Sample records for water spray fixed

  1. Modeling the structure of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithiviraj, Manikandan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a model of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays and presents new experimental data for CWS viscosities. The model is based on the aerodynamic theory of spray atomization which has been successfully used for Diesel sprays. However...

  2. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Steven J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Mal, Thomas (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  3. EFFECTS OF WATER SPRAYS AND SCRUBBER EXHAUST ON FACE METHANE CONCENTRATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saylor, John R.

    Chapter 65 EFFECTS OF WATER SPRAYS AND SCRUBBER EXHAUST ON FACE METHANE CONCENTRATIONS Ch.D. Taylor-mounted scrubber and water sprays can reduced methane levels at the face. The current research was conducted to determine how the sprays and scrubber interact to reduce methane levels, and what spray configurations

  4. Purchasing Water-Efficient Faucets, Pre-Rinse Spray Valves, Showerhead...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Products & Technologies Energy-Efficient Products Purchasing Water-Efficient Faucets, Pre-Rinse Spray Valves, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals Purchasing Water-Efficient...

  5. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  6. Purchasing Water-Efficient Faucets, Pre-Rinse Spray Valves, Showerheads, Toilets, and Urinals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal agencies are required to purchase U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) WaterSense-labeled products where applicable. Faucets, pre-rinse spray valves, showerheads, toilets, and urinals are covered under the WaterSense program.

  7. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen Ellis

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system for a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with quartz...

  8. Translating Water Spray Cooling of a Steel Bar Sand Casting Thomas J. Williams, Daniel Galles, and Christoph Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Translating Water Spray Cooling of a Steel Bar Sand Casting Thomas J. Williams, Daniel Galles, i.e., washed away, from the casting during solidification. The method uses a water-soluble binder and translation of a water spray to achieve directional solidification. The advantages of the ablation technique

  9. Potential for Hepa filter damage from water spray systems in filter plenums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawsld, J.W.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water spray systems in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter plenums that are used in nearly all Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for protection against fire was designed under the assumption that the HEPA filters would not be damaged by the water sprays. The most likely scenario for filter damage involves filter plugging by the water spray, followed by the fan blowing out the filter medium. A number of controlled laboratory tests that were previously conducted in the late 1980s are reviewed in this paper to provide a technical basis for the potential HEPA filter damage by the water spray system in HEPA filter plenums. In addition to the laboratory tests, the scenario for HEPA filter damage during fires has also occurred in the field. Afire in a four-stage, HEPA filter plenum at Rocky Flats in 1980 caused the first three stages of HEPA filters to blow out of their housing and the fourth stage to severely bow. Details of this recently declassified fire are presented in this paper. Although these previous findings suggest serious potential problems exist with the current water spray system in filter plenum , additional studies are required to confirm unequivocally that DOE`s critical facilities are at risk.

  10. Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Morshed A.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    .............................................................................................................................. 211 xv LIST OF FIGURES Page Fig. 1. Densities of methane (vapor) and air at different temperatures. .......................... 2 Fig. 2. Temperature and specific gravity of methane, air and methane-air mixture at atmospheric... on methane concentration downwind of the LNG pool ..................................................................................................... 37 Fig. 10. Methane concentrations downwind of the LNG pool, with and without water spray...

  11. Sprays and Spraying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paddock, F.B. (Floyd B.)

    1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................... Fly Poison 13 ..................................... Contact Insecticides 14 ................................... Lime Sulfur Wash 14 ................................... Kerosene Emlllsion 17' .......................... Commercial Tobacco Extract...-SULFI MIXTURES. I Amount of ~ilutiin Number of Gallons of Water to One Gallon 'of Lime-Sulfur Solution. Reading on Hydrometer. For San Jose For Summer / Scale of Winter I For Blister Mite. 1 Spraying of I Strength. I I I I 1 Kerosene Emulsion. Kerosene...

  12. Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

  13. Numerical modeling and experimental measurements of water spray impact and transport over a cylinder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avedisian, C. T. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Presser, Cary (National Institute of Standard & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD); DesJardin, Paul Edward (University at Buffalo, New York, NY); Hewson, John C.; Yoon, Sam Sukgoo

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study compares experimental measurements and numerical simulations of liquid droplets over heated (to a near surface temperature of 423 K) and unheated cylinders. The numerical model is based on an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation using a stochastic separated flow (SSF) approach for the droplets that includes submodels for droplet dispersion, heat and mass transfer, and impact on a solid surface. The details of the droplet impact model are presented and the model is used to simulate water spray impingement on a cylinder. Computational results are compared with experimental measurements using phase Doppler interferometry (PDI).

  14. Computational and Experimental Study of Sprays from the Breakup of Water Sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of droplet sizes and velocities produced by diesel-type, Y-jet, and hollow-cone sprays. The droplet velocity results for the diesel-type spray are well predicted. The droplet size and velocity results for the Y

  15. Shotguns, Spray, and Smoke: Regulating Atmospheric Deposition of Pollutants under the Clean Water Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antony, Anil J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of chemi- cal incineration, not pesticide spraying. 111 F.3dfrom EPA to commence incineration at Tooele. That the Armyfrom chemical weapons incineration would eventually reach

  16. Synchronized droplet size measurements of intermittent coal-water slurry diesel sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terracina, Dwayne Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been completed to characterize atomization of intermittent coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel fuel engine. A synchronized laser diffraction particle analyzer...

  17. Estimating the Annual Water and Energy Savings in Texas A & M University Cafeterias using Low Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, Harsh Varun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the efficiency of a Pre- Rinse Spray Valve (PRSV) is one of the most cost effective water conservation methods in the Food Services Industry. A significant contributor to this cost efficiency is the reduction in the energy costs required...

  18. Modeling water uptake by a root system growing in a fixed soil volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrieu, J L Blengino; Tarzia, D A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The water uptake by roots of plants is examined for an ideal situation, with an approximation that resembles plants growing in pots, meaning that the total soil volume is fixed. We propose a coupled water uptake-root growth model. A one-dimensional model for water flux and water uptake by a root system growing uniformly distributed in the soil is presented, and the Van Genuchten model for the transport of water in soil is used. The governing equations are represented by a moving boundary model for which the root length, as a function of time, is prescribed. The solution of the model is obtained by front-fixing and finite element methods. Model predictions for water uptake by a same plant growing in loam, silt and clay soils are obtained and compared. A sensitivity analysis to determine relative effects on water uptake when system parameters are changed is also presented and shows that the model and numerical method proposed are more sensitive to the root growth rate than to the rest of the parameters. This se...

  19. The Influence of Spray Water Quality on Herbicide www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, zinc, manganese, sodium, potassium, cesium, and lithium can influence be difficult. When the spray tank is not cleaned properly, leftover traces of the herbicide can contaminate

  20. Engineering Task Plan for Water Supply for Spray Washers on the Support Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) defines the task and deliverables associated with the design, fabrication and testing of an improved spray wash system for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) System Support Trucks.

  1. Sprays and Spraying 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paddock, F.B. (Floyd B.)

    1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid spray. Paris green mag be applied as a powder, but it must be diluted with eight to ten times its weight of flour or air-slaked lime, preferably the latter. As it is usually best to apply a dry poison when there is some dew on the plants... especially for testing the lime-sulfur mixture, map be obtained from Bauech & hmb Optical Company, Rochester, N. Y., and other dealers in laboratory glassware. The dilutions should be' made according te the table given later. Since this spray is quite...

  2. From Emergency to Fix: Point-of-Use Water Filtration Technology in Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandewalle, Emily Lauren

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-scale decentralized facilities and technologies are rapidly becoming a dominant technological fix to deliver water to underserved populations in developing nations. This project examines the case of a university partnership with government...

  3. Estimating the Annual Water and Energy Savings in Texas A & M University Cafeterias using Low Flow Pre-Rinse Spray Valves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, Harsh Varun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ESTIMATING THE ANNUAL WATER AND ENERGY SAVINGS IN TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY CAFETERIAS USING LOW FLOW PRE-RINSE SPRAY VALVES A Thesis by HARSH VARUN REBELLO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of TexasA&MUniversity in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2010 Major Subject: Construction Management Estimating the Annual Water and Energy Savings in Texas A&MUniversity Cafeterias Using Low...

  4. The Suppression and Extinction of Class A Fires Using Water Sprays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, G. B.; Drysdale, Dougal D.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water has long been the agent of choice for fighting Class' A' fires In fact the thermal characteristics of water make it ideally suitable as an extinguishing agent for most types of fire, whether it is used to extract ...

