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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 11 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 48 Multi-Family

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Optimization of Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chilled water systems are one of the major energy consumers in industrial, commercial, and institutional complexes. The centralization of chilled water systems presents numerous advantages, including simplified controls, reduced installation capacity due to diversity, and consolidated maintenance and operation. Centrally chilled water systems present potential energy and cost savings in the following areas: • Chilled water reset. • Condenser water reset. • Chiller sequencing. • Chilled water storage. • Variable chilled water pumping. The feasibility aspect of the above items will be discussed in this paper.

Gidwani, B. N.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Alternate Water Supply System  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Office of Legacy Management DOE M/1570 2008 - -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management U.S. Department of Energy This page intentionally left blank DOE-LM/1570-2008 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado This page intentionally left blank

8

Hot water supply system  

SciTech Connect

A hot water supply system is described which consists of: a boiler having an exhaust; solar panels; and a frame supporting the solar panels and including a compartment beneath the solar panels, the boiler exhaust termining in the compartment beneath the solar panels, the boiler being within the compartment.

Piper, J.R.

1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

Cooling Water System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower performance. To understand the importance of the optimization techniques, cooling tower theory will be discussed first.

Aegerter, R.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

11

System for treating produced water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

12

Optimization of Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chilled water systems are one of the major energy consumers in industrial, commercial, and institutional complexes. The centralization of chilled water systems has considerable advantages, namely: simplified controls, the installed capacity is reduced due to diversity, consolidated maintenance and operation, etc. With chilled water systems, the following areas present potential energy and cost savings: Chilled Water Reset Condenser Water Reset Sequencing of the Chillers Chilled Water Storage Variable Chilled Water Pumping In this paper the feasibility aspect of each of the above items will be discussed.

Gidwani, B. N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Tahoe Water Systems Sector Solar, Wind energy Product Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

15

Water Cooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...coil. Usually, two pumps are provided, one as a standby with an automatic switchover, because it is extremely important to circulate water through the coil continuously to prevent it from being damaged. To protect induction furnace equipment during momentary power interruptions or prolonged power...

16

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residentialgas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect on water and gas usage from cross-flow betweencontrols have on water and gas usage over a large number ofsystems, and their water and gas usage. Hourly schedules for

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

NETL: Produced Water Management Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PWMIS Home Produced Water Management Information System The Produced Water Management Information System is an online resource for technical and regulatory information for managing...

19

Information Sources for Small Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Managers of small waters systems must have information about a variety of topics. This publication lists essential printed and electronic resources on disaster preparedness, national drinking water standards, private water well management, water treatment, and many other topics.

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

20

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heatdistribution systems, ground-source heat pumps and ground

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Systems modelling for effective mine water management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns about the difficulties in securing water have led the Australian coal mining industry to seek innovative ways to improve its water management and to adopt novel strategies that will lead to less water being used and more water being reused. ... Keywords: Mining, Sustainable development, Systems model, Water balance, Water resources management

Claire M. Côte; Chris J. Moran; Christopher J. Hedemann; Christian Koch

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Metering Secondary Water in Residential Irrigation Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of residential secondary or dual water systems for irrigation purposes is common in the western United States where water supplies are scarce. While… (more)

Richards, Gregory L.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

A Total Energy & Water Quality Management System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report develops a generic model for an energy and water quality management system for the water community, and defines standard specifications for software applications required to minimize energy costs within the constraints of water quality and operation goals.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

Laboratory Equipment - Milli-Q Water System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Milli-Q Water System. Description: Location: E134. Please refer to the manufacturers website for more information. Contact. ...

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtable session  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters,System Efficiency Losses Standby Loss Combustion LossBecause of their very low standby losses they can achieve

Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Solar hot water system update  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Brief descriptions are given of the following three systems: (1) thermosyphon system, (2) system with drain-down freeze protection, and (3) system with antifreeze as freeze protection. (MOW)

Levary, A.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Reliable water supply system design under uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the natural variability and uncertainties in long-term predictions, reliability is a critical design factor for water supply systems. However, the large scale of the problem and the correlated nature of the involved uncertainties result in models ... Keywords: Data uncertainty, Robust optimization, Spatially correlated data, Water supply system

G. Chung; K. Lansey; G. Bayraksan

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Prototype solar heating and hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is a collection of two quarterly status reports from Colt, Inc., covering the period from October 1, 1977 through June 30, 1978. Colt is developing two prototype solar heating and hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, hot water, and auxiliary energy. The two systems are being installed at Yosemite, California and Pueblo, Colorado.

Not Available

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Submersible purification system for radioactive water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

Abbott, Michael L. (Fort Collins, CO); Lewis, Donald R. (Pocatello, ID)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Water turbine system and method of operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

31

Water turbine system and method of operation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT)

2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

32

Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Resources for Small Water Systems in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication is a guide to finding the many resources available to help managers of small water systems in Texas. Details are provided about sources of financial assistance, tools for capacity building, training programs and educational resources.

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

35

Portable deaerator for deionized water systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flowing water deaerator systems were designed and built for the TEMPO microwave pulser. The TEMPO program major goals were to build three one-megavolt, rep-rate pulsers capable of providing high power pulsed microwaves for various susceptibility and biological experiments. The TEMPO machine is a transformer driven water dielectric transmission line pulser. The water in the transmission line is required to have high purity and be bubble-free. The purity of the water is maintained by a filtered deionizing system that was supplied by a local vendor. The deaerating system was unique because it was required to be portable and self-contained. The design was based on a very large existing system (RADLAC II) which was not portable. The present system was scaled down to the approximate size of 2 ft x 4 ft x 7 ft high and mounted on a caster-supported frame for portability. Its small size and closed-loop operation allowed it to fit into a transportable subsystem container which housed the water processing and air supply systems. The following report discusses the design, installation, and operation of this flowing water deaerator.

Lancaster, K.T.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Flow Stability of Supercritical Water Cooled Systems  

SciTech Connect

Research activities are ongoing worldwide to develop nuclear power plants with supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) with the purpose to achieve a high thermal efficiency and to improve their economical competitiveness. However, the strong variation of the thermal-physical properties of water in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical line results in challenging tasks in thermal-hydraulic design of a SCWR. One of the challenging tasks is to understand and to predict the dynamic behavior and flow stability of supercritical water cooled systems. Although extensive thermal-hydraulic research activities have been carried out worldwide, studies on flow stability of SC water cooled systems are scarce. The present study deals with the flow behavior of SC water cooled systems. For this purpose the computer code SASC was developed, which is applied to a simplified cooling system. The effect of various parameters on the flow behavior is investigated. The first results achieved up to now reveals a complicated dynamic performance of a system cooled by supercritical water. (authors)

Cheng, X.; Kuang, B.; Yang, Y.H. [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

In-situ continuous water monitoring system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN); Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Combined Systems with Tankless Water Heaters Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas More builder's wanting to use gas-fired tankless water heaters, and with solar pre-heat  Endless hot water  Helps HERS Index  Space saving 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Problem with elevated TWH inlet temperature 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Maximum Inlet Temperature (F) DHW flow rate (gpm) Maximum TWH inlet temperature to stay below 125 F delivered temperature, with 15 kBtu/h minimum firing rate Typical shower temperature 4 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting

40

Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at Merced Title Chilled Water Storage System and Demand Response at the University of California at...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval...

42

A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation Title A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation Publication Type...

43

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

System for disposing of radioactive water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for reducing radioactivity released to the biosphere in the course of producing natural gas from a reservoir stimulated by the detonation of nuclear explosives therein. Tritiated water produced with the gas is separated out and returned to a nuclear chimney through a string of tubing positioned within the well casing. The tubing string is positioned within the well casing in a manner which enhances separation of the water out of the gas and minimizes entrainment of water into the gas flowing out of the chimney.

Gotchy, Reginald L. (Bethesda, MD)

1976-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

45

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 March 2013. (12) Water Conservation Master Plan; East Baywww.ebmud.com/for-customers/water-conservation- rebates-and-services/water-conservation-master-plan, accessed 15

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON CORROSION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table of Contents Abstract...................................................................................................................................................... 4 THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON CORROSION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS.................................................................................................................................................. 5

F. Cantor; Jae K. Park, Ph.D.; Prasit Vaiyavatjamai

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

Chastagner, P.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment  

SciTech Connect

There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating with other existing data sources, thus minimizing manually entered data.

Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Process and system for treating waste water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

Olesen, Douglas E. (Kennewick, WA); Shuckrow, Alan J. (Pasco, WA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Ensemble Precipitation and Water-Level Forecasts for Anticipatory Water-System Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for testing weather forecast products for applications in anticipatory water-system control. The applicability of the ensemble prediction system (EPS) of the ECMWF is tested for flood control in a regional water system in ...

Schalk Jan van Andel; Roland K. Price; Arnold H. Lobbrecht; Frans van Kruiningen; Robert Mureau

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

53

Statistical estimation of water distribution system pipe break risk.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The deterioration of pipes in urban water distribution systems is of concern to water utilities throughout the world. This deterioration generally leads to pipe breaks… (more)

Yamijala, Shridhar

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Homeland Security Challenges Facing Small Water Systems in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes Homeland Security issues that affect Texas and the nation. It includes an overview of some of the key water resource issues associated with preventing intentional contamination of water supplies served by small water systems.

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

55

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo...

56

Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

upgrades, and different water sources (desalination).Desalination and sewage treatment upgrades were found tolater in this chapter. Desalination proved to have 2-18

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Efficiency of Steam and Hot Water Heat Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency of Steam and Hot Water Heat Distribution Systems Gary Phetteplace September 1995- tion medium (steam or hot water) and temperature for heat distribution systems. The report discusses the efficiency of both steam and hot water heat distribution systems in more detail. The results of several field

59

Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation ...  

Self-Regulating Water Separation System for Fuel Cells Innovators at NASA’s Johnson Space ... Solar Thermal; Startup ... The system uses the flow energy of the fuel ...

60

Water turbine system and method of operation - Energy ...  

A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

SEMMENS, L.S.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

63

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

64

NETL: Produced Water Management Information System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Produced Water Management Technology Descriptions Fact Sheet - Underground Injection for Disposal PWMIS Home Intro to Produced Water Technology Descriptions Basic Separation...

65

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

66

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

67

-1- Georgia Guidelines for Reclaimed Water Systems for Buildings PREFACE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Georgia Guidelines for Reclaimed Water Systems for Buildings are intended to assist all parties involved in the design, construction, inspection and maintenance of reclaimed water systems and to help successfully comply with Appendix J, „Reclaimed Water Systems for Buildings ? of the 2011 Georgia Amendments to the International Plumbing Code (IPC), latest adopted version. The parties mentioned above include building owners, reclaimed water purveyors, designers, contractors, and building code officials. This consensus document is the product of the guidelines committee members below:

Frances Carpenter Chairperson; Danny Johnson; Curtis Boswell; Tom Carty; Laura Walker; Ernest U. Earn; Mike Millard; Philip T. Mccreanor, Ph.D.; Phillip George; Joe Messina; Jim Poff; Guy Pihera; Conrad Gelot; Marvin Richards; Chris Kumnick; Bob Bourne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Energy Conservation for Boiler Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last ten years energy costs have soared. The cost of coal and # 2 fuel oil have gone up by a factor of 3-5. Residual fuel oil cost has increased by approximately ten times. The cost of natural gas has gone up at an even higher rate. This paper reviews methods to conserve energy in industrial boiler water systems. Both mechanical and chemical approaches for energy conservation are discussed. The important aspects of efficient combustion are covered as well as other mechanical factors such as boiler blowdown heat recovery, economizers, air preheaters, and boiler blowdown control. The chemical aspects discussed for energy conservation include fuel additives, boiler internal treatment, and condensate treatments. The emphasis in this paper, for both mechanical and chemical approaches to energy conservation covers three areas: 1) maximizing the use of available Btu's in fuel through more efficient combustion, 2) improving the efficiency of heat transfer, and 3) recovering Btu's that have been previously considered uneconomical.

Beardsley, M. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For dishwashers, not only is energy wasted as the hot waterhas the energy used to heat this water been wasted, but thewasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy

Lutz, James

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

NAWMS: nonintrusive autonomous water monitoring system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water is nature's most precious resource and growing demand is pushing fresh water supplies to the brink of non-renewability. New technological and social initiatives that enhance conservation and reduce waste are needed. Providing consumers with fine-grained ... Keywords: adaptive sensor calibration, machine learning, nonintrusive and spatially distributed sensing, parameter estimation via optimization, tiered information architecture, water flow rate estimation

Younghun Kim; Thomas Schmid; Zainul M. Charbiwala; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Feasibility and design of blast mitigation systems for naval applications using water mist fire suppression systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recent trend of using fine water mist systems to replace the legacy HALON- 1301 fire suppression systems warrants further study into other applications of the water mist systems. Preliminary research and investigation ...

Kitchenka, Julie A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd Reduction of WateR use in Wet fGd systems Background Coal-fired power plants require large volumes of water for efficient operation, primarily for cooling purposes. Public concern over water use is increasing, particularly in water stressed areas of the country. Analyses conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory predict significant increases in power plant freshwater consumption over the coming years, encouraging the development of technologies to reduce this water loss. Power plant freshwater consumption refers to the quantity of water withdrawn from a water body that is not returned to the source but is lost to evaporation, while water withdrawal refers to the total quantity of water removed from a water source.

73

Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 1 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Buildings Technologies Program Date: September 30, 2011 ENERGY STAR ® Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Welcome to the Webinar! We will start at 11:00 AM Eastern. There is no call in number. The audio will be sent through your computer speakers. All questions will be submitted via typing. Video of presenters Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 2 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes 3 | Building America Program www.buildingamerica.gov Building America Program: Introduction Building Technologies Program Energy Star Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

74

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

75

Automatic generation of water distribution systems based on GIS data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the field of water distribution system (WDS) analysis, case study research is needed for testing or benchmarking optimisation strategies and newly developed software. However, data availability for the investigation of real cases is limited due to ... Keywords: Algorithmic network generation, GIS-data, Hydraulic simulation, Modular design system, Water distribution system

Robert Sitzenfrei, Michael MöDerl, Wolfgang Rauch

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Modelling an urban water system on the edge of chaos  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Viewing an urban water system as a complex adaptive system provides new opportunities for analysis and avoids some critical simplifications. Taking this perspective, it is possible to explore the inter-related effects of changes to the system. This is ... Keywords: Agent-based modelling, Integrated assessment, Socio-technical analysis, Water services

Magnus Moglia; Pascal Perez; Stewart Burn

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Water Rights Analysis Package (WRAP) Modeling System Reference Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Texas Water Resources Institute (TWRI), and many other agencies and organizations, have worked with Ralph Wurbs over the years to develop WRAP (the Water Rights Analysis Package). The WRAP model simulates management of the water resources of a river basin, or multiple-basin region, under a priority-based water allocation system. The model facilitates assessment of hydrologic and institutional water availability/reliability for existing and proposed requirements for water use and management. Basin-wide impacts of water resources development projects and management strategies may be evaluated. The software package is generalized for application to any river/reservoir/use system, with input files being developed for the particular river basin of concern. The model is documented by reference and users manuals that may be downloaded from this site along with the software. WRAP is incorporated in the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Water Availability Modeling (WAM) System.

Wurbs, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus (10) for treating water in a circulating water system (12) t has a cooling water basin (14) includes a slip stream conduit (16) in flow communication with the circulating water system (12), a source (36) of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16), and a decarbonator (58) in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16) and the cooling water basin (14). In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system (12) into the slip stream conduit (16) of the apparatus (10). The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source (36) thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator (58) to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin (14).

Cleveland, Joe R. (West Hills, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Protected Water Area System (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Protected Water Area System (Iowa) Protected Water Area System (Iowa) Protected Water Area System (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Iowa Department of Natural Resources The Natural Resource Commission maintains a state plan for the design and

80

EA-1093: Surface Water Drainage System, Golden, Colorado | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site located north of Golden, Colorado. PUBLIC COMMENT...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dam and the Thermalito pumped storage units in the north,This generation pumped storage, and recovery generation, (electricity demand. In a pumped-storage system, water is

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for H2 Production (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for Hydrogen Production presentation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's John Turner was given at the DOE Hydrogen Program's 2007 Annual Merit Review.

Turner, J. A.; Deutsch, T.; Head, J.; Vallett, P.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

83

Water-side Economizer for Non-Fan Cooling Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

changes to the commercial provisions of the 2012 IECC: Water-side Economizer for Non-Fan Cooling Systems R Hart Pacific Northwest National Laboratory January 2013 Proposal...

84

TRNSYS simulation of solar water heating system in Iraq  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to model and verify a direct solar water heating system in Baghdad, Iraq using TRNSYS software to meet the demand of hot water for 25 persons. This is achieved by using 10 m2 of a flat plate collector and 600 ... Keywords: Baghdad-Iraq, TRNSYS, solar, water heating

M. N. Mohammed; M. A. Alghoul; Kh. Abulqasem; Alshrif. Mustafa; Kh. Glaisa; P. Ooshaksaraei; M. Yahya; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of Hard Water Stable Emulsifier Systems for Petroleum- and Bio-based Semi for petroleum and bio-based MWFs that improve fluid lifetime by providing emulsion stability under hard water provide improved hard water stability for both mineral oil- and vegetable oil-based formulations, even

Clarens, Andres

86

A hybrid system model of seasonal snowpack water balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is estimated that seasonal snow cover is the primary source of water supply for over 60 million people in the western United States. Informed decision making, which ensures reliable and equitable distribution of this limited water resource, thus needs ... Keywords: hybrid systems, hydrology, snowmelt, water resources

Branko Kerkez; Steven D. Glaser; John A. Dracup; Roger C. Bales

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

SCADA system for monitoring water supply networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water supply represents a vital problem for people, and this imposes the need to know the information regarding consumptions, resources and production. This implies a continuous supervision of the water supply process in order to allow any problem that ... Keywords: PLCs, SCADA, analysis, control, data acquisition, data transmission, monitoring

Mircea Dobriceanu; Alexandru Bitoleanu; Mihaela Popescu; Sorin Enache; Eugen Subtirelu

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Assessment Study Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump systems, composed of multiple water-source heat pumps, a boiler, and a cooling tower operating in a closed water loop are a key segment of the commercial building heat pump market. This type of system provides a low-first-cost, versatile, and energy-efficient approach to space conditioning commercial buildings that have simultaneous heating and cooling loads.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

89

Long-term fuzzy management of water resource systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present context of water resource scarcity, a complete approach for long-term storage/transfer/distribution system management is proposed. The main management objective of such a kind of system is to manage reserves and releases so as to minimize ... Keywords: fuzzy logic, modeling, optimization, water resource management

Roger Marcelin Faye; Salam Sawadogo; Claude Lishou; Félix Mora-Camino

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Fourteenth Service Water System Reliability Improvement Seminar Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains information presented at the Fourteenth Service Water System Reliability Improvement (SWSRI) Seminar held June 24-25, 2002, in San Diego, California. The bi-annual seminar -- sponsored by EPRI -- provided an opportunity for participants to exchange technical information and experiences regarding the monitoring, repair, and replacement of service water system components.

2002-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

91

Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

Lutz, James

2005-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

93

LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The tests and evaluation were performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a ''Dump-type'' because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar energy systems require periodic inspections and routine maintenance to keep them operating efficiently. Also, from time to time, components may need repair or replacement. You should also take steps to prevent scaling, corrosion, and freezing. You might be able to handle some of the inspections and maintenance tasks on your own, but others may require a qualified technician. Ask for a cost estimate in writing before having any work done. For some systems, it may

95

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

96

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

97

A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, MT Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Project Type / Topic 2 Topic Area 1: Technology Demonstration Projects Project Description Butte, Montana, like many other mining towns that developed because of either hard-rock minerals or coal, is underlain by now-inactive water-filled mines. In Butte's case, over 10,000 miles of underground workings have been documented, but as in many other mining communities these waters are regarded as more of a liability than asset. Mine waters offer several advantages:

98

Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area  

SciTech Connect

Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

Hunacek, G.S. Jr. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

Hong, Glenn T. (Tewksbury, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump (WLHP) systems are reliable, versatile, energy-efficient alternatives to conventional systems such as packaged rooftop or central chiller systems. These systems offer low installed costs, unparalleled design flexibility, and an inherent ability to recover heat in a variety of commercial and multifamily residential buildings for both new construction and retrofit markets.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Design and installation package for solar hot water system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains the design and installation procedure for the Solar Engineering and Manufacturing Company's solar hot water system. Included are the system performance specifications, system design drawings, hazard analysis and other information necessary to evaluate the design and instal the system.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

A Free Cooling Based Chilled Water System at Kingston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In efforts to reduce operating costs, the IBM site at Kingston, New York incorporated the energy saving concept of 'free cooling' (direct cooling of chilled water with condenser water) with the expansion of the site chilled water system. Free cooling was employed to satisfy the winter chilled water load of approximately 3000 tons resulting in electrical savings of up to 70% in the winter with wet bulb temperatures below 38 oF. Other energy efficient features included variable speed pumping, high efficiency motors and chillers with reduced entering condenser water limits. This paper will describe the various possible operating modes and their associated savings using computer simulation techniques.

