National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water supply systems

  1. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  2. Alternate Water Supply System, Riverton, WY, Site

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January ... left blank DOE-LM1570-2008 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, ...

  3. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  4. Application of Hotelling’s T{sup 2} charts in monitoring quality parameters in a drinking water supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Mafalda T.; Carolino, Elisabete; Oliveira, Teresa A.

    2015-03-10

    In water supply systems with distribution networkthe most critical aspects of control and Monitoring of water quality, which generates crises system, are the effects of cross-contamination originated by the network typology. The classics of control of quality systems through the application of Shewhart charts are generally difficult to manage in real time due to the high number of charts that must be completed and evaluated. As an alternative to the traditional control systems with Shewhart charts, this study aimed to apply a simplified methodology of a monitoring plan quality parameters in a drinking water distribution, by applying Hotelling’s T{sup 2} charts and supplemented with Shewhart charts with Bonferroni limits system, whenever instabilities with processes were detected.

  5. Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Substitute Water Supply Plans Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

  6. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  7. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O'Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  8. New supply for canyon fire foam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gainey, T.

    1995-01-01

    The raw water supply for the B-Plant Canyon fire foam system is being replaced. The 4 inche water supply line to the foam system is being rerouted from the 6 inches raw water line in the Pipe Gallery to the 10 inches raw water main in the Operating Gallery. This document states the acceptance criteria for the flushing and testing to be performed by the contractor.

  9. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  10. Supercritical Water Nuclear Steam Supply System: Innovations In Materials, Neutronics & Thermal-Hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Anderson; M.L. Corradini; K. Sridharan; P. WIlson; D. Cho; T.K. Kim; S. Lomperski

    2004-09-02

    In the 1990's supercritical light-water reactors were considered in conceptual designs. A nuclear reactor cooled by supercritical waster would have a much higher thermal efficiency with a once-through direct power cycle, and could be based on standardized water reactor components (light water or heavy water). The theoretical efficiency could be improved by more than 33% over that of other water reactors and could be simplified with higher reliability; e.g., a boiling water reactor without steam separators or dryers.

  11. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  12. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOEs ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  13. Supervisory Supply Systems Analyst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This position is located in Materials Management Group, which is part of the Logistics Management operations of Supply Chain Services. The Logistics Management organization manages the warehousing...

  14. Advanced Feedstock Supply System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstock Logistics Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 2 * Technologies exist to supply biomass for energy production, but they have limits * Cost, quantity, ...

  15. Feedstock Supply & Logistics Feedstock Supply System Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... LOGTOF 36.95 60.22 Urban and mill wood wastes MRESUU 4.56 7.79 Potential feedstock supply (Totals) 164.4 267.67 Resource Agricultural Residues Energy Crops Forest Resources ...

  16. Integrating water supply and efficient use options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendy, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses a new planning process that includes water use efficiency measures, new technologies, and traditional supply options. As water agencies gain experience in influencing customer water use amounts and patterns, the agencies need to incorporate these changes into their planning process. Here is a description of process used successfully by electric and natural gas utilities to compare and select among both supply-side and demand-side resource options.

  17. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting the Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop on February 3-4, 2015, in Golden, Colorado. The purpose of the workshop is to bring together a...

  18. Uninterruptible power supply cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottfried, C.F.

    1987-08-11

    A power system is described for providing an uninterruptible power supply comprising: a first generator means for supplying energy to a primary load; a second generator means connected to an electrical utility, the first and second generator means being connected by a common shaft, the first generator means being electrically isolated from the electrical utility; prime mover means connected to the common shaft, the prime mover means for supplying mechanical energy to the shaft; and controller means interposed electrically between the second generator means and the secondary external load, the controller means causing the second generator means to become disconnected from the secondary load upon interruptions in the secondary load.

  19. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) hosted the Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop on February 3-4, 2015, in Golden, Colorado. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of stakeholders to examine, discuss, and validate analysis assumptions used to move beyond current feedstock supply systems designed to support the agriculture and forestry industries. Participants discussed assumptions relating to volume and transportation logistics, biomass quality, and operational risks. The outcome of the workshop includes a report summarizing the expert opinions shared during the workshop.

  20. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix F: Irrigation, Municipal and Industrial/Water Supply.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Columbia River System Operations Review; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M&I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M&I studies; Irrigation/M&I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M&I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement.

  1. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    Use of this purchase specification is not mandatory. User should review the document and determine if it meets the user`s purpose. This document contains a fill-in-the-blanks guide specification for the procurement of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems greater than 10 kVA, organized as follows: Parts 1 through 7--technical requirements; Appendix A--technical requirements to be included in the proposal; Appendix B--UPS system data sheets to be completed by each bidder (Seller) and submitted with the proposal; Appendix C--general guidelines giving the specifier parameters for selecting a UPS system; it should be read before preparing an actual specification, and is not attached to the specification; Attachment 1--sketches prepared by the purchaser (Owner); Attachment 2--sample title page.

  2. Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, K.J.; Barrie, S.L.; Buttner, W.J.

    1999-08-24

    A system is described for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein. 5 figs.

  3. Method for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, Kirk J. (Shelley, ID); Barrie, Scott L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Buttner, William J. (White Bear Lake, MN)

    1999-01-01

    A system for detecting organic contaminants in water supplies. A sampling unit is employed which includes a housing having at least one opening therein and a tubular member positioned within the housing having a central passageway surrounded by a side wall. The side wall is made of a composition designed to absorb the contaminants. In use, the sampling unit is immersed in a water supply. The water supply contacts the tubular member through the opening in the housing, with any contaminants being absorbed into the side wall of the tubular member. A carrier gas is then passed through the central passageway of the tubular member. The contaminants will diffuse out of the side wall and into the central passageway where they will subsequently combine with the carrier gas, thereby yielding a gaseous product. The gaseous product is then analyzed to determine the amount and type of contaminants therein.

  4. Public water supply and distribution at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neary, C.

    1997-10-01

    On February 17th, 1996, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a former Department of Energy uranium processing facility near the rural town of Fernald, Ohio, became a ``user`` instead of a ``producer``, of potable water by tying into the Cincinnati Water Works new Public Water Supply System. This satisfied the future site needs of potable water and nullified the need to follow the sampling requirements set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Safe Drinking Water Act for potable water producers. This transformation into a customer also reduced the long water transmission time from the Cincinnati Water Works station to the small community that would have occurred without a large user such as the FEMP being on line.

  5. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  6. Advanced Feedstock Supply System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feedstock Supply System Advanced Feedstock Supply System This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by Erin M Searcy, Ph.D. searcy_caafi_workshop.pdf (2.33 MB) More Documents & Publications 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Feedstock Supply and Logistics Biomass Program Perspectives on Anaerobic Digestion and Fuel Cell Integration at Biorefineries Challenge # 1. Feedstock & Production

  7. Power supply system for heat and electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafner, G.; Finger, H.; Lenz, H.

    1985-03-05

    A power supply system for generating at least one of heat and electricity which includes a number of statically and functionally independent units adapted to generate at least one of heat and electricity which enable a maximum utilization of primary energy. For decentralized power supply over short and low loss supply lines the individual units are constructed as stackable modules. By exchanging or adding one or more modules, it is possible to adapt the flexibility of the power supply system to changes in demand for the energy thereby providing a practical approach to the utilization of waste heat for energy conservation purposes.

  8. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  9. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  10. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    impacts by production on long-term water supply sustainability at Los Alamos. This report summarizes production data and aquifer conditions for water production and monitor wells in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) area (Figure 1). Water production wells are grouped within the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields, the locations of which are shown on Figure 1. Wells from these fields supply all the potable water used for municipal and most industrial purposes in Los Alamos County (LAC), at LANL, and at Bandelier National Monument. This report has three primary objectives: (1) Provide a continuing historical record of metered well production and overall water usage; (2) Provide data to the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL management, and Los Alamos County planners for operation of the water supply system and for long-range water resource planning; and (3) Provide water-level data from regional aquifer production wells, test wells, and monitoring wells.

  11. Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    List of Assumptions and Draft Workshop Agenda for the Advanced Supply System Validation Workshop, February 3-4, 2014, Golden, Colorado, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Technologies Office.

  12. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  13. LPG fuel supply system. [Patent for automotive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.V.

    1982-09-07

    A fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine operated on gaseous fuels, for example, liquid petroleum gas (Lpg). The system includes a housing having a chamber for vaporizing liquid gas, including means for heating the vaporizing chamber. Also included in the housing is a mixing chamber for mixing the vaporized gas with incoming air for delivery to the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine through a standard carburetor. The fuel supply system includes means for mounting the system on the carburetor, including means for supporting an air filter circumjacent the mixing chamber.

  14. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Emergencies 2012 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2012.pdf (3.86 MB) More Documents & Publications IEA Response ...

  15. Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Motor Systems Efficiency Supply Curves AgencyCompany Organization: United...

  16. Montana Public Water Supply Law and Rules Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Public Water Supply Law and Rules Webpage Abstract Provides overview of statutes and...

  17. Alaskan Ice Road Water Supplies Augmented by Snow Barriers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks have demonstrated that the use of artificial barriers—snow fences—can significantly increase the amount of fresh water supplies in Arctic lakes at a fraction of the cost of bringing in water from nearby lakes.

  18. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  19. Water supply and use in Deaf Smith, Swisher, and nearby counties in the Texas Panhandle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    Irrigation for agriculture is the primary water use in the area of Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas, and the Ogallala Formation is the main water source. The availability of water in the 12-county area is projected to decrease markedly over the next 5 decades because of the steady depletion of ground water in recoverable storage. Water requirements in the 12-county area are projected to exceed available supplies from about 1990 through 2030. The shortage for the year 2030 is estimated to be approximately 4 million acre-feet under high-growth-rate conditions. Because of its semiarid climate, the area has little available surface water to augment the supply of the Ogallala Formation, which, despite its depletion, could be the principal source of water for the repository. There are, however, other potential sources of water: (1) Lake Mackenzie, on Tule Creek; (2) the Santa Rosa Formation, which underlies much of the Southern High Plains and locally yields moderate amounts of good-quality water; and (3) the Wolfcamp Series, which yields low amounts of highly saline water. The effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants and municipal water systems may also be useful as supplements to the repository's primary water supply.

  20. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decision making...

  1. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  2. Direct current uninterruptible power supply method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Gautam

    2003-12-02

    A method and system are described for providing a direct current (DC) uninterruptible power supply with the method including, for example: continuously supplying fuel to a turbine; converting mechanical power from the turbine into alternating current (AC) electrical power; converting the AC electrical power to DC power within a predetermined voltage level range; supplying the DC power to a load; and maintaining a DC load voltage within the predetermined voltage level range by adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the turbine.

  3. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  4. DOE Requests Information on Revolutionary Biomass Supply Systems Supporting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Billion-Ton Bioeconomy Vision | Department of Energy DOE Requests Information on Revolutionary Biomass Supply Systems Supporting a Billion-Ton Bioeconomy Vision DOE Requests Information on Revolutionary Biomass Supply Systems Supporting a Billion-Ton Bioeconomy Vision June 8, 2016 - 3:19pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Feedstock Supply and Logistics Program is responsible for

  5. Planning, electric systems and security of supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saullo, A.

    1998-07-01

    The move towards liberalization of electricity markets has raised different views on the answer to be given to the following question: will the new environment allow for enough resources to be conveyed to the power sector so as to preserve security of supply? There are two facets under which the ``security of supply'' issue can be considered. The first one relates to the availability of generating capacity, and of network infrastructures, adequate to meet the demand. The second aspect to be considered in dealing with security of supply is more a matter of energy policy. Electricity, as such, is basically an energy carrier able to convey to consumers virtually any kind of energy source; the ``switching'' capability from a source to a different one may offer a solution when reliability of energy supply is felt at risk. This flexibility is a premium, particularly for those countries/regions that have to rely strongly on energy imports. Preserving the contribution that the power sector offers to the ``external'' security of supply may represent a major objective of investment policies and energy sector regulation, depending on the level of risk as perceived by national/regional authorities. On the other hand, the volume of investments at stake is considerable. Enel, on the base of projections of electricity demand worldwide made by the EU Commission and of studies on investments developed by EURELECTRIC, estimates that the volume of investments conveyed to the power sector each year in the period 2000--2010 will be in the range of 300 billion of 1995 US$. Will this huge amount of resources provide for an adequate level of security of supply? This paper aims to introduce for discussion some views on the subject, considering separately the industrialized countries and those still undergoing industrialization.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Logistics Supply Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Areas Water Quantity and Quality Soil Health and Agronomics Climate Change and Air Quality Land Use Biodiversity Support the Bioenergy Technology Office sustainability ...

  7. Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  9. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, jr., David J.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Tan, Eric; Jacobson, Jacob; Schwab, Amy; Wu, May; Argo, Andrew; Brandt, Craig C.; Cafferty, Kara; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Dutta, Abhijit; Eaton, Laurence M.; Searcy, Erin

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  10. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  11. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  12. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, W. ); O'Sullivan, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  13. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1998-03-31

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer. 2 figs.

  14. In-situ continuous water monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid monitoring system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container by the flow of carrier gas into the liquid directing device. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectrometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  15. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  16. A number of upgrades on RHIC power supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Operation of a reliable superconducting magnet power supply system is a key factor of an accelerator’s performance. Over the past 15 years, the RHIC power supply group has made many improvements to increase the machine availability and reduce failures. During these past 15 years of operating RHIC a lot of problems have been solved or addressed. In this paper some of the essential upgrades/improvements are discussed.

  17. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  18. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  19. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  20. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Williams, Daniel W.

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  1. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  2. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; et al

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richnessmore » in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.« less

  3. Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on the Supply, Management, and Use of Water Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strzepek, K.; Neumann, Jim; Smith, Joel; Martinich, Jeremy; Boehlert, Brent; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Henderson, Jim; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russ; Calvin, Katherine V.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2014-11-29

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the U.S. are likely to be far-reaching and substantial, because the water sector spans many parts of the economy, from supply and demand for agriculture, industry, energy production, transportation and municipal use to damages from natural hazards. This paper provides impact and damage estimates from five water resource-related models in the CIRA frame work, addressing drought risk, flooding damages, water supply and demand, and global water scarcity. The four models differ in the water system assessed, their spatial scale, and the units of assessment, but together they provide a quantitative and descriptive richness in characterizing water resource sector effects of climate change that no single model can capture. The results also address the sensitivity of these estimates to greenhouse gas emission scenarios, climate sensitivity alternatives, and global climate model selection. While calculating the net impact of climate change on the water sector as a whole may be impractical, because each of the models applied here uses a consistent set of climate scenarios, broad conclusions can be drawn regarding the patterns of change and the benefits of GHG mitigation policies for the water sector. Two key findings emerge: 1) climate mitigation policy substantially reduces the impact of climate change on the water sector across multiple dimensions; and 2) the more managed the water resources system, the more tempered the climate change impacts and the resulting reduction of impacts from climate mitigation policies.

  4. Hydrogen Storage and Supply for Vehicular Fuel Systems - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Hydrogen Storage and Supply for Vehicular Fuel Systems Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Cryotank for storage of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel by J. Raymond Smith - Accelerating Innovation Webinar Presentation (11,941 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Various alternative-fuel systems have been proposed for passenger vehicles and

  5. C.R.S. 37-92-308 - Substitute Water Supply Plans | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: C.R.S. 37-92-308 - Substitute Water Supply PlansLegal Abstract This statutory provision...

  6. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P.

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  7. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  8. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  9. Trihalomethanes in the water supplies of Sardinia, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contu, A.; Bordigoni, M.; Sarritzu, G.; Pudda, M.; Schintu, M. ); Premazzi, G. )

    1990-05-01

    There has been increasing uneasiness with the health authorities recently about the almost ubiquitous presence of organohalogenated compounds in drinking waters. The scientific interest in trihalomethanes (THMs) has increased since their carcinogenic properties were ascertained. For this reason several countries have set upper limits and guidelines for the total amount of THMs allowed in drinking waters which vary from country to country. Aiming at a better understanding of the maximum acceptable concentrations of THMs in drinking waters and considering the wide range of reported values in different countries, it has been considered useful to carry out a study on the presence of THMs in some Sardinian waters. This paper is an attempt at evaluating the THM concentration in the water distributed in the different villages; the final remarks will serve as premises for future studies both on the factors inducing such formation and on problems of risk for human health.

  10. Hydrogen storage and supply system - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    36,324 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Hydrogen storage and supply system United

  11. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  12. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  14. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a networkmore » of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  15. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a network of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.