  5. EFFECTS OF FEEDING DDT-SPRAYED INSECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF FEEDING DDT-SPRAYED INSECTS TO FRESH-WATER FISH Marine Blmv .1 i . 1. 1 13 K. ,'>.. r DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;EFFECTS OF FEEDING DDT-SPRAYED INSECTS TO FRESH, Director Special Scientil'ic Report - Fisheries No. 3 EFFECTS OF FEEDDJG DDT-SPRAYED IIBEGTS TO li

  6. Characterization of coal water slurry sprays from a positive displacement fuel injection system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar Seshadri, Ajoy

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Diaphragm Pump/Jerk Pump Assembly. Injector Nozzle Schematic Nozzle Tip Schematic SEM of a Nozzle Tip Hole. Pressure Chamber Vessel Schematic. . . Block Diagrams of the Apparatus and 10 12 14 15 16 18 20 Instrumentation. 22 Figure 10 Figure... 50% Coal, 48-. water, 1% lignosulphonate, and 1% Triton X-114. The coal used was a high volatile subbituminous which was cleaned to less than 0. 8% ash (on a dry coal basis). Table 2 lists the slurry characteristics. 24 projector Lamps Injector...

  7. Spray Calendar.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanborn, C. E. (Charles Emerson)

    1908-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . .................................. Kerosene .2 gals. Shave the soap fine and thoroughly dissolve in the boiling water; add the two gallons of kerosene, away from the fire. Thoroughly emul- sify by pumping or churning it. (See pump, Figure 7, frontispiece.) When ~roperly emulsified... and moist. XIX. TRAP LIGHTS. Nocturnal insects, such as June bugs and other beetles, also millers and many of the smaller insects, are attracted to lights on warm muggy nights. If lights are placed over barrels or tubs of water with a pint of kerosene...

  8. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  9. Alternative Heat Recovery Options for Single-Stage Spray Dryers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many powdered products are dried to their final moisture content by use of spray dryers. A basic spray dryer mixes an aqueous feedstock with heated air, vaporizing the water in the feedstock and producing the final dried powder in a single stage...

  10. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Jeffrey D. (Stuart, FL); Sanders, Stuart A. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL)

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  11. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  12. Microcomputer aided calculations of parameters for spray dryer operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, J.T.; Gyorke, D.F.; Pennline, H.W.; Drummond, C.J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a series of practical microcomputer programs that can be used as a tool by engineers and researchers working with spray dryers for combustion process effluent control. The microcomputer programs calculate flue gas composition (CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, and SO/sub 2/) from the composition of the fuel. The residence time of the flue gas in a spray dryer can be estimated, and using values provided by the user for the flow of water and absorbent slurry in the spray dryer, the program recalculates the flue gas composition and heat capacity at the exit of the spray dryer without accounting for any SO/sub 2/ removal that could occur in the spray dryer. From these values and the system pressure, the dew point and flue gas temperature at the spray dryer exit are calculated, providing the approach to saturation resulting from this choice of operating parameters. This computer code would enable a process engineer to quickly evaluate effects of important process parameters, such as flue gas temperature at the inlet to the spray dryer, atomizer water feed rate, and absorbent slurry concentration and feed rate, on the operation of a spray dryer.

  13. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  14. COANDA-ASSISTED SPRAY MANIPULATION IMPLEMENTATION TO PLASMA SPRAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    speed rotation on a vectored jet. A 2-piece CSM collar was retrotted to a Praxair SG-100 plasma spray

  15. Theory vs. Practice in Direct Evaporative Roof Spray Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. L.; Smith, J. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by sprayheads through varying their orifice sizes and spray angles, by various forms of tempera- ture and climate sensors, and by the controller's sequence control panel. During the installation of the piping system, the roof membrane should.../thermostat mechanism, which typica1.l~ sprayed either too much or too little water. These findings led to the development of a "punched pipe" system. With punched pipe systems, holes are punched or milled into "sticks" of copper or pvc pipe. These holes generally...

  16. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  17. Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: predictive engine spray combustion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictive engine spray combustion modeling Sandia Expands an International Collaboration and Web Database on Engine Fuel Spray Combustion Research On November 13, 2012, in CRF,...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: spray combustion model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spray combustion model Sandia Expands an International Collaboration and Web Database on Engine Fuel Spray Combustion Research On November 13, 2012, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  20. Spot-spraying Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, H. E.

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naphtha1 None. Toxicity greater than needed for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts under most conditions. Diesel fuel None. Toxicity low. Reliable oil' or for crown-oiling 6-inch sprouts kerosene1 only during hot weather. Use dies e 1 and kerosene inter...- changeably in mixed sprays. '/z naphtha None. Reliable for crown-oiling l/z diesel 6-inch sprouts under most con- ditions. C-56 in C-56 (hexachlorocyclopenta- kerosene diene)' increases penetration of plant tissue. 1 qt. C-56. Toxicity equal to naphtha...

  1. Steady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consider steady periodic water waves for rotational flows with a specified fixed-depth over a flat bed. We the existence of steady periodic water waves for rotational flows with a specified fixed depth over a flat bedSteady periodic waves bifurcating for fixed-depth rotational flows David Henry School

  2. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  3. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  4. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM size distribution. The sensitivity of the model results to the initial sea spray profile further suggests there would be great benefit in better definition of the vertical profile of size resolved sea-spray for use in such model studies.

  5. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  6. Fix-Up Loan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Minnesota Housing Finance Agency's (MHFA) Fix-up Loan provides low-interest financing for energy conservation and other basic improvements to residential properties. Home improvement loans...

  7. Quantitative comparison of fuel spray images obtained using ultrafast coherent and incoherent double-pulsed illumination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Ménard, Thibault

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a quantitative comparison between the high-pressure fuel spray images obtained experimentally using classical imaging with coherent and incoherent ultrafast illuminations recorded using a compatible CMOS camera. The ultrafast, incoherent illumination source was extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing the femtosecond laser pulses in water. The average velocity maps computed using time-correlated image-pairs and spray edge complexity computed using the average curvature scale space maps are compared for the spray images obtained with the two illumination techniques and also for the numerically simulated spray using the coupled volume of fluid and level set method for interface tracking (direct numerical simulation or DNS). The spray images obtained with supercontinuum-derived, incoherent, ultrafast illumination are clearer, since the artifacts arising due to laser speckles and multiple diffraction effects are largely reduced and show a better correlation with the DNS results.

  8. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  9. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  10. Humidification Steam vs. Water-Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidwani, B. N.; Weston, R. F.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently the HVAC systems which require winter humidification at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) utilize an economizer cycle with steam as the source for humidification. Due to the continuously increasing cost of producing steam, a feasibility...

  11. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Schoeniger, Luke (Pittsford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  12. Local Uniqueness for the Fixed Energy Fixed Angle Inverse Problem ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract. We prove local uniqueness for the inverse problem in obstacle scattering at a fixed energy and fixed incident angle. We consider the inverse problem of ...

  13. Spray-Formed Tooling with Micro-Scale Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin McHugh

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molds, dies, and related tooling are used to shape many of the plastic and metal components we use every day at home and work. Traditional mold-making practices are labor and capital equipment intensive, involving multiple machining, benching and heat treatment operations. Spray forming is an alternative method to manufacture molds and dies. The general concept is to atomize and deposit droplets of a tooling alloy onto a pattern to form a thick deposit while imaging the pattern’s shape, surface texture and details. Unlike conventional machining, this approach can be used to fabricate tooling with micro-scale surface features. This paper describes a research effort to spray form molds and dies that are used to image micro-scale surface textures into polymers. The goal of the study is to replicate textures that give rise to superhydrophobic behavior by mimicking the surface structure of highly water repellent biological materials such as the lotus leaf. Spray conditions leading to high transfer fidelity of features into the surface of molded polymers will be described. Improvements in water repellency of these materials was quantified by measuring the static contact angle of water droplets on flat and textured surfaces.

  14. Optimization of ingestion of spray-applied poultry biologics by modification of environmental conditions at the time of application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Denise Y

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray application offers low cost and efficient rographics. application of biologics and reduced concerns regarding diverse water quality and medicator/proportioner function. Presently, we evaluated the effect of selected photointensities, sound...

  15. Future Fixed Target Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

  16. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  17. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray distribution system is very similar to a lawn irrigation system. Spray heads are used to distribute treated wastewater to the surface of the yard. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of spray distribution systems...

  18. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine...

  19. The Fix Issue 11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Anne Hartwick "Untangled" by Monica Rose Kiesel "Muderward Tag Version I" "Muderward Tag Version II" "Gift from the Sea" by B.N. Fish "Dum Vivimus, Vivamus" by Jennet Morgan "Sands of Time" by Leah Starsky "Foolish Dreams, Futile Hopes" by Elizabeth Lowry... "Distant Snores" by Paula Smith "Exile to Freedom, Chapter 3" by Martha J. Bonds "A Place in the Sun, Part I" by Lynna Bright SVE THE FIX is $5 per issue or $20 for a 3 issue subscription. Order from Carol Davis, 5 Paca Place, Rockville, MD 20852...