Jansen, P. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Solar domestic hot water system inspection and performance evaluation handbook  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reference source and procedures are provided to a solar technician for inspecting a solar domestic hot water system after installation and for troubleshooting the system during a maintenance call. It covers six generic DHW systems and is designed to aid the user in identifying a system type, diagnosing a system's problem, and then pinpointing and evaluating specific component problems. A large amount of system design and installation information is also included.

Not Available

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Electrical load management for the California water system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To meet its water needs California has developed an extensive system for transporting water from areas with high water runoff to areas with high water demand. This system annually consumes more than 6 billion kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity for pumping water and produces more than 12 billion kWh/year of hydroelectric power. From the point of view of energy conservation, the optimum operation of the California water supply system would require that pumping be done at night and generation be done during the day. Night pumping would reduce electric power peak load demand and permit the pumps to be supplied with electricity from ''base load'' generating plants. Daytime hydro power generation would augment peak load power generation by fossil-fuel power plants and save fuel. The technical and institutional aspects of this type of electric power load management for water projects are examined for the purpose of explaining some of the actions which might be pursued and to develop recommendations for the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (ERCDC). The California water supply system is described. A brief description is given of various energy conservation methods, other than load management, that can be used in the management of water resources. An analysis of load management is presented. Three actions for the ERCDC are recommended: the Commission should monitor upcoming power contract negotiations between the utilities and the water projects; it should determine the applicability of the power-pooling provisions of the proposed National Energy Act to water systems; and it should encourage and support detailed studies of load management methods for specific water projects.

Krieg, B.; Lasater, I.; Blumstein, C.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hedgehog™ Water Contaminant Removal System - Energy Innovation ...  

The in-tank recirculating treatment system reduces the levels of ... Energy Innovation ... laboratory environment which includes the integration and ...

106

Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) Water Distribution and Wastewater Systems Operators (North Dakota) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State North Dakota Program Type Siting and Permitting All public water supply and wastewater disposal systems are subject to classification and regulation by the State of North Dakota, and must obtain certification from the State Department of Health

107

Development of an oil-water pollution monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Overboard discharge of bilge and ballast water is necessary, so oil-water separators have been researched extensively. The monitoring problem is to be able to determine the oil concentration continuously. An automatic monitor using carbon analyzer techniques is described. With only one calibration curve, the system can detect accurately the concentration of any type of oil in the water. (1 diagram, 2 graphs, 1 photo)

Tyler, B.; Gongaware, W.; Houlihan, T.M.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Design and Application of Solar Water Heater Intelligent Control System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar water heater intelligent control system is made up of four modules which are data acquisition module, single-chip control module, the implementation and regulation module and human- machine interaction module. The problems of automatic detection ... Keywords: Solar Water Heater, Hardware Design, Detection and Control

Yu Gui Yin

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Survey of Optimization of Reactor Coolant Cleanup Systems: For Boiling Water Reactors and Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the reactor coolant cleanup systems in the boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment is important for controlling the transport of corrosion products (metals and activated metals), fission products, and coolant impurities (soluble and insoluble) throughout the reactor coolant loop, and this optimization contributes to reducing primary system radiation fields. The removal of radionuclides and corrosion products is just one of many functions (both ...

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

110

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Water-storage-tube systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

Hemker, P.

1981-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

112

Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests  

SciTech Connect

Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method  

SciTech Connect

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, Thomas F. (Lebanon, PA); Parsons, Jr., Edward J. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a high driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1000{degrees}C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, T.F.; Parsons, E.J. Jr.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a high driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1000[degrees]C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

Bechtel, T.F.; Parsons, E.J. Jr.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Windjammer solar-water-heating system. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the Windjammer Solar-Water-Heating System tests showed that it was not as an efficient system as a comparable conventional system for converting solar energy into heat energy. However, it was determined that the innovative mode used less electric back-up energy for water heating. Reduced fossil fuel energy consumption being the ultimate objective of a solar water heating, the principle employed has been shown to be a workable energy saving concept. The differential mode of temperature control emerged as the more efficient mode of operation for the innovative system and under comparable conditions is projected to be nearly equivalent to the conventional solar system. Although the concept has proven workable, the costs feasible, and the potential for considereable improvements exists, additional research and development is needed to advance the design into its most practical application.

Windham, J.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

The water megamaser in the merger system Arp299  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present preliminary results of an interferometric study of the water megamaser in the merger system Arp299. This system is composed of two main sources: IC694 and NGC3690. There is clear evidence that most of the water maser emission is associated with the nucleus of the latter, confirming the presence of an optically obscured AGN as previously suggested by X-ray observations. Furthermore, emission arises from the inner regions of IC694, where an OH megamaser is also present. The velocity of the water maser line is blueshifted w.r.t. the optically determined systemic velocity and is consistent with that of the OH megamaser line. This finding might then indicate that both masers are associated with the same (expanding) structure and that, for the first time, strong 22 GHz water and 1.67 GHz OH maser emission has been found to coexist.

A. Tarchi; P. Castangia; C. Henkel; K. M. Menten

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

118

Water Management in Ash-Handling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1980, EPA proposed revisions to the effluent standards and guidelines for fly ash and bottom ash transport systems. This review of utility practices provides a comprehensive account of the operation of and problems experienced in wet handling of bottom and fly ash and suggests areas for further research.

1987-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

119

Optimization for the Chilled Water System of HVAC Systems in an Intelligent Building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy saving issue of chilled water system in an intelligent building is analyzed from the systematic point of view and an optimum scheduling scheme which can save energy of the system facilities and satisfy the constraints of the real time cold ... Keywords: genetic algorithm, intelligent building, systematic energy saving, chilled water system, optimal scheduling

Ming-hai Li; Qing-chang Ren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

LANSCE Drift Tube Linac Water Control System Refurbishment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are several refurbishment projects underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANSCE linear accelerator. Systems involved are: RF, water cooling, networks, diagnostics, timing, controls, etc. The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) portion of the accelerator consists of four DTL tanks, each with three independent water control systems. The systems are about 40 years old, use outdated and non-replaceable equipment and NIM bin control modules, are beyond their design life and provide unstable temperature control. Insufficient instrumentation and documentation further complicate efforts at maintaining system performance. Detailed design of the replacement cooling systems is currently in progress. Previous design experience on the SNS accelerator water cooling systems will be leveraged, see the SNS DTL FDR. Plans call for replacement of water piping, manifolds, pumps, valves, mix tanks, instrumentation (flow, pressure and temperature) and control system hardware and software. This presentation will focus on the control system design with specific attention on planned use of the National Instruments Compact RIO platform with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control system (EPICS) software toolkit.

Marroquin, Pilar S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Energy Conservation in Process Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy consumption of the chiller and cooling tower in a process cooling application was analyzed using the TRNSYS computer code. The basic system included a constant speed centrifugal chiller and an induced-draft, counterflow cooling tower. Typical performance data was used to generate empirical models of the chiller and cooling tower. The cooling load profile was based on averaged electrical demand data for three plastic processing plants. The simulation was conducted using hourly Typical Meteorological Year weather data to determine the cooling tower operating conditions. Three alternative systems were modeled to predict the savings associated with the following energy conservation options: 1) variable speed drive chiller, 2) two-speed cooling tower fan, and 3) natural cycle cooling. The annual energy savings are presented as a function of cooling tower outlet temperature and average cooling load ratio.

Ambs, L. L.; DiBella, R. A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

None

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Solar hot water system installed at Anderson, South Carolina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., at Anderson, South Carolina is described. The building is a low-rise two-story 114-room motel. The solar components were partly funded by the Department of Energy. The solar system was designed to provide 40% of the total hot water demand. The collector is a flat plate, liquid with an area of 750 square feet. Operation of this system was begun in November 1977, and has performed flawlessly for one year.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

Fullam, H.T.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements Eligibility Commercial...

127

Improve Chilled Water System Performance, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Application of upspray type water distribution systems in cooling towers  

SciTech Connect

The efficient and uniform distribution of the warm circulating water on to the filling of cooling towers has been the continuing goal of the tower designer. The final element in the water distribution system, the sprayer, plays an important role in achieving this objective. This paper discusses the performance and operational characteristics of a sprayer utilized in counterflow towers that directs the water leaving the sprayer nozzle in an upward direction and briefly compares its performance with that of downward sprayers. The discussion also covers relative tower economics and application data of the sprayer.

Fay, H.P.; Hesse, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Modeling studies of geothermal systems with a free water surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A numerical simulator was developed for the modeling of air-steam-water systems. The simulator was applied to various problems involving injection into or production from a geothermal reservoir in hydraulic communication with a shallow free-surface aquifer. First, a one-dimensional column problem is considered and the water level movement during exploitation is studied using different capillary pressure functions. Second, a two-dimensional radial model is used to study and compare reservoir depletion for cases with and without a free-surface aquifer. Finally, the contamination of a shallow free-surface aquifer due to cold water injection is investigated. The primary aim of these studies is to obtain an understanding of the response of a reservoir in hydraulic communication with a unconfined aquifer during exploitation or injection and to determine under which circumstances conventional modeling techniques (fully saturated systems) can be applied to such systems.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Designing a 'Near Optimum' Cooling-Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling water is expensive to circulate. Reducing its flow - i.e., hiking exchanger outlet temperatures - can cut tower, pump and piping investment as much as one-third and operating cost almost in half. Heat-exchanger-network optimization has been accomplished in large integrated plants, such as petroleum refineries. In many of the chemical process industries, however, a plant contains several individual processes, and network optimization, except on a limited basis, is not feasible. So far, no one has developed similar procedures for designing and optimizing a cooling-water once through-exchanger system. This article attempts to fill the void by presenting a design basis that will produce a 'near optimum' system. A cooling-water system consists of four major components: heat exchangers, cooling towers, circulation piping and pumps. To optimize such a system, one must define the system interactions and apply these relationships to the simultaneous design of the aforementioned equipment. This article develops criteria that for most applications allow one to ignore system interactions, and still design a 'near optimum' system. Cooling-water systems have long been designed by 'rules of thumb' that call for fixing the cool ant temperature-rise across all heat exchangers (usually 20 F) and setting the coolant inlet temperature to the heat exchanger at the site's wet-bulb temperature plus 8 F. These rules produce a workable cooling system; but, by taking the same coolant rise across all exchangers, regardless of the individual process outlet-temperatures, this cannot result in an optimized design. The design method presented in this article replaces the 'rules of thumb' with criteria that are easy to apply and that take into account the effect that the individual exchanger process outlet- temperatures have on cooling-system economics. Economic analyses of actual process have shown that cooling-system investment can be reduced by one third, and cooling-system operating cost by one half, If the proposed design criteria are used instead of the 'rules of thumb.' It has been found that the controlling economic factor for a cooling system is the quantity of water being circulated. Reducing the flow (raising the coolant outlet temperature of heat exchangers) significantly reduces cooling tower, pump and piping investment, and operating cost, and only moderately increases the heat-exchanger investment. The overriding conclusion to be drawn is that cooling water is very expensive, and its conservation can result in significant savings.

Crozier, R. A., Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Florida Florida A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin , Texas March 1st, 2012 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Cocoa, Florida 3 2009 -Present (Currently in third testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Underground Circulation Loop * Solar circulation Loop 140+ feet of ½" copper tubing * Encased in PVC tubing with R-2.4 insulation * ICS to 50 gallon storage tank path need to

132

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar system was installed into a new buildng and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This final report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

An automatic water management system for large-scale rice paddy fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic water management system for large-scale paddy fields has been developed. The purposes of that are to supply the paddy fields with water or drain water from that automatically, to decrease water consumption, and to have a good harvest. To ... Keywords: estimating mean water level, optimal water allocation, paddy field, predict field consumption, prediction of growth stages, water level control

Teruji Sekozawa

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Modeling Studies of Geothermal Systems with a Free Water Surface  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerical simulators developed for geothermal reservoir engineering applications generally only consider systems which are saturated with liquid water and/or steam. However, most geothermal fields are in hydraulic communicatino with shallow ground water aquifers having free surface (water level), so that production or injection operations will cause movement of the surface, and of the air in the pore spaces above the water level. In some geothermal fields the water level is located hundreds of meters below the surface (e.g. Olkaria, Kenya; Bjornsson, 1978), so that an extensive so that an extensive unsaturated zone is present. In other the caprock may be very leaky or nonexistent [e.g., Klamath Falls, oregon (Sammel, 1976)]; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; (Grant et al., 1984) in which case ther eis good hydraulic communication between the geothermal reservoir and the shallow unconfined aquifers. Thus, there is a need to explore the effect of shallow free-surface aquifers on reservoir behavior during production or injection operations. In a free-surface aquifer the water table moves depending upon the rate of recharge or discharge. This results in a high overall storativity; typically two orders of magnitude higher than that of compressed liquid systems, but one or two orders of magnitude lower than that for liquid-steam reservoirs. As a consequence, various data analysis methods developed for compressed liquid aquifers (such as conventional well test analysis methods) are not applicable to aquifer with a free surface.

Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Pruess, K.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward achieving the technology development goals of this center.

Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Hanson, Jason (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Grimsrud, Kristine (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Thacher, Jennifer (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Broadbent, Craig (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brookshire, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Chemak, Janie (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockeril Consulting, Boone, NC); Aragon, Carlos (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique (New Mexico Univeristy of Technology and Mining (NM-TECH), Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Pumped Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system design guidelines  

SciTech Connect

This article provides practical guidelines based on experience gained from the design, installation, and commissioning of a pumped Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system in Saudi Arabia. The authors believe that such information is not readily available and will be useful to designers and installers of SDHW systems within the region. Since the current motivation for buying SDHW systems in Saudi Arabia is not strictly economic, it is imperative that a professional reference be available, against which the soundness of any technical decisions could be confirmed prior to their implementation. The intent is to ensure that systems designed and installed will operate reliably, therefore enhancing customer satisfaction.

Arshad, K.; Said, S.A.M. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Application of partial mutual information variable selection to ANN forecasting of water quality in water distribution systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent trends in the management of water supply have increased the need for modelling techniques that can provide reliable, efficient, and accurate representation of the complex, non-linear dynamics of water quality within water distribution systems. ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Chlorine disinfection, Chlorine residual forecasting, Input variable selection, Partial mutual information, Water quality modelling

Robert J. May; Graeme C. Dandy; Holger R. Maier; John B. Nixon

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler efficiency and availability. Proper control of boiler blowdown is also important to assure clean boiler surfaces without wasting water, heat, and chemicals. Recovering hot condensate for reuse as boiler feedwater is another means of improving system efficiency. Condensate which is contaminated with corrosion products or process chemicals, however, is ill fit for reuse; and steam which leaks from piping, valves, traps and connections cannot be recovered. Effective chemical treatment, in conjunction with mechanical system improvements, can assure that condensate can be safely returned and valuable energy recovered.

Bloom, D.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

EA-1905: Double Eagle Water System, Carlsbad, New Mexico  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA, prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management Carlsbad Field Office and adopted by DOE, evaluates the expansion and upgrade of the City of Carlsbad’s Double Eagle Water System.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar heating/cooling and domestic hot-water systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing awareness of global warming forces policy makers and industries to face two challenges: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and securing stable energy supply against ever-increasing world energy consumption, which is projected to increase by ... Keywords: buildings heating, domestic hot-water, energetical analysis, renewable energy sources, solar cooling technologies, solar energy collection, solar thermal systems

Ioan Sârbu; Marius Adam

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Design of Automation Control System for Water Chillers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy crisis led to the recognition that the energy conservation is important. The aim of performance test rig of a water chiller which is introduced in this paper is just for the energy saving. In order to get the better efficiency, a monitoring system ...

Yuhong Sun; Yuying Sun; Junmei Li; Xiaowei Yin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

System design package for SIMS prototype system 3, solar heating and domestic hot water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using liquid flat plat collectors and a gas or electric furnace energy subsystem. The system was designed for installation into a single-family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with information sufficient to assemble a similar system. The SIMS Prototype Heating and Hot Water System, Model Number 3 has been installed in a residence at Glendo State Park, Glendo, Wyoming.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Flow Analysis on a Limited Volume Chilled Water System  

SciTech Connect

LANL Currently has a limited volume chilled water system for use in a glove box, but the system needs to be updated. Before we start building our new system, a flow analysis is needed to ensure that there are no high flow rates, extreme pressures, or any other hazards involved in the system. In this project the piping system is extremely important to us because it directly affects the overall design of the entire system. The primary components necessary for the chilled water piping system are shown in the design. They include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fitting used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flow rate control devices (valves), and the pumps that add energy to the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. I used an 'exact' analysis and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for this project. When 'real-world' effects are important (such as viscous effects in pipe flows), it is often difficult or impossible to use only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations and dimensional analysis are needed in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level.

Zheng, Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Improving the Water Efficiency of Cooling Production System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For most of the time, cooling towers (CTs) of cooling systems operate under partial load conditions and by regulating the air circulation with a variable frequency drive (VFD), significant reduction in the fan power can be achieved. In Kuwait and other counties of Arabian Peninsula, reduced airflow can lead to reduction in water consumption as well, since during the summer season, the dry bulb temperature of the ambient air is higher than the incoming hot water temperature, and the air undergoes sensible cooling. This paper presents the findings of a study conducted in the Avenues mall, Kuwait. Initially, the CTs operated only at high speed, and on a typical summer day nearly one fourth of the make-up water was used for self cooling of air. The study based on measured data revealed that the use of VFD can reduce the water wastage for self-cooling of air by as much as 75% and overall water consumption by 18.6% while keeping the cooling system performance at design level.

Maheshwari, G.; Al-Hadban, Y.; Al-Taqi, H. H.; Alasseri, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Discovery of water ice nearly everywhere in the solar system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the last decade we have discovered sources of accessible water in some form nearly everywhere in the solar system. Water ice has been found on the planet Mercury; probably on the Earth`s Moon; on Mars; on near Earth objects; on comets whose orbits frequently come close to that of Earth`s orbit; probably on Ceres, the largest inner asteroid; and on comets previously and incorrectly considered to be out of practical reach. The comets also provide massive quantities of hydrocarbons, similar to oil shale. The masses of either water or hydrocarbons are measured in units of cubic kilometers. The water is key to space transportation because it can be used as a rocket propellant directly, and because thermal process alone can be used to convert it and hydrocarbons into hydrogen, the highest performing rocket propellant. This presentation outlines what is currently known about the locations of the water ice, and sketches the requirements and environments of missions to prospect for and assay the water sources.

Zuppero, A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Water Resources. Water Conservation in California. DWRUse ENERGY CONSERVATION Water Conservation Pump Efficienciescussion of load Water Conservation some of these measures in

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

INTEC CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System Closure: Process Design  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the engineering activities that have been completed in support of the closure plan for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603 Basin Water Treatment System. This effort includes detailed assessments of methods and equipment for performing work in four areas: 1. A cold (nonradioactive) mockup system for testing equipment and procedures for vessel cleanout and vessel demolition. 2. Cleanout of process vessels to meet standards identified in the closure plan. 3. Dismantlement and removal of vessels, should it not be possible to clean them to required standards in the closure plan. 4. Cleanout or removal of pipelines and pumps associated with the CPP-603 basin water treatment system. Cleanout standards for the pipes will be the same as those used for the process vessels.

Kimmitt, Raymond Rodney; Faultersack, Wendell Gale; Foster, Jonathan Kay; Berry, Stephen Michael

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

System design package for SIMS Prototype System 2, solar hot water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a collection of documents and drawings that describe a solar hot water system. The necessary information to evaluate the design and with information sufficient to assemble a similar system is presented. The International Business Machines Corporation developed prototype system 2 solar hot water for use in a single family dwelling. The system has been installed in Building Number 20, which is a single family residence on the grounds of the Veterans Administration Hospital at Togus, Maine. It consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, energy transport, and control. It is a design with wide-spread application potential with only slight adjustments necessary in system size.

Not Available

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

Seibert, D. L.

