover, MWQ-FES can be a useful decision-support tool for marine water quality management.

Fang Lu; Zhi Chen; Wenquan Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Water Electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, water electrolysis technology and its applications for nuclear hydrogen ... of the chapter, a general classification of water electrolysis systems is given, the fundamentals of water electrolysis

Greg F. Naterer; Ibrahim Dincer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modeling of structure H hydrate equilibria for methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water systems  

SciTech Connect

Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds in which guest molecules are engaged by water molecules under favorable conditions of pressure and temperature. The well known structures 1 and 2 have been discovered since last century, while a new structure called H has been recently described in the literature. Since that time, structure H hydrate equilibrium data involving methane and different intermediate liquid hydrocarbon molecules have been published. The equilibrium calculations involving hydrates are based on the fact that the chemical potential of water in the aqueous liquid phase is equal to the one in the hydrate phase. The chemical potential of water in the liquid aqueous phase can be easily described by classical thermodynamic relations, while the chemical potential of water in the hydrates phase is described by the expressions proposed by Van der Walls and Platteeuw derived from an adsorption model based on statistical thermodynamics. The authors present in this paper a set of Kihara potential parameters which enable the calculation of Langmuir constants which characterize the adsorption of some naphthenic and iso-paraffinic intermediate hydrocarbons in the larger cage of structure H hydrates. This work thus allows the computation of structural H hydrate equilibrium conditions for systems made of methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water.

Thomas, M.; Behar, E. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

337

Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.  

SciTech Connect

Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Water and Energy Savings using Demand Hot Water Recirculating Systems in Residential Homes: A Case Study of Five Homes in Palo Alto, California  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a preliminary study aimed at estimating the potential of saving potable water, (and the electrical energy used to heat it), that is presently lost directly to the drain while occupants wait for hot water to arrive at the faucet (point of use). Data were collected from five single-family homes in Palo Alto, California. Despite the small sample size in this study, the results make a compelling case for retrofitting homes with hot water recirculation systems to eliminate unnecessary wastage of water at the point of use. Technical as well as behavioral and attitudinal changes towards water conservation are necessary for a fulfilling and successful conservation effort. This report focuses on the technical issues, but behavioral issues are also noted, which may be factored into future studies involving local and state governments and utility companies.

Ally, M.R.

2002-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Thin film composite polyamide membrane parameters estimation for phenol-water system by reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect

A commercial thin film composite polyamide reverse osmosis membrane is used to separate an aqueous phenol-water binary system. The separation data are analyzed using a combined film theory-solution-diffusion (CFSD) model and a combined film theory-Spiegler-Kedem (CFSK) model. In the present investigation a new phenomenon is observed: there exists a maximum in the rejection when it is plotted against the product flux through the membrane. This behavior is explained for both models. An equation for J{sub v,min}, which is the value of the product flux J{sub v} at which the rejection reaches a maximum, is derived from both models. Although the parameters for both models are consistent over the range of operating conditions, the CFSK model is more accurate for the phenol-water system.

Murthy, Z.V.P.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Economic analysis of residential combined solar-heating and hot-water systems  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of a typical residential solar heating and hot water system and typical cost and performance information are presented. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. The economic evaluation of solar residential systems is presented in increasing levels of complexity. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described so that it can be determined whether the typical system economics are compatible with the particular situation. Methods for calculating the payback period for any non-typical solar system are described. This calculated payback period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the purchaser of the system would receive for a typical economic condition. A nomagraph is presented that performs this calculation. Finally, a method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. It is shown how to develop the relationship between payback period and the effective interest rate for any economic scenario.

None

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

Economic analysis of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The economic evaluation of residential and commercial solar heating and hot water systems is presented. Commercial systems are further categorized as taxable and non-taxable applications in recognition of the effect of Federal and state tax incentives and disincentives for solar energy systems. The economic evaluation of each system type is performed utilizing two distinct methods of analysis. The economic analyses follow a brief description of each method. The Cash Flow Analyses provide insight into the short and long term effects of a solar investment on the budget of the solar energy system purchaser while the Return-On-Investment Analyses provide an appropriate method of measuring the attractiveness of a solar investment in comparison to alternative long term investments. Utilizing a typical system for each system type and application the Cash Flow and Return-On-Investment Analyses are presented. The sensitivity of the results on the numerous variables in the economic analyses is shown. Maps provide a graphic display of the results of the economic analysis of typical systems using Federal and state tax credits and average state conventional fuel costs for each system type. Conclusions based on the economic analyses performed and a thorough discussion of the present status of the data required for the complete economic evaluation of solar energy systems are summarized. The current availability and limitations of data and requirements for further work in this area are discussed.

None

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

344

Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Energy Engineering Analysis Program (EEAP), Fort Bliss Water Distribution System, Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to analyze the existing system and two alternate methods of peak electrical demand shaving for the water distribution system at Fort Bliss, Texas. The existing system will be referred to as Alternative Number 1 throughout the report. Alternative Number 2 includes the addition of water storage capacity in order to allow the well and booster pumps to operate only during non-peak electrical periods. Alternative Number 3 includes the use of natural gas powered electric generators at each well and booster pumping station. These generators would be utilized during the peak electrical periods. This report is prepared in accordance with the detailed scope of work for Contract No. DACA63-91-D-0048, Delivery Order 0005 (Refer to Appendix J for complete scope of work). The blast Life Cycle Cost In Design (LCCID) program with the ECIP option was used to determine the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) for the analyzed retrofit for a 25 year study life. The existing water distribution system consists of 17 well pumps and 5 booster pumping stations. The desert field well and booster pumps were not included in this study due to their remote location. The well and booster pumps provide water supply to several ground elevated storage tanks located across the reservation (Refer to Appendix K for map indicating general locations). These storage tanks are located to provide three pressure zones. The upper pressure zone is maintained by a one million gallon tank. The intermediate pressure zone is maintained by a 0.6 million gallon tank. Pressure in the lower zone is maintained by three (3) elevated storage tanks.

NONE

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a typical Chemical Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology Johnson Controls, Building Efficiency thomas....p.carter@jci.com ESL-IE-14-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Johnson Controls is a globally diversified company in the building and automotive industries Automotive Experience...

Carter, T. P.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

File:Supplemental NewWaterSystem.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NewWaterSystem.pdf NewWaterSystem.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Supplemental NewWaterSystem.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 383 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 10 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 13:25, 13 November 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 13:25, 13 November 2012 1,275 × 1,650, 10 pages (383 KB) Dklein2012 (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup instructions for more information) File usage There are no pages that link to this file.

348

Soil and water dynamics in a microcatchment system for range improvement in West Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

desert environments since it can be applied in granular form and allowed to melt to seal pores in the soil surface. Frasier et al. (1979), using a sprinkler system to create runoff on a four year old paraffin coated catchment area, found a runoff...SOIL AND WATER DYNAMICS IN A MICROCATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RANGE IMPROVEMENT IN WEST TEXAS A Thesis by STEVEN JAY MARANZ Submitted to the office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Maranz, Steven Jay

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Control System Development for Integrated Biological Waste Water Treatment Process of a Paper Production Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A bioreactor, integrated with an anoxic reactor and a settler for waste water treatment from a paper production plant is under investigation to implement a control system for enhancing effluent quality. In order to reveal the operation of the integrated process to achieve a specific goal, a methodology for control system development is proposed. In this paper, preliminary results of some steps of the methodology are presented, in order to address the oxygen uptake rate control. A dynamic model is developed for future analysis for the conceptual design of different generated control configurations.

Alicia Romn-Martnez; Pastor Lanuza-Perez; Margarito Cepeda-Rodrguez; Elvia M. Mata-Padrn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Analysis of a solar assisted heat pump system for indoor swimming pool water and space heating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar energy application is a good alternative to replace primary energy source especially for large-scale installations. Heat pumps are also effective means to reduce primary energy consumption. This paper describes a case study with a new design of solar assisted heat pump (SAHP) for indoor swimming pool space- and water-heating purposes. The system design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled via the TRNSYS simulation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on the winter time operation schedule. Economic analysis with a range of collector areas was also performed. The simulation results show that the overall system COP can reach 4.5, and the fractional factor of energy saving is 79% as compared to the conventional energy system. The economical payback period is less than 5years.

T.T. Chow; Y. Bai; K.F. Fong; Z. Lin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Baseline risk assessment of the perched water system at the INEL test reactor area  

SciTech Connect

A baseline health risk assessment (HRA) was prepared to evaluate potential risks to human health and the environment posed by the Perched Water System (PWS) at the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The PWS has been designated Operable Unit 2-12, one of the 13 operable units identified at TRA. During the period from 1962 to 1990, a total of 6770 million gal of water were discharged from the TRA to unlined surface ponds. Wastewater discharged to the surface ponds at TRA percolates downward through the surficial alluvium and the underlying basalt bedrock. A resulting shallow perched water zone has formed at the interface between the surficial sediments and the underlying basalt. Further downward movement of groundwater is again impeded by a low-permeability layer of silt, clay, and sand encountered at a depth of [approximately]150 ft. The deep perched water zone occurs on top of this low-permeability interbed. An evaluation was made as to whether potential risks for the PWS could justify implementing a remedial action. The risk evaluation consisted of two parts, the human health evaluation and the ecological evaluation.