  20. Optimal mixing and optimal stirring for fixed energy, fixed power or fixed palenstrophy flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikov, Alexei

    Optimal mixing and optimal stirring for fixed energy, fixed power or fixed palenstrophy flows-time perfect mixing with a finite energy constraint on the stirring flow. On the other hand, using techniques, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (Dated: 31 March 2012) We consider passive scalar mixing

  1. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  2. Apparatus for fixing latency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Moon, Justin (Bountiful, UT); Koehler, Roger O. (Provo, UT)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixing computational latency within a deterministic region on a network comprises a network interface modem, a high priority module and at least one deterministic peripheral device. The network interface modem is in communication with the network. The high priority module is in communication with the network interface modem. The at least one deterministic peripheral device is connected to the high priority module. The high priority module comprises a packet assembler/disassembler, and hardware for performing at least one operation. Also disclosed is an apparatus for executing at least one instruction on a downhole device within a deterministic region, the apparatus comprising a control device, a downhole network, and a downhole device. The control device is near the surface of a downhole tool string. The downhole network is integrated into the tool string. The downhole device is in communication with the downhole network.

  3. System Study: High-Pressure Core Spray 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure core spray (HPCS) at 8 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCS results.

  4. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  5. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  6. Validation of the thermal effect of roof with the Spraying and green plants in an insulated building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru; Ojima, Toshio

    2004-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, roof-spraying and rooftop lawns have proven effective on roofs with poor thermal insulation. However, the roofs of most buildings have insulating material to provide thermal insulation during the winter. The effects of insulation has not previously been quantified. In this study, the authors collected measurements of an insulated building to quantify the thermal effects of roof-spraying and rooftop lawns. Roof-spraying did not significantly reduce cooling loads and required significant amounts of water. The conclusion is that roof spraying is not suitable for buildings with well-insulated roofs. Rooftop lawns, however, significantly stabilized the indoor temperature while additionally helping to mitigate the heat island phenomenon.

  7. RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    intended to recover a more significant share of fixed costs solely from solar PV customer- generators rooftop solar PV development at limited to no cost to taxpayers and non-solar utility customers. StandbyPage | i RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES: REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR

  8. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Scorey, Clive (Cheshire, CT); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  9. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    process Improved yield causing need to manufacture fewer pounds of product Avoids air pollution by not evaporating active material Consumes significantly less water ...

  10. Web Style Guide Fixed Dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Web Style Guide KEY: Fixed Dimension: Variable Dimension: V1.1, SEPTEMBER 2010 #12;Page 2 Table PAGE NEWS & EVENTS PAGE Fonts & Colors FONTS COLORS Web Writing Guidelines WEB WRITING GUIDELINES Web

  11. Two-Phase Spray Cooling of Hybrid Vehicle Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudawar, I.; Bharathan, D.; Kelly, K.; Narumanchi, S.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray cooling is a feasible cooling technology for hybrid vehicle electronics; HFE 7100 is a promising coolant.

  12. EFFECTS OF DDT SPRAY ON FISH AND AQUATIC INSECTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    391 392 EFFECTS OF DDT SPRAY ON FISH AND AQUATIC INSECTS IN GALLATIN RIVER DRAINAGE IN MONTANA EFFECTS OF DDT SPRAY ON STREAM BOTTOM ORGANISMS IN TWO MOUNTAIN STREAMS IN GEORGIA SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC, Commissioner Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director EFFECTS OF DDT SPRAY ON FISH

  13. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  14. Evidence of the Big Fix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuta Hamada; Hikaru Kawai; Kiyoharu Kawana

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v_{h}$. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self coupling are fixed when we vary $v_{h}$. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental low in our case.

  15. Effect of liquid viscosity and surface tension on atomization of cross injecting sprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Sangyoung

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 27. Drop diameter distribution of water and ethanol: liquid flow rate = 1. 05 ml/s; Re, = 70, 000; and y = 12. 5 mm. . 48 NOMENCLATURE A, Throat area Air-to-fuel mass ratio Discharge coefficient Coal-in-oil Mixture cP Coal water slurry... characteristic of cross-current injection spray can contribute the exploration of a new and more effective atomizer design, especially for diesel engines firing coal-in-oil mixture (COM) or coal water slurry (CWS) fuels that create severe injector wear...

  16. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  17. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  18. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, Ronald J. (Butte, MT); Tierney, John C. (Butte, MT); McLean, Leroy L. (Butte, MT); Johnson, Lawrence L. (Butte, MT); Nelson, Gordon L. (Butte, MT); Lee, Ying-Ming (Butte, MT)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments.

  19. Method and apparatus for spraying molten materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glovan, R.J.; Tierney, J.C.; McLean, L.L.; Johnson, L.L.; Nelson, G.L.; Lee, Y.M.

    1996-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal spray apparatus is provided with a supersonic nozzle. Molten metal is injected into a gas stream flowing through the nozzle under pressure. By varying the pressure of the injected metal, the droplet can be made in various selected sizes with each selected size having a high degree of size uniformity. A unique one piece graphite heater provides easily controlled uniformity of temperature in the nozzle and an attached tundish which holds the pressurized molten metal. A unique U-shaped gas heater provides extremely hot inlet gas temperatures to the nozzle. A particularly useful application of the spray apparatus is coating of threads of a fastener with a shape memory alloy. This permits a fastener to be easily inserted and removed but provides for a secure locking of the fastener in high temperature environments. 12 figs.

  20. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrnes, Larry Edward (Rochester Hills, MI); Kramer, Martin Stephen (Clarkston, MI); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  1. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  2. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  3. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pui, David Y. H. (Plymouth, MN); Chen, Da-Ren (Creve Coeur, MO)

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  4. E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray Optimized DIG, VCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray Optimized GDi, VCR and Variable Valvetrain E85 Optimized Engine Enhanced Ethanol Engine And Vehicle Efficiency (Agreement 13425)...

  5. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    chemical kinetics into fluid dynamics simulations" "Development of High-Performance Computing (HPC) tools to provide unique insights into the spray and combustion...

  6. E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray Optimized GDi, VCR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    GDi, VCR and Variable Valvetrain E85 Optimized Engine through Boosting, Spray Optimized GDi, VCR and Variable Valvetrain 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  7. Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications Advancement in Fuel Spray and Combustion Modeling for Compression Ignition Engine Applications 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  8. The effects of deposit thermal history on microstructure produced by uniform droplet spray forming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherng, Jean-Pei Jeanie

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform droplet spray forming is a process aimed at producing near-net-shape parts directly from the liquid melt by spraying micron-sized droplets onto a movable target. In spray forming, the solidification rate of the ...

  9. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  10. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  11. Fixed Capital Investment Tax Credit (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fixed Capital Investment Tax Credit allows a tax credit of 5% of the amount paid for any new fixed capital investment. Companies with fewer than 800 full-time employees may take a tax credit...

  12. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  14. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  15. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Billing, Justin M.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Davis, James M.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Lukins, Craig D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Smith, Dennese M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of this report is to present the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the large-scale test stand. The report includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodology, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging of small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. 2012a. The results of the aerosol measurements in the small-scale test stand are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012b).

  16. Scheduling with Fixed Maintenance, Shared Resources and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 17, 2014 ... maintenance constraints, blending and shared resources. ...... tegrated fixed time interval preventive maintenance and production for schedul-.

  17. Fixed Income Division Nomura International plc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macrina, Andrea

    Fixed Income Division © Nomura International plc Symmetry methods for quadratic Gaussian models International plc Outline Motivation The quadratic Gaussian distribution The quadratic Gaussian process The quadratic Gaussian model #12;Fixed Income Division 3© Nomura International plc Part 1 Motivation #12;Fixed

  18. Directed Spray Mast - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: PotentialFederal FinancialDirectDirect-Write ofDirected Spray

  19. Advanced manufacturing by spray forming: Aluminum strip and microelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. INEL is developing a unique spray-forming method based on de Laval (converging/diverging) nozzle designs to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Properties of the spray-formed material are tailored by controlling the characteristics of the spray plume and substrate. Two examples are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the replication of micron-scale features in micropatterned polymers during the production of microelectromechanical systems.

  20. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

  1. Failure Modes of Vacuum Plasma Spray Tungsten Coating Created on Carbon Fibre Composites under Thermal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Failure Modes of Vacuum Plasma Spray Tungsten Coating Created on Carbon Fibre Composites under Thermal Loads

  2. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  3. Modeling spray impingement using linear stability theories for droplet shattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DesJardin, Paul Edward; Yoon, Sam Sukgoo

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares several linear-theory-based models for droplet shattering employed for simulations of spray impingement on flat wall surface or a circular cylinder. Numerical simulations are conducted using a stochastic separated flow (SSF) technique that includes sub-models for droplet dynamics and impact. Results for spray impingement over a flat wall indicate that the linear theory applicable for a single droplet impact over-predicts the number of satellite (or secondary) droplets upon shattering when compared to experimental data. The causes for the observed discrepancies are discussed. Numerical simulation results for spray impingement over for a circular cylinder in cross flow are obtained and discussed.

  4. Cooling of hot gases by use of a spray tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pendleton, Elmer Lee

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    51 15. Comparison of the Expez imental and Calculated Values of the Mass Transfer Coefficient, KM aV (Spray Position No. 1) 52 16. Comparison of the Experimental and Calculated Values of the Mass Transfer Coefficient, KM aV (Spray Position No. 2...) 17. Nomograph foz the Solution of the Heat Transfer Equations 18. Comparison of the Experimental and Calculated Values of the Heat Transfez Coefficient, h aV (Spray Position No. 1) 56 List of Illustrations (Continued) ~Fi use 19. 20. 21. 22...