  16. Using Snow Fences to Augument Fresh Water Supplies in Shallow Arctic Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuefer, Svetlana

    2013-03-31

    , and 2011), we selected and monitored two lakes with similar hydrological regimes. Both lakes are located 30 miles south of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, near Franklin Bluffs. One is an experimental lake, where we installed a snow fence; the other is a control lake, where the natural regime was preserved. The general approach was to compare the hydrologic response of the lake to the snowdrift during the summers of 2010 and 2011 against the ?baseline? conditions in 2009. Highlights of the project included new data on snow transport rates on the Alaska North Slope, an evaluation of the experimental lake?s hydrological response to snowdrift melt, and cost assessment of snowdrift?generated water. High snow transport rates (0.49 kg/s/m) ensured that the snowdrift reached its equilibrium profile by winter's end. Generally, natural snowpack disappeared by the beginning of June in this area. In contrast, snow in the drift lasted through early July, supplying the experimental lake with snowmelt when water in other tundra lakes was decreasing. The experimental lake retained elevated water levels during the entire open?water season. Comparison of lake water volumes during the experiment against the baseline year showed that, by the end of summer, the drift generated by the snow fence had increased lake water volume by at least 21?29%. We estimated water cost at 1.9 cents per gallon during the first year and 0.8 cents per gallon during the second year. This estimate depends on the cost of snow fence construction in remote arctic locations, which we assumed to be at $7.66 per square foot of snow fence frontal area. The snow fence technique was effective in augmenting the supply of lake water during summers 2010 and 2011 despite low rainfall during both summers. Snow fences are a simple, yet an effective, way to replenish tundra lakes with freshwater and increase water availability in winter. This research project was synergetic with the NETL project, "North Slope Decision Support System

  17. Water-supply potential of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Savannah, Georgia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garza, R.; Krause, R.E. )

    1993-03-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is the primary source of freshwater in coastal Georgia. Groundwater withdrawal in the area of Savannah and in the adjacent coastal areas in Georgia and South Carolina has resulted in large regional water-level declines and a reversal of the hydraulic gradient that existed prior to development. Changes in gradient and decreasing water levels are causing lateral encroachment of seawater into the Upper Floridan aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, SC, and vertical intrusion of saltwater into the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers in the Brunswick, GA., area. Concerns about future water-supply demands prompted the US Geological Survey and the Chatham County-Savannah Metropolitan Planning Commission to undertake a cooperative study to evaluate the ground-water resources in the Savannah, GA, area. A numerical ground-water flow model was developed and used in conjunction with other previously calibrated models in the coastal areas of Georgia and South Carolina to simulate the effects of additional ground-water withdrawal on water levels. Based on model simulations and the constraint of preventing additional water-level declines at the locations of encroachment and intrusion, the potential of the Upper Floridan aquifer to supply additional water in the Savannah area is limited under present hydrologic conditions. The potential for additional withdrawal in the vicinity of Savannah, GA, ranges from less than 1 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) to about 5 Mgal/d. Because of the limited water-supply potential, hypothetical alternatives of ground-water withdrawal were simulated to determine the effects on water levels. These simulations indicate that reduction and redistribution of ground-water withdrawal would not adversely affect water levels at the locations of encroachment and intrusion.

  18. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  19. Experimental study on the floor-supply displacement ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, Takashi; Nobe, Tatsuo; Takebayashi, Yoshihisa

    1995-12-31

    These results are presented from a research project to investigate the effects of a floor-supply displacement ventilation system with practical indoor heat loads. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (35.2 m{sup 2}) located in a controlled environment chamber. Temperature distributions were measured at seven heights throughout the experimental chamber for each test condition. Data were analyzed to observe thermal stratification as affected by lighting, occupants, and heat loads (personal computers), and its disruption caused by walking and change of air volume. In addition, airflow characteristics and ventilation efficiencies were investigated using a smoke machine, tobacco smoke, dust for industrial testing, and a tracer gas (CO{sub 2}) step-up procedure.

  20. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution and supply system for use with a fuel cell having means for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by capillary tubes to the respective fuel cells. Hydrostatic pressure is maintained individually for each of the fuel cells by separately elevating each compartment of the storing means to a specific height above the corresponding fuel cell which is to be fed from that compartment of the storing means. The individual compartments are filled with electrolyte by allowing the compartments to overflow thereby maintaining the requisite depth of electrolyte in each of the storage compartments.

  1. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J.; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry; Bowman, Robert S.; Kwon, Soondong

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  2. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  3. 2011 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies 2011 IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available - focusing on stockdraw - and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also

  4. Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    long term strategies by analysing cost optimal energy mixes, investment needs and other costs for new infrastructure, energy supply security, energy resource utilization, rate of...

  5. Steam supply system for superposed turbine and process chamber, such as coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menger, W.M.

    1986-08-26

    A steam supply system is described for a process chamber consuming superheated steam at a pressure of about 600 psi or below which is driven by a boiler operating at a pressure of about 2000 psi, a pressure range above that needed by the process chamber for also driving a superposed turbine. The system consists of: (a) a high pressure boiler feed pump for supplying highly purified water to the boiler; (b) a condensing reboiler connected to receive steam from the superposed turbine in a high pressure side; (c) the condensing reboiler also having a low pressure side, essentially isolated from fluid contact with the high pressure side, for receiving water for use in the lower operating pressure steam processes; (d) the condensing reboiler further comprising integral superheating means for heating the water received in the low pressure side into superheated low pressure steam with the steam received in the high pressure side; (e) means for conveying fluid from the high pressure side of the condensing reboiler to the boiler feed pump; and (f) means for conveying the low pressure superheated steam from the condensing reboiler to the process chamber.

  6. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  7. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  8. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  9. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Presentation Outline: DMFC Background UNF Passive Water Recovery MEA UNF Portable Power Supply Performance Next Steps Much of the work presented is the result of DOE collaboration and funding: 1. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability, and Cost 2. Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile

  10. Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tahoe Water Systems Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

  11. The AGS Booster main ring power supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukas, A.; Hughes, K.; Sandberg, J.; Toldo, F.; Zhang, S.Y. )

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is being designed as a very versatile particle accelerator. Its primary function is to be a high quality injector to the currently operating Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The Booster/AGS combination will produce proton intensities greater than 5 {times} 10{sup 13}protons per pulse (ppp), and accelerate heavy ions, with mass up to 200, to a maximum energy of 15 GeV per atomic mass unit (GeV/amu). The power supply for the Booster Main Ring (BMRPS) has to accommodate a wide range of cycles and a wide range of operating parameters. The cycles range from storage for several seconds to rapid cycling at 7.5 Hz. The peak output power is 18 MW. This paper will describe the AGS Booster machine powering requirements, the choice of power supply, the a.c. circuit tie-in and its associated problems and some of the details of the design of the BMRPS. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  12. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    X. Zhao, S. Ramakrishnan, J. Lawson, C.Neumeyer, R. Marsala, H. Schneider, Engineering Operations

    2009-09-24

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  13. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  14. POWER SUPPLY CONTROL AND MONITORING FOR THE SNS RING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LAMBIASE,R.; OERTER,B.; PENG,S.; SMITH,J.

    2001-06-28

    There are approximately 300 magnet power supplies in the SNS accumulator ring and transport lines. Control and monitoring of the these converters will be primarily accomplished with a new Power Supply Interface and Controller (PSI/PSC) system developed for the SNS project. This PSI/PSC system provides all analog and digital commands and status readbacks in one fiber isolated module. With a maximum rate of 10KHz, the PSI/PSC must be supplemented with higher speed systems for the wide bandwidth pulsed injection supplies, and the even wider bandwidth extraction kickers. This paper describes the implementation of this PSI/PSC system, which was developed through an industry/laboratory collaboration, and the supplementary equipment used to support the wider bandwidth pulsed supplies.

  15. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  16. Power Charging and Supply System for Electric Vehicles - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DescriptionThe technology integrates the battery-charging function into the electrical motor drive system. By using only the onboard inverter and motor without adding any inductors ...

  17. Enhanced monitor system for water protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Rodriquez, Jr., Miguel [Oak Ridge, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2009-09-22

    An automatic, self-contained device for detecting toxic agents in a water supply includes an analyzer for detecting at least one toxic agent in a water sample, introducing a means for introducing a water sample into the analyzer and discharging the water sample from the analyzer, holding means for holding a water sample for a pre-selected period of time before the water sample is introduced into the analyzer, and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the analyzer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one toxic agent in the water sample.

  18. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  19. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems. Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olsen, R.; Hewett, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  20. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  1. Oil and Gas Supply Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil and Gas Supply Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014 July 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | NEMS Model Documentation 2014: Oil and Gas Supply Module i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  2. Strategic stockpiling of power system supplies for disaster recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W; Coffrein, Carleton; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2010-11-23

    This paper studies the Power System Stochastic Storage Problem (PSSSP), a novel application in power restoration which consists of deciding how to store power system components throughout a populated area to maximize the amount of power served after disaster restoration. The paper proposes an exact mixed-integer formulation for the linearized DC power flow model and a general column-generation approach. Both formulations were evaluated experimentally on benchmarks using the electrical power infrastructure of the United States and disaster scenarios generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. The results show that the column-generation algorithm produces near-optimal solutions quickly and produces orders of magnitude speedups over the exact formulation for large benchmarks. Moreover, both the exact and the column-generation formulations produce significant improvements over greedy approach and hence should yield significant benefits in practice.

  3. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  4. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  5. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  6. Implications of High Renewable Electricity Penetration in the U.S. for Water Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land-Use, and Materials Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Recent work found that renewable energy could supply 80% of electricity demand in the contiguous United States in 2050 at the hourly level. This paper explores some of the implications of achieving such high levels of renewable electricity for supply chains and the environment in scenarios with renewable supply up to such levels. Transitioning to high renewable electricity supply would lead to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and water use, with only modest land-use implications. While renewable energy expansion implies moderate growth of the renewable electricity supply chains, no insurmountable long-term constraints to renewable electricity technology manufacturing capacity or materials supply are identified.

  7. Waiver of Mandatory Use of the Strategic Integrated Procurement Enterprise System (STRIPES) for GSA Global Supply Service Transactions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pursuant to Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 8.402 (c)(1), orders placed through the General Service Administration (GSA) Global Supply System are not subject to FAR Subpart 8.4, Federal Supply Schedules. In addition, FAR 4.606 (c)(2) eliminates the requirement for orders from GSA Global Supply System be reported to the Federal Procurement Data System – Next Generation (FPDS-NG).

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Groundwater, Surface Water, and Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site December 2013 LMSRVTS00913 This page intentionally left blank ...

  9. Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Maynard K.; Downs, Robert E.; King, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

  10. Improve Chilled Water System Peformance: Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) Improves Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

  11. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  12. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  13. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A.

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  14. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellah, W.

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  15. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  16. New demands, new supplies : a national look at the water balance of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; McNemar, Andrea , Morgantown, WV); Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01

    Concerns over rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have resulted in serious consideration of policies aimed at reduction of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. If large scale abatement efforts are undertaken, one critical tool will be geologic sequestration of CO2 captured from large point sources, specifically coal and natural gas fired power plants. Current CO2 capture technologies exact a substantial energy penalty on the source power plant, which must be offset with make-up power. Water demands increase at the source plant due to added cooling loads. In addition, new water demand is created by water requirements associated with generation of the make-up power. At the sequestration site however, saline water may be extracted to manage CO2 plum migration and pressure build up in the geologic formation. Thus, while CO2 capture creates new water demands, CO2 sequestration has the potential to create new supplies. Some or all of the added demand may be offset by treatment and use of the saline waters extracted from geologic formations during CO2 sequestration. Sandia National Laboratories, with guidance and support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is creating a model to evaluate the potential for a combined approach to saline formations, as a sink for CO2 and a source for saline waters that can be treated and beneficially reused to serve power plant water demands. This presentation will focus on the magnitude of added U.S. power plant water demand under different CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, and the portion of added demand that might be offset by saline waters extracted during the CO2 sequestration process.

  17. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 9A. Subcontract information. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; water supply and civil engineering subcontracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Volume 9A considers subcontract work done at the site involving hydrogeological studies with respect to water supply and geotechnical work with respect to the building foundations necessary based on boreholes drilled and the lithology of the area. (LTN)

  18. Net-Zero Energy Buildings: A Classification System Based on Renewable Energy Supply Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-06-01

    A net-zero energy building (NZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs. In such a building, efficiency gains have been made such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable energy technologies. Past work has developed a common NZEB definition system, consisting of four well-documented definitions, to improve the understanding of what net-zero energy means. For this paper, we created a classification system for NZEBs based on the renewable sources a building uses.

  19. Requirements and potential development pathways for fission energy supply infrastructures of the 21st century - a systems viewpoint.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, D. C.

    1999-06-14

    Using an energy supply systems approach, we envision attributes and characteristic needs of a future global fission-based energy supply infrastructure, enumerate potential pathways for meeting those needs, and identify the underlying enabling science and technology developments for R and D efforts to meet the needs.

  20. Energy-Water Nexus and Energy Systems Integration | Energy Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...Water Nexus and Energy Systems Integration As we optimize our energy system at all scales, NREL is embarking on a new area of research geared at finding ways to balance our water ...

  1. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  2. KEY DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR NUCLEAR HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    Key requirements that affect the design of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor nuclear heat supply system (HTGR-NHSS) as the NGNP Project progresses through the design, licensing, construction and testing of the first of a kind HTGR based plant are summarized. These requirements derive from pre-conceptual design development completed to-date by HTGR Suppliers, collaboration with potential end users of the HTGR technology to identify energy needs, evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology with industrial processes and recommendations of the NGNP Project Senior Advisory Group.

  3. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto with wick feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohn, J. Gunther; Feigenbaum, Haim; Kaufman, Arthur

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution and supply system for use with a fuel cell having a means for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by tubes containing wicking fibers, the ends of the respective tubes terminating on the means for drawing electrolyte in each of the respective fuel cells. Each tube is heat shrunk to tightly bind the fibers therein.

  4. Test report for calibration grooming and alignment of the LDUA purge air supply (LDUA SYSTEM 5230)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, J.D.

    1996-05-21

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) is a remotely operated manipulator used to enter into underground waste tanks through one of the tank risers. National Electric Code requirements mandate that the in-tank portions of the LDUA be maintained at a positive pressure for entrances into a flammable atmosphere. The LDUA Purge Air Supply System (PASS) uses small portable air compressors to provide a constant low flow of instrument grade air for this purpose. This document contains the results, conclusions and recommendations arrived at by the calibration grooming and alignment tests performed on the PASS in accordance with WHC-SD-WM-TC-070.

  5. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammad S. Roni; Kara G. Cafferty; Christopher T Wright; Lantian Ren

    2015-06-01

    China has abundant biomass resources, which can be used as a potential source of bioenergy. However, China faces challenges implementing biomass as an energy source, because China has not developed the highly networked, high-volume biomass logistics systems and infrastructure. This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to the U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum under different scenarios in China. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study shows that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/ dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk will be down to $36.01/ dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also performed a sensitivity analysis to find the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. A sensitivity analysis shows that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, causing a variation of $6 to $12/metric ton.

  6. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  7. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, Michael M.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  8. A multi-echelon supply chain model for municipal solid waste management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yimei; Huang, Guo He; He, Li

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, a multi-echelon multi-period solid waste management system (MSWM) was developed by inoculating with multi-echelon supply chain. Waste managers, suppliers, industries and distributors could be engaged in joint strategic planning and operational execution. The principal of MSWM system is interactive planning of transportation and inventory for each organization in waste collection, delivery and disposal. An efficient inventory management plan for MSWM would lead to optimized productivity levels under available capacities (e.g., transportation and operational capacities). The applicability of the proposed system was illustrated by a case with three cities, one distribution and two waste disposal facilities. Solutions of the decision variable values under different significant levels indicate a consistent trend. With an increased significant level, the total generated waste would be decreased, and the total transported waste through distribution center to waste to energy and landfill would be decreased as well.