1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

151

Hotel in the Bahamas profits from solar hot water system  

SciTech Connect

On Paradise Island, located in the Bahamas, American Energy Technologies Inc. (AET) recently designed and supplied a domestic solar water heating system for the new Comfort Suites Hotel. AET is a Florida manufacturer of solar thermal collectors. The hotel has 150 rooms. Hot water usage entails the laundry facilities and the limited kitchen facilities. Access to hot showers is more of a luxury in some places, but guests at the Comfort Suites Hotel need not be concerned. During the development of the hotel, it was noted that the high heating costs of the propane-fueled hotel boiler were somewhat prohibitive. Propane cost approximately $1.67/gallon, causing the cost of heating water for the hotel to be estimated at over $1,000 per month. To offset the high heating costs, a 49-collector system on a 3200 gallon storage tank was designed into the plans for the new facility. The 49 roof mounted collectors were placed on a direct solar link to the 3200 gallon storage tank. The water is preheated before it gets to the boiler, cutting costs tremendously.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Controllers for solar domestic hot-water systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is intended as a resource for designers and installers of solar domestic hot water systems. It provides key functional control strategy and equipment alternatives and equipment descriptions adequate for writing effective DHW controller specifications. It also provides the installer with adequate technical background to understand the functional aspects of the controller. Included are specific instructions to install, check out, and troubleshoot the controller installation.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Guidelines for Replacement Materials for Service Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many power plants have ordered replacement materials for service water system components such as piping and heat exchanger tubing, only to find that the replacement materials do not perform as expected. Plant personnel who believed they were procuring like-for-like materials are at a loss as to why more modern materials, and components fabricated from more modern materials, can often provide inferior service, compared to original equipment. This report from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) lo...

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

154

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Catalytic. System design final report. Volume 1. System requirement definition and system analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Inc. was awarded a contract to conduct a preliminary system design and cost analysis for a brackish water desalination project to be located in Brownsville, Texas. System analyses and economic analyses were performed to define the baseline solar energy desalination system. The baseline system provides an average daily product water capacity of 6000 mT. The baseline system is optimal relative to technological risk, performance, and product water cost. Subsystems and their interfaces have been defined and product water cost projections made for commercial plants in a range of capacities. Science Applications, Inc. (SAI), subcontractor to Catalytic, had responsibility for the solar power system. This, the final report, summarizes the work performed under the Phase I effort.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

Page, Steven J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Mal, Thomas (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of growth of each system. Sediment samples after the first and third years of operation indicated that copper was being bound in the sediments very rapidly after entering the treatment system. The design of the system encourages low redox and sulfide production in the sediments. The objective is to stabilize metals, including mercury, as sulfide compounds in the sediments. Costs for maintenance and operation of the systems are minimal, consisting primarily of ensuring that the pipes are not clogged and that water is flowing through the system. The treatment cost per thousand gallons is many times less than conventional wastewater treatment facilities. Life expectancy and function of the biological system is based on the life of the engineering aspects and not the wetland ecology.

Nelson, E.

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

157

Investigations of Temperature Effects on NOAA's Next Generation Water Level Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collects tide and water-level data by using an acoustic tide gauge in its Next Generation Water Level Measurement System (NGWLMS). The elevation of the water is calculated from the round-trip ...

David L. Portep; H. H. Shih

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A System Dynamics Approach for Developing Zone Water Demand Forecasting: A Case Study of Linkong Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

System dynamics (SD) approach for developing zone water demand forecasting was developed based on the analysis of its water resources system which has multi-feedback and nonlinear interactions amongst system elements. As an example, Tianjin Binhai Linkong ... Keywords: developing zone, system dynamics, water resources demand, Linkong

Xuehua Zhang; Hongwei Zhang; Xinhua Zhao

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

System design package for SIMS Prototype System 4, solar heating and domestic hot water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a collation of documents and drawings that describe a prototype solar heating and hot water system using air type solar energy collection techniques. The system consists of a modular designed prepackaged solar unit containing solar collctors, a rock storage container, blowers, dampers, ducting, air-to-water heat exchanger, DHW preheat tank, piping and system controls. The system was designed to be installed adjacent to a small single family dwelling. The description, performance specification, subsystem drawings, verification plan/procedure, and hazard analysis of the system are packaged for evaluation of the system with inforation sufficient to assemble a similar system. The prepackage solar unit has been installed at the Mississippi Power and Light Company, Training Facilities, Clinton, Mississippi.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

Bradley, D.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates V. Mattioli and P. Basili Department of Electronic and Information Engineering University of Perugia Perugia, Italy E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction In recent years the Global Positioning System (GPS) has proved to be a reliable instrument for measuring precipitable water vapor (PWV) (Bevis et al. 1992), offering an independent source of information on water vapor when compared with microwave radiometers (MWRs), and/or radiosonde

162

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recommendations for Applying Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems A. Rudd, K. Ueno, D. Bergey, R. Osser Building Science Corporation June 2012 i This report received minimal editorial review at NREL. NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

163

IRA-WDS: A GIS-based risk analysis tool for water distribution systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a new software tool IRA-WDS. This GIS-based software predicts the risks associated with contaminated water entering water distribution systems from surrounding foul water bodies such as sewers, drains and ditches. ... Keywords: Contaminant intrusion, Developing countries, GIS, Intermittent water supply, Risk assessment, Tight coupling, Water supply

K. Vairavamoorthy; Jimin Yan; Harshal M. Galgale; Sunil D. Gorantiwar

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Design, Construction, and Field Testing of a Prototype Mobile Vault Water Treatment System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsurface vaults and manholes provide access to underground electric distribution equipment in many areas. These structures can accumulate water through storm water runoff or ground water seepage. The water must be removed before maintenance work can proceed. This report presents results of a project to design, construct, and test a mobile treatment system to manage vault waters.

2001-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

165

Trends of environmental information systems in the context of the European Water Framework Directive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Europe, the development of Environmental Information Systems for the water domain is heavily influenced by the need to support the processes of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The aim of the WFD is to ensure that all European waters, ... Keywords: EIS, Environmental information systems, GMES, GML, INSPIRE, Java, OGC, WFD, Water Framework Directive

Thomas Usländer

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Advanced Heat Pump Water Heating Technology: Testing Commercial and Residential Systems in the Laboratory and Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) provide electric water heating at a much greater overall efficiency than conventional electric resistance systems. In the residential market, approximately half of all water heaters are electric resistance; these systems can be replaced by HPWHs in most applications with expected savings of 30%–60%. In commercial applications, most systems presently use natural gas or another fuel in direct combustion. Emerging HPWH systems are now able to provide water heating ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

167

Solar Water Splitting: Photocatalyst Materials Discovery and Systems Development  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen promises to be an attractive transportation fuel in the post-fossil fuel era. Relatively abundant and clean burning (water being the principal byproduct), hydrogen offers the potential to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, there are significant technical barriers that require solutions before hydrogen can be implemented in large scale. These are: · Sources (e.g. hydrocarbon, water) · Transportation · Storage Each of the aforementioned barriers carries with it important considerations. First, would a hydrocarbon-based hydrogen source be of any benefit compared to conventional fossil fuels? Second, will a system based on centralized generation and distribution be viable? Finally, methods of on-board storage, whether they are liquefaction, adsorption, or intercalation, are far from optimized. The scope of this program is limited to hydrogen generation, specifically generation using solarinitiated water electrolysis. Though concept of making hydrogen using water and sunlight may sound somewhat far-fetched, in reality the concept is very real. Since the discovery of solar-generated hydrogen, termed photoelectrochemical hydrogen, nearly 30 years ago by Fujishima and Honda, significant advances in both fundamental understanding and technological capability have been made. Using solar radiation to generate hydrogen in a fashion akin to using solar to generate electricity offers many advantages. First, hydrogen can be generated at the point of use, reducing the importance of transportation. Second, using water as the hydrogen source eliminates greenhouse gas evolution and the consequences that come with it. Finally, because the process uses very little electricity (pumps and compressors predominantly), the quantity of chemical fuel produced far exceeds the amount of electricity consumed. Consequently, there is some level of truth to the notion that photoelectrochemically-derived hydrogen offers the potential to nearly eliminate greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation landscape. This report focuses primarily on the technical issues inherent to developing an economically viable photoelectrochemical hydrogen system. This involves research intended to address technology gaps as well as research to address commercial feasibility. Though a firm cost target is not identified explicitly, much of the economics are presented in terms of “dollars per gallon of gasoline equivalent” ($/gge). Obviously this is a moving target, but it is important to understand cost in terms of current gasoline pricing, since the intended target is gasoline replacement. However, this does put the cost contribution into a perspective that at least allows for a reasonable assessment of technological viability. It also allows for the identification of need areas beyond the obvious technology gaps.

McNulty, Thomas F.

2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Design and Application of the Water Temperature Control System for Large Aquaculture Pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because the traditional cooling methods such as ice cooling and natural convection cooling can not meet the special requirements of ornamental fish breeding, the way based on mechanical refrigeration, heat exchange system, water supply system and automatic ... Keywords: aquaculture pond for ornamental fish, water temperature automatic control, mechanical refrigeration, plate exchanger, water supply system

Chen Shuai; Zhong Ke; Cai Yingling

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

Jacobson, Gunilla B. (Los Alamos, NM); Tumas, William (Los Alamos, NM); Johnston, Keith P. (Austin, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

ZERO WATER DISCHARGE SYSTEM FOR THE BABYLON RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plant, involves a complex series of water users and wastewater producers. The water quality of each will be produced and 23,000 gal!day (87 m3/d) of extracted water will be returned to the Well Water Treatment description of each of the subsystems: BOILER FEEDWATER TREATMENT High purity boiler makeup water is produced

Columbia University

171

NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis NREL has a long history of successful research to understand and improve the cost of renewable energy technologies, their possible deployment scenarios, and the economic impacts of this deployment. As a research laboratory, NREL is a neutral third party and can provide an unbiased perspective of methodologies and approaches used to estimate direct and indirect economic impacts of offshore renewable energy projects. Deployment and Economic Impact NREL's economic analysis team is working to provide stakeholders with the tools necessary to understand potential deployment scenarios of water power technologies and the economic impacts of this deployment. The team is working to improve the representation of marine and

172

Water geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, Wood River District, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems of the Wood River District, central Idaho, have been studied by geologic mapping of thermal spring areas and geochemical investigations of thermal and non-thermal waters. This report summarizes the new geochemical data gathered during the study. Integration of the results of geological and geochemical studies has led to development of a target model for hydrothermal resources on the margin of the Idaho Batholith. Warfield Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 58/sup 0/C, flow from a major shear zone along the margin of an apophysis of the batholith. Hailey Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C, occur in an area of multiple thrust faults and newly recognized, closely spaced normal faults in the Paleozoic Milligen and Wood River Formations, 2.5 km from a highly brecciated batholith contact. Other Wood River district hydrothermal systems also occur along the margins of batholith apophyses or in adjacent highly fractured Paleozoic rocks, where there are indications of batholith rocks at shallow depths (100 to 300 m) in water wells.

Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.; Blackett, R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2003. Improving irrigation water management of alfalfa. In:number, sensor number and water arrival time. Wire meshplate Terminals Fig. 1. The water-arrival, or wetting-front,

Saha, Rajat; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S; Upadhyaya, Shrinivasa K; Wallender, Wesley W.; Slaughter, David C

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Low Molecular Weight Organic Contaminants in Advanced Treatment: Occurrence, Treatment and Implications to Desalination and Water Reuse Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. 1987] while produced water from natural gas fields inin desalinated water produced by reverse osmosis systems (of bromophenols in water produced by seawater desalination

Agus, Eva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Decision support system for water distribution systems based on neural networks and graphs theory for leakage detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an efficient and effective decision support system (DSS) for operational monitoring and control of water distribution systems based on a three layer General Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (GFMMNN) and graph theory. The operational monitoring ... Keywords: Decision support system, Graph theory, Loop corrective flows equations, Modeling and simulation, Neural network, Operational control of water distribution systems

Corneliu T. C. Arsene; Bogdan Gabrys; David Al-Dabass

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

includes two components: the price of the water depending on the specific source , and the cost of electricity required to pump the water from the source into the ...

177

A hydrologic information system for water availability modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Texas water availability modeling has undergone a transition from paper-based documents to digital databases and GIS maps. This results in many discrete components: a water… (more)

Siler, Clark D., 1978-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by showers, faucets, and dishwashers. (Actual leaks of hotdraws for sinks and dishwashers may not waste water, from anheat the water. For dishwashers, not only is energy wasted

Lutz, James

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Reduction of Water Use in Wet FGD Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42726 was established in January 2006, and is current through Amendment 2, April 2006. The current reporting period, April 1, 2008 through June 30, 2008, is the eighth progress-reporting period for the project. However, this report will be the final report (instead of a quarterly report) because this project is being terminated. Efforts to bring this project to a close over the past several months focused on internal project discussions, and subsequent communications with NETL, regarding the inherent difficulty with completing this project as originally scoped, and the option of performing an engineering study to accomplish some of the chief project objectives. However, NETL decided that the engineering study did indeed constitute a significant scope deviation from the original concepts, and that pursuit of this option was not recommended. These discussions are summarized in the Results and Discussion, and the Conclusion sections. The objective of this project by a team lead by URS Group was to demonstrate the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption in wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intended to demonstrate that regenerative heat exchange to cool flue gas upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and reheat flue gas downstream of the FGD system would result in the following benefits to air pollution control (APC) systems on coal-fired power plants: (1) Improve ESP performance due to reduced gas volume and improved ash resistivity characteristics, (2) Control SO3 emissions through condensation on the fly ash, and (3) Avoid the need to install wet stacks or to provide flue gas reheat. Finally, operation at cooler flue gas temperatures offered the potential benefit of increasing mercury (Hg) removal across the ESP and FGD systems. This project planned to conduct pilot-scale tests of regenerative heat exchange to determine the reduction in FGD water consumption that can be achieved and assess the resulting impact on APC systems. An analysis of the improvement in the performance of the APC systems and the resulting reduction in capital and operating costs were going to be conducted. The tests were intended to determine the impact of operation of cooling flue gas temperatures on FGD water consumption, ESP particulate removal, SO{sub 3} removal, and Hg removal, and to assess the potential negative impact of excessive corrosion rates in the regenerative heat exchanger. Testing was going to be conducted on Columbian coal (with properties similar to low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal) and SO{sub 3} will be spiked onto the flue gas to simulate operation with higher SO{sub 3} concentrations resulting from firing a higher sulfur coal, or operating with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit. The project was also going to include associate planning, laboratory analytical support, reporting, and management activities. The URS project team finalized a conceptual alternative approach to demonstrate, via an engineering study, the use of regenerative heat exchange to reduce flue gas temperature and minimize evaporative water consumption. This idea was presented in summary format to NETL for consideration. NETL determined that this alternative approach deviated from the original project objectives, and that it would be in the best interest of all parties involved to cancel the project.

David Rencher

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

180

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system including investment, operating fee and pay-back time. The results show that waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system has a low investment, low operating fee and short payback time.

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

183

Minimizing Energy Consumption in a Water Distribution System: A Systems Modeling Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a water distribution system from groundwater supply, the bulk of energy consumption is expended at pump stations. These pumps pressurize the water and transport it from the aquifer to the distribution system and to elevated storage tanks. Each pump in the system has a range of possible operating conditions with varying flow rates, hydraulic head imparted, and hydraulic efficiencies. In this research, the water distribution system of a mid-sized city in a subtropical climate is modeled and optimized in order to minimize the energy usage of its fourteen pumps. A simplified model of the pipes, pumps, and storage tanks is designed using freely-available EPANET hydraulic modeling software. Physical and operational parameters of this model are calibrated against five weeks of observed data using a genetic algorithm to predict storage tank volume given a forecasted system demand. Uncertainty analysis on the calibrated parameters is performed to assess model sensitivity. Finally, the pumping schedule for the system's fourteen pumps is optimized using a genetic algorithm in order to minimize total energy use across a 24-hour period.

Johnston, John

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Renewable Energy Water Pumping Systems Handbook; Period of Performance: April 1--September 1, 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water is one of the most basic necessities of rural development. This book provides valuable information on how renewable energy technologies can be used for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic water supplies. This report emphasizes wind and solar energy resources, and hybrid water pumping systems.

Argaw, N.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Utility water system with a pressureless storage container, particularly for solar installations  

SciTech Connect

A warm water storage system for supplying warm water to a network with water under pressure characterized in that the storage is pressureless and takes place in a ventilated container, and that between the take-off region of the container and the warm water supply network is incorporated a booster pump.

Laing, K.; Laing, N.; Laing, O.; Ludin, L.

1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

186

Water and energy conservation system for food serving establishments  

SciTech Connect

A water and energy conserving apparatus is described for supplying pre-heated water to a hot water heater and for cooling at least one refrigeration unit using a compressible medium in a food serving establishment comprising, a pre-heater tank adapted to receive water from a cold water source and having a cold water inlet line connected to the cold water source and a cold water outlet line. A heat exchanger which is associated with the refrigeration unit is connected to the cold water output line coming from the tank. A hot water output line is connected between the heat exchanger and the tank for returning water from the heat exchanger to the tank. The compressible medium which is hot is supplied from the refrigeration unit to the heat exchanger and the water flowing through the heat exchanger cools the compressible medium thus picking up heat. A circulator is connected into the hot water output line for circulating water from the tank to the heat exchanger and back. A drain line is connected to the heated water output line and includes a normally closed solenoid valve. The drain line is connected to a drain and is provided to vent water from the pre-heater tank. A thermostat is connected to the cold water output line coming from the tank to sense the temperature. The thermostat is connected to a power supply which powers the solenoid and when the temperature of water in the cold water output line rises above a selected value, which is preferably in the vicinity of 85 degrees Fahrenheit, the solenoid valve is energized to open the flow of water in the drain line and vent water from the pre-heater tank. A pre-heater water line is connected between the pre-heater tank and the hot water heater to supply pre-heated water to the hot water heater to conserve energy used in heating the otherwise cold water normally supplied to the hot water heater.

Papadakos, J.

1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis of coordinative optimization control for variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow to obtain better power savings is put forward. According to typical meteorological year data, hourly air conditioning load of whole year for every typical room has been calculated with the transmission function method. In order to guarantee each typical room, the highest cooling load rate is used as an input parameter for optimization calculation. Based on the surface cooler check model, the smallest energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization chilled water temperature and chilled water flow were carried out. The case study for a commercial building in Guangzhou showed that the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is lower by 17% only with employment of variable water flow regulation by pump frequency conversion. In the case of optimization control with coordinative control of variable chilled water temperature and variable chilled water flow, the annual power consumption of the chillers and pumps of the air conditioning system is reduced by 22% in presence of remarkable power saving effects. Increasing the chilled water temperature will reduce the dehumidified capability of the air cooler, and the indoor relative humidity will increase. The simulation showed that the adjustment optimized process meets the comfort of each typical room. The lower the cooling load rate is, the more obvious the effect of power-saving is. The highest power-saving rate appears in December, which is 36.7%. Meanwhile, the least rate appears in July, which is only 14.5%.

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Performance Evaluation of Hot Water Efficiency Plumbing System Using Thermal Valve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Korea two popular water distribution systems—the branch type and the separate type systems—have serious drawbacks. The branch type suffers from temperature instability while the separate type suffers from excessive piping. Neither of them re-circulates water. The system proposed in this paper utilizes a water-conserving piping system with a thermostat valve. This paper compares the proposed system with that of the separate type. Our findings show that the proposed system wastes less water. After re-circulating for 78-87 seconds, water is available at set point temperature (40°C). Also, when multiple water taps are in use, the average temperature deviation is less than 0.6°C. Moreover, the proposed system has 50% less flow rate than the separate type system.

Cha, K. S.; Park, M. S.; Seo, H. Y.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Experiment System Analysis of an Indirect Expansion Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump Radiant Floor Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar assisted water source heat pump for Radiant Floor Heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system with heat pipe vacuum tube solar collector as heating source and radiant floor as terminal device is proposed in the paper. The Mathematics Model of dynamic ... Keywords: solar energy, water source heat pump, radiant floor heating systems, system dynamic COP

Qu Shilin; Ma Fei; Liu Li; Yue Jie

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones. The analysis shows that the low-temperature radiant floor heating system is more suitable for natural gas- condensing water boilers. It is more comfortable, more economical, and can save more energy than other heating systems.

Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

Lutz, James D.