Gordon, J.W.; Sinton, P.O. (Dames Moore, Denver, CO (United States)); Jensen, N. (DOE, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); McCormick, S. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Theoretical study on a novel ammoniawater cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel ammoniawater cogeneration system with adjustable cooling to power ratios is proposed and investigated. In the combined system, a modified Kalina subcycle and an ammonia absorption cooling subcycle are interconnected by mixers, splitters, absorbers and heat exchangers. The proposed system can adjust its cooling to power ratios from the separate mode without splitting/mixing processes in the two subcycles to the combined operation modes which can produce different ratios of cooling and power. Simulation analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of operation parameter on system performance. The results indicate that the combined system efficiency can reach the maximum values of 37.79% as SR1 (split ratio 1) is equal to 1. Compared with the separate system, the combined efficiency and COP values of the proposed system can increase by 6.6% and 100% with the same heat input, respectively. In addition, the cooling to power ratios of the proposed system can be adjusted in the range of 1.83.6 under the given operating conditions.

Zeting Yu; Jitian Han; Hai Liu; Hongxia Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. Increased pressure gradients during oil flow decreased the oil permeability and the water permeability that was measured afterward. Lower pressure gradients that were applied subsequently moderately affected water permeabilities but did not affect oil permeabilities. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact  

SciTech Connect

This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

THE RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER ICE AND CHROMOPHORES ACROSS SATURN'S SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Over the past eight years, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini orbiter has returned hyperspectral images in the 0.35-5.1 {mu}m range of the icy satellites and rings of Saturn. These very different objects show significant variations in surface composition, roughness, and regolith grain size as a result of their evolutionary histories, endogenic processes, and interactions with exogenic particles. The distributions of surface water ice and chromophores, i.e., organic and non-icy materials, across the Saturnian system, are traced using specific spectral indicators (spectral slopes and absorption band depths) obtained from rings mosaics and disk-integrated satellites observations by VIMS. Moving from the inner C ring to Iapetus, we found a marking uniformity in the distribution of abundance of water ice. On the other hand, the distribution of chromophores is much more concentrated in the rings particles and on the outermost satellites (Rhea, Hyperion, and Iapetus). A reduction of red material is observed on the satellites' surfaces orbiting within the E ring environment likely due to fine particles from Enceladus' plumes. Once the exogenous dark material covering the Iapetus' leading hemisphere is removed, the texture of the water ice-rich surfaces, inferred through the 2 {mu}m band depth, appears remarkably uniform across the entire system.

Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Tosi, F.; Ciarniello, M. [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133, Rome (Italy)] [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133, Rome (Italy); Clark, R. N. [Federal Center, US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80228 (United States)] [Federal Center, US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80228 (United States); Nicholson, P. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Hedman, M. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 418 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 418 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cruikshank, D. P.; Cuzzi, J. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)] [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Brown, R. H. [Lunar Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences 431A, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)] [Lunar Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences 431A, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Buratti, B. J. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Flamini, E., E-mail: gianrico.filacchione@iaps.inaf.it [ASI, Italian Space Agency, viale Liegi 26, I-00198 Rome (Italy)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. [1] Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water. [2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514. Federal facilities having financial difficulty meeting the EISA mandate and executive order (e.g., facilities with natural

358

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

359

Roles of inherent mineral matters for lignite water slurry electrolysis in H2SO4 system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To understand roles of inherent mineral matters in lignite water slurry (LWS) electrolysis, lignite and demineralized lignite electrolyses were carried out in H2SO4 system. The results showed that cell voltage for LWS electrolysis was lower than that for demineralized lignite water slurry (DLWS) under constant current condition. Some inherent mineral matters changed into the corresponding metal ions which entered into electrolyte, and thus improved the electrolysis oxidation reactions for coal organic structure. Meanwhile, the relative amount of O-containing functional groups in demineralized lignite increased with electrolysis time, improving its pyrolysis reactivity. However, the pyrolysis reactivity of raw lignite decreased due to the removal of the inherent mineral matters from electrolysis.

Xuzhong Gong; Mingyong Wang; Zhi Wang; ZhanCheng Guo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Mutual solubilities of hydrocarbonwater systems with F-SAC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, the F-SAC model was extended in order to better represent the mutual solubility of hydrocarbons (alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, cycloalkenes and aromatics) in water. Aqueous mixtures of hydrocarbons exhibit an extremely non-ideal behavior, resulting in very low solubilities. A new parameter for the computation of the association energy was proposed, enabling a better agreement with temperature dependent experimental data in wide temperature ranges. Infinite-dilution activity coefficient as well as liquidliquid equilibrium data were considered. The results were compared with some UNIFAC variants, found in the literature. For the studied systems, the proposed method performed better, including the quantitative representation of the experimentally observed minimum solubility point of hydrocarbons in the water-rich phase, while none of UNIFAC models tested were capable of predicting such behavior. Further, improved high-pressure results were obtained when the proposed model was coupled with a cubic equation of state through the SCMR mixing rule.

L.F.K. Possani; R.L. Simes; P.B. Staudt; R. de P. Soares

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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361

High Pressure Water Jet System Performance Assessment Project A-2A  

SciTech Connect

Performance assessment for canister cleaning system in the KE Basin. Information obtained from this assessment will be used to design any additional equipment used to clean canisters. After thorough review of the design, maintenance history and operational characteristics of the 105 K East (KE) canister cleaning system, Bartlett recommends that the high pressure water jet system (HPWJS) be modified as outlined in section 5.0, and retained for future use. Further, it is recommended that Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project consider use of a graded approach for canister cleaning, based on individual canister type and characteristics. This approach would allow a simple method to be used on canisters not needing the more rigorous, high-pressure method. Justification is provided in section 5.0. Although Bartlett has provided some preliminary cost estimates, it is recommended that SNF Project perform a detailed cost-benefit analysis to weigh the alternatives presented.

FARWICK, C.C.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

362

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

363

The water system of traditional rice paddies as an important habitatof the giant water bug, Lethocerus deyrollei (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The population dynamics of Lethocerus deyrollei, including the seasonal change in the habitat utilization, were studied in five types of waters, permanent and temporary pools, ditch, rice paddy and marsh in a Sat...

Yasuo Mukai; Naoto Baba; Minoru Ishii

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Meeting the mandate for clean water : an evaluation of privately managed U.S. water and wastewater systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliable provision of clean and safe drinking water is critical for public health, economic stability and growth in the United States. Due to a combination of financial, regulatory and operational challenges, however, it ...

Freund, Evan Benjamin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF MECHA WOREDA, AMHARA REGION, ETHIOPIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are used: shallow dug wells, spring and deep wells. A survey was carried out with 160 household in 16 waterFACTORS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF MECHA WOREDA, AMHARA REGION, ETHIOPIA A Project Paper Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell

Walter, M.Todd

366

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2010 Kenya Water Well Drill Rig Redesign of Engine Drive Train System & Support Tower  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Engine Drive Train System & Support Tower Overview The team was presented with the task of redesigning the engine drive train system and support structure for a water drill rig to be used in Kenya. The original engine drive train system was fabricated by a professional machinist and had many intricate components

Demirel, Melik C.

367

Simulation of solar lithium bromidewater absorption cooling system with parabolic trough collector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ahwaz is one of the sweltering cities in Iran where an enormous amount of energy is being consumed to cool residential places in a year. The aim of this research is to simulate a solar single effect lithium bromidewater absorption cooling system in Ahwaz. The solar energy is absorbed by a horizontal NS parabolic trough collector and stored in an insulated thermal storage tank. The system has been designed to supply the cooling load of a typical house where the cooling load peak is about 17.5kW (5tons of refrigeration), which occurs in July. A thermodynamic model has been used to simulate the absorption cycle. The working fluid is water, which is pumped directly to the collector. The results showed that the collector mass flow rate has a negligible effect on the minimum required collector area, but it has a significant effect on the optimum capacity of the storage tank. The minimum required collector area was about 57.6m2, which could supply the cooling loads for the sunshine hours of the design day for July. The operation of the system has also been considered after sunset by saving solar energy.

M. Mazloumi; M. Naghashzadegan; K. Javaherdeh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Water chemistry of the system for cooling the electrical generator stator of the power unit at a thermal power station  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results from studies of the water chemistry used in the system for cooling the stator windings of alternators used in supercritical-pressure power units are presented, and a solution is ... suggested using which ...

B. M. Larin; A. B. Larin; A. N. Korotkov; M. Yu. Oparin

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

SciTech Connect

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% of energy used in the commercial sector; commercial use is about 18.2% of the total energy used (EIA, 2010). Air conditioning is becoming more widely used in commercial buildings. The chilled water system is a very important component in large air....1 Simulation baseline Total face area / Face velocity 44 ft2 / 477.3 cfm Coil FH?FL 36 inch?88 inch Rows ? FPI 8 ? 11 Fin thickness / Material 0.008 inch / AL Tube outside diameter / Wall 5/8 inch / 0.025 inch Interior tube wall area Ai 759 ft2 Exterior...