  9. Energy and cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen combined heat and power system for remote power supply using a computer simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabani, Bahman; Andrews, John; Watkins, Simon

    2010-01-15

    A simulation program, based on Visual Pascal, for sizing and techno-economic analysis of the performance of solar-hydrogen combined heat and power systems for remote applications is described. The accuracy of the submodels is checked by comparing the real performances of the system's components obtained from experimental measurements with model outputs. The use of the heat generated by the PEM fuel cell, and any unused excess hydrogen, is investigated for hot water production or space heating while the solar-hydrogen system is supplying electricity. A 5 kWh daily demand profile and the solar radiation profile of Melbourne have been used in a case study to investigate the typical techno-economic characteristics of the system to supply a remote household. The simulation shows that by harnessing both thermal load and excess hydrogen it is possible to increase the average yearly energy efficiency of the fuel cell in the solar-hydrogen system from just below 40% up to about 80% in both heat and power generation (based on the high heating value of hydrogen). The fuel cell in the system is conventionally sized to meet the peak of the demand profile. However, an economic optimisation analysis illustrates that installing a larger fuel cell could lead to up to a 15% reduction in the unit cost of the electricity to an average of just below 90 c/kWh over the assessment period of 30 years. Further, for an economically optimal size of the fuel cell, nearly a half the yearly energy demand for hot water of the remote household could be supplied by heat recovery from the fuel cell and utilising unused hydrogen in the exit stream. Such a system could then complement a conventional solar water heating system by providing the boosting energy (usually in the order of 40% of the total) normally obtained from gas or electricity. (author)

  10. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  11. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively,more » for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.« less

  12. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance

  13. Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

    2009-08-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  15. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto utilizing cascade feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution supply system for use with a fuel cell having a wicking medium for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells or groups thereof in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells or groups of cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by individual tubes, the ends of the respective tubes terminating on the wicking medium in each of the respective fuel cells. The individual compartments are filled with electrolyte by allowing the compartments to overflow such as in a cascading fashion thereby maintaining the requisite depth of electrolyte in each of the storage compartments. The individual compartments can also contain packed carbon fibers to provide a three stage electrolyte distribution system.

  16. A NEW CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE SNS FULL TURN FAST EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.; MI,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; PAI,C.; TUOZZOLO,J.; NEHRING,T.; WARBURTON,D.

    2001-06-18

    The new conceptual design of full turn fast extraction kicker power supply system of the Spallation Neutron Source main ring will be presented in this paper. In this design, the extraction kicker power modulators will be located outside of the tunnel, as requested by the SNS Project. Its purpose is to minimize the components inside of the synchrotron tunnel. The high voltage modulator will use Blumlein pulser and hollow-anode thyratron structure, a parallel termination resistor and two transmission cables. Main advantages include: flexible system configuration for unipolar single drive or push-pull double drive of the kicker magnets, lower charging voltage, lower beam impedance, lower number of high voltage cables, and large design margin for implementation and future upgrade.

  17. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

  18. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | ...

  19. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  20. Cr(VI) Occurrence and Geochemistry in Water From Public-Supply Wells in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izbicki, John A.; Wright, Michael T.; Seymour, Whitney A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.

    2015-08-18

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in 918 wells sampled throughout California between 2004 and 2012 by the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program—Priority Basin Project (GAMA—PBP) ranged from less than the study reporting limit (SRL) of 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) to 32 μg/L. Statewide, Cr(VI) was reported in 31 percent of sampled wells and equaled or exceeded the recently established (2014) California Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for Cr(VI) of 10 μg/L in 4 percent of sampled wells. Cr(VI) data collected for regulatory purposes overestimate Cr(VI) occurrence. Ninety percent of chromium was present as Cr(VI), which was detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in alkaline (pH > 8), oxic water, and more frequently in agricultural and urban land uses compared to native land uses. Chemical, isotopic (tritium and carbon-14), and noble-gas data show high Cr(VI) in water from wells in alluvial aquifers in the southern California deserts result from long groundwater-residence times and geochemical reactions such as silicate weathering that increase pH, while oxic conditions persist. High Cr(VI) in water from wells in alluvial aquifers along the west-side of the Central Valley results from high-chromium abundance in source rock eroded to form those aquifers, and areal recharge processes (including irrigation return) that mobilize chromium from the unsaturated zone. Cr(VI) co-occurred with oxyanions having similar chemistry, including vanadium, selenium, and uranium. Cr(VI) was positively correlated with nitrate, consistent with increased concentrations in areas of agricultural land use and mobilization of chromium from the unsaturated zone by irrigation return.

  1. Cr(VI) Occurrence and Geochemistry in Water From Public-Supply Wells in California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Izbicki, John A.; Wright, Michael T.; Seymour, Whitney A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth; Esser, Bradley K.

    2015-08-18

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in 918 wells sampled throughout California between 2004 and 2012 by the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program—Priority Basin Project (GAMA—PBP) ranged from less than the study reporting limit (SRL) of 1 microgram per liter (μg/L) to 32 μg/L. Statewide, Cr(VI) was reported in 31 percent of sampled wells and equaled or exceeded the recently established (2014) California Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for Cr(VI) of 10 μg/L in 4 percent of sampled wells. Cr(VI) data collected for regulatory purposes overestimate Cr(VI) occurrence. Ninety percent of chromium was present as Cr(VI), which was detected more frequently and atmore » higher concentrations in alkaline (pH > 8), oxic water, and more frequently in agricultural and urban land uses compared to native land uses. Chemical, isotopic (tritium and carbon-14), and noble-gas data show high Cr(VI) in water from wells in alluvial aquifers in the southern California deserts result from long groundwater-residence times and geochemical reactions such as silicate weathering that increase pH, while oxic conditions persist. High Cr(VI) in water from wells in alluvial aquifers along the west-side of the Central Valley results from high-chromium abundance in source rock eroded to form those aquifers, and areal recharge processes (including irrigation return) that mobilize chromium from the unsaturated zone. Cr(VI) co-occurred with oxyanions having similar chemistry, including vanadium, selenium, and uranium. Cr(VI) was positively correlated with nitrate, consistent with increased concentrations in areas of agricultural land use and mobilization of chromium from the unsaturated zone by irrigation return.« less

  2. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  3. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2009-02-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  4. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2011-05-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  5. [Waste water heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  6. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

  7. Integrated system dynamics toolbox for water resources planning.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Marissa Devan; Passell, Howard David; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coursey, Don; Hanson, Jason; Grimsrud, Kristine; Thacher, Jennifer; Broadbent, Craig; Brookshire, David; Chemak, Janie; Cockerill, Kristan; Aragon, Carlos , Socorro, NM); Hallett, Heather , Socorro, NM); Vivoni, Enrique , Socorro, NM); Roach, Jesse

    2006-12-01

    Public mediated resource planning is quickly becoming the norm rather than the exception. Unfortunately, supporting tools are lacking that interactively engage the public in the decision-making process and integrate over the myriad values that influence water policy. In the pages of this report we document the first steps toward developing a specialized decision framework to meet this need; specifically, a modular and generic resource-planning ''toolbox''. The technical challenge lies in the integration of the disparate systems of hydrology, ecology, climate, demographics, economics, policy and law, each of which influence the supply and demand for water. Specifically, these systems, their associated processes, and most importantly the constitutive relations that link them must be identified, abstracted, and quantified. For this reason, the toolbox forms a collection of process modules and constitutive relations that the analyst can ''swap'' in and out to model the physical and social systems unique to their problem. This toolbox with all of its modules is developed within the common computational platform of system dynamics linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS). Development of this resource-planning toolbox represents an important foundational element of the proposed interagency center for Computer Aided Dispute Resolution (CADRe). The Center's mission is to manage water conflict through the application of computer-aided collaborative decision-making methods. The Center will promote the use of decision-support technologies within collaborative stakeholder processes to help stakeholders find common ground and create mutually beneficial water management solutions. The Center will also serve to develop new methods and technologies to help federal, state and local water managers find innovative and balanced solutions to the nation's most vexing water problems. The toolbox is an important step toward achieving the technology development goals of this center.

  8. Coal-water fuel supply and boiler-conversion study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the feasibility of converting an oil-fired boiler at Occidental Chemical Company's Niagara Falls, New York facility to coal/water slurry (CWS) fuel. The study evaluates technical and economic issues concerning a decision to convert the boiler. Conversion costs are weighted against CWS fuel-cost savings compared to oil and an acceptable market price for the CWS fuel is developed that provides a specified rate of return for the conversion. The report uses the target CWS fuel price in developing a design for a CWS fuel-production plant that could manufacture CWS at that price. In order to achieve the target price the CWS fuel-product plant must be sized to achieve economies of scale and plant output would be far in excess of the converted-boiler's demand. As a result of CWS fuel marketing study was undertaken to define additional boiler-conversion candidates in the western New York area. Without this additional CWS fuel demand, CWS cannot be produced at the target fuel price.

  9. Service water system failures and degradations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1989-01-01

    The Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components that are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core-cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units.

  10. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  11. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  12. High temperature hot water systems: A primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govan, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental principles of high temperature water (HTW) system technology and its advantages for thermal energy distribution are presented. Misconceptions of this technology are also addressed. The paper describes design principles, applications, HTW properties, HTW system advantages, selecting the engineer, load diversification, design temperatures, system pressurization, pump considerations, constant vs. VS pumps, HTW generator types, and burners and controls.

  13. A practical application for the chemical treatment of Southern California`s reclaimed, Title 22 water for use as makeup water for recirculating cooling water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Cosulich, J.; Bartling, E.

    1998-12-31

    Pilot cooling water studies conducted at a Southern California landfill/cogeneration station demonstrated a successful chemical treatment program for recirculating cooling water that used unnitrified, reclaimed, Title 22 water as the primary makeup water source. The constituents in the reclaimed water are supplied by variety of residential and waste water sources resulting in a water quality that may vary to a greater degree than domestic water supplies. This water contains high concentrations of orthophosphate, ammonia, chlorides and suspended solids. The impact of which, under cycled conditions is calcium orthophosphate scaling, high corrosion of yellow metal and mild steel, stress cracking of copper alloys and stainless steel and rapidly growing biological activity. A mobile cooling water testing laboratory with two pilot recirculating water systems modeled the cogeneration station`s cooling tower operating conditions and parameters. The tube and shell, tube side cooling heat exchangers were fitted with 443 admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel, 316 stainless steel and 1202 mild steel heat exchanger tubes. Coupons and Corrater electrodes were also installed. A chemical treatment program consisting of 60/40 AA/AMPS copolymer for scale, deposits and dispersion, sodium tolyltriazole for yellow metal corrosion, and a bromination program to control the biological activity was utilized in the pilot systems. Recirculating water orthophosphate concentrations reached levels of 70 mg/L as PO, and ammonia concentrations reached levels of 35 mg/L, as total NH3. The study successfully demonstrated a chemical treatment program to control scale and deposition, minimize admiralty, 90/10 copper nickel and carbon steel corrosion rates, prevent non-heat transfer yellow metal and stainless steel stress cracking, and control the biological activity in this high nutrient water.

  14. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heating This presentation will ...

  15. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  16. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar...

  17. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar ...

  18. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  19. System for disposing of radioactive water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gotchy, Reginald L.

    1976-01-13

    A system for reducing radioactivity released to the biosphere in the course of producing natural gas from a reservoir stimulated by the detonation of nuclear explosives therein. Tritiated water produced with the gas is separated out and returned to a nuclear chimney through a string of tubing positioned within the well casing. The tubing string is positioned within the well casing in a manner which enhances separation of the water out of the gas and minimizes entrainment of water into the gas flowing out of the chimney.

  20. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to determine if WSAC

  1. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System ...

  2. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BENEFITS A Motor Challeng NEW WATER BOOSTER PUMP SYSTEM REDUCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY 80 ... General Motors (GM) needed to relocate the facility's city water booster pumping system. ...

  3. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes This presentation is from the Building America research ...

  4. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heattransmission fluids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water ...

  5. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Information Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System...

  6. Hedgehog(tm) Water Contaminant Removal System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Hedgehog(tm) Water Contaminant Removal System Sandia ... recirculating treatment system reduces the levels of contaminants in water storage tanks. ...

  7. Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Water Outlet Control Mechanism for Fuel Cell System Operation in Variable Gravity Environments Self-Regulating Water Separation System for Fuel ...

  8. Boise State University Wind2Water Filtration System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    MBE BRONCOS- BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY WIND2WATER FILTRATION SYSTEM Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation MBE Broncos Wind2Water Filtration System 1 Executive Summary The ...

  9. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems The webinar was presented on January 21, 2015, and focused on the ...

  10. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval ...

  11. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit:...

  12. PV based systems, with wind, diesel or LPG genset backup, supplying small TV rebroadcast stations in Portugal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, H.F.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the implementation of a program intended to introduce PV based hybrid power systems to supply electrical power to small size TV rebroadcast stations in Portugal. Reliability is a major concern to this type of application, as well as economical and social constraints, so wind or diesel/LPG genset backup are used. This paper includes a description of the systems behavior, comparison among these topologies and economical viability data from a users viewpoint.

  13. Air/fuel supply system for use in a gas turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Timothy A; Schilp, Reinhard; Gambacorta, Domenico

    2014-06-17

    A fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine combustor assembly. The fuel injector includes a main body and a fuel supply structure. The main body has an inlet end and an outlet end and defines a longitudinal axis extending between the outlet and inlet ends. The main body comprises a plurality of air/fuel passages extending therethrough, each air/fuel passage including an inlet that receives air from a source of air and an outlet. The fuel supply structure communicates with and supplies fuel to the air/fuel passages for providing an air/fuel mixture within each air/fuel passage. The air/fuel mixtures exit the main body through respective air/fuel passage outlets.

  14. A linear MOSFET regulation system to improve the performance of the booster-ramping power supplies at the APS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, G.; Deriy, B.; Wang, J.; Shang, H.; Xu, S.

    2008-01-01

    The APS booster ring uses ramping power supplies to power the sextupole, quadrupole, and dipole magnets as the beam energy ramps up linearly to 7 GeV. Due to the circuit topology used, those supplies are unable to follow the linear ramp to the desired accuracy. The best regulation achieved is 0.5% while 0.1 % is desired. In addition to the unsatisfying regulation, those supplies are sensitive to AC line perturbations and are not able to reject AC line noises higher than a few tens of Hertz. To improve the performance, a linear MOSFET regulation system using paralleled MOSFET devices in series with the power supply is proposed. The system uses a real-time current feedback loop to force the MOSFETs to work in the linear operation mode. By using this linear MOSFET regulator, the voltage drop on MOSFETs, and hence the voltage imposed on magnets, can be regulated very quickly. As a result, the regulation of the magnet current can be improved significantly. Experiments and simulation have been performed to verify the proposed method. Results show that, with the linear regulator, the current regulation can be improved to better than 0.1%. Because of the high bandwidth of the linear regulator, it can reduce the harmonic content in the output current as well as reject the AC line disturbance.

  15. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to...

  16. A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1999-01-11

    Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

  17. Fire water systems in composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundt, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    Due to corrosion problems in fire water systems offshore there is a need for a corrosion resistant material to improve the reliability of onboard fire fighting systems. Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe is seen as a cost effective and light weight alternative to metals. Through a test program run by AMAT, Advanced Materials a/s in collaboration with the Norwegian Fire and Research Laboratory (NBL, SINTEF), GRE pipes have proved to be viable materials for offshore fire water systems. The test program included furnace testing, jetfire testing and simulated explosion testing. GRE pipes (2--12 inches) from two suppliers were fire tested and evaluated. Both adhesively bonded joints and flange connections were tested. During the course of the project, application methods of passive fire protection and nozzle attachments were improved.

  18. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-07-05

    A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

  19. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

  20. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  1. LOCA analyses for nuclear steam supply systems with upper head injection. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, R.K.; Bartel, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The term Upper Head Injection describes a relatively new addition to a nuclear reactor's emergency cooling system. With this feature, water is delivered directly to the top of the reactor vessel during a loss-of-coolant accident, in addition to the later injection of coolant into the primary operating loops. Established computer programs, with various modifications to models for heat transfer and two-phase flow, were used to analyze a transient following a large break in one of the main coolant loops of a reactor equipped with upper head injection. The flow and heat transfer modifications combined to yield fuel cladding temperatures during blowdown which were as much as 440K (800/sup 0/F) lower than were obtained with standard versions of the codes (for best estimate calculations). The calculations also showed the need for more uniformity of applications of heat transfer models in the computer programs employed.

  2. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  3. Process and system for treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olesen, Douglas E.; Shuckrow, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  4. Building America Case Study: Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Indirect Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Homes Greenfield, Massachusetts ... Building Component: Solar water heating Application: Single-family Years Tested: 2010-2013 ...

  5. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily Domestic Hot Water Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems - Energy-Efficient Controls for Multifamily ...

  6. Montana Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Pollution Control System Permit Application Forms Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Ground Water Pollution...