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Summary of resources available to small water systems for meeting the 10 ppb arsenic drinking water limit.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the lowering of the EPA maximum contaminant level of arsenic from 50 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 ppb, many public water systems in the country and in New Mexico in particular, are faced with making decisions about how to bring their system into compliance. This document provides detail on the options available to the water systems and the steps they need to take to achieve compliance with this regulation. Additionally, this document provides extensive resources and reference information for additional outreach support, financing options, vendors for treatment systems, and media pilot project results.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Thomson, Bruce M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ziegler, Matt (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Butler, Susan (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Himmelberger, Heather (New Mexico Tech, Albuquerque, NM); Holt, Kathleen Caroline

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Modeling the Global Water Resource System in an Integrated Assessment Modeling Framework: IGSM-WRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The availability of water resources affects energy, agricultural and environmental systems, which are linked together as well as to climate via the water cycle. As such, watersheds and river basins are directly impacted ...

Strzepek, Kenneth M.

194

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Modeling the water consumption of Singapore using system dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water resources are essential to life, and in urban areas, the high demand density and finite local resources often engender conditions of relative water scarcity. To overcome this scarcity, governments intensify infrastructure ...

Welling, Karen Noiva

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 Low Low - - Cost Cost Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 IIPS Number 16910 Ward TeGrotenhuis, Susie Stenkamp, Curt Lavender Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Richland, WA HFCIT Kick Off Meeting February 2007 2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective: Project objective: Create a low cost Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

197

Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

Not Available

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Repair and Replacement Applications Center: Stress Corrosion Cracking in Closed Cooling Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of a recent EPRI project "Stress Corrosion Cracking in PWR and BWR Closed Cooling Water Systems," (EPRI Report 1009721, October 2004) indicated that approximately 10 of 143 light water reactor (LWR) plants surveyed had through-wall leaks in carbon steel piping in their closed cooling water (CCW) systems. The root cause of this leakage was intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Since there has not been extensive non-destructive testing in these systems, it is likely that the incidence rate o...

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

OPTIMIZED CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR A TYPICAL WATER LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water Loop Heat Pump (WLHP) System has been widely utilized in the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) industry for several decades. There is no… (more)

Lian, Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Investigation of a novel façade-based solar loop heat pipe water heating system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar thermal is one of the most cost-effective renewable energy technologies, and solar water heating is one of the most popular solar thermal systems. Based… (more)

Wang, Zhangyuan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Shallow Water Investigations at Naval Underwater Systems Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of these efforts is to formulate a model suitable for sonar performance prediction in shallow water. For this purpose

Bernard Sussman; William R. Schumacher; William G. Kanabis

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

204

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

205

Condensate induced water hammer in a steam distribution system results in fatality  

SciTech Connect

Water hammer event s in steam distribution piping interrupt service and have the potential to cause serious injury and property damage. Conditions of condensation induced water hammer are discussed and recommendations aimed to improve safety of steam systems are presented. Condensate induced water hammer events at Hanford, a DOE facility, are examined.

Debban, H.L.; Eyre, L.E.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Analyzing water supply in future energy systems using the TIMES Integrated Assessment Model (TIAM-FR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analyzing water supply in future energy systems using the TIMES Integrated Assessment Model (TIAM is required to maintain water supplies while water is essential to produce energy. However, the models and energy generally dealt with them separately, the two resources are highly interconnected. Energy

207

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Systems & Policy Support  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Policy Support Systems Analysis DOENETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Innovations for Existing...

208

ZERO WATER DISCHARGE SYSTEM FOR THE BABYLON RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on page 257. I have a question about the cooling towers. Evap orative towers are a means of handling water, as the authors point out, a good percentage of the treated water winds up in the cooling tower and is evaporated streams in the plant, such as cooling tower blowdown and boiler blowdown, are reprocessed and reused

Columbia University

209

A multilayer shallow water system for polydisperse sedimentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work considers the flow of a fluid containing one disperse substance consisting of small particles that belong to different species differing in size and density. The flow is modelled by combining a multilayer shallow water approach with a polydisperse ... Keywords: Finite volume, Multilayer, Polydisperse, Sediment, Shallow water

E. D. FernáNdez-Nieto; E. H. Koné; T. Morales De Luna; R. BüRger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Hot water system is energized by exhaust gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels (natural gas or oil) results in the formation of carbon dioxide and water (water vapor). This water vapor contains approximately 1000 Btu/lb. as latent heat and amounts to 10% of all the heat input to the boiler (combustion). This means that for an 80% efficient boiler operation, 50% of the heat wasted in the flue gas is latent heat - which can only be recovered by condensing the water vapor. Since the dew point of the flue gases is approximately 130/sup 0/F, it is necessary to cool the gases to ambient temperature for complete heat recovery. By reducing these gases to within 10/sup 0/ of the incoming cold water, this Eldon Corporation heat reclaimer can achieve temperatures as low as 45/sup 0/ in winter.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Excess molar enthalpies of (water + alkanolamine) systems and some thermodynamic calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several (water + alkanolamine) systems are used for removal of acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from gas streams in the natural gas and petroleum industries and are of increasing importance in treating streams in the chemical production industries. The authors have made calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of mixing of (water + monoethanolamine), (water + diethanolamine), and (water + triethanolamine) at T = 298.15 K and of (water + methyldiethanolamine) at T = 298.15 and 313.15 K. Results of these measurements have been used in some thermodynamic calculations to illustrate general principals that are applicable to many systems of mixed liquids.

Maham, Y.; Mather, A.E.; Hepler, L.G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

The impact of passive safety systems on desirability of advanced light water reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work investigates whether the advanced light water reactor designs with passive safety systems are more desirable than advanced reactor designs with active safety systems from the point of view of uncertainty in the ...

Eul, Ryan C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems May 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional change in length (or sometimes in volume, when specified) of a material for a unit change in temperature Viscosity - resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow) Thermal capacity - the ability of matter to store heat Freezing point - the temperature below which a liquid turns into a

214

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fern Engineering Company, Inc. has developed two prototype solar heating and hot water systems. The systems have been installed at Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania, and Lansing, Michigan. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are presented. In addition, instruction on operation, maintenance, and repair of a solar heating and hot water system is provided.

Not Available

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Four Heat Pump Water Heater Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating represents the second-largest load in residential buildings in the United States, and also a large load in many commercial and industrial buildings. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues research on heat pump water heater (HPWH) systems, which provide high-efficiency electric water heating using the heat pump cycle. In this study, four systems, representing both residential and commercial applications, were tested in the laboratory and/or in the field. An A.O. Smith ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities conducted by Solaron Corporation from November 1977 through September 1978 are summarized and the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is covered. The system consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

Williamson, R.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Ternary Oil-Water-Amphiphile Systems: Self-Assembly and Phase Equilibria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ternary Oil-Water-Amphiphile Systems: Self-Assembly and Phase Equilibria Seung-Yeon Kim surfactant - oil - water systems were studied by grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations assisted H represents hydrophilic and T hydrophobic groups. In contrast to earlier studies, we studied oil

219

Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dishwashers, not only is the energy wasted by the hot waterwasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energywasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy

Lutz, James D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Numerical Treatment of the Loss of Hyperbolicity of the Two-Layer Shallow-Water System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is devoted to the numerical solution of the inviscid two-layer shallow water system. This system may lose the hyperbolic character when the shear between the layer is big enough. This loss of hyperbolicity is related to the appearance of ... Keywords: Complex eigenvalues, Finite volume method, Path-conservative, Two-layer shallow water

M. J. Castro-Díaz; E. D. Fernández-Nieto; J. M. González-Vida; C. Parés-Madroñal

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Application of two ant colony optimisation algorithms to water distribution system optimisation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water distribution systems (WDSs) are costly infrastructure in terms of materials, construction, maintenance, and energy requirements. Much attention has been given to the application of optimisation methods to minimise the costs associated with such ... Keywords: Ant colony optimisation, Heuristics derived from nature, Optimisation, Water distribution systems

Aaron C. Zecchin; Angus R. Simpson; Holger R. Maier; Michael Leonard; Andrew J. Roberts; Matthew J. Berrisford

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. Quarterly reports, November 1976--June 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fuzzy expert system for the detection of episodes of poor water quality through continuous measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to prevent and reduce water pollution, promote a sustainable use, protect the environment and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems, this article deals with the application of advanced mathematical techniques designed to aid in the management ... Keywords: Automated measurement networks, Fuzzy inference system, Fuzzy logic, Guadiana river, Water quality system

Cecilio Angulo; Joan Cabestany; Pablo Rodríguez; Montserrat Batlle; Antonio González; Sergio de Campos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

On-line hydraulic state prediction for water distribution systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes and demonstrates a method for on?line hydraulic state prediction in urban water networks. The proposed method uses a Predictor?Corrector (PC) approach in which a statistical data?driven algorithm is ...

Whittle, Andrew

225

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DWR Bulletin 194. Hydroelectric Energy Potential inmore than 6 bil- of hydroelectric poweL of view of energyfrom peak demand Daytime hydroelectric Two wate:r age) would

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat to water in a storage tank. Heat-transfer fluids, such as antifreeze, protect the solar collector from freezing in cold weather. Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers have...

227

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

A computationally efficient open-source water resource system simulator - Application to London and the Thames Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interactive River-Aquifer Simulation-2010 (IRAS-2010) is a generalized water resource system simulation model. IRAS-2010 is a new release of IRAS previously released by Cornell University in 1995. Given hydrological inflows, evaporation rates, water ... Keywords: Conjunctive use water resource systems, Decision support systems (DSS), Open-source, Simulation models, Water management models

Evgenii S. Matrosov; Julien J. Harou; Daniel P. Loucks

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Incorporation of system operation strategies in water rights modeling and analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the state of Texas. Effective management of this stochastic resource requires that the availability of water for various uses be estimated to a high degree of confidence. The availability of water is constrained by a variety of hydrologic, physical, environmental, and institutional factors. The adoption of the doctrine of prior appropriation by the state of Texas and the administration of the associated system of water rights places a significant institutional constraint upon the availability of water in the state. This thesis describes a generalized river basin simulation model (TAMUWRAP) capable of analyzing the hydrologic and institutional availability of water to specific users under a prior appropriative system of water rights. The model analyzes the availability of water to individual water rights considering system reservoir operations, return flows, hydroelectric power generation, negative incremental inflows between basin locations, and buffer zone operations. The model can also determine the availability of water to groups of water rights with multiple dates of priority and storage in multiple reservoirs. A case study applying TAMUWRAP to the Brazos River Basin in Texas is presented. The effects of various model options upon simulation results are demonstrated, concentrating on the system of reservoirs and water right permits owned by the Brazos River Authority. The effects of the incorporation of a system reservoir operating permit into the Texas water rights permit structure is investigated. Study results indicate that the Bmws River Authority benefits from conjunctive operation of its system of reservoir and might be able to increase its annual permitted diversion amount with a system permit.

Dunn, David Douglas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the factors emphasized by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), a national consensus-based standard under the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) for developing sustainable or high performance buildings, is water efficiency. A LEED registered project can attain up to five points under water efficiency upon successful integration of various techniques to conserve water. Many techniques are available to conserve water and grey water reuse is one option considered by many LEED registered projects. In spite of widespread popularity, some of the sustainable techniques including grey water reuse, which is recommended by the USGBC and various agencies engaged in green building constructions, are not viable in many parts of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have a positive or negative effect on the design team’s decision to implement a grey water reuse system: capital cost, maintenance cost, LEED credits, local plumbing codes, project schedule, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment, filtration, overflow protection, grey water storage tanks, etc. also add to the cost of construction. Ninety percent of the projects claim that project schedule is not affected by the implementation of a grey water reuse system in a green building project. The factors which prevent the project team from implementing a grey water reuse system include capital cost, maintenance cost, local plumbing codes, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. LEED credits and the spirit of sustainability are the factors which have a positive effect on the design team’s decision to implement a grey water reuse system.

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

232

LARGO hot water system long range thermal performance test report. Addendum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test procedure used and the test results obtained during the long range thermal performance tests of the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Objectives of these tests were to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of power required for system operation, system efficiency temperature distribution and system performance degradation.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2010 - 2011 Evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) continues the testing and evaluation of seven water heating systems operating side-by-side at the HWS laboratory in Cocoa, Florida, and documents results in this report. All systems are submitted to alternating hot water draw schedules (ASHRAE 90.1 and NREL/BA). The most significant system change under the latest testing rotation comes from the evaluation of a new state-of-the-art electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) system. The HPWH water heater has demonstrated that under favorable ambient conditions it can perform very well against the best system evaluated in Phase I (2009-2010) ? the differentially controlled solar flat plate solar system.

Colon, C.; Parker, D.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site More Documents & Publications Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah, November 2005 Through February 2008 Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable

236

Expert Meeting Report: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Policy Office of Drinking Water Title: Two-connection Residential Water System Number: P A.13 – Administration References: WAC 246-291-030(3) Supersedes: P A.13 Two Connection Residential Public Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office of Drinking Water policies are written descriptions of the approach taken by the Office to implement a statute, regulation, court order, or other agency order, and may include the Office’s current practice, procedure, or method of action based on that approach. Any generally applicable directives or criteria that provide the basis for imposing penalties or sanctions, or for granting or denying Office approvals, must either be in statute or established in a rule. PURPOSE The Office of Drinking Water will waive all water system requirements for water systems with only two-residential connections, where each connection is a single family home. NOTE: This policy does not prevent a local health jurisdiction from regulating two-connection residential water systems. DIRECTION When individuals propose a water system with only two residential connections, where each connection is only a single family home, the Office of Drinking Water will provide a copy of this policy and notice which states the Office of Drinking Water has waived the requirements of chapter 246-291 WAC. The Office of Drinking Water will direct individuals to check with their local

Contact Karen Valenzuela; Denise A. Clifford; Office Of Drinking Water

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

Kim, S.Y.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

239

Large scale solar hot water heating systems for green hospital  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns over the impact of the environment on the massive usage of fossil fuels, combined with soaring energy prices, triggered increased interest in the use of solar energy. Solar energy is abundant, provides an important saving to the consumer, and ... Keywords: energy savings, evacuated tubes, greenhouse gas reduction, solar assisted hot water heaters

Poorya Ooshaksaraei; Baharudin Ali; Sohif Mat; M. Yahya; Kamaruzaman Ibrahim; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzaman Sopian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The company is working to develop a system to produce electricity using temperature differences in the ocean.

242

Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

243

Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

Not Available

1979-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

245

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

246

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location at NAS Oceana. Location at NAS Oceana. by these changes, including bachelor housing, hangers, the galley, office buildings, the chapel, and maintenance facilities. This ESPC also included installing ground source heat pumps in three buildings, adding digital control systems to increase heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) efficiency, efficient lighting retrofits, and other water conservation measures. These other water conservation measures include over 5,000 water efficient domestic fixtures, includ- ing faucets, showerheads, and toilets

247

A Decision Support System for irrigation water allocation along the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To improve the water resource management of the inland river basins of northwestern China, a Decision Support System (DSS) is developed to provide an operative computer platform for decision makers. The DSS is designed according to actual water resource ... Keywords: Decision Support System, GIS, Irrigation management, Irrigation water allocation, Water resource management

Yingchun Ge, Xin Li, Chunlin Huang, Zhuotong Nan

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

Not Available

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

An evaluation of household drinking water treatment systems in Peru : the table filter and the safe water system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) storage, and education. Tests on the SWSs in Peru demonstrated 99.6% E.coli removal and 95% total coliform removal. Only 30% of the SWSs tested contained water at or above the WHO-recommended concentration of free ...

Coulbert, Brittany, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Distrbuted Sensing Systems for Water Quality Assesment and Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in these systems: computer science, electrical engineering,the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department.of Computer Science (joint appointment in Electrical

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Study on the Mode of Power Plant Circulating Water Waste Heat Regenerative Thermal System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power Plant Circulating Water (PPCW) waste heat recycling is an important way of increasing a power plant’s primary energy ratio. According to the PPCW waste heat regenerative thermal system, the authors propose two modes of heat pump heat regenerative ... Keywords: heat pump, power plant circulating water (PPCW), waste heat recycling, energy saving

Bi Qingsheng; Ma Yanliang; Yang Zhifu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Competition for water for the food system Kenneth Strzepek1,2 and Brent Boehlert3,*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems). Together, these are rapidly increasing per capita water demand in developing nations and becoming more productive, both of which are rapidly increasing the demand for water. Energy consumption of 200 per cent by 2050 in developing countries with rapidly increasing populations and incomes. Climate

254

Developing an Operational, Surface-Based, GPS, Water Vapor Observing System for NOAA: Network Design and Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for a reliable, low-cost observing system to measure water vapor in the atmosphere is incontrovertible. Experiments have shown the potential for using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure total precipitable water vapor ...

Daniel E. Wolfe; Seth I. Gutman

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A new two-component system modelling shallow-water waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For propagation of surface shallow-water waves on irrotational flows, we derive a new two-component system. The system is obtained by a variational approach in the Lagrangian formalism. The system has a non-canonical Hamiltonian formulation. We also find its exact solitary-wave solutions.

Delia Ionescu-Kruse

2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

256

Global Positioning System (GPS) Precipitable Water in Forecasting Lightning at Spaceport Canaveral  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the use of precipitable water (PW) from the global positioning system (GPS) in lightning prediction. Additional independent verification of an earlier model is performed. This earlier model used binary logistic regression ...

Kristen Kehrer; Brian Graf; William P. Roeder

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Spirasol : improvements to semi-continuous solar disinfection water treatment systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was carried out to determine the feasibility of an original point of use solar water disinfection system created by the author and named "Spirasol." The study primarily focused on the comparison of ...

Loux, Brian Michael, 1981-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

H?Otel : a new model for integrating water systems and coastal architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the Industrial Era, "dams, water towers, sewage systems, and the like were celebrated as glorious icons, carefully designed, ornamented, and prominently located in the city, testifying to the modern promise of ...

Brown, Danielle C. (Danielle Collinsworth)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Surface Ocean Fluxes and Water-Mass Transformation Rates in the Coupled NCAR Climate System Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global distributions of the air–sea fluxes of heat and freshwater and water mass transformation rates from a control integration of the coupled National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Climate System Model (CSM) are compared with ...

Scott C. Doney; William G. Large; Frank O. Bryan

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Coupling of carbon, water, and nutrient interactions in woody plant soil systems. Program and presentation summaries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report consists of 63 abstracts of presentations made at the International Symposium of Whole-Plant Physiology - coupling of carbon, water, and nutrient interactions in woody plant soil systems held in Knoxville, Tennessee on October 6-11, 1985.

Not Available

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems: Life-Cycle Analyses and Opportunities for Cost Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in potential cost-savings measures for cold-climate solar domestic water hearing systems.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Refurbishment of the ballast-water system of the gravity-based structure Beryl Alpha  

SciTech Connect

In Sept. 1985, the Beryl Alpha platform in the North Sea experienced a leak in its ballast-water system in the utility shaft 328 ft (100m) below sea level. The importance of the ballast-water system for platform operations and the particular location of the leak led to the development and implementation of unique and extensive repair procedures. These procedures are detailed by the authors.

Seume, K.; Gilchrist, J.M. (Mobil Oil (US))

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis NREL's Economic Analysis and power system modeling integrates data from device deployment and programmatic research into deployment and scenario models to quantify the economic and societal benefits of developing cost-competitive marine and hydrokinetic systems. It also identifies policy mechanisms, market designs, and supply chain needs to support various deployment scenarios, provide information and training to potential members of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry and effectively collaborate with all associated stakeholders. JEDI Modeling NREL worked with industry members to develop and provide public access to an easy-to-use input-output model that estimates the jobs and economic development impacts (JEDI) of MHK projects in the United States. The JEDI

266

Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The temperature differential of chilled water is an important factor used for evaluating the performance of a chilled water system. A low delta-T may increase the pumping energy consumption and increase the chiller energy consumption. The system studied in this thesis is the chilled water system at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport). This system has the problem of low delta-T under low cooling loads. When the chilled water flow is much lower than the design conditions at low cooling loads, it may lead to the laminar flow of the chilled water in the cooling coils. The main objective of this thesis is to explain the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils under low cooling loads. The water side and air side heat transfer coefficients at different water and air flow rates are calculated. The coefficients are used to analyze the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils at conditions ranging from very low loads to design conditions. The effectiveness-number of transfer units (NTU) method is utilized to analyze the cooling coil performance under different flow conditions, which also helps to obtain the cooling coil chilled water temperature differential under full load and partial load conditions. When the water flow rate drops to 1ft/s, laminar flow occurs; this further decreases the heat transfer rate on the water side. However, the cooling coil effectiveness increases with the drop of water flow rate, which compensates for the influence of the heat transfer performance under laminar flow conditions. Consequently, the delta-T in the cooling coil decreases in the transitional flow regime but increases in the laminar flow regime. Results of this thesis show that the laminar flow for the chilled water at low flow rate is not the main cause of the low delta-T syndrome in the chilled water system. Possible causes for the piping strategy of the low delta-T syndrome existing in the chilled water system under low flow conditions are studied in this thesis: (1) use of two way control valves; and (2) improper tertiary pump piping strategy.