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

372

Highly efficient photochemical HCOOH production from CO{sub 2} and water using an inorganic system  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a system that uses solar energy to react CO{sub 2} with water to generate formic acid (HCOOH) at an energy conversion efficiency of 0.15%. It consists of an AlGaN/GaN anode photoelectrode and indium (In) cathode that are electrically connected outside of the reactor cell. High energy conversion efficiency is realized due to a high quantum efficiency of 28% at 300 nm, attributable to efficient electron-hole separation in the semiconductor's heterostructure. The efficiency is close to that of natural photosynthesis in plants, and what is more, the reaction product (HCOOH) can be used as a renewable energy source.

Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Hashiba, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Masahiro; Zenitani, Yuji; Hinogami, Reiko; Yamada, Yuka [Advanced Technology Research Laboratory, Panasonic Corporation, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Deura, Momoko; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 16, 2014 NIKKEN SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International... of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 District heating and cooling system in Nakanoshima 4 Characteristics of heat supply plant in Nakanoshima district -River water is utilized as heat...

Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in Californias San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in community drinking water systems. Environmental Healthconcentrations in drinking water in Chile. Epidemiologyand enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The Arizona

Balazs, Carolina L; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan E; Ray, Isha

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The computational-and-experimental investigation into the head-flow characteristic of the two-stage ejector for the emergency core cooling system of the NPP with a water-moderated water-cooled power reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of the computational-and-experimental investigation into the two-stage ejector for the emergency cooling system of the core of the water-moderated water-cooled power reactor. The results of experiment...

Yu. V. Parfenov

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

High Temperature Water Heat Pipes Radiator for a Brayton Space Reactor Power System  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature water heat pipes radiator design is developed for a space power system with a sectored gas-cooled reactor and three Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines, for avoidance of single point failures in reactor cooling and energy conversion and rejection. The CBC engines operate at turbine inlet and exit temperatures of 1144 K and 952 K. They have a net efficiency of 19.4% and each provides 30.5 kWe of net electrical power to the load. A He-Xe gas mixture serves as the turbine working fluid and cools the reactor core, entering at 904 K and exiting at 1149 K. Each CBC loop is coupled to a reactor sector, which is neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically decoupled to the other two sectors, and to a NaK-78 secondary loop with two water heat pipes radiator panels. The segmented panels each consist of a forward fixed segment and two rear deployable segments, operating hydraulically in parallel. The deployed radiator has an effective surface area of 203 m2, and when the rear segments are folded, the stowed power system fits in the launch bay of the DELTA-IV Heavy launch vehicle. For enhanced reliability, the water heat pipes operate below 50% of their wicking limit; the sonic limit is not a concern because of the water, high vapor pressure at the temperatures of interest (384 - 491 K). The rejected power by the radiator peaks when the ratio of the lengths of evaporator sections of the longest and shortest heat pipes is the same as that of the major and minor widths of the segments. The shortest and hottest heat pipes in the rear segments operate at 491 K and 2.24 MPa, and each rejects 154 W. The longest heat pipes operate cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa) and because they are 69% longer, reject more power (200 W each). The longest and hottest heat pipes in the forward segments reject the largest power (320 W each) while operating at {approx} 46% of capillary limit. The vapor temperature and pressure in these heat pipes are 485 K and 1.97 MPa. By contrast, the shortest water heat pipes in the forward segments operate much cooler (427 K and 0.52 MPa), and reject a much lower power of 45 W each. The radiator with six fixed and 12 rear deployable segments rejects a total of 324 kWth, weights 994 kg and has an average specific power of 326 Wth/kg and a specific mass of 5.88 kg/m2.

El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

377

Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.  

SciTech Connect

Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Allen A. (Firth, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure in a Drinking Water Distribution System during an Occurrence of Red Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...red water libraries, we developed...obtained from public databases...four clone libraries of this study...obtained from the public databases...introducing My RDP space and quality controlled public data. Nucleic...metagenomic and PCR libraries from the Delaware...

Dong Li; Zheng Li; Jianwei Yu; Nan Cao; Ruyin Liu; Min Yang

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Purification of lipoteichoic acid by chromatography in water-organic solvent systems.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Article Purification of lipoteichoic...chromatography in water-organic solvent...of acyl groups. Purification of lipoteichoic...chromatography in water-organic solvent...for Microbiology Purification of Lipoteichoic...Chromatography in Water-Organic Solvent...

S L Josephson; M W Stinson; S J Millar; R E Cohen

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Complex Adaptive Systems Simulation-Optimization Framework for Adaptive Urban Water Resources Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

challenge the continued well-being of society. Due to increasing environmental and financial constraints, water management paradigms have shifted from supply augmentation to demand management, and water conservation initiatives may efficiently decrease water...

Giacomoni, Marcio

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excess water production is a major economic and environmental problem for the oil and gas industry. The cost of processing excess water runs into billions of dollars. Polymer gel technology has been successfully used in controlling water influx...

Gakhar, Kush

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

384

Fukushima Nuclear Crisis Recovery: A Modular Water Treatment System Deployed in Seven Weeks - 12489  

SciTech Connect

On March 11, 2011, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. This was one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history and the most powerful one known to have hit Japan. The ensuing tsunami devastated a huge area resulting in some 25,000 persons confirmed dead or missing. The perfect storm was complete when the tsunami then found the four reactor, Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Station directly in its destructive path. While recovery systems admirably survived the powerful earthquake, the seawater from the tsunami knocked the emergency cooling systems out and did extensive damage to the plant and site. Subsequent hydrogen generation caused explosions which extended this damage to a new level and further flooded the buildings with highly contaminated water. Some 2 million people were evacuated from a fifty mile radius of the area and evaluation and cleanup began. Teams were assembled in Tokyo the first week of April to lay out potential plans for the immediate treatment of some 63 million gallons (a number which later exceeded 110 million gallons) of highly contaminated water to avoid overflow from the buildings as well as supply the desperately needed clean cooling water for the reactors. A system had to be deployed with a very brief cold shake down and hot startup before the rainy season started in early June. Joined by team members Toshiba (oil removal system), AREVA (chemical precipitation system) and Hitachi-GE (RO system), Kurion (cesium removal system following the oil separator) proposed, designed, fabricated, delivered and started up a one of a kind treatment skid and over 100 metric tons of specially engineered and modified Ion Specific Media (ISM) customized for this very challenging seawater/oil application, all in seven weeks. After a very short cold shake down, the system went into operation on June 17, 2011 on actual waste waters far exceeding 1 million Bq/mL in cesium and many other isotopes. One must remember that, in addition to attempting to do isotope removal in the competition of seawater (as high as 18,000 ppm sodium due to concentration), some 350,000 gallons of turbine oil was dispersed into the flooded buildings as well. The proposed system consisted of a 4 guard vessel skid for the oil and debris, 4 skids containing 16 cesium towers in a lead-lag layout with removable vessels (sent to an interim storage facility), and a 4 polishing vessel skid for iodine removal and trace cesium levels. At a flow rate of at least 220 gallons per minute, the system has routinely removed over 99% of the cesium, the main component of the activity, since going on line. To date, some 50% of the original activity has been removed and stabilized and cold shutdown of the plant was announced on December 10, 2011. In March and April alone, 10 cubic feet of Engineered Herschelite was shipped to Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, NPP, to support the April 1, 2011 outage cleanup; 400 cubic feet was shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for strontium (Sr-90) ground water remediation; and 6000 cubic feet (100 metric tons, MT, or 220,400 pounds) was readied for the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station with an additional 100 MT on standby for replacement vessels. This experience and accelerated media production in the U.S. bore direct application to what was to soon be used in Fukushima. How such a sophisticated and totally unique system and huge amount of media could be deployable in such a challenging and changing matrix, and in only seven weeks, is outlined in this paper as well as the system and operation itself. As demonstrated herein, all ten major steps leading up to the readiness and acceptance of a modular emergency technology recovery system were met and in a very short period of time, thus utilizing three decades of experience to produce and deliver such a system literally in seven weeks: - EPRI - U.S. Testing and Experience Leading to Introduction to EPRI - Japan and Subsequently TEPCO Emergency Meetings - Three Mile Island (TMI) Media and Vitrification Experience

Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua L. [Kurion, Inc., P.O. Box 5901, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Bostick, William D. [Materials and Chemistry Laboratory, Inc. (MCL) ETTP, Building K-1006, 2010 Highway 58, Suite 1000, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Programs understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear powers cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

D. E. Shropshire

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

An evaluation of invertebrate dynamics in a drinking water distribution system: a South African perspective .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The occurrence of invertebrates in drinking water supplies is a common consumer complaint with studies showing that very few drinking water distribution networks are totally (more)

Shaddock, Bridget

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2012 Automatic Plant Watering System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2012 Automatic Plant Watering/or audio communication notifications when the product needs maintenance, such as refilling the plant water

Demirel, Melik C.