  7. Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global ... T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water ...

  8. Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas ...

  9. Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.Y.

    1988-05-24

    A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

  10. Ethanol Distribution, Dispensing, and Use: Analysis of a Portion of the Biomass-to-Biofuels Supply Chain Using System Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L. J.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 targets use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels per year by 2022. Achieving this may require substantial changes to current transportation fuel systems for distribution, dispensing, and use in vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory designed a system dynamics approach to help focus government action by determining what supply chain changes would have the greatest potential to accelerate biofuels deployment. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the Biomass Scenario Model, a system dynamics model which represents the primary system effects and dependencies in the biomass-to-biofuels supply chain. The model provides a framework for developing scenarios and conducting biofuels policy analysis. This paper focuses on the downstream portion of the supply chain-represented in the distribution logistics, dispensing station, and fuel utilization, and vehicle modules of the Biomass Scenario Model. This model initially focused on ethanol, but has since been expanded to include other biofuels. Some portions of this system are represented dynamically with major interactions and feedbacks, especially those related to a dispensing station owner's decision whether to offer ethanol fuel and a consumer's choice whether to purchase that fuel. Other portions of the system are modeled with little or no dynamics; the vehicle choices of consumers are represented as discrete scenarios. This paper explores conditions needed to sustain an ethanol fuel market and identifies implications of these findings for program and policy goals. A large, economically sustainable ethanol fuel market (or other biofuel market) requires low end-user fuel price relative to gasoline and sufficient producer payment, which are difficult to achieve simultaneously. Other requirements (different for ethanol vs. other biofuel markets) include the need for infrastructure for distribution and dispensing and

  11. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  12. Recent California water transfers: Emerging options in water management. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, J.R.; Israel, M.

    1992-12-01

    Report examines the recent use of water transfers in California. Emphasis is on the use of water transfers during the current drought and how planners and operators of federal, state, and local systems can integrate water transfers into the planning and operations of their systems. Through the California experience, the study identifies motivations for incorporating water transfers into water supply systems, reviews a variety of water transfer types, and discusses the integration of water transfers with traditional supply argumentation and water conservation measures. Limitations, constraints, and difficulties for employing water transfers within existing systems are also discussed. The study focuses primarily on the technical, planning, and operational aspects of water transfers, rather than the legal, economic, and social implications. Water transfers, Water management, Water bank, Water supply, Water use, Water institutions, Infrastructure, California state water project, Water rights, Drought, Surface water, Groundwater.

  13. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  14. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. |...

  15. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project.

  16. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  17. Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

  18. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  19. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  20. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems The webinar was presented on January 21, 2015, and focused on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution. Presenters and specific topics for this webinar included: Elizabeth Weitzel from the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, presenting

  1. Supply Chain | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACSupply Chain content top National Transportation Fuels Model Posted by tmanzan on Oct 3, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments National Transportation Fuels Model This model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system represented by the network model (see figure) spans from oil fields to fuel distribution terminals. Different components of this system (e.g., crude oil import terminals, refineries,

  2. Removal of pollutant compounds from water supplies using ozone, ultraviolet light, and a counter, current packed column. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many water pollutants are determined to be carcinogenic and often appear in very low concentrations and still pose a health risk. Conventional water treatment processes cannot remove these contaminants and there is a great demand for the development of alternative removal technologies. The use of ozone and ultraviolet light in a counter current packed column could prove to be an effective treatment process to remove these contaminants.

  3. NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis NREL's Economic Analysis and power system modeling integrates data from device deployment and programmatic research into deployment and scenario models to quantify the economic and societal benefits of developing cost-competitive marine and hydrokinetic systems. It also identifies policy mechanisms, market designs, and supply chain needs to support various deployment scenarios, provide information and training to potential members of

  4. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every

  5. Optimal planning and design of a renewable energy based supply system for microgrids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hafez, Omar; Bhattacharya, Kankar

    2012-03-03

    This paper presents a technique for optimal planning and design of hybrid renewable energy systems for microgrid applications. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is used to determine the optimal size and type of distributed energy resources (DERs) and their operating schedules for a sample utility distribution system. Using the DER-CAM results, an evaluation is performed to evaluate the electrical performance of the distribution circuit if the DERs selected by the DER-CAM optimization analyses are incorporated. Results of analyses regarding the economic benefits of utilizing the optimal locations identified for the selected DER within the system are alsomore » presented. The actual Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) campus electrical network is used as an example to show the effectiveness of this approach. The results show that these technical and economic analyses of hybrid renewable energy systems are essential for the efficient utilization of renewable energy resources for microgird applications.« less

  6. Webinar: ENERGY STAR Hot Water Systems for High Performance Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is from the Building America research team BA-PIRC webinar on September 30, 2011 providing informationprovide information about how to achieve energy savings from solar water heating, electric dedicated heat pump water heating, and gas tankless systems.

  7. Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Comparing Water and CO2 as Heat...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS (EGS): COMPARING WATER AND CO 2 AS HEAT TRANSMISSION FLUIDS ... with supercritical CO 2 instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown, 2000). ...

  8. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  9. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  10. supply chain | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    supply chain

  11. Feedstock Supply | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply Feedstock Supply The development of efficient, sustainable biomass feedstock supply systems supports a diversified energy portfolio and increased U.S. competitiveness in the global quest for clean energy technologies. This page provides information directly related to feedstock supply: Feedstock Types Feedstock Production Sustainability. Feedstock Types A variety of biomass feedstocks can be used to produce energy (including transportation fuels) and bio-based products. The Bioenergy

  12. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  13. Gas Feeding System Supplying the U-400M Cyclotron Ion Source with Hydrogen Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Angilopov, V.V.; Apasov, V.A.

    2005-07-15

    Automated system feeding into ion source hydrogen isotopes as molecules with preset ratio of the fluxes is described. The control system automatically maintained the working parameters and provided graphic and digital representation of the controlled processes. The radiofrequency (RF) ion source installed at the axial injection line of the cyclotron produced ion beams of HD{sup +}, HT{sup +}, DT{sup +}, D{sub 2}H{sup +}, etc. At a several months DT{sup +} beam acceleration the tritium consumption was less than 108 Bq/hr. The intensity of a 58.2 MeV triton beam (T{sup +} ions) extracted from the cyclotron chamber was about 10 nA.

  14. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management | Department of Energy Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 5_pnnl.pdf (20.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report Fuel Cells For

  15. Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleveland, J.R.

    1997-03-18

    An apparatus is described for treating water in a circulating water system that has a cooling water basin which includes a slip stream conduit in flow communication with the circulating water system, a source of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit, and a decarbonator in flow communication with the slip stream conduit and the cooling water basin. In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system into the slip stream conduit of the apparatus. The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin. 4 figs.

  16. Slip stream apparatus and method for treating water in a circulating water system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleveland, Joe R.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus (10) for treating water in a circulating water system (12) t has a cooling water basin (14) includes a slip stream conduit (16) in flow communication with the circulating water system (12), a source (36) of acid solution in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16), and a decarbonator (58) in flow communication with the slip stream conduit (16) and the cooling water basin (14). In use, a slip stream of circulating water is drawn from the circulating water system (12) into the slip stream conduit (16) of the apparatus (10). The slip stream pH is lowered by contact with an acid solution provided from the source (36) thereof. The slip stream is then passed through a decarbonator (58) to form a treated slip stream, and the treated slip stream is returned to the cooling water basin (14).

  17. Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for H2 Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J. A.; Deutsch, T.; Head, J.; Vallett, P.

    2007-05-17

    This Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for Hydrogen Production presentation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's John Turner was given at the DOE Hydrogen Program's 2007 Annual Merit Review.

  18. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems, will take place on January 21, 2015.

  19. Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision...

  20. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  1. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  2. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 ... New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80 Percent and Increases ...

  3. ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REUSE | Department of Energy ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE Research Triangle Institute - Research Triangle Park, NC A single hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment and reuse that combines two known processes-forward osmosis and membrane distillation-will be developed and demonstrated. This system will use waste heat to treat a wide variety of waste streams at

  4. Thermal overinsulation and the behavior of hot water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casier, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Supported by thermodynamic calculations and field experience G.D.F. disproved the theory that because of their high warm-up/cooldown inertia, hot-water central heating systems are inefficient for insulated dwellings that have low thermal losses, causing overheating in certain situations. With the proper choice of thermostat, water temperature, and piping design, a heating system that uses water as the heat carrier can be responsive to the needs of a tightly insulated residence.

  5. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Redesign of the Low Conductivity Water (LCW) System at D-Zero

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaczek, Mariusz; /Fermilab

    1996-10-15

    Due to the relocation of a magnet power supply, the installation of a buss, and an installation of chokes. and their need for cooling water a redesign of the Low Conductivity Water (LCW) system has been undertaken. This new system required the determination of an optimal pipe diameter for the High Bay pipe as well as the determination of the pressure drop and temperature rise in the buss. Based on numerous calculations it has been determined that the High Bay pipe should be 1 1/2 inch (1.90 O.D. x 1.610 I.D-40S steel). While the pressure drop in the buss was calculated to be 7.699 psi. Based on such a low pressure drop, no need for any additional pumps has presented itself. Finally, the temperature rise in the buss has been determined to be about 29.39 F for the Assembly Hall (route No.1). and 13.93 F for the Collision Hall (route No.2). The purpose of this engineering note is to explain the redesign of the low conductivity water system (LCW) at D-Zero. The areas to be covered include the sizing of the High Bay, the pressure drop and temperature rise in the buss. In addition, I will try to determine if any more pumps are needed to support this new system. Originally, the purpose of the LCW was to provide cooling for the EF, CF, SAMUS magnets and the magnet power supply. The water source is composed of two 1 1/2 BC, 20 hp, centrifugal pumps (see Table No.2) which are located in room 604 of the D-Zero Assembly building.

  6. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  7. Computer systems protection: Uninterruptible power supplies. January 1983-September 1989 (Citations from the Computer data base). Report for January 1983-September 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning equipment used to protect computer systems from electrical-power fluctuations and outages. Voltage regulators and back-up power supplies are evaluated. Surge suppressors as part of the uninterruptible power-supply system (UPS) are briefly mentioned; they are covered in depth in another bibliography. IEEE test results and general performance evaluations are included. UPS for large data centers and for minicomputers are discussed. Market forecasts are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 361 citations, 105 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  8. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  9. Ceramic coating system or water oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T.

    1996-01-01

    A process for water oxidation of combustible materials in which during at least a part of the oxidation corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises titanium dioxide coated onto a titanium metal substrate. Such ceramic composites have been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of supercritical water oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases, and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 700.degree. C. The ceramic composites are also resistant to degradation mechanisms caused by thermal stresses.

  10. Small Water System Management Program: 100 K Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunacek, G.S. Jr.

    1995-06-29

    Purposes of this document are: to provide an overview of the service and potable water system presently in service at the Hanford Site`s 100 K Area; to provide future system forecasts based on anticipated DOE activities and programs; to delineate performance, design, and operations criteria; and to describe planned improvements. The objective of the small water system management program is to assure the water system is properly and reliably managed and operated, and continues to exist as a functional and viable entity in accordance with WAC 246-290-410.

  11. Evaluation of INL Supplied MOOSE/OSPREY Model: Modeling Water Adsorption on Type 3A Molecular Sieve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pompilio, L. M.; DePaoli, D. W.; Spencer, B. B.

    2014-08-29

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Idaho National Lab’s Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) software in modeling the adsorption of water onto type 3A molecular sieve (3AMS). MOOSE can be thought-of as a computing framework within which applications modeling specific coupled-phenomena can be developed and run. The application titled Off-gas SeParation and REcoverY (OSPREY) has been developed to model gas sorption in packed columns. The sorbate breakthrough curve calculated by MOOSE/OSPREY was compared to results previously obtained in the deep bed hydration tests conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coding framework permits selection of various options, when they exist, for modeling a process. For example, the OSPREY module includes options to model the adsorption equilibrium with a Langmuir model or a generalized statistical thermodynamic adsorption (GSTA) model. The vapor solid equilibria and the operating conditions of the process (e.g., gas phase concentration) are required to calculate the concentration gradient driving the mass transfer between phases. Both the Langmuir and GSTA models were tested in this evaluation. Input variables were either known from experimental conditions, or were available (e.g., density) or were estimated (e.g., thermal conductivity of sorbent) from the literature. Variables were considered independent of time, i.e., rather than having a mass transfer coefficient that varied with time or position in the bed, the parameter was set to remain constant. The calculated results did not coincide with data from laboratory tests. The model accurately estimated the number of bed volumes processed for the given operating parameters, but breakthrough times were not accurately predicted, varying 50% or more from the data. The shape of the breakthrough curves also differed from the experimental data, indicating a much wider sorption band. Model modifications are needed to improve its utility and

  12. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  13. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... * Pa, Ann, Jill Craven, Hsiaotao T. Bi, Staffan Melin, Shahab Sokhansanj. 2011. Environmental Footprints of 1 British Columbia Wood Pellets from a Simplified Life Cycle Analysis. ...

  14. News Release: DOE Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results News Release: DOE Announces Riverton Water Sampling Results May 11, 2012 - 3:25pm Addthis News Contact: Contractor, Judy Miller, S.M. Stoller Corporation Public Affairs (970) 248-6363 jmiller@lm.doe.gov Laboratory results indicate water from the alternative water supply system is safe for residents to drink The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that residential drinking water testing from an alternative water supply system in Riverton,

  15. Operating experience review of service water system problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper, selected results of a comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system problems conducted by the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) were presented. The results of this review and evaluation indicated that service water system problems have significant safety implications. These system problems are attributable to a great variety of causes and have adverse impacts on a large number of safety-related systems and components. To provide additional feedback of operating experience, this paper presents an overview of the dominant mechanisms leading to service water system degradations and failures. The failures and degradations of service water systems observed in the 276 operating events are grouped into six general categories. The six general categories are (1) fouling due to various mechanisms, (2) single-failure and other design deficiencies, (3) flooding, (4) equipment failures, (5) personnel and procedural errors, and (6) seismic deficiencies.

  16. Preliminary research study of a water desalination system for the East Montana area subdivisions of El Paso County, El Paso, Texas. Water treatment technology program report No. 6. (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, C.; Swift, A.; Golding, P.

    1995-06-01

    Currently, water utility districts in the East Montana area subdivisions are either unable to provide potable water within acceptable federal and/or state drinking water standards, or furnish an adequate water supply to area residents. This preliminary research study ascertained the economical and technical feasibility of a desalination plant to treat brackish groundwater for potable use. Population growth, and the current and projected water demand and consumption were evaluated for the area. Water quality characterization of the local ground-water supply was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and suitability of the groundwater for desalination. Reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and multistage flash distillation were evaluated on an economic and technical basis. The objective was to determine the least expensive system that produced a reliable water supply within federal and/or state drinking water standards. In conjunction, an evaluation of numerous brine disposal technologies was made based on economics, technical feasibility, and federal and state regulations. Several recommendations are presented that met the objectives of this study. A pilot desalination plant investigation is proposed.

  17. Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems Everything You Wanted to Know About Solar Water Heating Systems October 7, 2014 - 2:39pm Q&A What do you want to know about solar at home? Tell Us Addthis Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank. | Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar panels heat water that is delivered to a storage tank. | Photo courtesy of David Springer, National Renewable

  18. Simple solar water heating systems: The SWAP program in Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, J.

    1997-11-01

    This article describes the development of a solar water heating system appropriate for low-income Florida residents and the appliances developed in conjunction with it that may appeal to a wider market. Among the topics discussed are size and design of the system including passive preheaters and affordable active systems. Electric water heaters with 40 and 50 gallon capacity were found to be the most cost effective. The feed-back from customers is also discussed. 3 figs.

  19. Water resources and the urban environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, E.D.

    1998-07-01

    140 abstracts from the conference cover topics such as urban stormwater management; geographic information systems, hydrologic and hydraulic computer modeling; groundwater analysis and management; drinking water supply and quality; and international water resources issues.