Li, Nanxi 1986-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model  

SciTech Connect

A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Water gate array for current flow or tidal movement pneumatic harnessing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention, which provides a system for harnessing power from current flow or tidal movement in a body of water, comprises first and second hydro-pneumatic chambers each having ingress and egress below the water surface near the river or ocean floor and water gates operative to open or seal the ports to the passage of water. In an exemplary embodiment, the gates are sychronized by shafts so that the ingress ports of each chamber are connected to the egress ports of each other chamber. Thus, one set of gates is closed, while the other is open, thereby allowing water to flow into one chamber and build air pressure therein and allowing water to flow out of the other chamber and create a partial vacuum therein. A pipe connects the chambers, and an air turbine harnesses the air movement within the pipe. When water levels are equilibrated, the open set of gates is closed by a counterweight, and the other set is allowed to open by natural force of the water differential. The water gates may be comprised of a plurality of louvers which are ganged for simultaneous opening and closing. The system is designed to operate with air turbines or other pneumatic devices. Its design minimizes construction cost and environmental impact, yet provides a clean renewable energy source.

Gorlov, Alexander M. (Brookline, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost of underground water has also been considered. The economics of the heat pump and other cooling and heating sources has been compared and then several simple methods to improve the thermal economics of the underground water heat pump system have been put forward.

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)  

SciTech Connect

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)  

SciTech Connect

A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

Zapata, L.E.; Hackel, L.

1999-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

272

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Evaluating the energy and carbon footprint of water conveyance system and future water supply options for Las Vegas, Nevada.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water production requires the use of energy to transport water from distant locations, pump groundwater from deep aquifers and treat water to meet stringent drinking… (more)

Shrestha, Eleeja

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

Mark K. Gee

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect

This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

276

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC technology could cool process water at cycles of concentration considered highly scale forming for mechanical draft cooling towers. At the completion of testing, there was no visible scale on the heat transfer surfaces and cooling was sustained throughout the test period. The application of the WARMF decision framework to the San Juan Basis showed that drought and increased temperature impact water availability for all sectors (agriculture, energy, municipal, industry) and lead to critical shortages. WARMF-ZeroNet, as part of the integrated ZeroNet decision support system, offers stakeholders an integrated approach to long-term water management that balances competing needs of existing water users and economic growth under the constraints of limited supply and potential climate change.

C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

277

City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements City of San Jose - Solar Hot Water Heaters and Photovoltaic Systems Permit Requirements < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State California Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider City of San Jose Building, Planning and Electrical Permits are required for Photovoltiac (PV) systems installed in San Jose. In most cases, PV systems must also undergo a Building Plan Review and an Electrical Plan Review. Building Plan Reviews are not required for installations that meet all of the following criteria: 1. Total panel weight (including frame) is not greater than 5 lbs. per

278

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Boeing Engineering and Construction. System design final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The system design for a future commercial solar energy brackish water desalination plant is described. Key features of the plant are discussed along with its configuration selection rationale, design objectives, operation, and performance. The water treatment technology used in the plant is ion exchange pretreatment and single stage reverse osmosis desalination utilizing high-flux membranes. Electrical power needed for plant operation is produced by a solar energy system, which is based on the Brayton cycle having air as the working fluid. Primary solar system components are: heliostat field, central cavity-tube receiver, receiver support tower, thermal energy storage, and a commercial gas turbine generator set. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of the sensible heat brick type and provides a capability for continuous day/night power generation during most weather conditions. This system design was selected in a study of various system alternatives and their life cycle product water costs for a representative site in western Texas.

Not Available

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Characteristics of water chemistry in heavy water recovery system of nuclear power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moisture inside the coolant and moderator system areas of Candu-type nuclear power plant is recycled to prevent the deuterium of value from being lost and the tritium of harm from being spread to the natural environment. The deuterium is separated ... Keywords: anion, breakthrough time, cation, deuterium recovery, ion exchange, resin ratio

In Hyoung Rhee; Hyun Kyoung Ahn; Hyun Jun Jeong

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Complex Adaptive Systems Simulation-Optimization Framework for Adaptive Urban Water Resources Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Population growth, urbanization and climate change threaten urban water systems. The rise of demands caused by growing urban areas and the potential decrease of water availability caused by the increase of frequency and severity of droughts challenge the continued well-being of society. Due to increasing environmental and financial constraints, water management paradigms have shifted from supply augmentation to demand management, and water conservation initiatives may efficiently decrease water demands to more sustainable levels. To provide reliable assessment of the efficiencies of different demand management strategies, new modeling techniques are needed that can simulate decentralized decisions of consumers and their interactions with the water system. An integrated simulation-optimization framework, based on the paradigm of Complex Adaptive Systems, is developed here to model dynamic interactions and adaptations within social, built, and natural components of urban water systems. The framework goes beyond tradition engineering simulations by incorporating decentralized, heterogeneous and autonomous agents, and by simulating dynamic feedback loops among modeling components. The framework uses modeling techniques including System Dynamics, Cellular Automata, and Agent-based Modeling to simulate housing and population growth, a land use change, residential water consumption, the hydrologic cycle, reservoir operation, and a policy/decision maker. This research demonstrates the applicability of the proposed framework through a series of studies applied to a water supply system of a large metropolitan region that is located in a semi-arid region and suffers recurrently from severe droughts. A set of adaptive demand management strategies, that apply contingency restrictions, land use planning, and water conservation technologies, such as rainwater harvesting systems, are evaluated. A multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm is coupled with the CAS simulation framework to identify optimal strategies and explore conflicting objectives within a water system. The results demonstrate the benefits of adaptive management by updating management decisions to changing conditions. This research develops a new hydrologic sustainability metric, developed to quantify the stormwater impacts of urbanization. The Hydrologic Footprint Residence captures temporal and spatial hydrologic characteristics of a flood wave passing through a stream segment and is used to assess stormwater management scenarios, including Best Management Practices and Low Impact Development.

Giacomoni, Marcio

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ground-water monitoring near the Raft River site was initiated in 1974 by the IDWR. This effort consisted of semiannual chemical sampling of 22 irrigation wells near the Raft River geothermal development area. This program yielded useful baseline chemical data; however, several problems were inherent. For example, access to water pumped from the wells is limited to the irrigation season (April through September). All the wells are not continuously pumped; thus, some wells that are sampled one season cannot be sampled the next. In addition, information on well construction, completion, and production is often unreliable or not available. These data are to be supplemented by establishing a series of monitor wells in the proposed geothermal withdrawal and injection area. These wells were to be located and designed to provide data necessary for evaluating and predicting the impact of geothermal development on the Shallow Aquifer system.

Allman, D.W.; Tullis, J.A.; Dolenc, M.R.; Thurow, T.L.; Skiba, P.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown from the existing SJGS Unit 3 tower--during the summer months of 2005. If successful, there may be follow-on testing using produced water. WSAC is discussed in this deliverable. Recall that Deliverable 4, Emerging Technology Testing, describes the pilot testing conducted at a salt water disposal facility (SWD) by the CeraMem Corporation. This filtration technology could be a candidate for future demonstration testing and is also discussed in this deliverable.

Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

In-line continuous monitoring system improve water plant EOR performance  

SciTech Connect

To optimize water plant performance and reduce maintenance expense, Unocal has installed a continuous produced-water monitoring system at its Dome water plant, which serves an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project east of Bakersfield, Calif. These EOR leases are producing approximately 12,000 b/d of oil by injection of 40,000 equivalent b/d of steam. More than 75% of the water required for steaming is obtained by recycling produced water through separation and filtration stages to remove the residual oil and solids. The recycled water is then softened prior to being returned to the steam generators. Under normal operating conditions, produced water received at the main collection tank ranges from 50-200 ppm oil, and is reduced to 5 ppm or less downstream of the dissolved air flotation unit. The plant has been in operation for over 8 years and during that time has experienced the usual number of upsets in the oil-water separation system. These upsets have resulted in additional maintenance expenses to clean fouled garnet and anthracite in the multimedia filters, replace cartridge filter elements, and clean (sometimes replace) softener resin. Direct costs associated with these failures were estimated to be in excess of $30,000/year. Unocal had tried monitoring systems, with poor results due to low reliability or insufficient accuracy before it found a satisfactory system. It was an MPS-3000 in-line continuous monitor, manufactured by the Micro Pure Division of Rexnord Automation. Unlike previously tested monitors, this unit operates on a detection principle of reflected ultrasonic energy, a low maintenance design which would theoretically be unaffected by components other than oil and solids in the produced water.

Morin, R.J.; Gaucher, D.E.

1986-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Modeling water resource systems using a service-oriented computing paradigm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Service-oriented computing is a software engineering paradigm that views complex software systems as an interconnected collection of distributed computational components. Each component has a defined web service interface that allows it to be loosely-coupled ... Keywords: Integrated modeling, Systems analysis, Water management, Web services

Jonathan L. Goodall; Bella F. Robinson; Anthony M. Castronova

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Development of KM System for Intergrated Management of Water Resources and Environment in Zhangweinan Subbasin, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge Management (KM) system for Integrated Management of Water Resources and Environment is developed in the paper, which includes spatial database, properties database, thematic database and met abase. The database can be used for integrated management ... Keywords: Zhangweinan Subbasin, knowledge management system(KM), database

Weidong Yu; Chunhui Li; Junxiang Jia

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Prototype solar heating and cooling systems, including potable hot water. Quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The progress made in the development, delivery and support of two prototype solar heating and cooling systems including potable hot water is reported. The system consists of the following subsystems: collector, auxiliary heating, potable hot water, storage, control, transport, and government-furnished site data acquisition. Included is a comparison of the proposed Solaron-Heat Pump and Solaron-Desiccant Heating and Cooling Systems, Installation Drawings, data on the Akron House at Akron, Ohio, and other program activities from July 1, 1977 through November 9, 1977.

Not Available

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

Silva, Consuelo Juanita

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forseberg, C.W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This document describes passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor which employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated evaporator located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forseberg, C.W.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Experience on design and operation of hotel/motel solar hot water systems  

SciTech Connect

The use of solar energy to preheat domestic hot water in hotels and motels has many advantages. Year long use of these solar systems provides shorter payback periods. Temperature requirements for hotel/motel use are relatively low and are compatible with low cost flat plate collectors. Simple controls relate to higher reliability in both drain-down and heat exchanger configurations. Solar systems are easily retrofitted to most existing hotel/motel hot water systems and there are many hotels and motels across the country with roof area sufficient in size to hold the required collector arrays. Hotel/motel systems with payback periods of less than four years, which provide 70% of the total hot water load, are discussed.

Brohl, E.C.; Struss, R.G.; Sidles, P.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reducing the water use of plumbing products—toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads —has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

295

The Development of Simulation Model for D2O Supply System in Heavy Water Nuclear Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this research is improvement of performance in control system for heavy water supply system of nuclear fuel change machine. Before started design of control system, the model of target system is needed because it is hard to test and ... Keywords: simulation, nuclear, heavy-water, D2O, MATLAB

Sung-Won Choi; Seong-Geun Kwak; Ji-Hyoung Ryu; Kil-To Chong; Chang-Goo Lee

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

The Development of an Energy Evaluation Tool for Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An energy evaluation tool for chilled water systems was developed. This tool quantifies the energy usage of various chilled water systems and typical energy conservation measures that are applied to these systems. It can be used as a screening tool to identify potential areas that can be further examined while only requiring a minimum number of inputs. The tool is useful for analyzing chiller plants with up to three electric chillers consisting of reciprocating, helical rotary, and/or centrifugal chillers. Both air-cooled and water-cooled systems can be analyzed with the tool, however, this article focuses on water-cooled systems. The tool is capable of analyzing the economics of the following energy conservation measures: 1) raising the chilled water temperature, 2) lowering the condenser temperature, 3) replacing the chiller(s), 4) using variable speed drives on centrifugal compressors, 5) utilizing free cooling, and 6) replacing electric chiller(s) with gas engine centrifugal chillers. For each of these measures, the tool calculates the annual energy and cost savings.

Stocki, M.; Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter recovered rapidly from shutdowns showing that the system was resilient to discontinuous feed conditions therefore provided flexibility on the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2004-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

298

The Formation and Fate of Trihalomethanes in Power Plant Cooling Water Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trihalomethanes (THMs) are semi-volatile compounds that form in water when chlorine or bromine reacts with dissolved organic carbon. This report investigates the formation and fate of THM compounds in power plant cooling water systems, THM health risks, a generalized mechanism of THM formation, and the applicability of existing THM research to power plant cooling. The report presents results of a two-site sampling and analytical program designed to identify THM formation potential in cooling towers using...

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Experience with non-fuel-bearing components in LWR (light-water reactor) fuel systems  

SciTech Connect

Many non-fuel-bearing components are so closely associated with the spent fuel assemblies that their integrity and behavior must be taken into consideration with the fuel assemblies, when handling spent fuel of planning waste management activities. Presented herein is some of the experience that has been gained over the past two decades from non-fuel-bearing components in light-water reactors (LWRs), both pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs). Among the most important of these components are the control rod systems, the absorber and burnable poison rods, and the fuel assembly channels. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more comfortable. First, the authors devised an experimental scheme and set up the laboratory. Second, we collected a great deal of data on the system in different situations. Finally, we conclude that such heating system is feasible and one of the best heating methods.

Wu, Z.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Ingham County Geriatric Medical Care Facility solar water-heating system refurbishments. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The tasks of the refurbishment of a damaged solar water heating system are outlined. The system is a closed loop, 50% glycol antifreeze system consisting of 14 rows of 6 series manifolds each containing 6 solar collectors connected in parallel for a total of 504 modules. The Wyle Laboratories' test report for the Revere Model 132 flat plate collector is appended. A collector test plan and photographs are also appended. Reference CAPE-2834. (LS)

Not Available

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Consumer thermal energy storage costs for residential hot water, space heating and space cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of household thermal energy storage (TES) in four utility service areas that are representative for hot water, space heating, and space cooling systems in the United States is presented. There are two major sections of the report: Section 2.0 is a technology characterization of commercially available and developmental/conceptual TES systems; Section 3.0 is an evaluation of the consumer cost of the three TES systems based on typical designs in four utility service areas.

None

1976-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

Control system for electric water heater with heat pump external heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system for an electric water heater operatively associated with an external heat source, such as a heat pump. The water heater includes a water storage tank provided with an electric tank heating unit having a tank thermostat which closes in response to water temperature in the tank, allowing a flow of current through the tank heating unit so as to turn it on to heat the water, and which opens when the tank thermostat has been satisfied, interrupting the current flow so as to turn the tank heating unit off. The control system as responsive to the initial current surge through the tank heating unit when the tank thermostat closes to interrupt the current flow to the tank heating unit so as to maintain the heating unit off and to turn on the external heat source and maintain it on until the tank thermostat opens. The initial current surge cleans the contacts of the tank thermostat by burning off any insulating oxide residues which may have formed on them. The control system includes means responsive to abnormal conditions which would prevent the external heat source from heating water effectively for turning off the external heat source and turning on the tank heating unit and maintaining the external heat source off and the tank heating unit on until the tank thermostat is satisfied.

Shaffer Jr., J. E.; Picarello, J. F.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

304

A Numerical Modeling System of the Hydrological Cycle for Estimation of Water Fluxes in the Huaihe River Plain Region, China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To analyze the water budget under human influences in the Huaihe River plain region in China, the authors have developed a numerical modeling system that integrates water flux algorithms into a platform created by coupling a soil moisture model ...

Xi Chen; Yongqin David Chen; Zhicai Zhang

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

On Managing Texas Rural Water Supply Systems: A Socioeconomic Analysis and Quality Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Objectives The study reported here is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of nonprofit, rural water supply corporations or water systems (hereafter referred to as RWSs) in Texas from a sociological perspective. Specifically, the study has attempted to: 1. Provide an overview of the organizational structure and functioning of RWSs, identifying their existing as well as emerging needs, problems, and suggested solutions. It explores socioeconomic characteristics and patterns of RWSs in Texas. It outlines a history of state and federal regulations and practices through which these systems are structured and actually function. 2. Evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the management of selected RWSs located in different geographical regions of Texas. The evaluation of effectiveness of systems is accomplished through a systematic set of procedures and techniques. These procedures are tested for reliability and validity through empirical data. In addition, the differential levels of program effectiveness of RWSs are elaborated upon by correlating them with relevant socioeconomic variables. 3. Indicate policy and research implications of data for dealing with the future of rural water systems. Expected Contributions The rural populations in the U.S. started experiencing steady increases during the 1970s and early 1980s (Goodwin et al., 1984). Although the rural population growth at the national level showed a few differential trends during mid to late 1980s (Figures 3 and 4 in Appendix A), the state of Texas registered a population influx in many nonmetropolitan areas during the last decade (U.S.D.A., 1990: 11). Overall, a significant portion of Texas' population still resides in rural areas (Texas Department of Water Resources, 1984: 7). However, it appears that a larger number of studies have focused on water-management related problems and issues for urban areas than those for rural communities in Texas (e.g., Knudson, 1986; Meier and Thorton, 1973; Murdock et al., 1988; Texas Department of Water Resources, 1985; Texas Water Development Board, 1990;1 and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1989). While rural water problems have been examined carefully in several parts of the country, we could not find a single study in Texas systematically examining water-related needs and issues confronting rural communities. The need to study rural water supply has become even more important now because of the challenge faced by small community systems in complying with the provisions of the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These small systems, with their limited customer and revenue bases, will face formidable expense in installing new water treatment methods (Jensen, 1990; Long and Stukenberg, 1987: 38; Texas Water Development Board, 1990: 14). The present study is a timely probe into the phenomena of rural water supply. The study is aimed at developing and using a methodology to evaluate the program effectiveness of RWSs. In recent years, interest has mounted for employing the research techniques of social sciences in efforts to assess the effectiveness of public programs. The 1970s and 1980s, decades of rapid-paced growth of RWSs in Texas and elsewhere, were marked by the proliferation of public expenditures. The study uses a set of indicators to identify effectiveness and efficiency of rural water projects. Such measures for analysis and appraisal of these projects may contribute to more informed and intelligent planning for the future. The study is also expected to provide a critical probe and insight into an evaluation methodology that may be used in future studies investigating public programs. To this end, the research reported here is exploratory in nature and may set grounds for more critical studies in the area. The study, for example, develops a baseline against which to measure future changes and trend in rural water supplies in Texas as well as in other parts of the country. Organization of the Report The remaining three-section organ

Singh, R.N.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study to determine waste of water and energy in residential30 percent. The average waste of energy in the hot water ispaper examines the waste of water and energy associated with

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Pilot Phase of a Field Study to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential Hot-Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

understanding the waste of energy and water in residentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in ResidentialStudy to Determine Waste of Water and Energy in Residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Title III Evaluation Report for the Subsurface Fire Water System and Subsurrface Portion of the Non-Portable Water System  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed SFWS/SNPWS. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed systems, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guidelines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility.

R.E. Flye

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

309

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Urea for SCR-based NOx Control Systems and Potential Impacts to Ground Water Resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the key challenges facing manufacturers of diesel engines for light- and heavy-duty vehicles is the development of technologies for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides, In this regard, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems represent control technology that can potentially achieve the NOx removal efficiencies required to meet new U.S. EPA standards. SCR systems rely on a bleed stream of urea solution into exhaust gases prior to catalytic reduction. While urea's role in this emission control technology is beneficial, in that it supports reduced NOx emissions, it can also be an environmental threat to ground water quality. This would occur if it is accidentally released to soils because once in that environmental medium, urea is subsequently converted to nitrate--which is regulated under the U.S. EPA's primary drinking water standards. Unfortunately, nitrate contamination of ground waters is already a significant problem across the U.S. Historically, the primary sources of nitrate in ground waters have been septic tanks and fertilizer applications. The basic concern over nitrate contamination is the potential health effects associated with drinking water containing elevated levels of nitrate. Specifically, consumption of nitrate-contaminated water can cause a blood disorder in infants known as methemoglobinemia.

Layton, D.