  5. Stable fixed points in the Kuramoto model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Taylor

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a necessary condition for the existence of stable fixed points for the general network Kuramoto model, and use it to show that for the complete network the homogeneous model has no non-zero stable fixed point solution. This result provides further evidence that in the homogeneous case the zero fixed point has an attractor set consisting of the entire space minus a set of measure zero, a conjecture of Verwoerd and Mason (2007).

  6. Scheduling with Fixed Maintenance, Shared Resources and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christina N Burt

    2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 30, 2014 ... Scheduling with Fixed Maintenance, Shared Resources and Nonlinear Feedrate Constraints: a Mine Planning Case Study. Christina N Burt ...

  7. Bidimensional Numerical Model for Polyurethane Smoldering in a Fixed Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabi, Chekib; Rein, Guillermo; Ben Ticha, Hmaied; Sassi, Mohamed

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FOR POLYUERETHANE SMOLDERING IN A FIXED BED Chekib GHABI 1 ,experiments. In this paper, a fixed bed of polyurethane foam

  8. Cold Spray and GE Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    difference of the work done at GE Global Research is the development of cold spray for additive manufacturing, where we adapt this novel coating process to build 3D shapes....

  9. azelastine nasal spray: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for spark-ignition en- gines Lee, Tonghun 394 ILASS Europe 2013, 25th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chania, Greece, 1-4 September 2013...

  10. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Christopher Francis (5492 Lenore Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Meeks, Ellen (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kee, Robert (864 Lucille St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); McCarty, Kevin (304 Daisyfield Dr., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  11. Superoleophobic Surfaces through Control of Sprayed-on Stochastic Topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos, Raymond

    The liquid repellency and surface topography characteristics of coatings comprising a sprayed-on mixture of fluoroalkyl-functional precipitated silica and a fluoropolymer binder were examined using contact and sliding angle ...

  12. Planar velocity analysis of diesel spray shadow images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sedarsky, David; Blaisot, J-B; Rozé, C

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this work is to demonstrate how spatially resolved image information from diesel fuel injection events can be obtained using a forward-scatter imaging geometry, and used to calculate the velocities of liquid structures on the periphery of the spray. In order to obtain accurate velocities directly from individual diesel spray structures, those features need to be spatially resolved in the measurement. The distributed structures measured in a direct shadowgraphy arrangement cannot be reliably analyzed for this kind of velocity information. However, by utilizing an intense collimated light source and adding imaging optics which modify the signal collection, spatially resolved optical information can be retrieved from spray edge regions within a chosen object plane. This work discusses a set of measurements where a diesel spray is illuminated in rapid succession by two ultrafast laser pulses generated by a mode-locked Ti-Sapphire oscillator seeding a matched pair of regenerative amplifiers. Light fro...

  13. arc spray process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary:...

  14. Low-temperature spray ponds: performance evaluation and prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerig, Philip Dwan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pond. These figures were used along with the dry-bulb temperatures measured at the pond to estimate the wet-bulb temperature at the spray pond. A second problem encountered during very cold weather was that the manometer lines would often freeze...LOW-TEMPERATURE SPRAY PONDS: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND PREDICTION A Thesis by PHILIP DWAN KERIG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May...

  15. An investigation of thermal spray structural reaction injection molded composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Bryan William

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SPRAY STRUCTURAL REACTION INJECTION MOLDED COMPOSITES A Thesis BRYAN WILLIAM HILL, IH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AJtM University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SPRAY STRUCTURAL REACTION INJECTION MOLDED COMPOSITES A Thesis by BRYAN WILLIAM HILL, III Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  16. INVESTIGATION Gene Genealogies Within a Fixed Pedigree,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVESTIGATION Gene Genealogies Within a Fixed Pedigree, and the Robustness of Kingman's Coalescent, not as a random quantity. Gene genealogical models should describe the outcome of the percolation of genetic provide a surprisingly accurate description of gene genealogies on a fixed pedigree. We study

  17. Fourier Accelerated Conjugate Gradient Lattice Gauge Fixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Hudspith

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide details of the first implementation of a non-linear conjugate gradient method for Landau and Coulomb gauge fixing with Fourier acceleration. We find clear improvement over the Fourier accelerated steepest descent method, with the average time taken for the algorithm to converge to a fixed, high accuracy, being reduced by a factor of 2 to 4.

  18. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  19. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  20. Mechanical behaviour of a sprayed concrete lining isolated by a sprayed waterproofing membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakashimaa, Masanari; Hammer, Anna-Lena; Thewes, Markus; Elshafie, Mohammed; Soga, Kenichi

    2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    – Transport and City Tunnels, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 121-126, 2010. [4] B. Maidl, M. Thewes, and U. Maidl, Handbook of Tunnel Engineering I, 1st ed. Berlin: Ernst und Sohn, 2013. [5] M. Thewes and G. Vollmann, “Applications of a shotcrete robot... without, so that the two test results could be compared. A summary of the test cases conducted is given in Table 1. It was assumed that the application of the sprayed waterproofing membrane could take place without any hindrance due to climatic...

  1. Coulomb and Landau Gauge Fixing in GPUs using CUDA and MILC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Nuno

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we present the GPU implementation of the overrelaxation and steepest descent method with Fourier acceleration methods for Laudau and Coulomb gauge fixing using CUDA for SU(N) with N>2. A multi-GPU implementation of the overrelaxation method is also presented using MPI and CUDA. The GPU performance was measured on BlueWaters and compared against the gauge fixing of the CPU MILC code.

  2. Coulomb and Landau Gauge Fixing in GPUs using CUDA and MILC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuno Cardoso

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we present the GPU implementation of the overrelaxation and steepest descent method with Fourier acceleration methods for Laudau and Coulomb gauge fixing using CUDA for SU(N) with N>2. A multi-GPU implementation of the overrelaxation method is also presented using MPI and CUDA. The GPU performance was measured on BlueWaters and compared against the gauge fixing of the CPU MILC code.

  3. Operational experience using the novel FixCup collecting main valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Spitz, J. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On the occasion of the 1995 AIME conference the new PROven (Pressure Regulated Oven) process to control the pressure in coke ovens individually was introduced. This process was made feasible with a new collecting main valve, termed FixCup, with the aid of this valve a variable flow resistance to the raw gas discharge can be realized using a water immersion system. However, just the application of the FixCup system alone--without any pressure regulation--is very advantageous and cost saving. Thyssen has equipped 30 ovens with the new valve. The special constructive features as well as the operational experience using the FixCup valve are treated.

  4. MELCOR 1.8.3 assessment: CSE containment spray experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kmetyk, L.N.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRS. As part, of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a series of containment spray tests performed in the Containment Systems Experiment (CSE) vessel to evaluate the performance of aqueous sprays as a means of decontaminating containment atmospheres. Basecase MELCOR results are compared with test data, and a number of sensitivity studies on input modelling parameters and options in both the spray package and the associated aerosol washout and atmosphere decontamination by sprays modelled in the radionuclide package have been done. Time-step and machine-dependency calculations were done to identify whether any numeric effects exist in these CSE assessment analyses. A significant time-step dependency due to an error in the spray package coding was identified and eliminated. A number of other code deficiencies and inconveniences also are noted.

  5. Direct Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine and Its Implications to Flex-Fuel VVT Operations Direct Visualization of Spray and Combustion Inside a DI-SI Engine and...

  6. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source 2003 DEER...

  7. Mechanistic origins of bombardier beetle (Brachinini) explosion-induced defensive spray pulsation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arndt, Eric Michael

    Bombardier beetles (Brachinini) use a rapid series of discrete explosions inside their pygidial gland reaction chambers to produce a hot, pulsed, quinone-based defensive spray. The mechanism of brachinines’ spray pulsation ...

  8. Simulation of spray drying in superheated steam using computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frydman, A.; Vasseur, J.; Ducept, F.; Sionneau, M.; Moureh, J.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a numerical simulation and experimental validation of a spray dryer using superheated steam instead of air as drying medium, modeled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The model describes momentum, heat and mass transfer between two phases--a discrete phase of droplets, and a continuous gas phase--through a finite volume method. For the simulation, droplet size distribution is represented by 6 discrete classes of diameter, fitting to the experimental distribution injected from the nozzle orifice, taking into account their peculiar shrinkage during drying. This model is able to predict the most important features of the dryer: fields of gas temperature and gas velocity inside the chamber, droplets trajectories and eventual deposits on to the wall. The results of simulation are compared to a pilot scale dryer, using water. In the absence of risk of power ignition in steam, the authors have tested rather high steam inlet temperature (973K), thus obtaining a high volumic efficiency. The model is validated by comparison between experimental and predicted values of temperature inside the chamber, verifying the coupling between the 3 different types of transfer without adjustment. This type of model can be used for chamber design, or scale up. Using superheated steam instead of air in a spray dryer can allow a high volumic evaporation rate (20 k.h.m{sup 3}), high energy recovery and better environment control.