  20. An Overview of Nuclear vs. Non-Nuclear Design Code Requirements for a Candidate Steam Supply System for Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jetter

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to identify (mostly for industrial end-users) the difference between a Section III nuclear steam generator (classified as Structures, Systems and Components (SSC)) and a Section VIII steam generator in the same general conditions, but used in a conventional application. Specifically, applicable temperature and pressure ranges and a more quantitative description of how materials change, design margins change and required design rigor changes are of interest. This overview focuses on the steam generator pressure boundary but the downstream piping will also be considered. Within the designations of Section III and Section VIII there are subcategories with their specific regions of applicability. Each of these subcategories has evolved their own unique features with respect to design rules and their implementation. A general overview of the various design codes will be provided in sufficient detail to illustrate the major differences; however, a detailed discussion of the various design requirements and their implementation is beyond the scope of this discussion. References (1) and (2) are sources of more detailed information. Also, example wall sizing calculations will be provided to illustrate the application of the relevant design codes under the candidate design conditions. The candidate steam supply Design Conditions are 600C (1112F) and 24MPa (3,480psi). The Operating Conditions or Service Levels will be somewhat lower and the difference shows up in some of the various design methodologies employed.

  1. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  2. Fukushima Light Water Detritiation System Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  3. Energy Supply Transformation Needed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supply Transformation Needed - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  4. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  5. Articulated plural well deep water production system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, J.

    1980-07-08

    Apparatus for subsea production of fluids through a manifold and central riser from a plurality of individual wells drilled in different parts of a field in deep water, is described that is comprised of: a central manifold base having flow line connectors thereon; an elongated boom for each well to be produced in a field, each boom being rigidly attached to the manifold base; a temporary guide base mounted to the other end of each boom for establishing a well site; and a flow line extending along each boom from a flow line connector on the central manifold base. A method of producing well fluids from a number of individual wells drilled in different parts of a field located in deep water to a production platform via a central riser, which comprises the steps of: submerging to the ocean floor a subsea production apparatus which includes a central manifold base having an elongated boom for each well articulated thereto at one end and mounting a temporary guide base at the other end of the boom for establishing a well site, and a preinstalled flow line extending along each boom from the manifold base; landing a manifold section on the manifold; and landing a subsea tree on each temporary guide base.

  6. Update to the Ground-Water Withdrawals Database for the Death Valley REgional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California, 1913-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael T. Moreo; and Leigh Justet

    2008-07-02

    Ground-water withdrawal estimates from 1913 through 2003 for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system are compiled in an electronic database to support a regional, three-dimensional, transient ground-water flow model. This database updates a previously published database that compiled estimates of ground-water withdrawals for 1913–1998. The same methodology is used to construct each database. Primary differences between the 2 databases are an additional 5 years of ground-water withdrawal data, well locations in the updated database are restricted to Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model boundary, and application rates are from 0 to 1.5 feet per year lower than original estimates. The lower application rates result from revised estimates of crop consumptive use, which are based on updated estimates of potential evapotranspiration. In 2003, about 55,700 acre-feet of ground water was pumped in the DVRFS, of which 69 percent was used for irrigation, 13 percent for domestic, and 18 percent for public supply, commercial, and mining activities.

  7. NRC Notice: Antifreeze Agents in Fire Water Sprinkler Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    were identified in NRC Information Notice (IN) 2015-02, Antifreeze Agents in Fire Water Sprinkler Systems, (http:pbadupws.nrc.govdocsML1432ML14323A 176.pdf). This IN was...

  8. EA-1093: Surface Water Drainage System, Golden, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats...

  9. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar...

  10. Towards a Design of a Complete Solar Water Splitting System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Towards a Design of a Complete Solar Water Splitting System 1 Feb 2013 BISfuel : A team of Bisfuel researchers led by Devens Gust, Ana Moore and Tom Moore has designed and ...

  11. Collaborative Project. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina; Rodgers, Keith B.

    2015-12-16

    The focus of this grant was on diagnosing the physical mechanisms controlling upper ocean water mass formation and carbon distribution in Earth System Models (ESMs), with the goal of improving the physics that controls their formation.

  12. Two-phase uninterruptible power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinsky, A.J.; Rajagopalan, S.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a two-phase AC power supply. It comprises AC systems; connectors; electric currents; and phase shift.

  13. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  14. Water augmented indirectly-fired gas turbine systems and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, Thomas F.; Parsons, Jr., Edward J.

    1992-01-01

    An indirectly-fired gas turbine system utilizing water augmentation for increasing the net efficiency and power output of the system is described. Water injected into the compressor discharge stream evaporatively cools the air to provide a higher driving temperature difference across a high temperature air heater which is used to indirectly heat the water-containing air to a turbine inlet temperature of greater than about 1,000.degree. C. By providing a lower air heater hot side outlet temperature, heat rejection in the air heater is reduced to increase the heat recovery in the air heater and thereby increase the overall cycle efficiency.

  15. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  16. Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

    1998-09-15

    Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

  17. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  18. Drought management and its impact on public water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume represents the report on a colloquium sponsored by the National Research Council's Water Science and Technology Board, 5 September 1985. It includes five background papers on drought, drought management, risks for public systems, and legal and institutional aspects, plus appendices on conservation and rationing plans for Los Angeles and Salt Lake County. The conclusions of the volume include: (1) there is substantial need for continued research on drought and its impact on the management of public water systems; (2) sizing of the physical facilities of a system should not be based solely on full-service requirements during the drought of record, nor should such facilities be sized by the arbitrary specification of hydrologic risk; and (3) the key to adequate drought management of public water systems lies in predrought preparation.

  19. Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

  20. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2015-12-22

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  1. A systematic approach for water recycle system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.W.; Dave, B.B.

    1995-12-01

    Water reuse is becoming a critical technology for industrial plants to remain competitive as environmental regulations become more stringent and as municipal water demands increase. The basic challenge of water reuse is to meet the water quality requirements of both the plant effluent and the in-plant processes in an economical fashion. The complex nature of water reuse problems demands a systematic approach for achieving solutions. Such an approach has been developed which integrates the plant audit, numerical process simulation, and pilot-scale experiments to optimize reuse system designs in the sense of both technical and economic merits. Two case studies are presented which illustrate some of the capabilities of this highly flexible approach to water reuse. The case of an oil refinery demonstrates the utility of process modelling prior to pilot-level testing, which is then used to determine system operating parameters and costs. The role of numerical process simulation in predicting process water chemistry and overall economics is emphasized in the case of a copper smelting plant.

  2. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed reactor system at Building 9212. Draft environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is Iocated within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The current AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems were designed and constructed more than 40 years ago. Because of their deteriorating condition, the corrosive nature of the materials processed, and the antiquated design philosophy upon which they are based, their long-term reliability cannot be assured. The current AHF supply system cannot mitigate an accidental release of AHF and vents fugitive AHF directly to the atmosphere during operations. the proposed action would reduce the risk of exposing the Y-12 Plant work force, the public, and the environment to an accidental release of AHF and would ensure the continuing ability of the Y-12 Plant to manufacture highly enriched uranium metal and process uranium from retired weapons for storage.

  3. Improve Chilled Water System Performance, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program Chilled Water System Analysis Tool (CWSAT) can help optimize the performance of of industrial chilled water systems.

  4. Systems Dynamic ToolBox for Water Resource Planning

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    The Fully Integrated System Dynamics Tookbox for Water Resources Planning (Toolbox) is a library of generic modules intended to assist in water management planning and decision making in watersheds around the world. The modules - built in a commercially available modeling environment called Powersim Studio Expert, represent the different sub-systems ina watershed, including population, agriculture, economics, climate, reservoirs, stream flows, and fish populations, and provides generic building blocks with which complex models of complex modelsmore » of complex watersheds can be assembled. The resulting models provide a tool for observing how research management decision made in one sector of a basin can affect other sectors. Improved water resource management contributes to improved public health, economic development, ecological sustainability, and overall security and stability.« less

  5. EA-1905: Double Eagle Water System, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA, prepared by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management Carlsbad Field Office and adopted by DOE, evaluates the expansion and upgrade of the City of Carlsbad’s Double Eagle Water System.

  6. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  7. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    advanced logistical systems and focused bioenergy harvesting technologies that supply crop ... More Documents & Publications ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop ...

  8. System Description for the KW Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) (70.3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DERUSSEAU, R.R.

    2000-04-18

    This is a description of the system that collects and processes the sludge and radioactive ions released by the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing operations conducted in the 105 KW Basin. The system screens, settles, filters, and conditions the basin water for reuse. Sludge and most radioactive ions are removed before the water is distributed back to the basin pool. This system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP).

  9. ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sustainable Together ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY 2014 Emergency Response of IEA Countries Secure Sustainable Together ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY 2014 Emergency Response of IEA Countries ...

  10. School Supply Drive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    backpacks filled with school supplies. September 16, 2013 Del Norte Credit Union's Baxter Bear takes a moment to pose with some of the backpacks filled with school supplies...

  11. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies Authors: Harto, C. B. ; Schroeder, J. N. ; Horner, R. M. ; Patton, T. L. ;

  12. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water ...

  13. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics Model Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty 02 PETROLEUM Water Water A system dynamic model was construction...

  14. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Federal buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water.[2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514.

  15. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus, while there is considerable geofluid loss at 2.7 gal/kWh, fresh water consumption during operations is similar to that of aircooled binary systems. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of water demand for future growth in deployment of utility-scale geothermal power generation. The approach combines the life cycle analysis of geothermal water consumption with a geothermal supply curve according to resource type, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and potential growth scenarios. A total of 17 growth scenarios were evaluated. In general, the scenarios that assumed lower costs for EGSs as a result of learning and technological improvements resulted in greater geothermal potential, but also significantly greater water demand due to the higher water consumption by EGSs. It was shown, however, that this effect could be largely mitigated if nonpotable water sources were used for belowground operational water demands. The geographical areas that showed the highest water demand for most growth scenarios were southern and northern California, as well as most of Nevada. In addition to water demand by geothermal power production, Chapter 5 includes data on water availability for geothermal development areas. A qualitative analysis is included that identifies some of the basins where the limited availability of water is most likely to affect the development of geothermal resources. The data indicate that water availability is fairly limited, especially under drought conditions, in most of the areas with significant near- and medium-term geothermal potential. Southern California was found to have the greatest potential for water-related challenges with its combination of high geothermal potential and limited water availability. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 6. Overall, this work highlights the importance of utilizing dry cooling systems for binary and EGS systems and

  16. Modeling the Gila-San Francisco Basin using system dynamics in support of the 2004 Arizona Water Settlement Act.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Peplinski, William J.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2012-04-01

    Water resource management requires collaborative solutions that cross institutional and political boundaries. This work describes the development and use of a computer-based tool for assessing the impact of additional water allocation from the Gila River and the San Francisco River prescribed in the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements Act. Between 2005 and 2010, Sandia National Laboratories engaged concerned citizens, local water stakeholders, and key federal and state agencies to collaboratively create the Gila-San Francisco Decision Support Tool. Based on principles of system dynamics, the tool is founded on a hydrologic balance of surface water, groundwater, and their associated coupling between water resources and demands. The tool is fitted with a user interface to facilitate sensitivity studies of various water supply and demand scenarios. The model also projects the consumptive use of water in the region as well as the potential CUFA (Consumptive Use and Forbearance Agreement which stipulates when and where Arizona Water Settlements Act diversions can be made) diversion over a 26-year horizon. Scenarios are selected to enhance our understanding of the potential human impacts on the rivers ecological health in New Mexico; in particular, different case studies thematic to water conservation, water rights, and minimum flow are tested using the model. The impact on potential CUFA diversions, agricultural consumptive use, and surface water availability are assessed relative to the changes imposed in the scenarios. While it has been difficult to gage the acceptance level from the stakeholders, the technical information that the model provides are valuable for facilitating dialogues in the context of the new settlement.

  17. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  18. Portable water filtration system for oil well fractionation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seibert, D. L.

    1985-08-13

    The invention comprises a portable, multi-stage filtration system utilized in filtering water for an oil and gas stimulation process commonly known as fracking. Three stages are used, the first being a straining operation reducing the size of particulate matter in the water to about three-eighths of an inch. The second stage is a centrifugal separator, reducing the particle size to about 50 microns. The final stage utilizes a cartridge-type filter giving a final particle size in the water of about 5 microns. In this manner, water which is injected into the well head during the fracking process and which is obtained from readily available sources such as ponds, streams and the like is relatively free of particulate matter which can foul the fracking process. The invention, by virtue of being mounted on a trailer, is portable and thus can be easily moved from site to site. Water flow rates obtained using the invention are between 250 and 300 gallons per minute, sufficient for processing a small to medium sized well.

  19. Water: Challenges at the Intersection of Human and Natural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Futrell, J.H.; Gephart, R. E.; Kabat-Lensch, E.; McKnight, D. M.; Pyrtle, A.; Schimel, J. P.; Smyth, R. L.; Skole, D. L. Wilson, J. L.; Gephart, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    There is a growing recognition about the critical role water plays in sustaining people and society. This workshop established dialog between disciplinary scientists and program managers from diverse backgrounds in order to share perspectives and broaden community understanding of ongoing fundamental and applied research on water as a complex environmental problem. Three major scientific themes emerged: (1) coupling of cycles and process, with emphasis on the role of interfaces; (2) coupling of human and natural systems across spatial and temporal scales; and (3) prediction in the face of uncertainty. In addition, the need for observation systems, sensors, and infrastructure; and the need for data management and synthesis were addressed. Current barriers to progress were noted as educational and institutional barriers and the integration of science and policy.

  20. Florida small water systems compliance project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The object of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of a coordinated effort of enforcement, training, technical assistance and outreach to improve compliance of small water systems. The project was conducted in Hillsborough County and Polk County in Florida. The effectiveness of the coordinated effort was measured by the number of violations resolved over a one year period, October 1989 to September 1990, and the costs of achieving those results were tracked by each organization participating in the project.

  1. The Black Mesa coal/water slurry pipeline system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brolick, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 mw steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada.

  2. Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro; Limp, Fred

    2013-06-30

    Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of SWAT model and Richter et al.’s (1996

  3. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional

  4. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  5. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Catalytic. System design final report. Volume 1. System requirement definition and system analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Catalytic Inc. was awarded a contract to conduct a preliminary system design and cost analysis for a brackish water desalination project to be located in Brownsville, Texas. System analyses and economic analyses were performed to define the baseline solar energy desalination system. The baseline system provides an average daily product water capacity of 6000 mT. The baseline system is optimal relative to technological risk, performance, and product water cost. Subsystems and their interfaces have been defined and product water cost projections made for commercial plants in a range of capacities. Science Applications, Inc. (SAI), subcontractor to Catalytic, had responsibility for the solar power system. This, the final report, summarizes the work performed under the Phase I effort.

  6. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1996 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  7. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  8. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  9. R&D ERL: Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambiase, R.

    2010-01-01

    A magnet power supply system has been developed to meet the field requirements of the ERL in a compact and cost effective fashion.

  10. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  11. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  12. OVERVIEW OF THE AGS COLD SNAKE POWER SUPPLIES AND THE NEW RHIC SEXTUPOLE POWER SUPPLIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRUNO,D.; GANETIS, G.; SANDBERG, J.; LOUIE, W.

    2007-06-25

    The two rings in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) were originally constructed with 24 sextupole power supplies, 12 for each ring. Before the start of Run 7, 24 new sextupole power supplies were installed, 12 for each ring. Individual sextupole power supplies are now each connected to six sextupole magnets. A superconducting snake magnet and power supplies were installed in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and commissioned during RHIC Run 5, and used operationally in RHIC Run 6. The power supply technology, connections, control systems and interfacing with the Quench Protection system for both these systems will be presented.

  13. Land Use and Water Efficiency in Current and Potential Future U.S. Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, E.; Zhang, Y.; Chum, H.; Newmark, R.

    2012-11-01

    The potential for unintended consequences of biofuels--competition for land and water--necessitates that sustainable biofuel expansion considers the complexities of resource requirements within specific context (e.g., technology, feedstock, supply chain, local resource availability).

  14. A resilience assessment framework for infrastructure and economic systems : quantitative and qualitative resilience analysis of petrochemical supply chains to a hurricane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Vugrin, Eric D.; Warren, Drake E.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, the nation has recognized that critical infrastructure protection should consider not only the prevention of disruptive events, but also the processes that infrastructure systems undergo to maintain functionality following disruptions. This more comprehensive approach has been termed critical infrastructure resilience (CIR). Given the occurrence of a particular disruptive event, the resilience of a system to that event is the system's ability to efficiently reduce both the magnitude and duration of the deviation from targeted system performance levels. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has developed a comprehensive resilience assessment framework for evaluating the resilience of infrastructure and economic systems. The framework includes a quantitative methodology that measures resilience costs that result from a disruption to infrastructure function. The framework also includes a qualitative analysis methodology that assesses system characteristics that affect resilience in order to provide insight and direction for potential improvements to resilience. This paper describes the resilience assessment framework. This paper further demonstrates the utility of the assessment framework through application to a hypothetical scenario involving the disruption of a petrochemical supply chain by a hurricane.