388

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

389

Analyzing the efficiency of a heat pump assisted drain water heat recovery system that uses a vertical inline heat exchanger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of the present study is to accumulate knowledge on how a drain water heat recovery system using a vertical inline heat exchanger and a heat pump performs under different drain water flow profile scenarios. Investigating how the intermittent behavior of the drain water influences the performance for this type of system is important because it gives insight on how the system will perform in a real life situation. The scenarios investigated are two 24h drain water flow rate schedules and one shorter schedule representing a three minute shower. The results from the present paper add to the knowledge on how this type of heat recovery system performs in a setting similar to a multi-family building and how sizing influences the performance. The investigation shows that a heat recovery system of this type has the possibility to recover a large portion of the available heat if it has been sized to match the drain water profile. Sizing of the heat pump is important for the system performance; sizing of the storage tank is also important but not as critical.

Jrgen Wallin; Joachim Claesson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Can xenon in water inhibit ice growth? Molecular dynamics of phase transitions in water$-$Xe system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by recent experiments showing the promise of noble gases as cryoprotectants, we perform molecular dynamics modeling of phase transitions in water with xenon under cooling. We study the structure and dynamics of xenon water solution as a function of temperature. Homogeneous nucleation of clathrate hydrate phase is observed and characterized. As the temperature is further reduced we observe hints of dissociation of clathrate due to stronger hydrophobic hydration, pointing towards a possible instability of clathrate at cryogenic temperatures and conversion to an amorphous phase comprised of "xenon + hydration shell" Xe$\\cdot$(H$_{2}$O)$_{21.5}$ clusters. Simulations of ice$-$xenon solution interface in equilibrium and during ice growth reveal the effects of xenon on the ice$-$liquid interface, where adsorbed xenon causes roughening of ice surface but does not preferentially form clathrate. These results provide evidence against the ice-blocker mechanism of xenon cryoprotection.

Vasilii I. Artyukhov; Alexander Yu. Pulver; Alex Peregudov; Igor Artyuhov

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

391

Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL); Lin, Yupo J. (Naperville, IL); Hestekin' Jamie A. (Fayetteville, AR); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Pujado, Peter (Kildeer, IL); Oroskar, Anil (Oak Brook, IL); Kulprathipanja, Santi (Inverness, IL); Randhava, Sarabjit (Evanston, IL)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

Water-trickle type solar collector with a massive concrete slab for heat storage and radiation (TMU solar system I)  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results are reported for a simple open type solar collector - a water-trickle type collector - used in combination with a massive concrete slab for energy storage. This relatively low cost system was installed on a typical Japanese house in Yokohama City and measurements were made of the interior temperature. The system showed considerable promise for application in Japan.

Ito, N. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Japan); Matsuda, K.; Ishii, A.; Osawa, H.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, November 15, 1996--January 14, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.  

SciTech Connect

Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Safety Issues and Approach to Meet the Safety Requirements in Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER  

SciTech Connect

The ITER (Latin for 'the way') tokamak cooling water system (TCWS) consists of several separate systems to cool the major ITER components - the divertor/limiter, the first wall blanket, the neutral beam injector and the vacuum vessel. The ex-vessel part of the TCWS systems provides a confinement function for tritium and activated corrosion products in the cooling water. The Vacuum Vessel System also has a functional safety requirement regarding the residual heat removal from in-vessel components. A preliminary hazards assessment (PHA) was performed for a better understanding of the hazards, initiating events, and defense in depth mechanisms associated with the TCWS. The PHA was completed using the following steps. (1) Hazard Identification. Hazards associated with the TCWS were identified including radiological/chemical/electromagnetic hazards and physical hazards (e.g., high voltage, high pressure, high temperature, falling objects). (2) Hazard Categorization. Hazards identified in step (1) were categorized as to their potential for harm to the workers, the public, and/or the environment. (3) Hazard Evaluation. The design was examined to determine initiating events that might occur and that could expose the public, environment, or workers to the hazard. In addition the system was examined to identify barriers that prevent exposure. Finally, consequences to the public or workers were qualitatively assessed, should the initiating event occur and one or more of the barriers fail. Frequency of occurrence of the initiating event and subsequent barrier failure was qualitatively estimated. (4) Accident Analysis. A preliminary hazards analysis was performed on the conceptual design of the TCWS. As the design progresses, a detailed accident analysis will be performed in the form of a failure modes and effects analysis. The results of the PHA indicated that the principal hazards associated with the TCWS were those associated with radiation. These were low compared to hazards associated with nuclear fission reactors and were limited to potential exposure to the on-site workers if appropriate protective actions were not used. However, the risk to the general public off-site was found to be negligible even under worst case accident conditions.

Flanagan, George F [ORNL] [ORNL; Reyes, Susana [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France] [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Chang, Keun Pack [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France] [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France; Berry, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Seokho H [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

Swift, T.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Knowledge base expert system control of spatial xenon oscillations in pressurized water reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Current xenon oscillation control methods used in pressurized water reactors are knowledge intensive, and heuristic in nature. An expert system is developed to implement the heuristic constant axial offset control procedure to aid reactor operators in increasing the plant reliability by reducing the human error component of the failure probability. An expert system is written in the production system language, OPS5, with a forward chaining algorithm. It samples the reactor core with a certain time interval, evaluates the core status to determine the necessary corrective actions in terms of reactivity insertion, and selects the control parameter to realize this reactivity insertion. The amount of control action is determined using a knowledge base which consists of the differential rod worth curves, and the boron reactivity worth of a given reactor. The controller has been tested using a one-dimesional core model for verification of the rules and the code. It has been shown that, having the reactor dependent parameters in its knowledge base, the controller is able to follow a typical load demand for a daily cycle of a reactor, and is able to keep the axial offset within a target band.

Serhat Alten; Richard A Danofsky

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models  

SciTech Connect

Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities, withdrawals vs. consumptive demand, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow for calibrating operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is the use of the combined priorities (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) operating rules calibrated with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The challenge of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, is discussed.

Voisin, Nathalie; Li, Hongyi; Ward, Duane L.; Huang, Maoyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

53E 53E Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced J. Granderson, J.H. Dudley, S. Kiliccote, M.A. Piette Environmental Energy Technologies Division September 2009 Presented at the 9 th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, TX, November 17-18, 2009, and published in the Proceedings DISCLAIMER This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The Regents of the University of California, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Use of global navigation satellite systems for monitoring deformations of water-development works  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using global radio-navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to improve functional safety of high-liability water-development works - dams at hydroelectric power plants, and, consequently, the safety of the population in the surrounding areas is examined on the basis of analysis of modern publications. Characteristics for determination of displacements and deformations with use of GNSS, and also in a complex with other types of measurements, are compared. It is demonstrated that combined monitoring of deformations of the ground surface of the region, and engineering and technical structures is required to ensure the functional safety of HPP, and reliable metrologic assurance of measurements is also required to obtain actual characteristics of the accuracy and effectiveness of GNSS observations.

Kaftan, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Center (Russian Federation); Ustinov, A. V. [JSC Institut Gidropreoekt (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exploring the Disconnect Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems M. Hoeschele and E. Weitzel Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) May 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

403

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

SciTech Connect

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fuzzy control model and simulation of supply air system in a test rig of low-temperature hot-water radiator system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a typical multi-variable, large time delay and nonlinear system, self-extracting rules fuzzy control (SERFC) method to maintain a stable temperature value in a built environment chamber with supply air system and hot-water system. The parameters of the transfer functions in every control loop were identified by experimental data in a format of time sequences obtained from the experiment of dynamical responding performance. Fuzzy control simulations were implemented based on adjustment of the supply air system and hot-water system by SERFC. The simulation results show that SERFC for environment chamber has satisfied performance. There is no higher overshoot and stable error. The work presented in here can be used to deal with those complex thermal processes with difficulties in modeling of fuzzy control rules and provide a foundation for further application of fuzzy control in HVAC system.

Zhen Lu; Jili Zhang; Yongpan Chen; Tianyi Zhao; Hui Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of a 1.4-million-gallon chilled water thermal storage tank greatly increases the operational flexibility of a campuswide chilled water system under a four-part electricity rate structure. While significant operational savings can...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

In-situ parameter estimation for solar domestic hot water heating systems components. Final report, June 1995--May 1996  

SciTech Connect

Three different solar domestic hot water systems are being tested at the Colorado State University Solar Energy Applications Laboratory; an unpressurized drain-back system with a load side heat exchanger, an integral collector storage system, and an ultra low flow natural convection heat exchanger system. The systems are fully instrumented to yield data appropriate for in-depth analyses of performance. The level of detail allows the observation of the performance of the total system and the performance of the individual components. This report evaluates the systems based on in-situ experimental data and compares the performances with simulated performances. The verification of the simulations aids in the rating procedure. The whole system performance measurements are also used to analyze the performance of individual components of a solar hot water system and to develop improved component models. The data are analyzed extensively and the parameters needed to characterize the systems fully are developed. Also resulting from this indepth analysis are suggested design improvements wither to the systems or the system components.