  9. Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Diesel Particulate Oxidation Model: Combined Effects of Fixed & Volatile Carbon Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

  10. Secondary atomization of coal-water fuels for gas turbine applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, T.U.; Kang, S.W.; Beer, J.M.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the CWF treatments on atomization quality when applied to an ultrafine coal-water fuel (solids loading reduced to 50%) and to gas turbine operating conditions (atomization at elevated pressures). Three fuel treatment techniques were studied: (1) heating of CWF under pressure to produce steam as the pressure drops during passage of the CWF through the atomizer nozzle, (2) absorption of CO/sub 2/ gas in the CWF to produce a similar effect, and (3) a combination of the two treatments above. These techniques were expected to produce secondary atomization, that is, disruptive shattering of CWF droplets subsequent to their leaving the atomizing nozzle, and to lead to better burnout and finer fly ash size distribution. A parallel objective was to present quantitative information on the spray characteristics (mean droplet size, radial distribution of droplet size, and spray shape) of CWF with and without fuel treatment, applicable to the design of CWF-burning gas turbine combustors. The experiments included laser diffraction droplet size measurements and high-speed photographic studies in the MIT Spray Test Facility to determine mean droplet size (mass median diameter), droplet size distribution, and spray shape and angle. Three systems of atomized sprays were studied: (1) water sprays heated to a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure; (2) CWF sprays heated at atmospheric pressure to different temperatures; and (3) sprays at elevated pressure. 31 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  11. NOZZLE FUZZY CONTROLLER OF AGRICULTURAL SPRAYING ROBOT AIMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOZZLE FUZZY CONTROLLER OF AGRICULTURAL SPRAYING ROBOT AIMING TOWARD CROP ROWS Jianqiang Ren robot aiming toward crop-rows based on fuzzy control theory was studied in this paper to solve, rule-base and inference mechanism. Considering the actual application, the fuzzy controller

  12. Covered Product Category: Pre-Rinse Spray Valves

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including pre-rinse spray valves, which are a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  14. Certification of an agricultural spray aircraft on ethanol fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G. [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A Piper Pawnee, one of the most common agricultural spray aircraft, is currently undergoing Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification to allow the use of denatured ethanol as its fuel. This certification is part of a broader effort to introduce ethanol as a replacement for aviation gasoline. Various reasons brought about the choice of an agricultural spray aircraft to be certified on ethanol. One is the minimization of initial fuel distribution problems. Agricultural aviation often requires only single fuel storage since most of the flying is local. Additionally, corn-produced ethanol is the natural fuel of choice for farming operations. The increased power developed on ethanol compared to aviation gasoline (avgas) is very important when operating heavily loaded spray aircraft at very low altitudes. The power-plant, a Lycoming IO-540, is already certified. The aircraft is currently flying on ethanol in order to satisfy the airframe requirements. The effort is being supported by a consortium of organizations of corn-producing states. Upon completion of certification, the aircraft will be demonstrated around the mid-western states. Certification will allow the use of the aircraft in the commercial arena. Many mid-western agricultural spray operations and ag-pilots have already expressed interest in converting their aircraft to ethanol fuel.

  15. The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    The Role of Sea Spray in Cleansing Air Pollution over Ocean via Cloud Processes Daniel Rosenfeld, Ronen Lahav, Alexander Khain, Mark Pinsky Particulate air pollution has been shown to strongly suppress precipitation from convective clouds over land. New observations show that precipitation from similar polluted

  16. Reaction zone visualisation in swirling spray n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, R.; Kariuki, J.; Dowlut, A.; Balachandran, R.; Mastorakos, E.

    2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    process and consumed in the subsequent high temperature oxidation. Formaldehyde LIF was used for autoignition of methane jets [6], methanol, ethanol and acetone spray jet flames [7,8], and diesel fuel [9-11] and n-heptane [11,12] in HCCI engines. Najm...

  17. Infrared fixed point in quantum Einstein gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Nagy; J. Krizsan; K. Sailer

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed the renormalization group analysis of the quantum Einstein gravity in the deep infrared regime for different types of extensions of the model. It is shown that an attractive infrared point exists in the broken symmetric phase of the model. It is also shown that due to the Gaussian fixed point the IR critical exponent $\

  18. Perchlorate Degradation in Fixed Bed Bioreactors-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perchlorate Degradation in Fixed Bed Bioreactors- 1 Bruce Logan (blogan@psu.edu) Department technologies · Emphasis here on AWWARF studies: ­ Bench scale bioreactors ­ Pilot scale studies in Redlands, CA bioreactor study-- Overview and introduction: Bruce Logan · 8:45 Review of perchlorate remediation

  19. Embedded ICT technology on sprayers in order to reduce water pollution; the Aware project de Rudnicki V., Ruelle B. , Douchin M., Bellon Maurel V.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the optimisation of agricultural practices and spraying equipments related to pesticide in viticulture can help, these technologies are used to monitor the spraying practices and to make relationships with pollution recorded Introduction #12;The European Water Framework Directive sets the goal of achieving a "good status" for all

  20. Test Report on ISR Double-Loop, Spray-Cooled Inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, John S [ORNL; Coomer, Chester [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Wiles, Randy H [ORNL; Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; McFee, Marshall T [ORNL

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Isothermal Systems Research, Inc. (ISR) double-loop, two-phase spray cooling system was designed to use 85 C transmission oil to cool a heat exchanger via a second cooling loop. The heat exchanger condenses the working fluid vapor back to liquid inside a sealed enclosure to allow for continuous spray cooling of electronics. In the ORNL tests, 85 C water/ethylene/glycol (WEG), which has better thermal properties than transmission oil, was substituted for the transmission oil. Because the ISR spray-cooling system requires a second cooling loop, the final inverter might be inherently larger than inverters that do not require a second-loop cooling system. The ISR test setup did not include a dc bus capacitor. Because the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) conduction test indicated that the ISR test setup could not be properly loaded thermally, no switching tests were conducted. Therefore it was not necessary to attach external capacitors outside the test setup. During load situations not exceeding 400A, the WEG inlet temperature was higher than the WEG outlet temperature. This meant that the 85 C WEG heat exchanger was not cooling the inverter and became a thermal load to the inverter. Only when the load was higher than 400A with a higher coolant temperature and the release valve actuated did the WEG heat exchanger start to cool the 2-phase coolant. The inverter relied strongly on the cooling of the huge aluminum enclosure located inside the ventilation chamber. In a hybrid vehicle, the inverter is situated under the hood, where the dependency on cooling provided by the enclosure may become a problem. The IGBT power dissipation with both sides being spray cooled was around 34 W/cm{sup 2} at 403A, with 995W total IGBT loss at 113.5 C projected junction temperature before the release valve was actuated. The current loading could rise higher than 403 A before reaching the 125 C junction temperature limit if the pressure buildup inside the enclosure could be prevented by improving the secondary cooling loop. This 34 w/cm{sup 2} was an average across all dies. There is no doubt that the cooling capability of the ISR spray-cooling test setup can be improved by (1) lowering the WEG inlet temperature from 85 C to say 70 C, this would condense the vapor better and lower the container pressure, (2) modification of the vapor condenser inside the container to cool both the vapor and the liquid of the 2-phase coolant, in the present setup only the vapor is cooled by the condenser inside the container, and (3) lower the liquid temperature through (1) and (2) to avoid the vaporization that causes cavitations in the pump for ensuring the pump's life expectance.

  1. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  2. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

  3. Consortium Support (Fixed Support) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014 BuildingEnergyEnergyConsortium Support (Fixed Support)

  4. THIESEL 2010 Conference on Thermo-and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines Influence of Nozzle Geometry on Spray Shape, Particle Size, Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THIESEL 2010 Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines Influence of Nozzle Geometry on Spray Shape, Particle Size, Spray Velocity and Air Entrainment of High Pressure Diesel Abstract. Air/fuel mixing process in the combustion chamber of Diesel engines plays an important role

  5. Facility for the automatic spray painting of structural elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggins, B.D.; Goolsby, T.D.; Benham, R.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process has been developed for remote controlled spray painting of structures of various sizes and shapes with a coating of sensitive explosive. The damaging effects of a hostile nuclear burst are simulated when the explosive layer is detonated. The process has evolved from a cumbersome, motor driven carriage assembly, to a facility which employs robotics and automatic positioning hardware. This paper will describe the hardware components which have been introduced into the facility and also the software which is used to control the spray application. The proper use of this hardware/software combination allows the design in advance of operations which deposit uniform or contoured thickness coatings onto complex shapes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Key, James F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers.

  7. Methanation in catalyst-sprayed tube wall reactors: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H. W.; Schehl, R. R.; Haynes, W. P.; Forney, A. J.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of catalyst-sprayed tube wall reactors for methanation are discussed. Reactor tubes were either coated on the inner surface or on the outer surface with a Raney nickel catalyst. A liquid coolant, which was opposite the catalyst-reactant gas-side, removed the heat of methanation. Catalyst performance, reactor operating conditions, spent catalyst analyses, and other results are presented for five PDU tests.