  15. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  16. Upgrading the TFTR Transrex Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. Lawson, R. Marsala, S. Ramakrishnan, X. Zhao, P. Sichta

    2009-05-29

    In order to provide improved and expanded experimental capabilities, the existing Transrex power supplies at PPPL are to be upgraded and modernized. Each of the 39 power supplies consists of two six pulse silicon controlled rectifier sections forming a twelve pulse power supply. The first modification is to split each supply into two independent six pulse supplies by replacing the existing obsolete twelve pulse firing generator with two commercially available six pulse firing generators. The second change replaces the existing control link with a faster system, with greater capacity, which will allow for independent control of all 78 power supply sections. The third change replaces the existing Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) based fault detector with an Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) compatible unit, eliminating the obsolete CAMAC modules. Finally the remaining relay logic and interfaces to the "Hardwired Control System" will be replaces with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

  17. Biphasic catalysis in water/carbon dioxide micellar systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Gunilla B.; Tumas, William; Johnston, Keith P.

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for catalyzing an organic reaction to form a reaction product by placing reactants and a catalyst for the organic reaction, the catalyst of a metal complex and at least one ligand soluble within one of the phases of said aqueous biphasic system, within an aqueous biphasic system including a water phase, a dense phase fluid, and a surfactant adapted for forming an emulsion or microemulsion within the aqueous biphasic system, the reactants soluble within one of the phases of the aqueous biphasic system and convertible in the presence of the catalyst to a product having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble; and, maintaining the aqueous biphasic system under pressures, at temperatures, and for a period of time sufficient for the organic reaction to occur and form the reaction product and to maintain sufficient density on the dense phase fluid, the reaction product characterized as having low solubility in the phase in which the catalyst is soluble.

  18. Case Study for a Ground Source Heat Pump System using Mine Water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    System using Mine Water as Heat Sink and Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Case Study for a Ground Source Heat Pump System using Mine Water as Heat Sink and ...

  19. Case study of a mine water heat pump system (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Case study of a mine water heat pump system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Case study of a mine water heat pump system Authors: Liu, Xiaobing 1 ; ...

  20. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system A method for treating a process gas with ...

  1. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics ...

  2. Record of Decision, Shutdown of the River Water System at the...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Record of Decision, Shutdown of the River Water System at the Savannah River Site, ... for the Shutdown of the River Water System (RWEIS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). ...

  3. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics Model ...

  4. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  5. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  6. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  7. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur, J. Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  8. Testing of a portable ultrahigh pressure water decontamination system (UHPWDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovell, A.; Dahlby, J.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes the tests done with a portable ultrahigh pressure water decontamination system (UHPWDS) on highly radioactively contaminated surfaces. A small unit was purchased, modified, and used for in-situ decontamination to change the waste level of the contaminated box from transuranic (TRU) waste to low- level waste (LLW). Low-level waste is less costly by as much as a factor of five or more if compared with TRU waste when handling, storage, and disposal are considered. The portable unit we tested is commercially available and requires minimal utilities for operation. We describe the UHPWDS unit itself, a procedure for its use, the results of the testing we did, and conclusions including positive and negative aspects of the UHPWDS.

  9. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Alternate Water Supply System Sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site May 2014 LMS/RVT/S00314 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-March 2014, Riverton, Wyoming May 2014 RIN 14035986 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Riverton, WY, Processing Site, Sample Location Map ...................................................................3 Data

  11. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (OPPSDIV) | Department of Energy OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Sub-System Dynamic Interaction Validation (OPPSDIV) 37_otec_lmco_ascari.ppt (3.91 MB) More Documents & Publications CX-004741: Categorical Exclusion Determination OTEC resource assessment Water Power Program Peer Review Meeting Agenda

  12. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 1. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 248,959 - - - - 235,269 8,443 10,330 474,643 7,698 0

  13. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.PDF Table 10. PAD District 4 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 573 - - - - 309

  14. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.PDF Table 11. PAD District 5 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 35,538 -

  15. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.PDF Table 12. PAD District 5 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,146 - - - -

  16. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .PDF Table 2. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 8,031 - - - - 7,589 272 333 15,311 248 0 Natural Gas Plant

  17. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .PDF Table 3. PAD District 1 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,408 - -

  18. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TABLE4.PDF Table 4. PAD District 1 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 45 - - - -

  19. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TABLE5.PDF Table 5. PAD District 2 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil .............................................................

  20. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TABLE6.PDF Table 6. PAD District 2 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,529 - - -

  1. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TABLE7.PDF Table 7. PAD District 3 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................

  2. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TABLE8.PDF Table 8. PAD District 3 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 4,737 - - -

  3. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TABLE9.PDF Table 9. PAD District 4 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil .............................................................

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 1. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 261,028 - - - - 228,320 3,220 -11,881 492,960

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 10. PAD District 2 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 June 2016 Table 11. PAD District 2 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,673 - - - -

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 12. PAD District 2 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  8. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 June 2016 Table 13. PAD District 3 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................

  9. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 14. PAD District 3 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 June 2016 Table 15. PAD District 3 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................ 5,357 - - -

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 16. PAD District 3 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 June 2016 Table 17. PAD District 4 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6 ............................................................

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 18. PAD District 4 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil 6

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 June 2016 Table 19. PAD District 4 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 643 - - - -

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 2. U.S. Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 1,639,778 - - - - 1,420,355

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 June 2016 Table 20. PAD District 4 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 June 2016 Table 21. PAD District 5 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil .............................................................

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 22. PAD District 5 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 June 2016 Table 23. PAD District 5 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 983 - - - -

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 June 2016 Table 24. PAD District 5 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 3. U.S. Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 8,701 - - - - 7,611 107 -396 16,432 383 0 Natural Gas Plant

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 4. U.S. Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports Adjust- ments 1 Stock Change 2 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 3 Crude Oil 4 ............................................................ 9,010 - - - - 7,804 34 259 16,107 481

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 5. PAD District 1 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 1,348 -

  4. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 6. PAD District 1 - Year-to-Date Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    June 2016 Table 7. PAD District 1 - Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 45 - - - - 900

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 June 2016 Table 8. PAD District 1 - Year-to-Date Daily Average Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, January-June 2016 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Commodity Supply Disposition Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil

  7. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 June 2016 Table 9. PAD District 2 - Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity Supply Disposition Ending Stocks Field Production Renewable Fuels and Oxygenate Plant Net Production Refinery and Blender Net Production Imports (PADD of Entry) 1 Net Receipts 2 Adjust- ments 3 Stock Change 4 Refinery and Blender Net Inputs Exports Products Supplied 5 Crude Oil ............................................................. 50,177

  8. Self Supplied Balancing Reserves

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Supplied-Balancing-Reserves Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects &...

  9. Supply Management Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Logistics Management organization (NSL), Supply Chain Services (NS), Chief Administrative Office (N). NSL manages the warehousing of materials; the investment...

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table 1. U.S. Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, September 2005 (Thousand Barrels) Field Production Refinery and Blender Net Production...

  11. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  12. Accuracy of Petroleum Supply Data

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy of published data in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, the Petroleum Supply Monthly, and the Petroleum Supply Annual.

  13. Building America Expert Meeting: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  14. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  15. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  16. Experimental Breeder Reactor-II Primary Tank System Wash Water...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pre-Developmental INL EBR-II Wash Water Treatment Technologies (PBS ADSHQTD0100 (0003199)) EBR-II Wash Water Workshop - The majority of the sodium has been removed, remaining ...

  17. Fukushima Nuclear Crisis Recovery: A Modular Water Treatment System Deployed in Seven Weeks - 12489

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, Mark S.; Mertz, Joshua L.; Bostick, William D.

    2012-07-01

    On March 11, 2011, the magnitude 9.0 Great East Japan earthquake, Tohoku, hit off the Fukushima coast of Japan. This was one of the most powerful earthquakes in recorded history and the most powerful one known to have hit Japan. The ensuing tsunami devastated a huge area resulting in some 25,000 persons confirmed dead or missing. The perfect storm was complete when the tsunami then found the four reactor, Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Station directly in its destructive path. While recovery systems admirably survived the powerful earthquake, the seawater from the tsunami knocked the emergency cooling systems out and did extensive damage to the plant and site. Subsequent hydrogen generation caused explosions which extended this damage to a new level and further flooded the buildings with highly contaminated water. Some 2 million people were evacuated from a fifty mile radius of the area and evaluation and cleanup began. Teams were assembled in Tokyo the first week of April to lay out potential plans for the immediate treatment of some 63 million gallons (a number which later exceeded 110 million gallons) of highly contaminated water to avoid overflow from the buildings as well as supply the desperately needed clean cooling water for the reactors. A system had to be deployed with a very brief cold shake down and hot startup before the rainy season started in early June. Joined by team members Toshiba (oil removal system), AREVA (chemical precipitation system) and Hitachi-GE (RO system), Kurion (cesium removal system following the oil separator) proposed, designed, fabricated, delivered and started up a one of a kind treatment skid and over 100 metric tons of specially engineered and modified Ion Specific Media (ISM) customized for this very challenging seawater/oil application, all in seven weeks. After a very short cold shake down, the system went into operation on June 17, 2011 on actual waste waters far exceeding 1 million Bq/mL in cesium and many other isotopes. One

  18. Advanced Supply System Design Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    weather conditions; if drought, floods, wind, hail etc. damage the crops in a resource rich region, then there is even greater importance placed on stranded resource areas. ...

  19. ARM 17-30-10 - Ground Water Pollution Control System | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Ground Water Pollution Control System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: ARM 17-30-10 - Ground Water...

  20. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting - A Systems Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil ... and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as ...

  1. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  2. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project ''Modified reverse osmosis system for treatment of produced waters.'' We performed two series of reverse osmosis experiments using very thin bentonite clay membranes compacted to differing degrees. The first series of 10 experiments used NaCl solutions with membranes that ranged between 0.041 and 0.064mm in thickness. Our results showed compaction of such ultra-thin clay membranes to be problematic. The thickness of the membranes was exceeded by the dimensional variation in the machined experimental cell and this is believed to have resulted in local bypassing of the membrane with a resultant decrease in solute rejection efficiency. In two of the experiments, permeate flow was varied as a percentage of the total flow to investigate results of changing permeate flow on solute rejection. In one experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 2.4 and 10.3% of the total flow with no change in solute rejection. In another experiment, the permeate flow was varied between 24.6 and 52.5% of the total flow. In this experiment, the solute rejection rate decreased as the permeate occupied greater fractions of the total flow. This suggests a maximum solute rejection efficiency for these clay membranes for a permeate flow of between 10.3 and 24.6% of the total; flow. Solute rejection was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration and ranged between 62.9% and 19.7% for chloride and between 61.5 and 16.8% for sodium. Due to problems with the compaction procedure and potential membrane bypassing, these rejection rates are probably not the upper limit for NaCl rejection by bentonite membranes. The second series of four reverse osmosis experiments was conducted with a 0.057mm-thick bentonite membrane and dilutions of a produced water sample with an original TDS of 196,250 mg/l obtained from a facility near Loco Hill, New Mexico, operated by an independent. These experiments tested the separation

  3. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable

  4. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  7. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-01

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  8. Design considerations of a power supply system for fast cycling superconducting accelerator magnets of 2 Tesla b-field generated by a conductor of 100 kA current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hays, Steve; Piekarz, Henryk; Pfeffer, Howie; Claypool, Brad; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Recently proposed fast cycling accelerators for proton drivers (SF-SPS, CERN and SF-MR, SF-BOOSTER, FNAL) neutrino sources require development of new magnet technology. In support of this magnet development a power supply system will need to be developed that can support the high current and high rate of power swing required by the fast cycling (1 sec rise and fall in the SF-MR, 5Hz in Booster). This paper will outline a design concept for a +/- 2000 V and 100,000 A fast ramping power supply system. This power supply design is in support of a 6.44 km magnet system at 0.020 H and 330 m 5 Hz, 0.00534 H superconducting loads. The design description will include the layout and plan for extending the present FNAL Main Injector style ramping power supply to the higher currents needed for this operation. This will also include the design for a harmonic filter and power factor corrector that will be needed to control the large power swings caused by the fast cycle time. A conceptual design for the current regulation system and control will also be outlined. The power circuit design will include the bridge, filter and transformer plan based on existing designs.

  9. NREL: Water Power Research - Economic and Power System Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The model represents the initial capital investment of offshore projects, considering project size, water depth, distance from shore, and turbine technology. NREL also develops ...

  10. NOVEL MEMBRANES AND SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL WATER...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A smooth resin deposition technology will be developed for reverse osmosis membranes used in water treatment and industrial and municipal wastewater reuse. Thin films of the resin ...

  11. Sources for Office Supplies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consistent with the Office of Management and Budget's savings mandates and the Acting Director of the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management's memorandum entitled "Sources for Office Supplies," dated September 9, 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) supports utilization of: (1) the General Service Administration's (GSA) Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPA) under the Federal Strategic Sourcing Initiative for Office Supplies Second Generation (FSSI OS2); and/or (2) the DOE's AbilityOne Supply Stores, Paperclips, Etc., (Forrestal Building and Germantown). More information on the FSSI can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/fssi.

  12. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  13. Preliminary Scoping and Assessment Study of the Potential Impacts of Community-wide Radiological Events and Subsequent Decontamination Activities on Drinking Water and Wastewater Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monette, F.A.; Biwer, B.M.; Tomasko, D.; Chen, S.Y.; Hais, A.; MacKinney, J.; Janke, R.

    2006-07-01

    Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, there has been a great deal of concern about further attacks within the United States, particularly attacks using weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or other unconventional weapons, such as a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or 'dirty bomb', which is a type of RDD. During all phases of an RDD event, secondary impacts on drinking water and wastewater systems would be possible. Secondary impacts refer to those impacts that would occur when the water systems were not the direct or intended target of the specific event. Secondary impacts would include (1) fallout from an event occurring elsewhere on water supply reservoirs and (2) runoff into storm water and sewer systems during precipitation events or as a result of cleanup and decontamination activities. To help address potential secondary impacts, a scoping and assessment study was conducted for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Homeland Security Research Center to support its water security program. The study addresses the potential impacts on water resources and infrastructure that could result from the use of an RDD, including potential impacts from the initial attack as well as from subsequent cleanup efforts. Eight radionuclides are considered in the assessment: Am-241, Cf-252, Cs-137, Co-60, Ir-192, Pu-238, Ra-226, and Sr-90. (authors)

  14. Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site | Department of Energy Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for Ground Water Treatment System Monticello, Utah, Permeable Reactive Barrier Site Construction Summary and As-Built Report for

  15. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Naval Air Station Oceana | Department of Energy Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana January 7, 2015 - 4:52pm Addthis Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Addthis Related Articles Building Science Corporation worked with Transformations, Inc., on a subdivision of

  16. GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System GreenPower Trap Water-Muffler System This hydrated EGR system reduces NOx and enhances fuel efficiency, and the DPF is catalyzed by the fuel-borne catalyst generated by the oil-borne catalyst system deer09_rim.pdf (118.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DPF -"Hydrated EGR" Fuel Saver System GreenPowerTM Trap-Muffler

  17. Integrated Vulnerability and Impacts Assessment for Natural and Engineered Water-Energy Systems in the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Wolfsberg, Andrew; Macknick, Jordan; Middleton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In the Southwest and Southern Rocky Mountains (SWSRM), energy production, energy resource extraction, and other high volume uses depend on water supply from systems that are highly vulnerable to extreme, coupled hydro-ecosystem-climate events including prolonged drought, flooding, degrading snow cover, forest die off, and wildfire. These vulnerabilities, which increase under climate change, present a challenge for energy and resource planners in the region with the highest population growth rate in the nation. Currently, analytical tools are designed to address individual aspects of these regional energy and water vulnerabilities. Further, these tools are not linked, severely limiting the effectiveness of each individual tool. Linking established tools, which have varying degrees of spatial and temporal resolution as well as modeling objectives, and developing next-generation capabilities where needed would provide a unique and replicable platform for regional analyses of climate-water-ecosystem-energy interactions, while leveraging prior investments and current expertise (both within DOE and across other Federal agencies).