2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

311

Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

Not Available

1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

312

Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums  

SciTech Connect

The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

Critical Design Issues of Tokamak Cooling Water System of ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect

U.S. ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). The TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak to cooling water during nominal pulsed operation 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. This water contains radionuclides because impurities (e.g., tritium) diffuse from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200 240 C at up to 4.4MPa, and corrosion products become activated by neutron bombardment. The system is designated as safety important class (SIC) and will be fabricated to comply with the French Order concerning nuclear pressure equipment (December 2005) and the EU Pressure Equipment Directive using ASME Section VIII, Div 2 design codes. The complexity of the TCWS design and fabrication presents unique challenges. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed with several issues that need to be resolved to move to next stage of the design. Those issues include flow balancing between over hundreds of branch pipelines in parallel to supply cooling water to blankets, determination of optimum flow velocity while minimizing the potential for cavitation damage, design for freezing protection for cooling water flowing through cryostat (freezing) environment, requirements for high-energy piping design, and electromagnetic impact to piping and components. Although the TCWS consists of standard commercial components such as piping with valves and fittings, heat exchangers, and pumps, complex requirements present interesting design challenges. This paper presents a brief description of TCWS conceptual design and critical design issues that need to be resolved.

Kim, Seokho H [ORNL; Berry, Jan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Details Activities (5) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: Two hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy reservoirs have been created by hydraulic fracturing of Precambrian granitic rock between two wells on the west flank of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. Heat is extracted by injecting water into one well,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Interaction of cold-water aquifers with exploited reservoirs of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoirs tend to exhibit good hydraulic communication with adjacent cool groundwater aquifers. Under natural state conditions the hot fluids mix with the surrounding colder waters along the margins of the geothermal system, or discharge to shallow levels by flowing up fault L. In response to exploitation reservoir pressures decrease, leading to changes in the fluid flow pattern in the system and to groundwater influx. The various Cerro Prieto reservoirs have responded differently to production, showing localized near-well or generalized boiling, depending on their access to cool-water recharge. Significant cooling by dilution with groundwater has only been observed in wells located near the edges of the field. In general, entry of cool water at Cerro Prieto is beneficial because it tends to maintain reservoir pressures, restrict boiling, and lengthen the life and productivity of wells. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Truesdell, A.H. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Lippmann, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Computer Based Training (CBT) - American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) CBT for Service Water System Engineers v1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) requirements for Service Water System Engineers, Version 1.0 is a computer-based training module that allows users to access training when desired and review it at their own pace.This computer-based training (CBT) course's objective is to introduce students to ASME requirements associated with service water systems, and in particular, service water piping systems.  The student will first learn about the design criteria used to ...

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

323

Sampling Considerations for Monitoring Corrosion Products in the Reactor Coolant System in Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemistry sampling of the reactor coolant system (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) can provide significant information regarding the health of the primary system. Timely detection of increased corrosion product concentrations will aid in evaluating any risks associated with the onset of an axial offset anomaly, increased shutdown releases, increased out-of-core dose rates, or increased personnel doses. This report provides recommendations for improved RCS sampling.

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

324

Welding and Repair Technology Center: Essential and Emergency Service Water System Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the numerous ASME Code and Regulatory (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) documents addressing operability and repair of through-wall leakage in class 2 and 3 systems, inconsistencies exist in their interpretation and application. This report is intended to summarize and clarify the current Code and Regulatory requirements and provisions applicable to operability and repair of essential and emergency service water systems with leakage through the pressure boundary.

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

Mathieu, Johanna

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

326

Water Chemistry Control System for Recovery of Damaged and Degraded Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the government of Serbia have led the project cosponsored by the U.S, Russia, European Commission, and others to repackage and repatriate approximately 8000 spent fuel elements from the RA reactor fuel storage basins at the VIN?A Institute of Nuclear Sciences to Russia for reprocessing. The repackaging and transportation activities were implemented by a Russian consortium which includes the Sosny Company, Tekhsnabeksport (TENEX) and Mayak Production Association. High activity of the water of the fuel storage basin posed serious risk and challenges to the fuel removal from storage containers and repackaging for transportation. The risk centered on personnel exposure, even above the basin water, due to the high water activity levels caused by Cs-137 leached from fuel elements with failed cladding. A team of engineers from the U.S. DOE-NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Vinca Institute, and the IAEA performed the design, development, and deployment of a compact underwater water chemistry control system (WCCS) to remove the Cs-137 from the basin water and enable personnel safety above the basin water for repackaging operations. Key elements of the WCCS system included filters, multiple columns containing an inorganic sorbent, submersible pumps and flow meters. All system components were designed to be remotely serviceable and replaceable. The system was assembled and successfully deployed at the Vinca basin to support the fuel removal and repackaging activities. Following the successful operations, the Cs-137 is now safely contained and consolidated on the zeolite sorbent used in the columns of the WCCS, and the fuel has been removed from the basins. This paper reviews the functional requirements, design, and deployment of the WCCS.

Sindelar, R.; Fisher, D.; Thomas, J.

2011-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

327

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are currently being assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

RITTMANN, P.D.

1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Optimal (short-term) pump schedule detection for water distribution systems by neutral evolutionary search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of neutrality is a straightforward tool to preserve population diversity since it allows the genotype (on the represented search space) to be changed without affecting the corresponding fitness. To implement neutrality the literature ... Keywords: Evolutionary computing, Neutrality, Scheduling, Water distribution systems

IstváN Selek; JóZsef Gergely Bene; Csaba Hs

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Modeling Residual Chlorine Decay for Optimization of Booster Chlorination in Urban-rural Water Distribution System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The key procedure of optimization of the control of the booster chlorination is modeling the relationship between the concentration of the spot of the booster chlorination (after dosing) and the concentration of the monitoring points on the remote end ... Keywords: Residual chlorine decay, Hybrid transfer function model, Optimization of booster chlorination, Urban-rural water distribution system

Jingqing Liu; Zuozi Huang; Shengwei Tan

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Towards the visualization of water supply system components with GPR images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a methodological tool for examining the layout and revealing the concealed characteristics of urban water supply systems (WSS). For this purpose, we use underground images obtained with ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a method that does ... Keywords: Ground penetrating radar, Images processing and analysis, Pipe location, Signal processing

David Ayala-Cabrera; Manuel Herrera; Idel Montalvo; Rafael PéRez-GarcíA

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Design of GA thermochemical water-splitting process for the Mirror Advanced Reactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GA interfaced the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle to the Mirror Advanced Reactor System (MARS). The results of this effort follow as one section and part of a second section to be included in the MARS final report. This section describes the process and its interface to the reactor. The capital and operating costs for the hydrogen plant are described.

Brown, L.C.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Solar energy applied to dehumidification and water heating in an integrated system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involved the demonstration of a desiccant dryer assist for use with residential air conditioning systems and designed for retrofitting to in-place equipment. The dryer is part of an integrated package including solar regeneration of the desiccant, water heating, and winter time humidification. Some of the key features and results of the project are summarized in this report.

Fago, E.T. Jr.

1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

334

Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project calculation, it illuminates that the post-located auxiliary heat source cheaper and superior to the fore-located one.

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Scaling Water and Energy Fluxes in Climate Systems: Three Land-Atmospheric Modeling Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of small-scale heterogeneity in land-surface characteristics on the large-scale fluxes of water and energy in the land-atmosphere system have become a central focus of many of the climatology research experiments. The acquisition of ...

Eric F. Wood; Venkataraman Lakshmi

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS IN THE EASTERN NILE BASIN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BCWUA BWR C&C CEDARE CEH COMEST DEWA DOE DPSEEA DPSIR EEAA ENB ENCID ENSAP EPADP EPA EPI ESI EVI EWP FAO the Water Resources System Source: Bossel, 1999 Moreover, trans-boundary river basins-as with our case- fuel effort must be placed on the development of indices than we have in the past. Failure to do so

Richner, Heinz

337

Numerical simulation of hydraulic shock in a water pumping system protected by air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air may be efficiently used in water pumping system protection from hydraulic shock, due to its elasticity. The paper presents the results regarding the extreme pressures in the discharge duct of a pumping installation, obtained by numerical simulation ... Keywords: air chamber, biphasic flow, dissolution, hydraulic shock, pumping installation

Anca Constantin; Claudiu Stefan Nitescu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Playful bottle: a mobile social persuasion system to motivate healthy water intake Ubicomp'09  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study of mobile persuasion system explores the use of a mobile phone, when attached to an everyday object used by an everyday behavior, becomes a tool to sense and influence that behavior. This mobile persuasion system, called Playful Bottle system, makes use of a mobile phone attached to an everyday drinking mug and motivates office workers to drink healthy quantities of water. A camera and accelerometer sensors in the phone are used to build a vision/motion-based water intake tracker to detect the amount and regularity of water consumed by the user. Additionally, the phone includes hydration games in which natural drinking actions are used as game input. Two hydration games are developed: a single-user TreeGame with automated computer reminders and a multi-user ForestGame with computer-mediated social reminders from members of the group playing the game. Results from 7-week user study with 16 test subjects suggest that both hydration games are effective for encouraging adequate and regular water intake by users. Additionally, results of this study suggest that adding social reminders to the hydration game is more effective than system reminders alone.

Meng-chieh Chiu; Shih-ping Chang; Yu-chen Chang; Hao-hua Chu; Cheryl Chia-hui Chen; Fei-hsiu Hsiao; Ju-chun Ko

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

PIEPHO, M.G.

2000-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to develop an O{sub 2}-tolerant cyanobacterial system for continuous light-driven H{sub 2} production from water. The overall goal is to produce a cyanobacterial recombinant to produce H{sub 2} continuously.

Xu, Q.; Smith, H. O.; Maness, P.-C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone in southeastern Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a regional study of thermal and non-thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone of southern Idaho and western Wyoming are presented. The study involved hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data collection and interpretation. Particular emphasis was placed on analyzing the role that thrust zones play in controlling the movement of thermal and non-thermal fluids.

Ralston, D.R.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Environmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climatically important trace gas fluxes on regional and global scales, yet the magnitude of the transfer-generated turbulence in a shallow tidal sea, Nature, 400, 251­254. Raymond, P. A., and J. J. Cole (2001), Gas exchangeEnvironmental turbulent mixing controls on air-water gas exchange in marine and aquatic systems

Ho, David

343

Dezincification and Brass Lead Leaching in Premise Plumbing Systems: Effects of Alloy, Physical Conditions and Water Chemistry.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Brass components are widely used in drinking water distribution systems as valves, faucets and other fixtures. They can be corroded by âdezincification,â which is the… (more)

Zhang, Yaofu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Design concepts for flash steam systems for use with medium temperature geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

Medium temperature water can be utilized for production of electrical energy when it is available in massive quantities. The design concepts herein are to provide a base for feasibility studies and evaluate processes with consideration of the economics of developing this electrical energy on a commercial scale. Two methods of producing electrical energy with geothermal water are being considered. The methods discussed in this document are by the flashing process of producing steam for driving turbine-generators. Flash steam systems were evaluated for use with 300/sup 0/F water. Single and multiflash systems were evaluated and component size sensitivity to operating pressures were studied. It was determined that a double flash system is the most practical system. Net power production of approximately 2.4 megawatts/million pounds per hour of brine is estimated for the double flash system which operates at an initial flash pressure of 30 psia and a second stage pressure of 13 psia. Flash pressures below atmospheric are not recommended due to oxygen leakage into the system. Sensitivity analysis has indicated that the power output is not highly sensitive to the first stage flash pressure. A significant loss in power output occurs if the second stage pressure is increased significantly.

Whitbeck, J.F.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

Zia Mirza, Program Manager

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

346

An investigation of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water (PV-SDHW) systems has been studied. The direct PV- SDHW system employs a photovoltaic array, a separately excited DC- motor, a centrifugal pump, a thermal collector, and a storage tank. A search methodology for an optimum PV-SDHW system configuration has been proposed. A comparison is made between the long-term performance of a PV-SDHW system and a conventional SDHW system operating under three control schemes. The three schemes are: an ON-OFF flow controlled SDHW system operating at the manufacturer-recommended constant flow rate, and a linear proportional flow controlled SDHW system with the flow proportional to the solar radiation operating under an optimum proportionality. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Visualizing microbial pollution in Santa Monica Bay with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and through field-testing a rapid, robust, field-portable water detection sensing system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hic Information Systems (GIS) and Through Field - testing aEngineering, UCLA Introduction: GIS and rapid detection:water quality characterizi ng GIS is a powerful mapping tool

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scales. Eighth Annual Water Conservation Showcase. Santhe Environmental Benefits of Water Conservation BMPs. CUWCCBenefits of Urban Water Conservation: Final Report.

Williams, Alison

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

350

Commissioning the Domestic Hot Water System on a Large University Campus: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Texas A&M University (TAMU) main campus in College Station consists of 110 buildings with 12.5 million square feet of gross building space. Seventy-one of these buildings are connected to the main campus domestic hot water (DHW) distribution system. The DHW loop is more than 50 years old and has had continuing distribution problems. The main problems reported from several buildings were low hot water temperature and long delays in obtaining hot water at fixtures. The objective of this study was to investigate the causes of these problems and help determine how to best operate the system. It was found that reported problems of low flows, low temperatures and long hot water lag time resulted from reverse flows and no hot water circulation caused by: 1) Unadjusted return pumps with heads too high. 2) Pumps not installed or not running where needed. 3) Pumps with heads too low. 4) Check valves not installed where needed. 5) Insufficient piping capacity in two locations. This paper presents possible control strategies to alleviate these problems identified during the field investigation.

Chen, H.; Bensouda, N.; Claridge, D.; Bruner, H.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulse radiolysis of liquid water using picosecond electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt into a supersonic helium gas jet are used to ionize liquid water. The decay of the hydrated electrons produced of liquid water using electron pulses produced by a table-top terawatt laser system (T3 ). The results

Umstadter, Donald

352

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development of a Procedure for the Predictive Control Strategy of a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal energy storage systems store the thermal energy produced by the chiller plant in periods of off-peak electrical demand or when cheaper electricity is available. The stored thermal energy is then withdrawn from the reservoir to satisfy cooling load during peak demand periods. This paper discusses the development of a simplified predictive control strategy for a 7000 ton-hour chilled water storage system serving a hospital. Control strategies are developed for both on-peak and off-peak months to minimize demand charges. By optimizing the operation of the building air handling units (AHUs), chilled water pumps, chiller plant and the thermal storage system, the storage tank is better charged while chiller run time is reduced. Both on-peak and off-peak electrical demands are expected to be reduced significantly.

Wei, G.; Sakuri, Y.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Performance of active solar domestic hot water heating systems. Comparative report, 1979-1980 season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most recent composite results of analysis performed by Vitro Laboratories of solar hot water heating data for selected hot water sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are presented. Results presented have been developed on the basis of analysis of instrumented sites monitored through 1979-1980. A total of 45 sites in the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) were examined for this study. Eighteen of these were selected for in-depth treatment because of the availability of valid long term data. System descriptions, schematic diagrams and energy flow diagrams for these 18 sites are presented in Appendices A, B, and C, respectively. (WHK)

Cramer, M.A.; Kendall, P.W.; Rosenbusch, J.M.; Weinstein, R.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Cooling Water Systems - Energy Savings/Lower Costs By Reusing Cooling Tower Blowdown  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reuse of cooling tower blow down cannot only provide energy conservation, but can provide water conservation and chemical conservation. To be effective, it is critical that the water treatment program be coordinated with the treatment of the blow down for reuse into the cooling tower system. Several plants have been built and operated with considerable difficulty regarding effective operation of the softener due to improper chemical selection. However, other plants have utilized the proper chemicals which not only improve the softener's performance and operation, but also effectively reduces the size of the softener. Thus, initial capital and operating savings are obtained. Detailed information is provided on guidelines and case histories of operating units.

Puckorius, P. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Shower Events: Findings from a Pilot Field Study of Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the shower only. The wasted energy is the difference betweenLBNL-5115E Water and Energy Wasted During Residential Showercalculate the water and energy wasted during shower events

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Sanitary Waste Water Treatment System for the Hanford Decontamination Laundry Facility  

SciTech Connect

This is an engineering report for the Decontamination Laundry Facility (DLF) which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The proposed Sanitary Waste Treatment System is new and does not involve interfacing with existing sanitary waste treatment systems. It will utilize a subsurface soil absorption system (SSAS), which are frequently used to dispose of sanitary waste water from facilities at the Hanford Site, since a majority of its` facilities are located in remote areas. Construction of the DLF is scheduled to start in 1992 and startup of the DLF is planned during the summer of 1994.

Yanochko, R.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Sanitary Waste Water Treatment System for the Hanford Decontamination Laundry Facility  

SciTech Connect

This is an engineering report for the Decontamination Laundry Facility (DLF) which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The proposed Sanitary Waste Treatment System is new and does not involve interfacing with existing sanitary waste treatment systems. It will utilize a subsurface soil absorption system (SSAS), which are frequently used to dispose of sanitary waste water from facilities at the Hanford Site, since a majority of its' facilities are located in remote areas. Construction of the DLF is scheduled to start in 1992 and startup of the DLF is planned during the summer of 1994.

Yanochko, R.M.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Studies on multi-phase equilibrium separation of hydrocarbon/water systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equations of State (EOS) have been used successfully in compositional simulators to describe phase behavior of reservoir crude and gas condensates without water. The three-phase behavior of water/reservoir crude oils both at reservoir and steam flooding temperature has not yet been successfully predicted by an EOS. Recent publications show that incorporation of the association concept into simple cubic equations such as Peng-Robinson EOS significantly improves phase behavior prediction of water/hydrocarbon and nonhydrate systems, but there are still some numerical difficulties in the pre-diction of three phase flash equilibria. In this thesis we presented, an efficient procedure that will help us eliminate common numerical difficulties in predicting three-phase equilibria for systems containing water, and simplify the programming technique. This scheme checks the existence of three-phase flash at given reservoir conditions, and if three-phase flash (vapor-oleic-aqueous) doesn't exist, it automatically switches to check correct type of two-phase flash (vapor-oleic, vapor-aqueous, or oleic-aqueous). This convergence scheme is used in an EOS-simulator (VLLESIM), which uses nine different EOS's and van der Waals mixing rules, to accurately describe multi-phase equilibrium separation of hydrocarbon/water systems. VLLESIM will be validated with literature data and experimental results obtained from two different experimental setups, for different multi-component hydrocarbon/water systems, for hydrocarbon component varying from C6 to C20. PVT-VLLE apparatus can provide on-line compositional analysis and phase volumes of all equilibrium phases for temperatures up to 350 'F and an Isochoric Steam Distillation Cell (ISDC) can provide only vapor phase compositions, but it can be used up to 500 'F. VLLESIM will then be used to study the effect of temperature, pressure and molecular weight of hydrocarbon components on multiphase equilibria of different hydrocarbon/water systems. Detailed analysis is also provided in this thesis, of the effect of increasing concentration of different hydrocarbon components on the size of the three-phase region for ranges of temperature and pressure mostly prevalent under reservoir conditions.

Chawla, Inderjit Singh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Water Heating Systems in Turkey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: In this study, solar water heater was investigated using meteorological and geographical data of 129 sites over Turkey. Three different collector types were compared in terms of absorber material (copper, galvanized sheet and selective absorber). Energy requirement for water heating, collector performances, and economical indicators were calculated with formulations using observed data. Results showed that selective absorbers were most appropriate in terms of coverage rate of energy requirement for water-heating all over Turkey. The prices of selective, copper and galvanized absorber type’s heating systems in Turkey were 740.49, 615.69 and 490.89 USD, respectively. While payback periods (PBPs) of the galvanized absorber were lower, net present values (NPVs) of the selective absorber were higher than the rest. Copper absorber type collectors did not appear to be appropriate based on economical indicators.

Can Ertekin; Recep Kulcu; Fatih Evrendilek

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Primary Tank System Wash Water Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pre-Developmental Pre-Developmental INL EBR-II Wash Water Treatment Technologies (PBS # ADSHQTD0100 (0003199)) EBR-II Wash Water Workshop - The majority of the sodium has been removed, remaining material is mostly passivated. Similar closure projects have been successfully completed. Engineering needs to be developed to apply the OBA path. Page 1 of 2 Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Primary Tank System Wash Water Workshop Challenge In 1994 Congress ordered the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and a closure project was initiated. The facility was placed in cold shutdown, engineering began on sodium removal, the sodium was drained in 2001 and the residual sodium chemically passivated to render it less reactive in 2005. Since that time, approximately 700 kg of metallic sodium and 3500 kg of sodium bicarbonate remain in the facility. The

364

Methodology for Determining the Optimal Operating Strategies for a Chilled Water Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation proposed a new methodology for determining the optimal operating strategies for a chilled water storage system under a Time-of-Use electricity rate structure. It is based on a new classification of operating strategies and an investigation of multiple search paths. Each operating strategy consists of a control strategy and the maximum number of chillers running during the off-peak and on-peak periods. For each month, the strategy with the lowest monthly billing cost and minimal water level higher than the setpoint is selected as the optimal operating strategy for the current month. A system model is built to simulate the tank water level at the end of each time step and the system total power during each time step. This model includes six sub-models. Specifically, the plant model is a forward model using a wire-to-water concept to simulate the plant total power. For the Thermal Energy Storage (TES) model, the tank state is described with total chilled water volume in the tank and its derivation is the tank charging or discharging flow rate. A regression model is adopted to simulate the loop supply and return temperature difference as well as the loop total flow rate demand. In the control strategy sub-model, except for three conventional control strategies and the operation without TES, a new control strategy is advanced to load the chiller optimally. The final results will be a table showing the monthly control strategy and maximal number of chillers staged on during the off-peak and on-peak periods, an approach which is easy for the operators to follow. Two project applications of this methodology are introduced in this dissertation. One is an existing TES system with state-of-the-art control and metering systems. The monthly optimal operating strategies are generated, which will achieve significant savings. The comparisons among different control strategies are also provided. The other application consists of multiple plants with little data. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the economic feasibility of designing a new chilled water storage tank and sharing it among four plants. This problem can be solved with a simplified system model, and an optimal tank size is recommended.