Smith, T.R.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Multivent effects in a large scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression system  

SciTech Connect

The steam-driven GKSS pressure suppression test facility, which contains 3 full scale vent pipes, has been used for 5 years to investigate the postulated loss-of-coolant accident in a Mark II and Type 69 boiling water reactor. Using the results from several of these tests, wetwell boundary load data (peak pressures and spectral power) during the chugging stage, have been evaluated for sparse pool response (one and two vents in the three vent pool) and for full pool response (one, two, or three vent operation in pools of constant wetwell pool area per vent). The sparse pool results indicate the pool-system, chug event boundary loads are strongly dependent on wetwell pool area per vent, with the load increasing with decreasing area. The full pool results show a substantial increase in the pool-system, chug event boundary loads upon a change from single cell to double cell operation; only minor change occurs in going from double to triple cell operation.

McCauley, E.W.; Aust, E.; Schwan, H.

1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interest in subcritical (hot/liquid) water from 298 K to 473subcritical region. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H 2 S in CO 2 -Water

Zheng, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Life in the Solar System Assume we need energy, liquid water, and organic materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

would land on the ice pack, use heat from a nuclear reactor to melt through it, and release a hydrobot;Comets ­ Reservoirs of Icy Water #12;Comets ­ Reservoirs of Icy Water #12;Herschel Space Observatory #12

Shirley, Yancy

410

Factors Influencing Numbers of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Other Mycobacteria in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ground), assimilable organic carbon (AOC) levels (high, moderate, and low...Source water Disinfectant type (pre/post) AOC Raw water NTU Level mug/liter (mean SD...and total organic carbon levels (). AOC () and biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC...

Joseph O. Falkinham III; Cheryl D. Norton; Mark W. LeChevallier

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Investigating the Temperature Dependency of Oil and Water Relative Permeabilities for Heavy Oil Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A look into the literature on the temperature dependency of oil and water relative permeabilities reveals contradictory reports. There are some publications reporting shifts in the water saturation range as we...

Mohammad Ashrafi; Yaser Souraki; Ole Torsaeter

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Modeling Integrated Decisions for a Municipal Water System with Recourse and Uncertainties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

desalination (Red­Dead Canal) before 2040. (5) Desalinating brackish Zara-Ma'een water is the low-cost option of a financial cost, economic cost, and effective water quantity added or conserved, 3. Describes interactions

Pasternack, Gregory B.

413

Analysis and design of an in-pipe system for water leak detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leaks are a major factor for unaccounted water losses in almost every water distribution network. Pipeline leak may result, for example, from bad workmanship or from any destructive cause, due to sudden changes of pressure, ...

Chatzigeorgiou, Dimitris M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Occurrence of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediments of Daliao River System, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In August of 2005 a study was carried out to evaluate contamination of aliphatic hydrocarbons(AHc) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments...?1 in surface water, from 22.68 to 5,725.36...?1 in ...

W. Guo; M. C. He; Z. F. Yang; C. Y. Lin

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Community water systems recovering from the drought: Lessons learned; plans made  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#26;exibility in expediting drought- related actions. #31;e Texas Legislature also gave TCEQ more #26;exibility in managing water rights. State agencies pulled together to provide technical assistance and help communities through the drought. TCEQ... , the Texas Department of Emergency Management (TDEM) and the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) formed the Emergency Drinking Water Task Force to work with other state partners to develop the Emergency Drinking Water Contingency Annex. #31;is annex...

Wythe, Kathy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Optimum Operating Conditions for Alkaline Water Electrolysis Coupled with Solar PV Energy System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates theoretically and experimentally the optimum operating conditions for alkaline water electrolysis coupled with a solar photovoltaic (PV)...

Ashraf Balabel; Mohamed S. Zaky; Ismail Sakr

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost?  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective?

418

Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Management This department applies multi-disciplinary science and technology-based modeling to assess complex environmental systems. It integrates ecology, anthropology, and...

419

Development test report for the high pressure water jet system nozzles  

SciTech Connect

The high pressure water jet nozzle tests were conducted to identify optimum water pressure, water flow rate, nozzle orifice size and fixture configuration needed to effectively decontaminate empty fuel storage canisters in KE-Basin. This report gives the tests results and recommendations from the these tests.

Takasumi, D.S.

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

420

On the State of Water Ice on Saturn's Moon Titan and Implications to Icy Bodies in the Outer Solar System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The crystalline state of water ice in the Solar System depends on the temperature history of the ice and the influence of energetic particles to which it has been exposed. We measured the infrared absorption spectra of amorphous and crystalline water ice in the 10-50 K and 10-140 K temperature range, respectively, and conducted a systematic experimental study to investigate the amorphization of crystalline water ice via ionizing radiation irradiation at doses of up to 160 \\pm 30 eV per molecule. We found that crystalline water ice can be converted only partially to amorphous ice by electron irradiation. The experiments showed that a fraction of the 1.65 \\mum band, which is characteristic for crystalline water ice, survived the irradiation, to a degree that strongly depends on the temperature. Quantitative kinetic fits of the temporal evolution of the 1.65 \\mum band clearly demonstrate that there is a balance between thermal recrystallization and irradiation-induced amorphization, with thermal recrystallizaton dominant at higher temperatures. Our experiments show the amorphization at 40K was incomplete, in contradiction to Mastrapa and Brown's conclusion (Icarus 2006, 183, 207.). At 50 K, the recrystallization due to thermal effects is strong, and most of the crystalline ice survived. Temperatures of most icy objects in the Solar System, including Jovian satellites, Saturnian satellites (including Titan), and Kuiper Belt Objects, are equal to or above 50 K; this explains why water ice detected on those objects is mostly crystalline.

Weijun Zheng; David Jewitt; Ralf I. Kaiser

2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow.

Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Water Resources Center

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Station, Kansas City, Missouri. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report of the solar energy heating and hot water system installed at the Kansas City Fire Station, Number 24, 2309 Hardesty Street, Kansas City, Missouri. The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1428 cubic feet of 1/2 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71 1/2 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120-gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30-kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation. This project is part of the Department of Energy PON-1 Solar Demonstration Program with DOE cost sharing $154,282 of the $174,372 solar system cost. The Final Design Review was held March 1977, the system became operational March 1979 and acceptance test was completed in September 1979.

None

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

Not Available

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings  

SciTech Connect

Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

426

USING SCHUMANN RESONANCE MEASUREMENTS FOR CONSTRAINING THE WATER ABUNDANCE ON THE GIANT PLANETS-IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SOLAR SYSTEM'S FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

The formation and evolution of the solar system is closely related to the abundance of volatiles, namely water, ammonia, and methane in the protoplanetary disk. Accurate measurement of volatiles in the solar system is therefore important for understanding not only the nebular hypothesis and origin of life but also planetary cosmogony as a whole. In this work, we propose a new remote sensing technique to infer the outer planets' water content by measuring Tremendously and Extremely Low Frequency (TLF-ELF) electromagnetic wave characteristics (Schumann resonances) excited by lightning in their gaseous envelopes. Schumann resonance detection can be potentially used for constraining the uncertainty of volatiles of the giant planets, mainly Uranus and Neptune, because such TLF-ELF wave signatures are closely related to the electric conductivity profile and water content.

Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Klenzing, Jeffrey; Freudenreich, Henry; Bromund, Kenneth; Martin, Steven; Rowland, Douglas [NASA/GSFC, Heliophysics Science Division, Space Weather Laboratory (Code 674), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Hamelin, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques [LATMOS/IPSL, UPMC, Paris (France); Beghin, Christian; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre [LPC2E, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans (France); Grard, Rejean [ESA/ESTEC, Research Scientific Support Department, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Sentman, Davis [Institute of Geophysics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Takahashi, Yukihiro [Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yair, Yoav [Department Life Natural Sciences, Open University of Israel, Raanana (Israel)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

428

Anoxic Plume Attenuation in a Fluctuating Water Table System: Impact of 100-D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation on Downgradient Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Anoxic Plume Attenuation in a Fluctuating Water Table System: Impact of 100-D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation on Downgradient Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations

Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Oostrom, Martinus; Evans, John C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Istok, J. D.; Humphrey, M. D.; Lanigan, David C.; Szecsody, James E.; White, Mark D.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Cole, Charles R.

1999-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

429

USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 1 presents a general assessment of produced water generation in the San Juan Basin in Four Corners Area of New Mexico. Oil and gas production, produced water handling and disposal, and produced water quantities and chemistry are discussed. Legislative efforts to enable the use of this water at SJGS are also described.

Michael N. DiFilippo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Integration of an Ammonia-water Absorption Refrigeration System with a Marine Diesel Engine: A Thermodynamic Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines through a thermodynamic analysis the feasibility of using waste heat from marine Diesel engines to drive an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. An energy balance of a diesel engine shows that sufficient waste heat is provided. The results illustrate that higher performance of the system is obtained at high generator and evaporator temperatures and also at low condenser and absorber temperatures.