  18. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  19. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.PDF Table 13. Crude Oil Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks by PAD District, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Process PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Supply Field Production .................................................... 1,408 47,406 146,833 17,773 35,538 248,959 8,031 Alaskan ............................................................. - - - - - - - - - 16,799 542 Lower 48 States ................................................ - - - - -

  20. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 June 2016 Appendix D Northeast Reserves Reserves inventories are not considered to be in the commercial sector and are excluded from EIA's commercial motor gasoline and distillate fuel oil supply and disposition statistics, such as those reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and This Week In Petroleum. Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve classifed as ultra-low sulfur distillate (15 parts per million) Terminal Operator Location Thousand Barrels Buckeye

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 June 2016 Table 25. Crude Oil Supply, Disposition, and Ending Stocks by PAD District, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Process PAD Districts U.S. Total 1 2 3 4 5 Total Daily Average Supply Field Production .................................................... 1,348 50,177 160,724 19,300 29,479 261,028 8,701 Alaskan ............................................................. - - - - - - - - - 14,103 470 Lower 48 States ................................................ - - - - -

  2. Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Cyanobacterial System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weyman, Philip D; Smith, Hamillton O.

    2014-12-03

    Photobiological processes are attractive routes to renewable H2 production. With the input of solar energy, photosynthetic microbes such as cyanobacteria and green algae carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using sunlight energy to extract protons and high energy electrons from water. These protons and high energy electrons can be fed to a hydrogenase system yielding H2. However, most hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases are inhibited by O2, which is an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The rate of H2 production is thus limited. Certain photosynthetic bacteria are reported to have an O2-tolerant evolving hydrogenase, yet these microbes do not split water, and require other more expensive feedstocks. To overcome these difficulties, the goal of this work has been to construct novel microbial hybrids by genetically transferring O2-tolerant hydrogenases from other bacteria into a class of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria. These hybrid organisms will use the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterial hosts to perform the water-oxidation reaction with the input of solar energy, and couple the resulting protons and high energy electrons to the O2-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase, all within the same microbe (Fig. 1). The ultimate goal of this work has been to overcome the sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme to O2 and address one of the key technological hurdles to cost-effective photobiological H2 production which currently limits the production of hydrogen in algal systems. In pursuit of this goal, work on this project has successfully completed many subtasks leading to a greatly increased understanding of the complicated [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. At the beginning of this project, [NiFe] hydrogenases had never been successfully moved across wide species barriers and had never been heterologously expressed in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the idea that whole, functional genes could be extracted from complicated, mixed-sequence meta-genomes was not

  3. Vermont Supplemental Supplies of Natural Gas

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    B Explanatory Notes The following Explanatory Notes are provided to assist in understanding and interpreting the data presented in this publication. * Note 1. Petroleum Supply Reporting System * Note 2. Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System * Note 3. Technical Notes for Detailed Statistics Tables * Note 4. Domestic Crude Oil Production * Note 5. Export Data * Note 6. Quality Control and Data Revision * Note 7. Frames Maintenance * Note 8. Descriptive Monthly Statistics * Note 9. Practical

  4. Code System for Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor LOCA Analysis.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-13

    Version 00 The new SCRELA code was developed to analyze the LOCA of the supercritical water cooled reactor. Since the currently available LWR codes for LOCA analysis could not analyze the significant differences in reactor characteristics between the supercritical-water cooled reactor and the current LWR, the first objective of this code development was to analyze the uniqueness of this reactor. The behavior of the supercritical water in the blowdown phase and the reflood phase ismore » modeled.« less

  5. Watts nickel and rinse water recovery via an advanced reverse osmosis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, C.; White, I.E.; Ludwig, R.

    1993-08-01

    The report summarizes the results of an eight month test program conducted at the Hewlett Packard Printed Circuit Board Production Plant, Sunnyvale, CA (H.P.) to assess the effectiveness of an advanced reverse osmosis system (AROS). The AROS unit, manufactured by Water Technologies, Inc. (WTI) of Minneapolis, MN, incorporates membrane materials and system components designed to treat metal plating rinse water and produce two product streams; (1) a concentrated metal solution suitable for the plating bath, and (2) rinse water suitable for reuse as final rinse. Waste water discharge can be virtually eliminated and significant reductions realized in the need for new plating bath solution and rinse water.

  6. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Menicucci, David; Mammoli, Andrea A.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific

  7. Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Photovoltaic Modules. North Carolina Solar Center Heat Your Water with the Sun (PDF). U.S. Department of Energy Addthis Related Articles An example of a solar pool...

  8. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

  9. Double ended chilled water distribution system flow control at the Univeristy of Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, H.; Womack, W.; Notary, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the analysis effort and resultant primary flow control strategy for an intensely interconnected chilled water distribution system that is fed by production plants at opposing ends. A brief description of the evolution of the existing campus chilled water distribution systems at the University of Arizona is followed by a statement of a problem common to many expanding chilled water distribution systems. This problem relates to the optimal control of dissimilar yet interconnected pumping and production plants. A simple hydraulic modeling spreadsheet with coupled graphical representation developed for the UA system is presented. The surprisingly simple control strategies designed for the UA system will be explained. The use of the simplified modeling approach as a long range production and distribution system planning tool will be explored. Conclusions on the applicability of the simplified approach and the extension of the UA distribution system control strategies to other district chilled water systems will be drawn.

  10. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  11. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2009-2010 Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems was compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period. The Hot Water System Laboratory (HWS Lab) test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for the tests.

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

  15. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  16. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  17. Autonomous uninterruptible power-supply apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masson, J.H.

    1984-12-20

    This invention relates broadly to a power supply apparatus, and in particular to an autonomous uninterruptible power supply apparatus. The purpose of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is to protect critical electrical loads from transient or steady-stage outages or disturbances in the primary power source. The basic configuration of a typical, commercially available, uninterruptible power supply is comprised at a minimum of a standby battery and a battery charger and may also include an inverter for AC applications. Systems of this type can be found in most computer installations and laboratory systems that cannot tolerate even momentary disturbances of input power. This document describes an autonomous uninterruptible power-supply apparatus utilizing a digital-processor unit as a control and monitor unit to measure and control input and output parameters in the power supply. A battery charger is utilized to maintain the voltage and current levels with the backup battery supply source which powers an inverter unit that converts the DC power to an AC output.

  18. In-situ continuous water analyzing module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid analyzing system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Supply Monthly with data for June 2016 August 2016 www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Energy Information Administration/Petroleum Supply Monthly, ii June 2016 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report

  20. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Download slides from the ...

  1. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Four projects are working to accelerate the development of revolutionary products or processes for the photovoltaic (PV) industry through the High Impact Supply Chain R&D for PV Technologies/Systems program, which represents the second round of PV Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies funding. These projects

  2. [Waste water heat recovery system]. Final report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-28

    The production capabilities for and field testing of the heat recovery system are described briefly. Drawings are included.

  3. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all

  4. Supply Chain Management Center | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Supply Chain Management Center

  5. Carcinogenic effects in A/J mice of particulate of a coal-tar paint used in potable water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, M.; Laurie, R.D.; Bull, R.J.; Stober, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Coal-tar paints are among the products used as inside coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion in potable water-supply systems. Four different formulations of these paints were tested in earlier work by this laboratory in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays(6). The paint most active in these assays was then tested in a particulate form in the lung adenoma assay with A/J mice. The paint was applied to clean glass plates, cured, collected and homogenized in 2% Emulphor. Doses of this coal-tar suspension were administered by gavage at 1.0, 10.0, and 55.0 mg in 0.2 ml per mouse 3 x weekly for 8 weeks. The total doses of coal-tar paint were 24, 240, and 1320 mg/mouse. Benzo(a)pyrene, administered in a parallel schedule to a total dose of 6 mg/mouse, served as positive control. A negative control group received an equivalent volume of 2% Emulphor. Animals were sacrificed at 9 months of age (8 months after first dose) and lung adenomas counted. A dose-related response, in the average number of lung tumors per mouse, was observed with the coal-tar particulate. There were also squamous-cell tumors of the forestomach in 42% of the mice receiving 55.0 mg coal tar paint per application.

  6. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  7. Ensuring the Resiliency of Our Future Water and Energy Systems | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Ensuring the Resiliency of Our Future Water and Energy Systems Ensuring the Resiliency of Our Future Water and Energy Systems June 18, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis Infographic by <a href="/node/379579">Sarah Gerrity</a>, Energy Department. Infographic by Sarah Gerrity, Energy Department. Dr. Ernest Moniz Dr. Ernest Moniz Secretary of Energy Learn More Read the full Water-Energy Nexus report. Visit the Water-Energy Tech Team website to learn more about the

  8. Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? Issue #4: Are High Efficiency Hot Water Heating Systems Worth the Cost? What are realistic energy savings associated with the latest advanced and forthcoming water heating technologies and are they cost effective? issue4_gasfired_waterheater.pdf (1.27 MB) issue4_tankless_wh.pdf (510.42 KB) issue4_waterhtg_solutions.pdf (528.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions

  9. Building America Expert Meeting: Exploring the Disconnect Between Rated and Field Performance of Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water heating represents a major residential energy end use, especially in highly efficient homes where space conditioning loads and energy use has been significantly reduced. Future efforts to reduce water heating energy use requires the development of an improved understanding of equipment performance, as well as recognizing system interactions related to the distribution system and the fixture use characteristics. By bringing together a group of water heating experts, we hope to advance the shared knowledge on key water heating performance issues and identify additional data needs that will further this critical research area.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Information on the supply and distribution of petroleum and petroleum products in the US as of March 1983 is presented. Data include statistics on crude oil, motor gasoline, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gases, imports, exports, stocks, and transport. This issue also features 2 articles entitled: Summer Gasoline Overview and Principal Factors Influencing Motor Gasoline Demand. (DMC)

  11. Supply Stores | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply Stores Supply Stores DOE Self Service Supply Stores at Headquarters Operated by: Base Supply Center and the Winston-Salem Industries for the Blind DOE Self-Service Supply Stores Hours of Operation: 9:00 a.m. through 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday DOE Supply Stores Locations Location Phone Fax Forrestal Room GA-171 (202) 554-1451 (202) 554-1452 (202) 554-7074 Germantown Room R-008 (301) 515-9109 (301) 515-9206 (301) 515-8751 The stores provide an Office Supply Product inventory that is

  12. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  13. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-12-16

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  14. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  15. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs

  16. Novel Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performance membranes are key to reduce energy consumption Project Objective Achieve 50% energy reduction in membrane processes through Novel membranes & systems ...

  17. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  18. Range water-pumping systems: state-of-the-art-review. Forest Service project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, D.W.

    1985-02-01

    Information learned from the investigative effort conducted in the solar-water-pumping systems portion of the Range Water System Improvement project is reviewed. The report covers the development of new windmill designs including fully counterbalanced, spring-counterbalanced and com-operated windmills, hydraulic system to replace pump rods of a conventional windmill, automatic stroke controls for a 3-bladed wind turbine, wind electric ac and dc generators driving ac and dc submersible pumps, windmill-driven air compressor operating an air lift pump, long-life well cyclinder, and performance modeling and testing of windmills. Photovoltaic-powered water-pumping systems discussed include large or oversized solar arrays, series-parallel photovoltaic-panel switching, maximum power controller systems, photovoltaic-powered pumping systems with submersible pump, and solar-thermal pumping systems.

  19. Operating experience feedback report: Service water system failures and degradations: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987 has been conducted. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that the service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes, and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components which are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units. 44 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. S. 943: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to facilitate the use of abandoned mine reclamation fund moneys to replace water supplies that have been contaminated or diminished by coal mining practices. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 9, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill describes mandatory and discretionary allocations of funds to a state or Indian reservation for the purpose of water reclamation. The stated objectives of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act are amended to allow 50 percent of a state's mandatory allocation to be used for the construction of public water treatment plants and distribution facilities to take the place of water supplies that have been contaminated as a result of coal practices undertaken prior to August 3, 1977, regardless of whether the contamination has been exacerbated by coal mining practices since that date, when construction would be more economical than repair of existing facilities.

  1. ABSTRACT: Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of Advanced Logistical Systems and Focused Bioenergy Harvesting Technologies to Supply Crop Residues and Energy Crops in a Densified Large Square Bale Format OBP WBS: ...

  2. New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy Consumption by 80...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This case study outlines how General Motors (GM) developed a highly efficient pumping ... As a result, the company reduced pumping system energy consumption by 80 percent (225,100 ...

  3. ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    REUSE | Department of Energy Research Triangle Institute - Research Triangle Park, NC A single hybrid system for industrial wastewater treatment and reuse that combines two known processes-forward osmosis and membrane distillation-will be developed and demonstrated. This system will use waste heat to treat a wide variety of waste streams at manufacturing facilities. Based on current industrial wastewater practices and preliminary analysis, this technology has the potential to reduce

  4. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  5. The EURATOM Supply Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lightner, J.

    1989-11-01

    With the coming liberalization of trade and industry within the European Community (EC) and a more centrally-coordinated EC external trade policy, it is timely to ask if in the 1990s there will be any significant changes in the commercial relations between the EC and non-EC companies trading in nuclear fuel. The key vehicle for implementing any change of policy would probably be the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Supply Agency in Brussels, which is charged under the EURATOM Treaty with overseeing the equitable supply of nuclear fuel to and among EC companies. The EURATOM Supply Agency (the Agency) is a signatory to almost all EC-company contracts for transactions that occur on the territory of the Community, which includes Belgium, Denmark, France, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. During the 1980s, the Supply Agency has rarely tried to influence the commercial decisions of EC member companies. The nuclear fuel industry has largely perceived the Agency as an administrative office that registers contracts and maintains relations with some outside governments, particularly Australia, Canada, and the USA. However, in 1988 the Agency began to have a more direct commercial impact when it reviewed the practice-previously conducted routinely by the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate in Luxembourg at the request of EC-member companies-of swapping safeguards obligations on equivalent quantities of uranium at different locations (flag swapping). The Agency`s actions inhibiting flag swaps, as well as a related de facto policy restricting material swaps of Southern African uranium, caused it to be viewed as obstructive by some EC companies. During 1989 the discussion about flag swaps and swaps involving South African and Namibian uranium has subsided, and a far-reaching discussion has arisen about EC trade policy in general.

  6. Transportation Fuel Supply | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment Sector (NAICS 336) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Transportation Equipment (125.57 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Transportation Equipment

    SheetsTransportation Fuel Supply content top

  7. Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock-Water Interactions In Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Systems- Field Investigations Of In Situ Geochemical Behavior Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  8. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  9. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  10. EIS-0268: Shutdown of River Water System at the Savannah River Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to shut down the Savannah R]ver Site River Water System in order to save money; that is, to prevent further expenditure of the...

  11. Impacts to the ethylene supply chain from a hurricane disruption.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Downes, Paula Sue; Heinen, Russell; Welk, Margaret Ellen

    2010-03-01

    Analysis of chemical supply chains is an inherently complex task, given the dependence of these supply chains on multiple infrastructure systems (e.g., the petroleum sector, transportation, etc.). This effort requires data and information at various levels of resolution, ranging from network-level distribution systems to individual chemical reactions. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has integrated its existing simulation and infrastructure analysis capabilities with chemical data models to analyze the chemical supply chains of several nationally critical chemical commodities. This paper describes how Sandia models the ethylene supply chain; that is, the supply chain for the most widely used raw material for plastics production including a description of the types of data and modeling capabilities that are required to represent the ethylene supply chain. The paper concludes with a description of Sandia's use the model to project how the supply chain would be affected by and adapt to a disruptive scenario hurricane.

  12. A concept of JAERI passive safety light water reactor system (JPSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murao, Y.; Araya, F.; Iwamura, T.

    1995-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor system concept, JPSR, which was developed for reducing manpower in operation and maintenance and influence of human errors on reactor safety. In the concept the system was extremely simplified. The inherent matching nature of core generation and heat removal rate within a small volume change of the primary coolant is introduced by eliminating chemical shim and adopting in-vessel control rod drive mechanism units, a low power density core and once-through steam generators. In order to simplify the system, a large pressurizer, canned pumps, passive engineered-safety-features-system (residual heat removal system and coolant injection system) are adopted and the total system can be significantly simplified. The residual heat removal system is completely passively actuated in non-LOCAs and is also used for depressurization of the primary coolant system to actuate accumulators in small break LOCAs and reactor shutdown cooling system in normal operation. All of systems for nuclear steam supply system are built in the containment except for the air coolers as a the final heat sink of the passive residual heat removal system. Accordingly the reliability of the safety system and the normal operation system is improved, since most of residual heat removal system is always working and a heat sink for normal operation system is {open_quotes}safety class{close_quotes}. In the passive coolant injection system, depressurization of the primary cooling system by residual heat removal system initiates injection from accumulators designed for the MS-600 in medium pressure and initiates injection from the gravity driven coolant injection pool at low pressure. Analysis with RETRAN-02/MOD3 code demonstrated the capability of passive load-following, self-power-controllability, cooling and depressurization.