Zhang, Zhiqin

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

EVALUATION OF FABRIC MEMBRANES FOR USE IN SALTSTONE DRAIN WATER SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Saltstone Disposal Unit 2 contains a sheet drain fabric intended to separate solids from drain water to be returned to the Salt Feed Tank. A similar system installed in Vault 4 appears to be ineffective in keeping solids out of the drain water return lines. Waste Solidification Engineering is considering installation of an additional fabric membrane to supplement the existing sheet drain in SDU 2. Amerdrain 200 is the product currently installed in SDU 2. This product is no longer available, so Sitedrain 94 was used as the replacement product in this testing. Fabrics with apparent opening sizes of 10, 25, 50 and 100 microns were evaluated. These fabrics were evaluated under three separate test conditions, a water flow test, a solids retention test and a grout pour test. A flow test with water showed that installation of an additional filter layer will predictably reduce the theoretical flux through the sheet drain. The manufacturer reports the flux for Sitedrain 94 as 150 gpm/ft{sup 2} by ASTM D-4491. This compares reasonably well with the 117 gpm/ft{sup 2} obtained in this testing. A combination of the 10 micron fabric with Sitedrain 94 could be expected to decrease flux by about 10 times as compared to Sitedrain 94 alone. The different media were used to filter a slag and fly ash mixture from water. Slag historically has the smallest nominal particle size of the premix components. Cement was omitted from the test because of its reactivity with water would prohibit accurately particle size measurements of the filtered samples. All four media sizes were able to remove greater than 95% of particles larger than 100 microns from the slurry. The smaller opening sizes were increasingly effective in removing more particles. The 10 micron filter captured 15% of the total amount of solids used in the test. This result implies that some insoluble particles may still be able to enter the drain water collection system, although the overall solids rejection is significantly improved over the current design. Test boxes were filled with grout to evaluate the performance of the sheet drain and fabrics in a simulated vault environment. All of the tests produced a similar amount of drain water, between 8-11% of the amount of water in the mix, which is expected with the targeted formulation. All of the collected drain waters contained some amount of solids, although the 10 micron filter did not appear to allow any premix materials to pass through. The solids collected from this box are believed to consist of calcium carbonate based on one ICP-AES measurement. Any of the four candidate fabrics would be an improvement over the sheet drain alone relative to solids removal. The 10 micron fabric is the only candidate that stopped all premix material from passing. The 10 micron fabric will also cause the largest decrease in flux. This decrease in flux was not enough to inhibit the total amount of drain water removed, but may lead to increased time to remove standing water prior to subsequent pours in the facility. The acceptability of reduced liquid flux through the 10 micron fabric will depend on the amount of excess water to be removed, the time available for water removal and the total area of fabric installed at the disposal cell.

Pickenheim, B.; Miller, D.; Burket, P.

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

366

Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

Marquez, Horacio J.

367

Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

2011-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

369

Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Concentrating solar collector system for the evaporation of low-level radioactive waste water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently been awarded a grant under the Solar Federal Buildings Program to design, construct, and operate a high-temperature solar energy system for the processing of low-level radioactive waste water. Conceptual design studies have been completed, and detailed design work is under way for a solar system to produce process heat to evaporate 38,000 gal (143,830 L) of waste water per month. The system will use approximately 11,000 ft/sup 2/ (1022 m/sup 2/) of concentrating parabolic trough collectors operating at about 500/sup 0/F (262/sup 0/C). Construction of the system is anticipated to begin in 1981. Performance optimization of collector array size and configuration, storage medium and capacity, system operation, and control schemes are done using the active solar system simulator in the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. Results of this optimization are reported. This project represents a unique application of solar energy to an increasingly significant problem area in the energy field.

Diamond, S.C.; Cappiello, C.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

Dayan, M.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

File:Supplemental NewWaterSystem.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NewWaterSystem.pdf NewWaterSystem.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Supplemental NewWaterSystem.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 383 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 10 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 13:25, 13 November 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 13:25, 13 November 2012 1,275 × 1,650, 10 pages (383 KB) Dklein2012 (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup instructions for more information) File usage There are no pages that link to this file.

377

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2005 through September 2005. In previous work, a series of laboratory scale experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a SMZ system coupled with a VPB to remove and ultimately destroy the organic pollutants found in produced water. Based on the laboratory scale data, a field test of the process was conducted at the McGrath Salt Water Disposal facility in July and August of 2005. The system performed well over repeated feed and regeneration cycles demonstrating the viability of the process for long term operation. Of the BTEX components present in the produced water, benzene had the lowest adsorption affinity for the SMZ and thus controlled the sorption cycle length. Regeneration of the SMZ using air sparging was found to be sufficient in the field to maintain the SMZ adsorption capacity and to allow continuous operation of the system. As expected, the BTEX concentrations in the regeneration off gas stream were initially very high in a given regeneration cycle. However, a granular activated carbon buffering column placed upstream of the VPB reduced the peak BTEX concentrations to acceptable levels for the VPB. In this way, the VPB was able to maintain stable performance over the entire SMZ regeneration period despite the intermittent nature of the feed.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Development of an advanced water-gas shift conversion system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed initial exploratory research to investigate the chemistry and use of a pressurized aqueous catalyst system for conducting the water-gas shift reaction. The research was done under sponsorship of the USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center. A 1.0 liter continuous bench scale reactor system was built and operated to investigate water-gas shift chemistry at high pressure. Details regarding the chemistry of the aqueous, base-catalyzed system in both batch and continuous reactors are presented for a temperature range of 200 to 350/sup 0/C and pressures from 500 to 3000 psig. The catalyst choice is sodium carbonate at a concentration of 6% in water, but any material which can generate hydroxide ions at the process conditions will effectively catalyze the reaction. This report summarizes the results of the bench-scale research on the concept and presents a discussion of optimum operating conditions, pressure effects and limitations, kinetic data, effects of gas flow rates, catalyst type, and preliminary concept evaluation. 16 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003  

SciTech Connect

Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

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381

Solar heating and hot water system for the central administrative office facility. Technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress on the solar heating and hot water system for the central administrative office facility of the Lincoln Housing Authority, Lincoln, NE is covered. An acceptance test plan is presented and the results of the test are tabulated. A complete blueprint of the system as built is provided. The monitoring system is drawn and settings and installation are described. An operation and maintenance manual discusses procedures for start up, shut down and seasonal changeover and include a valve list and pictures and specifications of components and materials used. Photographs of the final installation are included, and technical data and performance data are given. Finally, there is a brief description of system design and operation and a discussion of major maintenance problems encountered and their solutions. (LEW)

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System  

SciTech Connect

Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of SWAT model and Richter et al.’s (1996) methodology to assess the shifting and alteration of the flow regime within the river and streams of the study area. 2) Evaluate the effect of measurable land use changes related to gas development (well-pad placement, access road completion, etc.) on surface water flow in the region (Task/Section 3.7). Results showed that since the upsurge in shale-gas related activities in the Fayetteville Shale Play (between 2006 and 2010), shale-gas related infrastructure in the region have increase by 78%. This change in land-cover in comparison with other land-cover classes such as forest, urban, pasture, agricultural and water indicates the highest rate of change in any land-cover category for the study period. A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) flow model of the Little Red River watershed simulated from 2000 to 2009 showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. A forecast scenario based on the assumption that 2010 land-cover does not see any significant change over the forecast period (2010 to 2020) also showed a 10% increase in storm water runoff. Further analyses showed that this change in the stream-flow regime for the forecast period is attributable to the increase in land-cover as introduced by the shale-gas infrastructure. 3) Upgrade the Fayetteville Shale Information System to include information on watershed status. (Tasks/Sections 2.1 and 2.2). This development occurred early in the project period, and technological improvements in web-map API’s have made it possible to further improve the map. The current sites (http://lingo.cast.uark.edu) is available but is currently being upgraded to a more modern interface and robust mapping engine using funds outside this project. 4) Incorporate the methodologies developed in Tasks/Sections 3.5 and 3.7 into a Spatial Decision Support System for use by regulatory agencies and producers in the play. The resulting system is available at http://fayshale.cast.uark.edu and is under review the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission.

Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro; Limp, Fred

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterization of produced water from four offshore oilOrganic matrix in produced water from the Osage-Skiatookfrom sulfide-rich produced water using gas chromatography/

Zheng, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Control of Chilled Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

loop chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and coolingsuch as 55°F, and lower condenser water temperatures such assizing ? Cooling tower and condenser optimization ? Variable

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Supporting Water, Ecological, and Transportation Systems in the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as well as in water conservation might help to slow anyrecent years because water conservation efforts is expecteddemand management and water conservation and the use of

Beck, Judy; Kamke, Sherry; Majerus, Kimberly

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

RAMI Analysis for Designing and Optimizing Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) for the ITER's Fusion Reactor  

SciTech Connect

U.S.-ITER is responsible for the design, engineering, and procurement of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS). TCWS is designed to provide cooling and baking for client systems that include the first wall/blanket, vacuum vessel, divertor, and neutral beam injector. Additional operations that support these primary functions include chemical control of water provided to client systems, draining and drying for maintenance, and leak detection/localization. TCWS interfaces with 27 systems including the secondary cooling system, which rejects this heat to the environment. TCWS transfers heat generated in the Tokamak during nominal pulsed operation - 850 MW at up to 150 C and 4.2 MPa water pressure. Impurities are diffused from in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel by water baking at 200-240 C at up to 4.4 MPa. TCWS is complex because it serves vital functions for four primary clients whose performance is critical to ITER's success and interfaces with more than 20 additional ITER systems. Conceptual design of this one-of-a-kind cooling system has been completed; however, several issues remain that must be resolved before moving to the next stage of the design process. The 2004 baseline design indicated cooling loops that have no fault tolerance for component failures. During plasma operation, each cooling loop relies on a single pump, a single pressurizer, and one heat exchanger. Consequently, failure of any of these would render TCWS inoperable, resulting in plasma shutdown. The application of reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability (RAMI) tools during the different stages of TCWS design is crucial for optimization purposes and for maintaining compliance with project requirements. RAMI analysis will indicate appropriate equipment redundancy that provides graceful degradation in the event of an equipment failure. This analysis helps demonstrate that using proven, commercially available equipment is better than using custom-designed equipment with no field experience and lowers specific costs while providing higher reliability. This paper presents a brief description of the TCWS conceptual design and the application of RAMI tools to optimize the design at different stages during the project.

Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL; Reiersen, Wayne T [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

LWRS Fuels Pathway: Engineering Design and Fuels Pathway Initial Testing of the Hot Water Corrosion System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development R&D pathway performs strategic research focused on cladding designs leading to improved reactor core economics and safety margins. The research performed is to demonstrate the nuclear fuel technology advancements while satisfying safety and regulatory limits. These goals are met through rigorous testing and analysis. The nuclear fuel technology developed will assist in moving existing nuclear fuel technology to an improved level that would not be practical by industry acting independently. Strategic mission goals are to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental nuclear fuel and cladding performance in nuclear power plants, and to apply this information in the development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels. These will result in improved safety, cladding, integrity, and nuclear fuel cycle economics. To achieve these goals various methods for non-irradiated characterization testing of advanced cladding systems are needed. One such new test system is the Hot Water Corrosion System (HWCS) designed to develop new data for cladding performance assessment and material behavior under simulated off-normal reactor conditions. The HWCS is capable of exposing prototype rodlets to heated, high velocity water at elevated pressure for long periods of time (days, weeks, months). Water chemistry (dissolved oxygen, conductivity and pH) is continuously monitored. In addition, internal rodlet heaters inserted into cladding tubes are used to evaluate repeated thermal stressing and heat transfer characteristics of the prototype rodlets. In summary, the HWCS provides rapid ex-reactor evaluation of cladding designs in normal (flowing hot water) and off-normal (induced cladding stress), enabling engineering and manufacturing improvements to cladding designs before initiation of the more expensive and time consuming in-reactor irradiation testing.

Dr. John Garnier; Dr. Kevin McHugh

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m/sup 3//day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m/sup 3//day. Electrical energy costs to produce one m/sup 3/ of potable water is SR 1.66 in Saudi Arabia and $1.66 to $2.21 in the United States. As with any new process, a number of important details must be learned to obtain the most out of the system. Some of these details are: (1) product water production rate and efficiency are maximized for this system at 10% salinity and ..delta..Ts greater than 3/degree/C, (2) the anhydrous ammonia must be kept clean, (3) the ice in the freezer tubes must be melted without decreasing the salinity of the mixture in the slurry separator, (4) the salinity of the mixture going through each of the freezer tubes must be the same, and (5) the salinity of the slurry must be less than 11%. The authors believe that a subsequent design of an indirect-contact freeze desalination sub-system can be successful. Maintenance of the desalination subsystem has been nominal with only about 6/1/2/ person days required per month. Proper operating procedures and some redesign of the desalination subsystem should minimize the required maintenance. 4 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Zimmerman, J.C.; Al-Abbadi, N.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Georgia Institute of Technology chilled water system evaluation and master plan  

SciTech Connect

As the host of the Olympic Village for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, Georgia Tech has experienced a surge in construction activities over the last three years. Over 1.3 million square feet of new buildings have been constructed on the Georgia Tech campus. This growth has placed a strain on the Georgia Tech community and challenged the facilities support staff charged with planning and organizing utility services. In concert with Olympic construction, utility planners have worked to ensure long term benefits for Georgia Tech facilities while meeting the short term requirements of the Olympic Games. The concentration of building construction in the northwest quadrant of the campus allowed planners to construct a satellite chilled water plant to serve the needs of this area and provide the opportunity to integrate this section of the campus with the main campus chilled water system. This assessment and master plan, funded in part by the US Department of Energy, has evaluated the chilled water infrastructure at Georgia Tech, identified ongoing problems and made recommendations for long term chilled water infrastructure development and efficiency improvements. The Georgia Tech office of Facilities and RDA Engineering, Inc. have worked together to assemble relevant information and prepare the recommendations contained in this document.

NONE

1996-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Electric Tankless Water Heater (TWH) Performance Evaluation and System Compatibility Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Instantaneous Water Heater or Tankless Water Heater (TWH) or Demand Water Heater is designed to provide hot water on demand without a storage tank. Tank water heaters require energy to maintain the water temperature in the tank when not in demand. In tank water heaters, due to the specific heat of the water, the thermal time constant of the water heater will not allow it to supply hot water at the same rate as it is used, hence the use of the tank, storing hot water for instant availability. In the e...

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

392

Thermal and hydraulic analyses of TFTR cooling water system and magnetic field coils  

SciTech Connect

The TFTR toroidal field coils, ohmic heating, hybrid and equilibrium field coils are cooled by water from the machine area cooling water system. The system has the following major equipment and capacities: flow rate of 3600 gpm; ballast tank volume of 5500 gal; pumps of 70.4 m head; chiller refrigeration rating of 3300 tons and connecting pipe of 45.7 cm I.D. The performance of the closed loop system was analyzed and found to be adequate for the thermal loads. The field coils were analyzed with detailed thermal and hydraulic models, including a simulation of the complete water cooling loop. Under the nominal operating mode of one second of toroidal field flat top time and 300 seconds of pulse cycle time, the maximum temperature for the TF coils is 53/sup 0/C; for the OH coils 46/sup 0/C and for the EF coils 39/sup 0/C, which are well below the coil design limit of 120/sup 0/C. The maximum TF coil coolant temperature is 33/sup 0/C which is below the coolant design limit of 100/sup 0/C. The overall pressure loss of the system is below 6.89 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (100 psi). With the given chiller refrigeration capacity, the TF coils can be operated to yield up to 4 seconds of flat top time. The TF coils can be operated on a steady state basis at up to 20% of the pulsed duty design current rating of 7.32 kA/coil (36.6 kA/conductor).

Lee, A.Y.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality Characterization Using Rapidly Deployable Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS RD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality1594. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Qualityobserving spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties

Thomas C. Harmon; Richard F. Ambrose; Robert M. Gilbert; Jason C. Fisher; Michael Stealey; William J. Kaiser

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps.

Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Combined cooling and purification system for nuclear reactor spent fuel pit, refueling cavity, and refueling water storage tank  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The spent fuel pit of a pressured water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant has sufficient coolant capacity that a safety rated cooling system is not required. A non-safety rated combined cooling and purification system with redundant branches selectively provides simultaneously cooling and purification for the spent fuel pit, the refueling cavity, and the refueling water storage tank, and transfers coolant from the refueling water storage tank to the refueling cavity without it passing through the reactor core. Skimmers on the suction piping of the combined cooling and purification system eliminate the need for separate skimmer circuits with dedicated pumps. 1 figures.

Corletti, M.M.; Lau, L.K.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

396

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer of previous years, Kuwait faced a series of power shortages emphasizing the need for urgent commissioning of power generation projects. It is estimated that the demand for electricity is growing at an average of 6.2% per year, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS) system is one of the available techniques that can be utilized to reduce peak electricity demand of buildings when national electricity consumption is at its highest level. This paper demonstrates that the use of CWTS system reduces the peak power demand and energy consumption of AC systems for design day conditions by 36.7% - 87.5% and 5.4% - 7.2%, respectively. This reduction depends on selected operating strategies as compared with conventional AC system. Furthermore, results show that the annual energy consumption of CWTS systems decreases by between 4.5% and 6.9% compared with conventional systems, where chillers and pumps significantly contribute to this reduction.

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. [1] Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water. [2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514. Federal facilities having financial difficulty meeting the EISA mandate and executive order (e.g., facilities with natural

398

Heterogeneous reactivity effects in medium- and high-enriched uranium metal-water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of heterogeneity on reactivity of low-, medium-, and high-enriched, water-moderated uranium metal systems has been examined for various hydrogen-to-fissile (H/X) ratios using the CSAS1X sequence in SCALE and MCNP. For the calculations, an infinite array of close-packed unit cells was modeled which consisted of centered uranium metal spheres surrounded by water. The enrichments used correspond to the average enrichments of fragmented fuel plates in three proposed waste shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis performed to obtain peak reactivity for each enrichment as a function of particle size and H/X ratio led to the development of the topic discussed in this paper.

Lichtenwalter, J.J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heat and mass transfer in a falling film absorber of ammonia-water absorption systems  

SciTech Connect

For ammonia-water generator-absorber heat exchanger (GAX) systems to work at high coefficient of performance, the heat and mass transfer components have to operate at optimum performance within a narrow range of conditions for the recovery of internal energy. In the present work, an analysis is performed to study the absorption process of an ammonia-water vapor mixture by an aqueous solution of ammonia in a falling film absorber. The combined heat and mass transfer processes involved are analyzed through an integral formulation of the continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion equations. The effects of vapor flow direction relative to the solution, cooling ability, ammonia concentration of solution and vapor, and interfacial momentum and heat transfer rate on absorption processes are investigated. The characteristics of the absorption process are found to be governed by the relative significance of the mass transfer resistance and the driving forces between the solution film and the vapor mixture.

Kim, B. [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

2005-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

402

Low-Dimensional Water on Ru(0001); Model System for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Liquid Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

geometries other than ice and gas-phase. This approach has1-4 . In its condensed ice Ih phase each water molecule is150 K. Spectra of gas phase and ice 5, 15, 16 are shown as

Nordlund, D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Meeting the mandate for clean water : an evaluation of privately managed U.S. water and wastewater systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliable provision of clean and safe drinking water is critical for public health, economic stability and growth in the United States. Due to a combination of financial, regulatory and operational challenges, however, it ...

Freund, Evan Benjamin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

HVAC and water heating system field test experiences at the Tennessee Energy Conservation in Housing (TECH) complex  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The TECH complex has been utilized since 1976 as a field test site for several novel and conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. Systems tested include the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), solar space heating systems (hydronic and air), parallel and series solar assisted heat pumps, air-type solar heating with off-peak storage, passive solar heating, two conventional air-to-air heat pumps, an air-to-air heat pump with desuperheater water heater, and horizontal coil and multiple shallow vertical coil ground-coupled heat pumps. System descriptions and test results are presented as well as performance observations.