  8. erwations of ax~s~~~~tr~~ tracer particle orientation ng flow through a dilute fixed bed of fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    erwations of ax~s~~~~tr~~ tracer particle orientation ng flow through a dilute fixed bed of fibers.A dilute fixed bed of randomly placedfiberswasconstructedand glycerol/water suspensionsof either synthetic the tracer particle population at the end of the bed.The effectof Brownian motion on the hydrodynamically

  9. Presumed Pulmonary Embolism Following Power-Pulse Spray Thrombectomy of Upper Extremity Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Jason; Georgiades, Christos S.; Hong, Kelvin; Kim, Hyun S. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States)], E-mail: sikhkim@jhmi.edu

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To achieve more effective thrombolysis in a shorter treatment time, percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy has been increasingly used in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The power-pulse spray is a new technique to combine chemical and rheolytic effects on clots. We present a case of presumed pulmonary embolism following power-pulse spray treatment for upper extremity DVT which necessitated resuscitation and intubation. The power-pulse spray technique should be used with caution when treating DVT.

  10. Nonperturbative infrared fixed point in sextet QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Svetitsky; Yigal Shamir; Thomas DeGrand

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The SU(3) gauge theory with fermions in the sextet representation is one of several theories of interest for technicolor models. We have carried out a Schrodinger functional (SF) calculation for the lattice theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions. We find that the discrete beta function changes sign when the SF renormalized coupling is in the neighborhood of g^2 = 2.0, showing a breakdown of the perturbative picture even though the coupling is weak. The most straightforward interpretation is an infrared-stable fixed point.

  11. Fixed-Point-Like Theorems on Subspaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bich, Philippe; Cornet, Bernard

    2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    denote by E? = {u ? Rn | ?x ? E, x · u = 0} the orthogonal space to E. If u1, . . . ,uk belong to E, a vector space, we denote by span{u1, . . . ,uk} the vector subspace of E spanned by u1, . . . ,uk. Let V be a Euclidean space and let k be an integer... Fixed-point-like theorems on subspaces Take I = {1},V1 =Rn+1, k1 = n, J =?, and apply Theorem 2.1 to the correspondences Hk, which clearly satisfy the assumptions of Theorem 2.1. So there exists E¯ ? Gn(Rn+1) such that E¯?Hk(E¯) #6;= ? for every k = 1...

  12. Fixed Rate Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan| Departmentof OhioFirst Annual PostSmart Grid Progress |Fixed Rate

  13. Improving Design Methods for Fixed-Foundation Offshore Wind Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Design Methods for Fixed-Foundation Offshore Wind Energy Systems Improving Design Methods for Fixed-Foundation Offshore Wind Energy Systems October 1, 2013 - 3:10pm...

  14. PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PRESSURIZATION OF FIXED ROOF STORAGE TANKS DUE TO EXTERNAL FIRES Fabien FouiHen, INERIS, Parc initiating event of the fire ball observed. In concrete terms, when a fixed roof storage tank is surrounded

  15. Fixed drug eruption caused by the Japanese herbal drug kakkonto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furuichi, Megumi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Yukie; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topical provocation of fixed drug eruption. Br J Dermatol.neglected offender for fixed drug eruptions. Eur J Dermatoloral and non-oral herbal drugs may cause FDE. References 1.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Spray Combustion Cross-Cut Engine Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about spray conbustion...

  17. Methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Karen A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zatorski, Raymond A. (East Hampton, CT)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  18. Systems and methods for coating conduit interior surfaces utilizing a thermal spray gun with extension arm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Karen A.; Zatorski, Raymond A.

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for applying a coating to an interior surface of a conduit. In one embodiment, a spray gun configured to apply a coating is attached to an extension arm which may be inserted into the bore of a pipe. The spray gun may be a thermal spray gun adapted to apply a powder coating. An evacuation system may be used to provide a volume area of reduced air pressure for drawing overspray out of the pipe interior during coating. The extension arm as well as the spray gun may be cooled to maintain a consistent temperature in the system, allowing for more consistent coating.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Spray Combustion Cross-Cut Engine Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sandia National Laboratories at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about spray combustion...

  20. Ballistic Imaging of High-Pressure Fuel Sprays using Incoherent, Ultra- short Pulsed Illumination with an Ultrafast OKE-based Time Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an optical Kerr effect based time-gate with the collinear incidence of the pump and probe beams at the Kerr medium, liquid carbon disulfide, for ballistic imaging of the high-pressure fuel sprays. The probe pulse used to illuminate the object under study is extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses inside water, thereby destroying their coherence. The optical imaging spatial resolution and gate timings are investigated and compared with a similar setup without supercontinuum generation, where the probe is still coherent. And finally, a few ballistic images of the fuel sprays using coherent and incoherent illumination with the proposed time-gate are presented and compared qualitatively.

  1. Use of a directional spray system design to control respirable dust and free gas concentrations around a continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, G.V.R.; Pollock, D.E. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (US). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study assessed the impacts of water spray pressure, face ventilation quantity, and line brattice setback distance on respirable dust and SF6 tracer gas concentrations around a continuous mining machine using a sprayfan or directional spray system. Dust levels were measured at locations representing the mining machine operator and the standard and off standard shuttle car operators, and in the return airway. The results showed that changes in all three independent variables significantly affected log-transformed dust levels at the three operator sampling locations. Changes in setback distance impacted return airway dust levels. Laboratory testing also identified numerous variable interactions affecting dust levels. Tracer gas levels were measured on the left and right sides of the cutting drum and in the return. Untransformed gas levels around the cutting drum were significantly affected by changes in water pressure, face ventilation quantity, and setback distance. Return gas levels measured at the low curtain quantity were generally unaffected by changes in water pressure or curtain setback distance. At the high curtain quantity, return airway gas levels were affected by curtain setback distance. A field study was conducted to assess the impact of these parameters in an actual mining operation. These data showed that respirable dust levels may have been impacted by a change in water pressure and, to a lesser extent, by an increase in curtain setback distance. A series of tracer gas pulse tests were also conducted during this study. The results showed that effectiveness of the face ventilation was impacted by changes in curtain flow quantity and setback distance.

  2. Fixed-Price Contracts Payment for a fixed-price contract is based on successfully providing the goods or services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Tin-Yau

    costs more or costs less to complete the project than the price initially agreed upon. OneFixed-Price Contracts Payment for a fixed-price contract is based on successfully providing the goods or services agreed to in the contract. A fixed-price contract is not adjusted when it actually

  3. Filtering Water Concept: Students will be acquainted with filter processes and the importance of certain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    -alone. Students then pour fixed volume over substrate and wait for water to trickle through filter. Fixed volumes fixed substrate to filter varied amounts of "dirty water" to test efficiency or capacity of substrate in gravel (big rocks vs. small rocks vs. sand in a creek bed/sediment profile). #12;

  4. Effects of surface enhancement, film-feed supply rate, and bundle geometry on spray evaporation heat transfer performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States); Newton, B.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pate, M.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing was conducted with R-134a through an overfeed ratio range of 1.4 to 7.9 in order to evaluate the effects of Reynolds number on shell-side heat transfer performance in the spray evaporation environment. The overfeed ratio is defined as the ratio of the refrigerant flow rate supplied to the tube bundle to the refrigerant flow rate that vaporizes. Data were taken with a fixed refrigerant supply rate while varying the shell-side heat flux from 40 kW/m{sup 2} (12,688 Btu/[h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}]) to 19 kW/m{sup 2} (6,027 Btu/[h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}]). Both triangular and square-pitch tube bundles were tested to determine the effects of bundle geometry on heat transfer performance. Two enhanced condensation surfaces, one enhanced boiling surface, and one low-finned surface tube were used in this study. Plain-surface bundle testing was conducted in parallel with the enhanced surface testing to determine the degree of improvement obtained with the different surface enhancements relative to that of a smooth tube. In addition, the effect of bundle depth on heat transfer performance was evaluated. Refrigerant was introduced into the test section with wide-angle, solid-cone nozzles. To determine the amount of refrigerant contacting the tube bundle, collector testing was performed in parallel with the heat transfer analysis experiments. Using results form the collector tests, bundle overfeed ratios were calculated and are reported. Heat transfer performance showed dependence on film-feed supply rate (i.e., overfeed ratio) to varying degrees, depending on the type of surface enhancement. Those surfaces that limited axial flow of the liquid film yielded poor heat transfer performance in lower rows of the bundle. The spray evaporation heat transfer performance for one of the enhanced condensation surfaces was better than the flooded evaporator performance for the enhanced boiling surface.