  13. Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  14. Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System May 27, 2010 - 11:46am Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs A floating platform, simple turbine and tropical oceans could be the key to producing 30 percent or more of the total energy the world consumes today, according to Lockheed Martin. The technology in play: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Lockheed Martin

  15. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W.; Krauter, Gordon W.

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  16. Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.; Gregurech, Steve

    1989-01-01

    A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, with data from June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The Petroleum Supply Division (PSD) of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects and published information on petroleum supply and disposition in the United States. The information is collected through a series of surveys that make up the Petroleum Supply Reporting System (PSRS). The PSRS data are published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), and Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). This report presents information on crude oil production, crude oil imports and exports, refinery operations, natural gas processing, transportation, and oxygenate data.

  18. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  19. Expert Meeting Report. Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-06-01

    This Building America expert meeting was held on 7/31/2011, in Westford, Massachusetts. Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

  20. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  1. Water gate array for current flow or tidal movement pneumatic harnessing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorlov, Alexander M.

    1991-01-01

    The invention, which provides a system for harnessing power from current flow or tidal movement in a body of water, comprises first and second hydro-pneumatic chambers each having ingress and egress below the water surface near the river or ocean floor and water gates operative to open or seal the ports to the passage of water. In an exemplary embodiment, the gates are sychronized by shafts so that the ingress ports of each chamber are connected to the egress ports of each other chamber. Thus, one set of gates is closed, while the other is open, thereby allowing water to flow into one chamber and build air pressure therein and allowing water to flow out of the other chamber and create a partial vacuum therein. A pipe connects the chambers, and an air turbine harnesses the air movement within the pipe. When water levels are equilibrated, the open set of gates is closed by a counterweight, and the other set is allowed to open by natural force of the water differential. The water gates may be comprised of a plurality of louvers which are ganged for simultaneous opening and closing. The system is designed to operate with air turbines or other pneumatic devices. Its design minimizes construction cost and environmental impact, yet provides a clean renewable energy source.

  2. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  3. Measure Guideline. Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2012-08-01

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  4. Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.; Hackel, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.

  5. Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark K. Gee Zia Mirza

    2008-10-01

    PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to

  6. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Nesbitt, Loyd B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs.

  7. Pressure suppression containment system for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Nesbitt, L.B.

    1997-01-21

    A system is disclosed for suppressing the pressure inside the containment of a BWR following a postulated accident. A piping subsystem is provided which features a main process pipe that communicates the wetwell airspace to a connection point downstream of the guard charcoal bed in an offgas system and upstream of the main bank of delay charcoal beds which give extensive holdup to offgases. The main process pipe is fitted with both inboard and outboard containment isolation valves. Also incorporated in the main process pipe is a low-differential-pressure rupture disk which prevents any gas outflow in this piping whatsoever until or unless rupture occurs by virtue of pressure inside this main process pipe on the wetwell airspace side of the disk exceeding the design opening (rupture) pressure differential. The charcoal holds up the radioactive species in the noncondensable gas from the wetwell plenum by adsorption, allowing time for radioactive decay before the gas is vented to the environs. 3 figs.

  8. Diversifying Supply | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversifying Supply diagram for focus area 1 diversifying supply (A click on the org chart image will lead to a pdf version that includes hotlinks for the e-mail addresses of the leaders.)

  9. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2007-01-09

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC--DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC--DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  10. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2010-05-04

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  11. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James F.; Yee, Daniel D.

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  12. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2002-07-15

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Boeing Engineering and Construction. System design final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The system design for a future commercial solar energy brackish water desalination plant is described. Key features of the plant are discussed along with its configuration selection rationale, design objectives, operation, and performance. The water treatment technology used in the plant is ion exchange pretreatment and single stage reverse osmosis desalination utilizing high-flux membranes. Electrical power needed for plant operation is produced by a solar energy system, which is based on the Brayton cycle having air as the working fluid. Primary solar system components are: heliostat field, central cavity-tube receiver, receiver support tower, thermal energy storage, and a commercial gas turbine generator set. The thermal energy storage subsystem is of the sensible heat brick type and provides a capability for continuous day/night power generation during most weather conditions. This system design was selected in a study of various system alternatives and their life cycle product water costs for a representative site in western Texas.

  14. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Curve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.; Young, K. R.; Anderson, A.

    2010-02-01

    This paper documents the approach used to update the U.S. geothermal supply curve. The analysis undertaken in this study estimates the supply of electricity generation potential from geothermal resources in the United States and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), capital costs, and operating and maintenance costs associated with developing these geothermal resources. Supply curves were developed for four categories of geothermal resources: identified hydrothermal (6.4 GWe), undiscovered hydrothermal (30.0 GWe), near-hydrothermal field enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) (7.0 GWe) and deep EGS (15,900 GWe). Two cases were considered: a base case and a target case. Supply curves were generated for each of the four geothermal resource categories for both cases. For both cases, hydrothermal resources dominate the lower cost range of the combined geothermal supply curve. The supply curves indicate that the reservoir performance improvements assumed in the target case could significantly lower EGS costs and greatly increase EGS deployment over the base case.

  15. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  16. A Guide for Using the Transient Ground-Water Flow Model of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan B. Blainey; Claudia C. Faunt, and Mary C. Hill

    2006-05-16

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  17. Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

    2014-01-14

    A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

  18. Solar-powered electrodialysis. Part 2. Design of a solar-powered, electrodialysis system for desalting remote, brackish water sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundstrom, J.E.; Socha, M.M.; Lynch, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    The critical components in the design of a solar-powered, electrodialysis (SPED) plant have been evaluated and technology developed to combine ED equipment with a photovoltaic (PV) array. The plant design developed in Part II is simplified from the Part I design in three areas. First, the system uses a flat-panel PV aray rather than PV concentrators. Second, the system voltage is maintained at the voltage corresponding to the peak power output of the array which is essentially independent of the level of solar insolation. The third simplification is in the flow diagram for the plant where the number of pumps and variable flow valves has been reduced to two of each. The proposed system is expected to provide a reliable supply of fresh water from a brackish water source with minimum maintenance. In certain applications where grid power is unavailable and fuel costs exceed $.40 per liter, the solar-powered plant is expected to provide lower cost water today.

  19. A PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF WATER AND METHANE ICES ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trujillo, Chadwick A.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Schaller, Emily L. E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.edu

    2011-04-01

    We present a new near-infrared photometric system for detection of water ice and methane ice in the solar system. The system consists of two medium-band filters in the K-band region of the near-infrared, which are sensitive to water ice and methane ice, plus continuum observations in the J band and Y band. The primary purpose of this system is to distinguish between three basic types of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs)-those rich in water ice, those rich in methane ice, and those with little absorbance. In this work, we present proof-of-concept observations of 51 KBOs using our filter system, 21 of which have never been observed in the near-infrared spectroscopically. We show that our custom photometric system is consistent with previous spectroscopic observations while reducing telescope observing time by a factor of {approx}3. We use our filters to identify Haumea collisional family members, which are thought to be collisional remnants of a much larger body and are characterized by large fractions of water ice on their surfaces. We add 2009 YE{sub 7} to the Haumea collisional family based on our water ice band observations (J - H{sub 2}O = -1.03 {+-} 0.27) which indicate a high amount of water ice absorption, our calculated proper orbital elements, and the neutral optical colors we measured, V - R = 0.38 {+-} 0.04, which are all consistent with the rest of the Haumea family. We identify several objects dynamically similar to Haumea as being distinct from the Haumea family as they do not have water ice on their surfaces. In addition, we find that only the largest KBOs have methane ice, and Haumea itself has significantly less water ice absorption than the smaller Haumea family members. We find no evidence for other families in the Kuiper Belt.

  20. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  1. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  2. Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

  3. CREATING THE NORTHEAST GASOLINE SUPPLY RESERVE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2012, Superstorm Sandy made landfall in the northeastern United States and caused heavy damage to two refineries and left more than 40 terminals in New York Harbor closed due to water damage and loss of power. This left some New York gas stations without fuel for as long as 30 days. As part of the Obama Administration’s ongoing response to the storm, the Department of Energy created the first federal regional refined product reserve, the Northeast Gasoline Supply Reserve.

  4. LANL Water Protection Status Report - FY12 3rd Qtr. (Apr thru Jun 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglass, Craig R.

    2012-07-12

    Continued monitoring of the Buckman Direct Diversion and Los Alamos County Water Supply Wells; Groundwater Protection - Continued implementation of the Interim Facility-Wide Groundwater Monitoring Plan (IFGMP); Surface Water Protection - Continued protection of surface water through implementation of the Individual Stormwater Permit (IP); Buckman Early Notification System operability at 100% per MOU Requirements.

  5. A Systems Framework for Assessing Plumbing Products-Related Water Conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alison; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Lutz, James

    2011-12-02

    Reducing the water use of plumbing productstoilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads has been a popular conservation measure. Improved technologies have created opportunities for additional conservation in this area. However, plumbing products do not operate in a vacuum. This paper reviews the literature related to plumbing products to determine a systems framework for evaluating future conservation measures using these products. The main framework comprises the following categories: water use efficiency, product components, product performance, source water, energy, and plumbing/sewer infrastructure. This framework for analysis provides a starting point for professionals considering future water conservation measures to evaluate the need for additional research, collaboration with other standards or codes committees, and attachment of additional metrics to water use efficiency (such as performance).

  6. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  7. Switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  8. Updated U.S. Geothermal Supply Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petty, S.; Porro, G.

    2007-03-01

    This paper documents the approach taken to characterize and represent an updated assessment of U.S. geothermal supply for use in forecasting the penetration of geothermal electrical generation in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This work is motivated by several factors: The supply characterization used as the basis of several recent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts of geothermal capacity is outdated; additional geothermal resource assessments have been published; and a new costing tool that incorporates current technology, engineering practices, and associated costs has been released.

  9. Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management Featuring presenters from PepsiCo and EUISSICA, this presentation covers ways of engaging industrial suppliers involved in energy management. Engaging Supply Chains in Energy Management (April 10, 2012) (2.55 MB) Questions & Answers (121.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy Management and Financing From Shop Floor to Top Floor: Best Business Practices in Energy Efficiency CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD

  10. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Togore, Sam; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  11. DOE/EIA-0340(98)/2 Distribution Category UC-950 Petroleum Supply

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... foreign or commercial storage agreements. (s) Less ... Sources: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System. Domestic crude oil ...

  12. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  13. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  14. Hydronic rooftop cooling systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Berman, Mark J.

    2008-01-29

    A roof top cooling unit has an evaporative cooling section that includes at least one evaporative module that pre-cools ventilation air and water; a condenser; a water reservoir and pump that captures and re-circulates water within the evaporative modules; a fan that exhausts air from the building and the evaporative modules and systems that refill and drain the water reservoir. The cooling unit also has a refrigerant section that includes a compressor, an expansion device, evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, and connecting refrigerant piping. Supply air components include a blower, an air filter, a cooling and/or heating coil to condition air for supply to the building, and optional dampers that, in designs that supply less than 100% outdoor air to the building, control the mixture of return and ventilation air.

  15. Petroleum Supply Annual, Volume 1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum & Other Liquids Reports Petroleum Supply Annual, Volume 1 With Data for 2014 | Release Date: September 25, 2015 | Next Release Date: September 2016 Previous Issues Year: 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 Go Volume 1 - Final annual data for the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. Volume 1 Tables All Tables All Tables Detailed Statistics Tables National Statistics 1 U.S. Supply, Disposition, and

  16. Lab Supplies | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Supplies The Ames Laboratory Storeroom has many lab supplies available for purchase. Please see commodity numbers 01-08, 12, 15-16 in the storeroom catalog for all available products. For a more general listing of products, reference the Storeroom Services website here. Common Lab Supplies purchased from the Storeroom: Various sizes of batteries Various sizes of bottles Various sizes of beakers Various sizes of vials Various sizes of flasks Various sizes of cylinders Various sizes of jars

  17. Supply Forecast and Analysis (SFA)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Matthew Langholtz Science Team Leader Oak Ridge National Laboratory DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Supply Forecast and Analysis (SFA) 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Goal Statement * Provide timely and credible estimates of feedstock supplies and prices to support - the development of a bioeconomy; feedstock demand analysis of EISA, RFS2, and RPS mandates - the data and analysis of other projects in Analysis and Sustainability, Feedstock Supply and Logistics,

  18. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Shitao; Clark, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  19. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of a wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.

  20. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J; Kwon, Soondong; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  1. Potential for HEPA filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for BEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. A fire in a four-stage, BEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of BEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenums, additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk. 22 refs., 15 figs.

  2. Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

  3. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced.

  4. Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J.

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

  5. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

    2001-08-08

    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses

  6. Assessment of electric-utility supply plans, 1978-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the utilities' forecasts of future electricity supply is presented. An analysis of the demand forecast is contained in a separate document. California Energy Demand 1978 to 2000: A preliminary Assessment (August 1979). An evaluation of the feasibility and implications of supply plans, formulated by the State's electric utilities, to meet their forecasted demand is presented. The report is a critique of the supply plans; therefore, it establishes the foundation for the examining alternatives. Utility resource plans and underlying supply planning assumptions were submitted between March and June 1978 for evaluation, but updated resource plans of July 1979 were used as the basis for the assessment. Supply plans were evaluated from utilities (PG and E, SCE, SDG and E, LADWP, Sacramento Municipal Utility District); cities (Burbank, Anaheim, Glendale, Pasadena, Riverside); Northern California Power Agency; Modesto Irrigation District; Turlock Irrigation District; Imperial Irrigation District; and Department of Water Resources.

  7. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Naval Sea Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Command | Department of Energy Naval Sea Systems Command 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner Naval Sea Systems Command fewm13_nswcphiladelphia_highres.pdf (5.43 MB) fewm13_nswcphiladelphia.pdf (1.75 MB) More Documents & Publications CX-005670: Categorical Exclusion Determination U.S. Navy Marine Diesel Engines and the Environment - Part 1 EIS-0259: Record of Decision

  8. Design of a rural water provision system to decrease arsenic exposure in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathieu, Johanna

    2009-01-07

    Researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have invented ARUBA (Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash) a material that effectively and affordably removes high concentrations of arsenic from contaminated groundwater. The technology is cost-effective because the substrate?bottom ash from coal fired power plants?is a waste material readily available in South Asia. During fieldwork in four sub-districts ofBangladesh, ARUBA reduced groundwater arsenic concentrations as high as 680 ppb to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Key results from three trips in Bangladesh and one trip to Cambodia include (1) ARUBA removes more than half of the arsenic from contaminated water within the first five minutes of contact, andcontinues removing arsenic for 2-3 days; (2) ARUBA?s arsenic removal efficiency can be improved through fractionated dosing (adding a given amount of ARUBA in fractions versus all at once); (3) allowing water to first stand for two to three days followed by treatment with ARUBA produced final arsenic concentrations ten times lower than treating water directly out of the well; and (4) the amount of arsenic removed per gram of ARUBA is linearly related to the initial arsenic concentrationof the water. Through analysis of existing studies, observations, and informal interviews in Bangladesh, eight design strategies have been developed and used in the design of a low-cost, community-scale water treatment system that uses ARUBA to remove arsenic from drinking water. We have constructed, tested, and analyzed a scale version of the system. Experiments have shown that the system is capable of reducing high levels of arsenic (nearly 600 ppb) to below 50 ppb, while remaining affordable to people living on less than $2 per day. The system could be sustainably implemented as a public-private partnership in rural Bangladesh.

  9. Preliminary design report for the K basins integrated water treatment system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauly, T.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This Preliminary Design Report (PDR) provides a revised concept for the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment Systems (IWTS). This PDR incorporates the 11 recommendations made in a May 1996 Value Engineering session into the Conceptual Design, and provides new flow diagrams, hazard category assessment, cost estimate, and schedule for the IWTS Subproject.

  10. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  11. Operating Experience Level 3, NRC Notice: Antifreeze Agents in Fire Water Sprinkler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides information about safety concerns identified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) that could potentially apply to work performed at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These concerns were identified in NRC Information Notice (IN) 2015-02, Antifreeze Agents in Fire Water Sprinkler Systems.

  12. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  13. EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K– and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

  14. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  15. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  16. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR®)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  19. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  20. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.