Ahmed Ouadha; Youcef El-Gotni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013  

SciTech Connect

Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

Bruce Hallbert; Ken Thomas

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Multielement geochemistry of solid materials in geothermal systems and its applications. Part 1. Hot-water system at the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical studies of the geothermal system at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah, have led to development of chemical criteria for recognition of major features of the system and to a three-dimensional model for chemical zoning in the system. Based on this improved level of understanding several new or modified geochemical exploration and assessment techniques have been defined and are probably broadly applicable to evaluation of hot-water geothermal systems. The main purpose of this work was the development or adaptation of solids geochemical exploration techniques for use in the geothermal environment. (MHR)

Bamford, R.W.; Christensen, O.D.; Capuano, R.M.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Susceptibility of members of the family Legionellaceae to thermal stress: implications for heat eradication methods in water distribution systems.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...all Legionellaceae to heat inactivation (an eradication...foundation for the utility of heat inactiva- tion as a...rapid and precipitous loss of viability when temperatures...conditions more repre; water distribution system, i.e., when...evaluating sediment on the heat resistance of Legionella...

J E Stout; M G Best; V L Yu

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature

Berning, Torsten

435

Surface Tensions in NaCl-Water-Air Systems from MD Simulations Ranjit Bahadur, Lynn M. Russell,*, and Saman Alavi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Tensions in NaCl-Water-Air Systems from MD Simulations Ranjit Bahadur, Lynn M. Russell, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada ReceiVed: July 9, 2007; In Final Form: July 30, 2007 Surface tensions to the surface tension, while the energy-integral and test area methods provide direct estimates. At 1 atm

Russell, Lynn

436

Hypersonic wave propagation in the triton X-100 2014 water gelation system as studied by Brillouin spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1211 Hypersonic wave propagation in the triton X-100 2014 water gelation system as studied, quelle que soit la concentration de triton X-100. Abstract 2014 The hypersonic velocity and absorption refractometer. Analysis of the results show that in the gel phase hypersonic waves propagate effectively through

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

The effect of wind speed fluctuations on the performance of a wind-powered membrane system for brackish water desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A wind-powered reverse osmosis membrane (wind-membrane) system without energy storage was tested using synthetic brackish water (2750 and 5500 mg/L NaCl) over a range of simulated wind speeds under both steady-state and ...

Park, Gavin L.; Schfer, Andrea; Richards, Bryce S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas Solubility Measurement and Modeling for the Nitrogen + Water System from 274.18 K to 363.02 K ... (4)?Frolich, P. K.; Tauch, E. J.; Hogan, J. J.; Peer, A. A. Solubilities of Gases in Liquids at High Pressure. ...

Antonin Chapoy; Amir H. Mohammadi; Bahman Tohidi; Dominique Richon

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Portable Eddy Covariance System for the Measurement of EcosystemAtmosphere Exchange of CO2, Water Vapor, and Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The ...

D. P. Billesbach; M. L. Fischer; M. S. Torn; J. A. Berry

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

To build a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system that produces hydrogen fuel directly from water using sunlight as the energy source.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 SS H2 O2 metaloxide GoalGoal To build a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system that produces hydrogen fuel directly from water using sunlight as the energy source. Approach: development of a multi provides voltage assist using lower-energy photons catalyst surface optimized for hydrogen evolution UH

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

[Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design  

SciTech Connect

This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

Not Available

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Cost reduction performance enhancements of multiple site cooling water systems, enabled by remote system monitoring/control and multifaceted data management  

SciTech Connect

An outsourced cooling water treatment automated control and data acquisition package, has been designed, installed, and commissioned in over 70 sites in North America and offshore. The standard package consists of a controller, sensors, human-machine interface software, data acquisition and management software, communications, and reporting. Significant challenges to applying this standard package in multiple sites arose from variations in cooling system design and makeup water quality as well as operations, environmental considerations, metrics, and language. A standard approach has met these challenges and overcome effects of downsizing through significant reduction in non-value-added, manual activities. Overall system reliability has been improved by migration to best practice throughout the organizations involved and immediate proactive response to out-of-specification conditions. This paper documents the evolution of a standard cooling water automation and data management package from its inception to current practice.

Cook, B. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Horsham, PA (United States); Young, D. [BetzDearborn Water Management Group, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Tari, K. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, New York, NY (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Core and System Design of Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor with Passive Safety Features  

SciTech Connect

In order to ensure the sustainable energy supply in Japan, research and developments of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) have been performed. The RMWR can attain the favorable characteristics such as high burn-up, long operation cycle, multiple recycling of plutonium and effective utilization of uranium resources, based on the matured LWR technologies. MOX fuel assemblies in the tight-lattice fuel rod arrangement are used to reduce the moderation of neutron, and hence, to increase the conversion ratio. The conceptual design has been accomplished for the small 330 MWe RMWR core with the discharge burn-up of 60 GWd/t and the operation cycle of 24 months, under the natural circulation cooling of the core. A breeding ratio of 1.01 and the negative void reactivity coefficient are simultaneously realized in the design. In the plant system design, the passive safety features are intended to be utilized mainly to improve the economy. At present, a hybrid one under the combination of the passive and the active components, and a fully passive one are proposed. The former has been evaluated to reduce the cost for the reactor components. (authors)

Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Yonomoto, Taisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan); Takeda, Renzo; Moriya, Kumiaki [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Kanno, Minoru [The Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: deforestation in mid-Wales Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 421431 (2002) EGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the environmental sciences, there are major management issues over the impact of man on the water qualityAssessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: deforestation in mid-Wales 421 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 6(3), 421­431 (2002) © EGS Assessing environmental impacts on stream water

Boyer, Edmond

446

This paper presents a neural network based technique for the solution of a water system state estimation problem.The technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT This paper presents a neural network based technique for the solution of a water system applied to a realistic 34-node water network. By changing the values of neural network parameters both with respect to their sensitivity to measurement errors. INTRODUCTION Efficient control of a complex water

Bargiela, Andrzej

447

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on passive PEM water management, was given by Susie Stenkamp of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

448

Fouling mitigation in coagulation microfiltration hybrid system for drinking water treatment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coagulation combined with microfiltration has been receiving a great attention and has been evolving in recent years as an alternative for surface water treatment. There (more)

Sadreddini, Sara

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Annual Operating Characteristics of Solar Central Water Heater System Assisted by Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solar central water heater (SCWH) could supply ... massive users effectively and reliably. A SCWH assisted by heat pump (SCWHP) was proposed...

Wei Hu; Zhaolin Gu; Shiyu Feng; Xiufeng Gao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Simulation of energy use in residential water heating systems Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as solar-assisted pre-heat and waste water heat recovery components. A total of 7,488 six- day simulations

Victoria, University of

451

Potential of carbon nanotubes in water purification: an approach towards the development of an integrated membrane system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The problems of water shortages and lack of access to safe drinking water have been and will continue to grow as major global problems. To alleviate these problems, water purification technologies are being updated. Recent years have witnessed impressive breakthroughs towards practical application of nanostructured materials such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) in the field of water purification owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. These nanoscale structures need to be arranged into well-defined configurations in order to build integrated systems with high efficiency (the nanotubes being reusable, whereas the traditional membranes foul easily and require frequent replacements), high flux (owing to the hydrophobic super smooth inner surface of nanotubes), and with improvements in chemical selectivity (through suitable chemical functionalisation of the CNTs), so that the idea of using CNTs in separation technology can be made realistic and the potential benefits of practical application of these unique materials can be exploited. This paper assesses the CNTs as an emerging technology in water purification system, particularly with respect to its potential for the removal of arsenic, fluoride, heavy metals and toxic organic components.

Soumitra Kar; R.C. Bindal; S. Prabhakar; P.K. Tewari; K. Dasgupta; D. Sathiyamoorthy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Organic Rankine-Cycle Power Systems Working Fluids Study: Topical report No. 3, 2-methylpyridine/water  

SciTech Connect

A mixture of 35 mole percent (mol %) 2-methylpyridine and 65 mol % water was tested at 575, 625, and 675/degree/F in a dynamic loop. Samples of the degraded fluid were chemically analyzed to determine the identities of major degradation products and the quantity of degradation. Computed degradation rates were found to be higher than those for Fluorinol 85 or toluene. For this reason (and other reasons, related to fluid handling), other fluids are recommended as the first choice for service in organic Rankine-cycle systems in preference to 2-methylpyridine/water. 7 refs., 39 figs., 39 tabs.

Cole, R.L.; Demirgian, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Methodology for Determining the Optimal Operating Strategies for a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the example facility. It was concluded that stratified chilled water TES was a viable technology even without the presence of electric rebate incentives or rebates, and it was a sustainable technology for the foreseeable future. 2.1.2 Chilled water storage...

Zhang, Zhiqin

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

454

A study of the distribution of fatty acids in the system: cottonseed oil-oleic acid-isopropanol-water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A STDDY OF THI' DISTBIRliTION OF FATTY ACIDS IN THE SYSTEM: COTTONSFED OIL - OLEIC ACID - ISOPBOPANOL - YlATEB A Thesis Frank E. Lomb January 1948 Approval as to style and content recommended: Head ' t Te epartm nt of hem cal Engineer ng A... STUDY OF THE DISTHIBUTION OF FATTY ACIDS IN THE SYSTEM: COTTONSEED OIL - OLEIC ACID - ISOFHOPANOL - WATER A Thesis By Frank E. Lamb January 1948 A STUDY QF TNE DISTRIBUTION OF FATTY ACIDS IN TRE SYSTEM: COTTONSEED OII, - OIEIC ACID - ISOPROPANOL...