  5. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  6. Fixed target experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaston Gutierrez; Marco A. Reyes

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a review of the study of Exclusive Central Production at a Center of Mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=40$ GeV at the Fermilab Fixed Target program. In all reactions reviewed in this paper, protons with an energy of 800 GeV were extracted from the Tevatron accelerator at Fermilab and directed to a Liquid Hydrogen target. The states reviewed include $\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $K^0_s K^0_s$, $ K^0_sK^\\pm\\pi^\\mp$, $\\phi\\phi$ and $D^{*\\pm}$. Partial Wave Analysis results will be presented on the light states but only the cross section will be reviewed in the diffractive production of $D^{*\\pm}$

  7. Sequential conditions for fixed and periodic points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Burnis Charles

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    points is Bausch's Contraction Ma~in Theorem: Let (X, d) be a complete metric space and f a selfmap of X satisfying: (Sl) there exists c in [0, 1) such that d(f(x), f(y)) & c d(x, y) for all x, y in X. Then there exists a unique fixed point u in X... of Edelstein [2] and [3] and Bailey [1]. CHAPTEE I T410 LEMMAS I'he following two lemmas are essential to most of the theorems in the following section. Lemma 1: Let f be a selfmap of (X, d) and (f I} a subsequence n ~ of (f ). If lim f i(x) = u and lim f...

  8. On fixed-gap adiabatic quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Mizel

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum computation has revolutionary potential for speeding algorithms and for simulating quantum systems such as molecules. We report here a quantum computer design that performs universal quantum computation within a single non-degenerate ground state protected from decohering noise by an energy gap that we argue is system-size-independent. Closely analogous to a traditional electric circuit, it substantially changes the requirements for quantum computer construction, easing measurement, timing, and heating problems. Using the standard adiabatic condition, we present evidence that this design permits "quantum concurrent processing" distributing a quantum computation among extra qubits to perform a quantum algorithm of N gates in an amount of time that scales with the square root of N. One consequence of our work is a fixed gap version of adiabatic quantum computation, which several arguments hinted could be impossible.

  9. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1998-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers. 17 figs.

  10. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  11. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  12. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  13. Development of spray coated cathodes for RITS-6.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Sean; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Miller, Stephen Samuel

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 to conduct a feasibility study on thermal spray coated cathodes to be used in the RITS-6 accelerator in an attempt to improve surface uniformity and repeatability. Currently, the cathodes are coated with colloidal silver by means of painting by hand. It is believed that improving the cathode coating process could simplify experimental setup and improve flash x-ray radiographic performance. This report documents the experimental setup and summarizes the results of our feasibility study. Lastly, it describes the path forward and potential challenges that must be overcome in order to improve the process for creating uniform and repeatable silver coatings for cathodes.

  14. Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

  15. Producing titanium aluminide foil from plasma-sprayed preforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, S.C.; Forster, J.A. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Attleboro, MA (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method was used to fabricate foils of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6-4) alloy and Ti-14Al-21Nb(Ti-14-21) titanium aluminide, starting from a plasma-sprayed (PS) preform. The foils were 100 percent dense, with microstructures similar to those of wrought (IM) foil material. The foil made from PS preforms were characterized by the mechanical properties equivalent to their IM-processed counterparts. It is concluded that the method of roll consolidation of a PS preform is well suited for alloys and intermetallics that do not possess extensive hot and cold workability. 6 refs.

  16. Grain-Boundary Grooving of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trice, Rodney W.

    Grain-Boundary Grooving of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Engineering, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 The focus of this study was to determine the mechanisms re- sponsible for the microstructural changes of plasma-sprayed 7 wt% Y2O3­ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings

  17. Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Flow analysis and nozzle-shape optimization for the cold-gas dynamic-spray process M Grujicic1*, W, maximizes the acceleration of the particles. Furthermore, it is found that if the cold-spray nozzle, a significant increase in the average velocity of the particles at the nozzle exit can be obtained

  18. JET BREAKUP and SPRAY FORMATION in a DIESEL ENGINE James Glimm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    JET BREAKUP and SPRAY FORMATION in a DIESEL ENGINE James Glimm Department of Applied Mathematics of a fuel eÆcient, nonpollut- ing diesel engine. We report preliminary progress on the numerical simulation of diesel fuel injection spray with the front tracking code FronTier. Our simulation design is set to match

  19. Progress on Searching Optimal Thermal Spray Parameters for Magnesium Silicide Gaosheng Fu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Lei

    ] and Tani[8] used spark plasma sintering and got maximum ZT of 0.86 at 862K with Bi doped Mg2Si] and Tamura et al. [10]. Melt- spinning followed by spark plasma synthesis (SPS) or hot pressing has been used coatings prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS), and Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) are presented. Seebeck

  20. Particle/substrate interaction in the cold-spray bonding process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    , atomic inter-diffusion is not expected to play a significant role in particle/substrate bonding. This canC2 148 9 Particle/substrate interaction in the cold-spray bonding process M. GRUJICIC, Clemson in this chapter to the problem of particle/substrate interactions and bonding during cold spray. The actual

  1. LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raman, Venkat

    LES/probability density function approach for the simulation of an ethanol spray flame Colin Heye a an experimental pilot-stabilized ethanol spray flame. In this particular flame, droplet evaporation occurs away: Large-eddy simulation; Probability density function; Flamelet/progress variable approach; Ethanol

  2. Design and Implementation of a Real-time Spray Cooling Control System for Continuous Casting of Thin Steel Slabs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    @uiuc.edu Key words: Continuous casting, Secondary spray cooling, Real-time control, Heat Transfer Model

  3. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner.

  4. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  5. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Tae H. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  6. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  7. Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper Atamturk

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 26, 2007 ... An O(n^2) Algorithm for Lot Sizing with Inventory Bounds and Fixed Costs. Alper Atamturk (atamturk ***at*** berkeley.edu) Simge Kucukyavuz ...

  8. Optimization Online - $S_{0.5}$ Regularization Methods and Fixed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Dingtao

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 10, 2013 ... $S_{0.5}$ Regularization Methods and Fixed Point Algorithms for Affine Rank Minimization Problems. Peng Dingtao (dingtaopeng ***at*** ...

  9. Optimization Online - Stochastic Quasi-Fejér Block-Coordinate Fixed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick L. Combettes

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 29, 2014 ... Stochastic Quasi-Fejér Block-Coordinate Fixed Point Iterations with Random Sweeping. Patrick L. Combettes (plc ***at*** math.jussieu.fr)

  10. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

  11. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chastagner, Philippe (3134 Natalie Cir., Augusta, GA 30909-2748)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

  12. I. Abstract Vegetation plays an important role in the surface energy and water balance of wetlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    55 I. Abstract Vegetation plays an important role in the surface energy and water balance or reverse the downward trend in streamflow. In this study, we investigated the energy and water balance had been sprayed with herbicide (and remained only as dead, standing biomass). Energy balance

  13. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  14. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Chun (Monroeville, PA)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  15. Spray dryer/baghouse system testing - CRADA 92-001. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)]|[Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of seven tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of scrubbing both NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer/baghouse system. The operating conditions specified were a high spray dryer inlet temperature (500{degrees}F), and a high spray dryer outlet temperature (250 to 300 {degrees}F). The data required to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of this technology is enclosed. Discussion of some of the variables as well as an itemized list of the testing information is part of the report.

  16. Removal of field and embedded metal by spin spray etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Tarte, L.A.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of removing both the field metal, such as copper, and a metal, such as copper, embedded into a dielectric or substrate at substantially the same rate by dripping or spraying a suitable metal etchant onto a spinning wafer to etch the metal evenly on the entire surface of the wafer. By this process the field metal is etched away completely while etching of the metal inside patterned features in the dielectric at the same or a lesser rate. This process is dependent on the type of chemical etchant used, the concentration and the temperature of the solution, and also the rate of spin speed of the wafer during the etching. The process substantially reduces the metal removal time compared to mechanical polishing, for example, and can be carried out using significantly less expensive equipment. 6 figs.

  17. Penn State University Pilot-scale Tests of Fixed Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penn State University Pilot-scale Tests of Fixed Bed Reactors for Perchlorate Degradation: Plastic for inoculation #12;Penn State University PSU-O4 Process Patent: Perchlorate degradation in a fixed bed bioreactor in a packed bed reactor · Reactor performance compared with other studies · Stability of the bacterium used

  18. Trichloroethylene Mineralization in a Fixed-Film Bioreactor Using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Trichloroethylene Mineralization in a Fixed-Film Bioreactor Using a Pure Culture Expressing: An aerobic, single-pass, fixed-film bioreactor become an important compound for hazardous waste was designed). Although M. trichosporium OB3b has the highestindicator of TCE mineralization, the bioreactor with acti

  19. Classification of two dimensional fixed sun angle solar sail trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Mark

    Classification of two dimensional fixed sun angle solar sail trajectories Stephen Wokes, Phil heliocentric trajectories for fixed sun angle solar sails are examined. The objective of this work (lightness factor) and Sun angle this phase space shows all possible solar sail trajectories. This phase

  20. Fixed Space of Positive Trace-Preserving Super-Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ansis Rosmanis

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the fixed space of positive trace-preserving super-operators. We describe a specific structure that this space must have and what the projection onto it must look like. We show how these results, in turn, lead to an alternative proof of the complete characterization of the fixed space of completely positive trace-preserving super-operators.