Baxter, V.D.; McGraw, B.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Simulation of water-rock interaction in the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yellowstone geothermal system provides an ideal opportunity to test the ability of reactive transport models to simulate the chemical and hydrological effects of water-rock interaction. Previous studies of the Yellowstone geothermal system have characterized water-rock interaction through analysis of rocks and fluids obtained from both surface and downhole samples. Fluid chemistry, rock mineralogy, permeability, porosity, and thermal data obtained from the Y-8 borehole in Upper Geyser Basin were used to constrain a series of reactive transport simulations of the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT. Three distinct stratigraphic units were encountered in the 153.4 m deep Y-8 drill core: volcaniclastic sandstone, perlitic rhyolitic lava, and nonwelded pumiceous tuff. The main alteration phases identified in the Y-8 core samples include clay minerals, zeolites, silica polymorphs, adularia, and calcite. Temperatures observed in the Y-8 borehole increase with depth from sub-boiling conditions at the surface to a maximum of 169.8 C at a depth of 104.1 m, with near-isothermal conditions persisting down to the well bottom. 1-D models of the Y-8 core hole were constructed to simulate the observed alteration mineral assemblage given the initial rock mineralogy and observed fluid chemistry and temperatures. Preliminary simulations involving the perlitic rhyolitic lava unit are consistent with the observed alteration of rhyolitic glass to form celadonite.

Dobson, Patrick F.; Salah, Sonia; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric L.

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

406

Simulation of water-rock interaction in the yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Yellowstone geothermal system provides an ideal opportunity to test the ability of reactive transport models to accurately simulate water-rock interaction. Previous studies of the Yellowstone geothermal system have characterized water-rock interaction through analysis of rocks and fluids obtained from both surface and downhole samples. Fluid chemistry, rock mineralogy, permeability, porosity, and thermal data obtained from the Y-8 borehole in Upper Geyser Basin were used to constrain a series of reactive transport simulations of the Yellowstone geothermal system using TOUGHREACT. Three distinct stratigraphic units were encountered in the 153.4 m deep Y-8 drill core: volcaniclastic sandstone, perlitic rhyolitic lava, and nonwelded pumiceous tuff. The main alteration phases identified in the Y-8 core samples include clay minerals, zeolites, silica polymorphs, adularia, and calcite. Temperatures observed in the Y-8 borehole increase with depth from sub-boiling conditions at the surface to a maximum of 169.8 C at a depth of 104.1 m, with near-isothermal conditions persisting down to the well bottom. 1-D models of the Y-8 core hole were constructed to determine if TOUGHREACT could accurately predict the observed alteration mineral assemblage given the initial rock mineralogy and observed fluid chemistry and temperatures. Preliminary simulations involving the perlitic rhyolitic lava unit are consistent with the observed alteration of rhyolitic glass to form celadonite.

Dobson, P.F.; Salah, S.; Spycher, N.; Sonnenthal, E.

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Disinfection Efficacy of Chlorine on Sulfate-reducing Bacteria and Iron Bacteria in Water Supply Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and iron reducing bacteria (IRB) that widely exist in water supply networks are the main microorganisms leading to metal corrosion in pipelines. Chlorine is widely used in drinking water supply systems for sterilization. ... Keywords: Chlorine, SRB, IRB, disinfection efficacy

Qi Beimenr; Wu Chenguang; Chen Xiaoju; Yuan Yixing

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF MECHA WOREDA, AMHARA REGION, ETHIOPIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in their system. Consideration of the above mentioned factors may help in decreasing the failure rate of newly....................................................33 #12;ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ADF Africa Development Fund BWR Basic Water Requirement CSA Central if they fail after a short time. In order to make the investment in water supplies more effective, failure

409

Optimization of a Savonius rotor vertical-axis wind turbine for use in water pumping systems in rural Honduras  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The D-lab Honduras team designed and constructed a wind-powered water pump in rural Honduras during IAP 2007. Currently, the system does not work under its own power and water must be pumped by hand. This thesis seeks to ...

Zingman, Aron (Aron Olesen)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Investigation of a Novel Solar Assisted Water Heating System with Enhanced Energy Yield for Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presented the concept, prototype application, operational performance and benefits relating to a novel solar assisted water heating system for building services. It was undertaken through dedicated theoretical analysis, computer simulation and experimental verification. The unique characteristic of such system consists in the integrated loop heat pipe and heat pump unit (LHP-HP), which was proposed to improve solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, capture additional solar heat, and therefore enhance overall solar energy yield. The evaluation approaches derived from the first-law thermodynamics and the standard/hybrid system performance coefficients (COP/COPPV/T) were developed for the comprehensive assessments. Under the featured weather conditions, the mean electrical, thermal and overall energetic efficiencies of the module were tested around 9.12%, 38.13% and 47.25% respectively. Whilst the COP and COPPV/T values of entire system were measured at about 5.51 and 8.81 averagely. Moreover, a general comparison of this prototype system against the conventional solar/air energy systems was simply discussed.

Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xu, J.; Yu, X.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Symmetry analysis of a system of modified shallow-water equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We revise the symmetry analysis of a modified system of one-dimensional shallow-water equations (MSWE) recently considered by Raja Sekhar and Sharma [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simulat. 20 (2012) 630-636]. Only a finite dimensional subalgebra of the maximal Lie invariance algebra of the MSWE, which in fact is infinite dimensional, was found in the aforementioned paper. The MSWE can be linearized using a hodograph transformation. An optimal list of inequivalent one-dimensional subalgebras of the maximal Lie invariance algebra is constructed and used for Lie reductions. Non-Lie solutions are found from solutions of the linearized MSWE.

Simon Szatmari; Alexander Bihlo

2012-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

413

Highly efficient photochemical HCOOH production from CO{sub 2} and water using an inorganic system  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a system that uses solar energy to react CO{sub 2} with water to generate formic acid (HCOOH) at an energy conversion efficiency of 0.15%. It consists of an AlGaN/GaN anode photoelectrode and indium (In) cathode that are electrically connected outside of the reactor cell. High energy conversion efficiency is realized due to a high quantum efficiency of 28% at 300 nm, attributable to efficient electron-hole separation in the semiconductor's heterostructure. The efficiency is close to that of natural photosynthesis in plants, and what is more, the reaction product (HCOOH) can be used as a renewable energy source.

Yotsuhashi, Satoshi; Hashiba, Hiroshi; Deguchi, Masahiro; Zenitani, Yuji; Hinogami, Reiko; Yamada, Yuka [Advanced Technology Research Laboratory, Panasonic Corporation, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Deura, Momoko; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Refurbishment of ballast water system of the gravity base structure - Beryl 'A'  

SciTech Connect

The Beryl Alpha Gravity Base Platform has operated satisfactorily for the past 11 years and is expected to stay in operation until the year 2017. The Ballast Water System is a vital part of the platform's oil storage and export equipment. In 1986, during routine pipe inspections in the lower part of the utility shaft, significant defects were discovered which resulted in major refurbishment work. Innovative designs and working procedures were employed for replacement and reinforced grout encasement of line pipe sections. This paper details the important aspects of this refurbishment work.

Seume, K.; Gilchrist, J.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

LEGAL ISSUES FOR MARKET FINANCING OF CALIFORNIA WATER In part, this study investigates market methods for generating revenues for water resource system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The energy crisis of the 1970's triggered the downfall of natural gas regulation. Regulators and industry from the natural gas and electric industries where de-coupling has taken place, and the last section UTILITIES Similar to the natural gas and electricity industries, California's water supply system can

Lund, Jay R.

416

Comparisons of Line-of-Sight Water Vapor Observations Using the Global Positioning System and a Pointing Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Line-of-sight measurements of integrated water vapor from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a microwave radiometer are compared. These two instruments were collocated at the central facility of the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric ...

John Braun; Christian Rocken; James Liljegren

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Intercomparison of Water Vapor Data Measured with Lidar during IHOP_2002. Part II: Airborne-to-Airborne Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dataset of the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) gives the first opportunity for direct intercomparisons of airborne water vapor lidar systems and allows very important conclusions to be drawn for future field campaigns. Three airborne ...

Andreas Behrendt; Volker Wulfmeyer; Thorsten Schaberl; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Christoph Kiemle; Gerhard Ehret; Cyrille Flamant; Susan Kooi; Syed Ismail; Richard Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; David N. Whiteman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

System and method for monitoring water content or other dielectric influences in a medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor system is provided that measures water content or other detectable properties in a medium along the entire length of the sensor at any point in time. The sensor system includes an electromagnetic signal generator and a transmission line disposed in a medium to be monitored. Alternatively, the transmission line can be configured for movement across a medium to be monitored, or the transmission line can be fixed relative to a moving medium being monitored. A signal is transmitted along the transmission line at predetermined frequencies, and the signal is returned back along the transmission line and/or into an optional receive line in proximity to the transmission line. The returned signal is processed to generate a one-dimensional data output profile that is a function of a detectable property of the medium. The data output profile can be mapped onto a physical system to generate a two-dimensional or three-dimensional profile if desired. The sensor system is useful in a variety of different applications such as agriculture, horticulture, biofiltration systems for industrial offgases, leak detection in landfills or drum storage facilities at buried waste sites, and in many other applications.

Cherry, Robert S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Allen A. (Firth, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water system cxs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Control of Chilled Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for cleanrooms and their adjacent spaces. Chillers 39% Cooling Towers 7% Pumps 17% MUAH + RCU Fans 9% Hot Water;chilled water pumps, secondary loop chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and cooling towers for water-cooled chillers. While nominal energy efficiency ratings of individual component influence

422

Analysis of space heating and domestic hot water systems for energy-efficient residential buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analysis of the best ways of meeting the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) needs of new energy-efficient houses with very low requirements for space heat is provided. The DHW load is about equal to the space heating load in such houses in northern climates. The equipment options which should be considered are discussed, including new equipment recently introduced in the market. It is concluded that the first consideration in selecting systems for energy-efficient houses should be identification of the air moving needs of the house for heat distribution, heat storage, ventilation, and ventilative cooling. This is followed, in order, by selection of the most appropriate distribution system, the heating appliances and controls, and the preferred energy source, gas, oil, or electricity.

Dennehy, G

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Performance Comparison of Residential Hot Water Systems; Period of Performance: January 30, 2001 through July 29, 2002  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A laboratory test experiment was conducted to measure the energy performance of two different types of water heaters--electric storage tank and demand (tankless)--in two types of plumbing distribution systems--copper piping in a tree configuration and cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) piping in a parallel configuration. Two water-usage patterns were used in the week-long experiments and in the annual simulations: one representing a high-usage home and the other representing a low-usage home. Results of weekly performance testing and annual simulations of electric water-heating systems are presented.

Wiehagen, J.; Sikora, J. L.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Feasibility Study for Photovoltaics, Wind, solar Hot Water and Hybrid Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) located in Albuquerque New Mexico is a community college that serves American Indians and Alaska Natives. SIPI’s student body represents over 100 Native American Tribes. SIPI completed a renewable energy feasibility study program and established renewable energy hardware on the SIPI campus, which supplements and creates an educational resource to teach renewable energy courses. The SIPI campus is located, and has as student origins, areas, in which power is an issue in remote reservations. The following hardware was installed and integrated into the campus facilities: small wind turbine, large photovoltaic array that is grid-connected, two photovoltaic arrays, one thin film type, and one polycrystalline type, one dual-axis active tracker and one passive tracker, a hot air system for heating a small building, a portable hybrid photovoltaic system for remote power, and a hot water system to preheat water used in the SIPI Child Care facility. Educational curriculum has been developed for two renewable energy courses one being the study of energy production and use, and especially the roles renewable energy forms like solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass plays, and the second course being a more advanced in-depth study of renewable energy system design, maintenance, installation, and applications. Both courses rely heavily on experiential learning techniques so that installed renewable energy hardware is continuously utilized in hand-on laboratory activities and are part of the Electronics program of studies. Renewable energy technologies and science has also been included in other SIPI programs of study such as Environmental Science, Natural Resources, Agriculture, Engineering, Network Management, and Geospatial Technology.

Hooks, Ronald; Montoya, Valerie

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

425

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Operational readiness review implementation plan for K Basin sludge water system  

SciTech Connect

This Implementation Plan (IP) has been prepared consistent with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 425.1B, ''Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities'', and DOE-STD-3006-2000, ''Planning and Conduct of Operational Readiness Reviews'' (ORR) (DOE 2002). The scope of the DOE ORR is described in the RL ''Plan of Action, K Basin Sludge Water System'' (Veitenheimer 2003), prepared by DOE project line management and approved by the RL Manager, the designated Approval Authority, on March 20, 2003. The scope of the contractor ORR is described in the contractor ''Plan of Action for the K Basins Sludge Water System Operational Readiness Review'' (FH 2002a) which was prepared by Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project line management and approved by the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) Manager on December 19, 2002. DOE Order 425.1B indicates that the Secretarial Officer is the Authorization Authority when substantial modifications are made to a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility. This Authorization Authority has been delegated to the RL Manager by memorandum from Jessie Hill Roberson, dated February 5, 2003 (Roberson 2003). This IP provides the overall approach and guidelines for performance of the DOE ORR. Appendix A contains the Criteria and Review Approach Documents (CRAD), which define the review objectives and criteria as well as the approach for assessing each objective. ORR results will be published in a final report, as discussed in Section 9.4.

IRWIN, R.M.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems installed at Richland, Washington. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Sunburst is a demonstration system for solar space heating and cooling and solar hot water heating for a 14,400 square foot office building in Richland, Washington. The project is part of the US Department of Energy's solar demonstration program, and became operational in April 1978. The solar system uses 6,000 square feet of flat-plate liquid collectors in a closed loop to deliver solar energy through a liquid--liquid heat exchanger to the building heat-pump duct work or 9,000-gallon thermal energy storage tank. A 25-ton Arkla solar-driven absorption chiller provides the cooling, in conjunction with a 2,000 gallon chilled water storage tank and reflective ponds on three sides of the building to reject surplus heat. A near-by building is essentially identical except for having conventional heat-pump heating and cooling, and can serve as an experimental control. An on-going public relations program has been provided from the beginning of the program and has resulted in numerous visitors and tour groups.

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

D. E. Shropshire

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly and uniformly to the nickel metal foam flow-field (element for distributing the reactant gases over the surface of the electrodes) on the anode side from which water can migrate to the cathode side of the cell via electroosmotic drag. For an effective overall cooling, water distribution over the surface of the nickel foam has to be uniform to avoid creation of hotspots within the cell. A prototype PEMFC structure was constructed modeled after a 35 kW electrical output PEMFC stack. Water was sprayed on the nickel metal foam flow-field using two types of nozzle spray, giving conical fog type flow and flat fan type flow. A detailed investigation of the distribution pattern of water over the surface of the nickel metal flow field was conducted. The motive behind the investigation was to determine if design parameters such as type of water flow from nozzles, vertical location of the water nozzles above the flowfield, area of the nozzles, or operating variables such as reactant gas flow had any effect on water distribution over the surface of the Ni-metal foam flow field. It was found that the design parameters (types of flow, area and location of the nozzle) had a direct impact on the distribution of water in the nickel metal foam. However, the operating variable, reactant gas flow, showed no effect on the water distribution pattern in the Ni-foam.

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Adequacy of the 123-group cross-section library for criticality analyses of water-moderated uranium systems  

SciTech Connect

In a recent criticality analysis for an array of water-moderated packages containing highly enriched uranium, the 123-group cross-section library in the SCALE system was observed to have a nonconservative discrepancy of approximately 3 to 3.5% when compared with more recently developed libraries. A simple representative system of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O was used to identify that the problem results from a lack of resonance data for {sup 235}U. Only a single set of self-shielded cross sections, most likely corresponding to a water-moderated infinite dilute system, was provided with the original data. The UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O study indicates that this limitation may cause nonconservative discrepancies as high as 5.5% for some water-moderated, highly enriched uranium systems. Characteristics of the systems where the discrepancy is evident are identified and discussed.

Parks, C.V.; Wright, R.Q.; Jordan, W.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Solar water-heating system for the Ingham County geriatric medical care facility, Okemos, Michigan. Operational and maintenance instruction manual  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the Ingham County Solar Project include: the demonstration of a major operational supplement to fossil fuels, thereby reducing the demand for non-renewable energy sources, demonstration of the economic and technical feasibility of solar systems as an important energy supplement over the expected life of the building, and to encourage Michigan industry to produce and incorporate solar systems in their own facility. The Ingham County solar system consists of approximately 10,000 square feet of solar collectors connected in a closed configuration loop. The primary loop solution is a mixture of water and propylene glycol which flows through the tube side of a heat exchanger connected to the primary storage tank. The heat energy which is supplied to the primary storage tank is subsequently utilized to increase the temperature of the laundry water, kitchen water, and domestic potable water.

Not Available

1983-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Purification of water from cooling towers and other heat exchange systems  

SciTech Connect

The amount of silica in cooling tower water is reduced by passing cooling tower water through a column of silica gel.

Sullivan; Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM), Carlson; Bryan J. (Ojo Caliente, NM), Wingo; Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM), Robison; Thomas W. (Stilwell, KS)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

434

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Control of Chilled Water System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MUAH + RCU Fans Pumps Cooling Towers Figure 1. Benchmarkedcondenser water pumps, and cooling towers for water-cooledRight sizing ? Cooling tower and condenser optimization ?

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cooperative agreement was negotiated in April 1978 for the installation of a space and domestic hot water system at Southeast of Saline, Kansas Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas. The solar system was installed in a new building and was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are liquid flat plate. They are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. This final report, which describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility, contains detailed drawings of the completed system. The facility was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

Not Available

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Potential of solar domestic hot water systems in rural areas for greenhouse gas emission reduction in Poland  

SciTech Connect

Application of solar energy for preparing domestic hot water is one of the easiest methods of utilization of this energy. At least part of the needs for warm tap water could be covered by solar systems. At present, mainly coal is used for water heating at dwellings in rural areas in Poland. Warm tap water consumption will increase significantly in the future as standards of living are improved. This can result in the growth of electricity use and an increase in primary fuel consumption. Present and future methods of warm sanitary water generation in rural areas in Poland is discussed, and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are estimated. It is predicted that the emission of CO{sub 2} and NOx will increase. The emission of CO and CH{sub 4} will decrease because of changes in the structure of the final energy carriers used. The economic and market potentials of solar energy for preparing warm water in rural areas are discussed. It is estimated that solar systems can meet 30%-45% of the energy demand for warm water generation in rural areas at a reasonable cost, with a corresponding CO{sub 2} emission reduction. The rate of realization of the economic potential of solar water heaters depends on subsidies for the installation of equipment. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

Skowronski, P. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Warsaw (Poland); Wisniewski, G. [Institute for Building, Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture, Warsaw (Poland)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

438

Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Hewett, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Gee, R.; May, K. [Industrial Solar Technology, Arvada, CO (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Enhanced Control of PWR Primary Coolant Water Chemistry Using Selective Separation Systems for Recovery and Recycle of Enriched Boric Acid  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop systems that will allow for increased nuclear energy production through the use of enriched fuels. The developed systems will allow for the efficient and selective recover of selected isotopes that are additives to power water reactors' primary coolant chemistry for suppression of corrosion attack on reactor materials.

Ken Czerwinski; Charels Yeamans; Don Olander; Kenneth Raymond; Norman Schroeder; Thomas Robison; Bryan Carlson; Barbara Smit; Pat Robinson

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

440

A comparison of central and individual systems for space conditioning and domestic hot water in new multifamily buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report compares the energy performance and life-cycle cost of central and individual heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as well as domestic hot water (DHW) systems in new multifamily buildings. The different systems were analyzed by using DOE-2.1C to model prototypical apartment buildings in Chicago and Atlanta with Weather Year for Energy Calculation weather data. The building is equipped with either a central chiller and gas-fired boiler, which supply four-pipe fan coils in each apartment, or is conditioned by individual packaged terminal air conditioners in each apartment. The building with central HVAC also has a central, gas-fired domestic hot water system; the building with individual units has electric water heaters in each apartment. The individual systems were modeled with and without a setback thermostat. The use of natural gas for space and water heating and the more efficient central chiller resulted in an annual energy cost savings for the central system in both cities. A life-cycle cost comparison of system types shows that apartment buildings with as few as five units in Chicago and as few as 30 units in Atlanta should be designed with central HVAC and DHW systems.

Byrne, S.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (US)); Fay, J.M. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z