Lamb, Frank E

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

455

Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by 60%. The WRS is mainly comprised of a forward osmosis (FO) system and a reverse osmosis (RO) system

Roychoudhury, Indranil

456

Modeling and optimization of hybrid windsolar-powered reverse osmosis water desalination system in Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A hybrid wind/solar powered reverse osmosis desalination system has been modeled and simulated. The results of the simulation have been used to optimize the system for the minimum cost per cubic meter of the desalinated water. The performance of the hybrid wind/solar powered RO system has been analyzed under Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, weather data for a typical year. The performance has been evaluated under a constant RO load of 1kW for 12h/day and 24h/day. The simulation results revealed that the optimum system that powers a 1-kW RO system for 12h/day that yields a minimum levelized cost of energy comprises 2 wind turbines, 40 \\{PVs\\} modules and 6 batteries and the levelized cost of energy of such system is found to be 0.624$/kWh. On the other hand, for a load of 1-kW for 24h/day, the optimum system consists of 6 wind turbines, 66 \\{PVs\\} modules and 16 batteries with a minimum levelized cost of energy 0.672$/kWh. Depending on the salinity of the raw water, the energy consumption for desalination ranges between 8 and 20kWh/m3. This means that the cost of using the proposed optimum hybrid wind/solar system for water desalination will range between $3.693/m3 and $3. 812/m3 which is less than the range reported in the literature.

Esmail M.A. Mokheimer; Ahmet Z. Sahin; Abdullah Al-Sharafi; Ahmad I. Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

458

Performance investigation of thermal energy storage system with Phase Change Material (PCM) for solar water heating application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to harvest solar energy, thermal energy storage (TES) system with Phase Change Material (PCM) has been receiving greater attention because of its large energy storage capacity and isothermal behavior during charging and discharging processes. In the present experimental study, shell and tube TES system using paraffin wax was used in a water heating system to analyze its performance for solar water heating application. Energy and exergy including their cost analyses for the TES system were performed. Accordingly, total life cycle cost was calculated for different flow rates of the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). With 0.033kg/min and 0.167kg/min flow rates of water as HTF, energy efficiencies experienced were 63.88% and 77.41%, respectively, but in exergy analysis, efficiencies were observed to be about 9.58% and 6.02%, respectively. Besides, the total life cycle cost was predicted to be $ 654.61 for 0.033kg/min flow rate, which could be reduced to $ 609.22 by increasing the flow rate to 0.167kg/min. Therefore it can be summarized that total life cycle cost decreases with the increase of flow rate.

M.H. Mahfuz; M.R. Anisur; M.A. Kibria; R. Saidur; I.H.S.C. Metselaar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Assessment of a Solar Assisted Air Source and a Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump System in a Canadian Household  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an assessment of two solar assisted heat pump systems integrated into an air distribution system in three different 210 m2 single detached residential houses in Montreal, Canada. The housing types considered are a 1980's house, an energy efficient house and a net zero ready house. The advanced heat pump systems considered in the analysis focused on coupling solar energy on the evaporator side of an air source and water source heat pumps to improve performance compared to a standard air source heat pump and provide an alternative to a costly ground source heat pump system. The annual energy consumption and utility cost of the solar assisted heat pump systems were compared to a market available air source heat pump, a ground source heat pump system as well as the typical reference housing heating and cooling system. The results predicted that a solar assisted air source heat pump has a comparable capital cost to a ground source heat pump system in all housing types and the highest energy savings for a net zero ready house of 34% compared to the base case. The solar assisted water source heat pump did not yield interesting results, as the solar assisted air source heat pump demonstrated improved energy savings and lower capital costs in all housing types considered. Comparing the 20 year life cycle costs of the solar assisted heat pump systems to the base case, only in the 1980's housing archetype did the solar assisted air source heat pump system demonstrate a lower life cycle cost than the base case. A standard air source heat pump yielded the lowest life cycle cost in the 1980's and energy efficient house considered and the reference base case system had the lowest life cycle cost in the net zero ready house considered.

Martin Kegel; Justin Tamasauskas; Roberto Sunye; Antoine Langlois

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health). Water Safety Plans A Water Safety Plan (WSP) is a preventive management approach used to manage threats to a drinking water system--from catchment to consumer. It helps in the · Management of activities

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461

Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O'Neil, Troy

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experimental and theoretical study of pressure effects on hydrogen isotope fractionation in the system brucite-water at elevated temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed, systematic experimental and theoretical study was conducted to investigate the effect of pressure on equilibrium D/H fractionation between brucite (Mg(OH)2) and water at temperatures from 200 to 600C and pressures up to 800 MPa. A fine-grained brucite was isotopically exchanged with excess amounts of water, and equilibrium D/H fractionation factors were calculated by means of the partial isotope exchange method. Our experiments unambiguously demonstrated that the D/H fractionation factor between brucite and water increased by 4.4 to 12.4 with increasing pressure to 300 or 800 \\{MPa\\} at all the temperatures investigated. The observed increases are linear with the density of water under experimental conditions. We calculated the pressure effects on the reduced partition function ratios (?-factor) of brucite (300800 K and P ? 800 MPa) and water (400600C and P ? 100 MPa), employing a statistical-mechanical method similar to that developed by Kieffer (1982) and a simple thermodynamic method based on the molar volumes of normal and heavy waters, respectively. Our theoretical calculations showed that the reduced partition function ratio of brucite increases linearly with pressure at a given temperature (as much as 12.6 at 300 K and 800 MPa). The magnitude of the pressure effects rapidly decreases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the ?-factor of water decreases 4 to 5 with increasing pressure to 100 \\{MPa\\} at 400 to 600C. Overall D/H isotope pressure effects combined from the separate calculations on brucite and water are in excellent agreement with the experimental results under the same temperature-pressure range. Our calculations also suggest that under the current experimental conditions, the magnitude of the isotope pressure effects is much larger on water than brucite. Thus, the observed pressure effects on D/H fractionation are common to other systems involving water. It is very likely that under some geologic conditions, pressure is an important variable in controlling D/H partitioning.

Juske Horita; David R. Cole; Veniamin B. Polyakov; Thomas Driesner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Efficacy of gravity-fed chlorination system for community-scale water disinfection in northern Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although chlorine is one of the lowest cost ways of providing disinfection, currently billions of people lack drinking water that has had this simple treatment. Arch Chemical's Pulsar 1 unit is an innovation in chlorine ...

Fitzpatrick, Daniel Cash

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

An integrated model to compare net electricity generation for CO?- and water-based geothermal systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed byBrown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him (more)

Agarwal, Vikas, 1986-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

KESSLER, S.F.

2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

466

Simulation and Modeling of a Constant Voltage Controller Based Solar Powered Water Pumping System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the performance of a squirrel cage induction motor driving a water-pump load is investigated. The induction motor is fed through a Photovoltaic (PV) array. The PV array and the drive is designed ...

Bhavnesh Kumar; Yogesh K. Chauhan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Design of Coil Heat Exchanger for Remote-Storage Solar Water Heating System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A coil heat exchanger for hot water thermal storage was presented including the choice of the ... calculation of flow resistance. In this design, solar collector contour aperture area is 4.26...2, the volume of w...

Lv Cuiping; He Duanlian; Dou Jianqing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Flexible design : an innovative approach for planning water infrastructure systems under uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a framework for a flexible design approach to support decision-making in water supply infrastructure planning. It contrasts with a conventional, deterministic planning approach that uses past data or ...

Wong, Melanie Kathleen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Risk Factors for Contamination of Hotel Water Distribution Systems by Legionella Species  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...period. DISCUSSION Our data indicate that at the time...www.ewgli.org/data/data_tables/year_onset...rates were higher than in big towns, where hotels generally...heaters powered directly by electricity and solar water heaters...

Varvara Mouchtouri; Emmanuel Velonakis; Andreas Tsakalof; Christina Kapoula; Georgia Goutziana; Alkiviadis Vatopoulos; Jenny Kremastinou; Christos Hadjichristodoulou

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

470

A water displacement system for simulating the effects of reduced gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Folds. . . 24 3. Catch Tray Bracket and Restraint Harness. . 25 4. Liner Comets and Dry Suit Effect. . . . . . . . 26 5. Temperature Controlled Water Source. . . 27 6. Empty Tank 7. Tank Filled with Water. 28 29 8. Tank Showing Dogs in Place. 9... Corporation, 0&land, Calif. "'I':odel 475-A, Scientific Apparatus, Arthur H. Thomas Company Philadelphia, Penn. """'Jarrell-Ash Company, IIalt?~, MIa" s. fColeman Instrument Corporation, IIaywood, Illinois. 15 CHA?TER IV RESULTS isater Immersion Sy...

Smith, Alvin Winfred

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

471

Implementation of a Geographic Information System for municipal water quality assurance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1994). Numerous other local agencies have ARC/INFO GIS programs in place, including King County (which contains the Green River watershed), Pierce County, and the City of Seattle. The King County Surface Water Management group has already begun... 1994). Numerous other local agencies have ARC/INFO GIS programs in place, including King County (which contains the Green River watershed), Pierce County, and the City of Seattle. The King County Surface Water Management group has already begun...

Murphy, Eileen Marie

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

Performance of an experimental ground-coupled heat pump system for heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) system is a type of renewable energy technology providing space heating and cooling as well as domestic hot water. However, experimental studies on GCHP systems are still insufficient. This paper first presents an energy-operational optimisation device for a GCHP system involving insertion of a buffer tank between the heat pump unit and fan coil units and consumer supply using quantitative adjustment with a variable speed circulating pump. Then, the experimental measurements are used to test the performance of the GCHP system in different operating modes. The main performance parameters (energy efficiency and CO2 emissions) are obtained for one month of operation using both classical and optimised adjustment of the GCHP system, and a comparative analysis of these performances is performed. In addition, using TRNSYS (Transient Systems Simulation) software, two simulation models of thermal energy consumption in heating, cooling and domestic hot-water operation are developed. Finally, the simulations obtained using TRNSYS are analysed and compared to experimental data, resulting in good agreement and thus the simulation models are validated.

Calin Sebarchievici; Ioan Sarbu

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Metal nanoparticles in catalytic polymer membranes and ion-exchange systems for advanced purification of water from molecular oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methods of synthesis of metal nanoparticles and metal/polymer nanocomposites including ion-exchange materials are considered. The effect of the composition and size of nanoparticles on their catalytic activity is analyzed. Attention is focused on the composites used in catalytic processes, namely, catalytic membranes and ion-exchange systems. The problems associated with the removal of dissolved oxygen from water by means of such composites are discussed. The bibliography includes 225 references.

V V Volkov; T A Kravchenko; Vyacheslav I Roldughin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Chicago Bridge and Iron Company. Final report: system design extension. Volume 1. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The design of a solar energy powered, sea water desalination pilot plant for installation at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, on the shore of the Red Sea is presented. Earlier work is introduced and a description of the system is presented. Important design analyses and cost reduction considerations are reviewed. The pilot plant design is described in detail. Construction plans for and projected operation of the plant are discussed.

Not Available

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Systems assessment of water savings impact of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) utilizing wirelessly networked SenseDecideActCommunicate (SDAC) systems.  

SciTech Connect

Reducing agricultural water use in arid regions while maintaining or improving economic productivity of the agriculture sector is a major challenge. Controlled environment agriculture (CEA, or, greenhouse agriculture) affords advantages in direct resource use (less land and water required) and productivity (i.e., much higher product yield and quality per unit of resources used) relative to conventional open-field practices. These advantages come at the price of higher operating complexity and costs per acre. The challenge is to implement and apply CEA such that the productivity and resource use advantages will sufficiently outweigh the higher operating costs to provide for overall benefit and viability. This project undertook an investigation of CEA for livestock forage production as a water-saving alternative to open-field forage production in arid regions. Forage production is a large consumer of fresh water in many arid regions of the world, including the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. With increasing competition among uses (agriculture, municipalities, industry, recreation, ecosystems, etc.) for limited fresh water supplies, agricultural practice alternatives that can potentially maintain or enhance productivity while reducing water use warrant consideration. The project established a pilot forage production greenhouse facility in southern New Mexico based on a relatively modest and passive (no active heating or cooling) system design pioneered in Chihuahua, Mexico. Experimental operations were initiated in August 2004 and carried over into early-FY05 to collect data and make initial assessments of operational and technical system performance, assess forage nutrition content and suitability for livestock, identify areas needing improvement, and make initial assessment of overall feasibility. The effort was supported through the joint leveraging of late-start FY04 LDRD funds and bundled CY2004 project funding from the New Mexico Small Business Technical Assistance program at Sandia. Despite lack of optimization with the project system, initial results show the dramatic water savings potential of hydroponic forage production compared with traditional irrigated open field practice. This project produced forage using only about 4.5% of the water required for equivalent open field production. Improved operation could bring water use to 2% or less. The hydroponic forage production system and process used in this project are labor intensive and not optimized for minimum water usage. Freshly harvested hydroponic forage has high moisture content that dilutes its nutritional value by requiring that livestock consume more of it to get the same nutritional content as conventional forage. In most other aspects the nutritional content compares well on a dry weight equivalent basis with other conventional forage. More work is needed to further explore and quantify the opportunities, limitations, and viability of this technique for broader use. Collection of greenhouse environmental data in this project was uniquely facilitated through the implementation and use of a self-organizing, wirelessly networked, multi-modal sensor system array with remote cell phone data link capability. Applications of wirelessly networked sensing with improved modeling/simulation and other Sandia technologies (e.g., advanced sensing and control, embedded reasoning, modeling and simulation, materials, robotics, etc.) can potentially contribute to significant improvement across a broad range of CEA applications.

Campbell, Jonathan T.; Baynes, Edward E., Jr.; Aguirre,Carlos (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Jordan, Jon (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Giacomelli, Gene (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ); Waggoner, Justin (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Loest, Clint (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Szumel, Leo; Nakaoka, Tyler; Pate, Ronald C.; Berry, Nina M.; Pohl, Phillip Isabio; Aguirre, Francisco Luis (Invernaderos y Maquinaria Aguirre, Cd., Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico); Aguilar, Jose (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Gupta, Vipin P.; Ochoa, Juan (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Davis, Jesse Zehring; Ramos, Damian (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system.  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H{sub 2}-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO{sub 2}. Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H{sub 2} for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H{sub 2}) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from exposure to ambient air to prevent re-oxidation of the copper. The activated catalyst must also be protected from the condensation of liquids, for example, during start-up or transient operation. For these reasons, a more thermally rugged catalyst is needed which has sufficient activity to operate at the low temperatures that are thermodynamically necessary to achieve low CO concentrations.

Myers, D. J.; Krebs, J. F.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

477

Earth science teachers' knowledge of the water system and Its reflections in their lesson plans.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Over the last two decades, scientists have recognized the necessity of studying the earth as an integrated system. Consequently, the knowledge of physical earth systems (more)

Nam, Younkyeong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Behavior of partially miscible organic compounds in simulated ground water systems  

SciTech Connect

Serious ground water contamination problems result from leaks or spills of organic liquids which are partially miscible in water. Two important categories of these liquids include low molecular weight chlorinated solvents and gasoline. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) abiotically degrades in water forming approximately 17-25% 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) via an elimination reaction. Brominated analogs of TCA hydrolyze 11-13 times faster than TCA. As the number of bromines increase, the percent of elimination products increases. These geminal trihalides degrade by a unimolecular mechanism (E1/SN1). The rate coefficient for TCA degradation in buffered water at elevated temperature is approximately six times greater than hydrolysis of 1-chloropropane (SN2 mechanism) and more than 100 times greater than 1,1-dichloroethane. In the presence of sodium thiosulfate, the 1-chloropropane degradation rate increased by more than a factor of 100, 1,1-dichloroethane rate by 22 and TCA degradation by approximately two. The range of concentrations for major components of gasoline which partition into water was determined for 65 gasoline samples. Benzene concentrations in the water extracts ranged from 12.3-130 mg/l and toluene concentrations ranged from 23-185 mg/l. Fuel/water partition coefficients of seven major aromatic constituents were measured for 31 gasoline types and showed a standard deviation of 10-30%. These coefficients were highly correlated with the pure component solubilities. Chemometric techniques were applied to 20 peaks measured in the aqueous extracts of the 65 gasolines. Bivariate plots and principal component analyses show selected brands have distinguishing equilibrium concentrations, but complete separation of brands was not observed.

Cline, P.V.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

A Broad Spectrum Catalytic System for Removal of Toxic Organics from Water by Deep Oxidation - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A most pressing need for the DOE environmental management program is the removal of toxic organic compounds present in groundwater and soil at specific DOE sites. While several remediation procedures have been proposed, they suffer from one or more drawbacks. The objective of the present research was to develop new catalytic procedures for the removal of toxic organic compounds from the environment through their deep oxidation to harmless products. In water, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the deep oxidation of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds by dioxygen at 80-90 C in the presence of carbon monoxide or dihydrogen. Several classes of organic compounds were examined: benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, nitro and halo organics, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds. In every case, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 hour period. For substrates susceptible to hydrogenation, the conversions were generally high with dihydrogen than with carbon monoxide. It is clear from the results obtained that we have discovered an exceptionally versatile catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organic compounds in water. This system possesses several attractive features not found simultaneously in other reported systems. These are (a) the ability to directly utilize dioxygen as the oxidant, (b) the ability to carry out the deep oxidation of a particularly wide range of functional organics, and (c) the ease of recovery of the catalyst by simple filtration.

Sen, Ayusman

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z