  1. FIXED PRICE RESIDUAL FUNDS POLICY Policy dated March 29, 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    FIXED PRICE RESIDUAL FUNDS POLICY Policy dated March 29, 1999 After completion of all deliverables required under a fixed-price award, after costs in fulfilling the requirements of the award have been of the University. The request will be approved if the project is consistent with broader University priorities

  2. A FRAMEWORK FOR THERMAL SPRAY SHAPE DEPOSITION: THE MD*SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Lee E.

    . Siewiork The Robotics Institute and The Engineering Design Research Center Carnegie Mellon University.egrated electronic/mechanical structures are feasible. J(eywords: Thermal Spray, Net Shape Manufacture, Rapid Pl'ot.ot

  3. Cooling Towers--Energy Conservation Strategies Preservative Spray Treatment Maintains Cooling Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reidenback, R.

    Several problems common to most industrial wood framed cooling towers can be easily controlled with annual preservative spray treatment applications to the plenum area framework and drift eliminators. It eliminates the expensive periodic repairs due...

  4. Development of a uniform-droplet spray apparatus for high melting temperature metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joumaa, Hady K

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building and operation of a high-temperature uniform droplet spraying (UDS) apparatus extend the performance and capabilities of powder based manufacturing processes. Although the main concepts of operation of the ...

  5. Modeling and Control of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray: A Tutorial Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mingheng; Christofides, Panagiotis D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2700 (Sulzer Metco, Westbury, NY) and the Praxair-TafaJP-5000 (Praxair Surface Technolo- gies, Indianapolis, IN)),pro- cessing using a Praxair-TAFA JP-5000 HVOF thermal spray

  6. Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor...

  7. al-al2o3 cold spray: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of spray distribution systems... Lesikar, Bruce J. 1999-09-06 23 How Cold is Cold Dark Matter? CERN Preprints Summary: If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be...

  8. Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of two-fluid methods for Large Eddy Simulation of spray combustion in Gas Turbines the EL method well suited for gas turbine computations, but RANS with the EE approach may also be found

  9. Fischer-Tropsch studies with catalyst-sprayed tube wall reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarochak, M.F.; Pennline, H.W.; Schehl, R.R.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of Fischer-Tropsch studies in bench-scale tube wall reactors using flame-sprayed catalysts is presented. Preliminary studies were conducted with various flame-sprayed catalysts, after which taconite was chosen as the prime candidate for more extensive evaluation. Results from several life tests with promoted and unpromoted taconite are reported, along with a data base that discusses the effects of various process variables on catalyst activity and product selectivity.

  10. Spray-chilling and carcass decontamination systems using lactic and acetic acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamby, Patrick Lawrence

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE December 1986 Najor Subject; Food Science and Technology SPRAY-CHILLING AND CARCASS DECONTAMINATION SYSTEMS USING LACTIC AND ACETIC ACID A Thesis by PATRICK LAWRENCE NAMBY Approved as to style and content by: H. R. Cross (Co...-Chairman of Committee) f W. Sa 11 (Co-Chai n Committee) Fred A. Gardner (Member) C. Vanderz t (Member ary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1986 ABSTRACT Spray-Chilling and Carcass Decontamination Systems Using Lactic and Acetic Acid (December 1986...

  11. Heat transfer rates in fixed bed catalytic reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levelton, Bruce Harding

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX DB DNCLR YFNOAXa rRJRuSIX nSeR 1951i HssNIJFu FT SI TSBuR FXO LIXSRXS NRLIeeRXOROt HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS H EATTRNSFSAIX BSar DNCLR YFNOAXa r...RJRuSIX June 1951 HEAT TRANSFER RATES IN FIXED BED CATALYTIC REACTORS A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Major...

  12. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  13. Source term attenuation by water in the Mark I boiling water reactor drywell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanistic models of aerosol decontamination by an overlying water pool during core debris/concrete interactions and spray removal of aerosols from a Mark I drywell atmosphere are developed. Eighteen uncertain features of the pool decontamination model and 19 uncertain features of the model for the rate coefficient of spray removal of aerosols are identified. Ranges for values of parameters that characterize these uncertain features of the models are established. Probability density functions for values within these ranges are assigned according to a set of rules. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis of the decontamination factor produced by water pools 30 and 50 cm deep and subcooled 0--70 K is performed. An uncertainty analysis for the rate constant of spray removal of aerosols is done for water fluxes of 0.25, 0.01, and 0.001 cm{sup 3} H{sub 2}O/cm{sup 2}-s and decontamination factors of 1.1, 2, 3.3, 10, 100, and 1000.

  14. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, F. (Crystal Systems, Inc., Salem, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  15. MULTICOMPONENT BIOSORPTION IN FIXED BEDS DAVID KRATOCHVIL and BOHUMIL VOLESKY*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    MULTICOMPONENT BIOSORPTION IN FIXED BEDS DAVID KRATOCHVIL and BOHUMIL VOLESKY* Department D and U[-] v intersticial velocity in packed-bed column [cm/ min] Vc volume of the packed-bed

  16. Orlando Utilities Commission- Home Energy Efficiency Fix-Up Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Orlando Utilities Commission's Home Energy Fix-Up Program provides assistance to low-income residential customers. To qualify for the program the total annual family income must be less than $40...

  17. Fixing Embryos for In Situ Hybridization Leslie Vosshall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a piece of nylon attached by the hollowed-out lid of the tube) in a small Tupperware container. Using and gently dry the bottom. Use a paint brush to transfer all dechorionated embryos to the fix. Embryos

  18. Thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed lattice spacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Umeda; S. Ejiri; S. Aoki; T. Hatsuda; K. Kanaya; Y. Maezawa; H. Ohno

    2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermodynamics of SU(3) gauge theory at fixed scales on the lattice, where we vary temperature by changing the temporal lattice size N_t=(Ta_t)^{-1}. In the fixed scale approach, finite temperature simulations are performed on common lattice spacings and spatial volumes. Consequently, we can isolate thermal effects in observables from other uncertainties, such as lattice artifact, renormalization factor, and spatial volume effect. Furthermore, in the EOS calculations, the fixed scale approach is able to reduce computational costs for zero temperature subtraction and parameter search to find lines of constant physics, which are demanding in full QCD simulations. As a test of the approach, we study the thermodynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory on isotropic and anisotropic lattices. In addition to the equation of state, we calculate the critical temperature and the static quark free energy at a fixed scale.

  19. applying blood fix: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    o Reinfuse the patient's blood slowly, no faster than 1mL per second, by pressing the plunger back Kay, Mark A. 249 Lecture 4: Fixed Points September 19, 2007 Computer...

  20. anaerobic fixed bed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and liquid Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 5 Fixed Bed Countercurrent Low Temperature Gasification of Dairy Biomass and Coal-Dairy Biomass Blends Using Air-Steam as Oxidizer...

  1. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

  2. Fabrication of functional nanomaterials using flame assisted spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: aguspur@uns.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Flame assisted spray pyrolysis (FASP) is a class of synthesis method for nanomaterials fabrication. The ability to control nanomaterials characteristics and easy to be-scaled up are the main features of FASP. The crystallinity and particles size of the prepared nanomaterials can be easily controlled by variation of fuel flow rate. The precursor concentration, carrier gas flow rate, and carrier gas can be also used to control the prepared nanomaterials. Energy related nanomaterials preparation uses as the example case in FASP application. These material are yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce) and tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}). It needs strategies to produce these materials into nano-sized order. YAG:Ce nanoparticles only can be synthesized by FASP using the urea addition. The decomposition of urea under high temperature of flame promotes the breakage of YAG:Ce particles into nanoparticles. In the preparation of WO{sub 3}, the high temperature flame can be used to gasify WO{sub 3} solid material. As a result, WO{sub 3} nanoparticles can be prepared easily. Generally, to produce nanoparticles via FASP method, the boiling point of the material is important to determine the strategy which will be used.

  3. Comparison of fixed asymmetrical and symmetrical reflectors for evacuated tube solar receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, D.R.; Monger, A. (Univ. of Sydney (Australia)); Morrison, G.L. (Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia))

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer simulation of the relative performance of certain truncated symmetrical and asymmetrical fixed reflector designs for solar energy collection was performed. The comparison was on the basis of annual energy delivered to a circular cylindrical evacuated tube receiver per unit of mirror area, but seasonal load information was also included to determine possible seasonal load matching advantages of one type of collector over another when storage is employed. Circumsolar radiation models based on recent correlations in the literature was included. Major conclusions were that: (1) Annual solar fractions of between 80% and 95% seem to be feasible with a load matching collector used with moderate energy storage, with 80-90% being a likely optimum; (2) CPC reflectors always gave the best annual output performance per unit of mirror area, and the lowest receiver area for situations of constant annual load, regardless of whether the storage is included in the system; (3) Asymmetrical concentrator are more cost-effective for strongly seasonally asymmetrical load patterns; (4) Fixed parabolic systems required much more receiver area than the symmetrical CPC and asymmetrical system investigated; (5) Concentration levels utilizable in fixed systems are higher than previously supposed, with 3.5:1 in an asymmetrical reflector being optimal or nearly optimal for the domestic load pattern used in the study; (6) Using a load matched reflector, the amount of storage required to achieve solar fractions of total thermal energy (space heating, water heating, clothes drying) above 90% in a residence appears to be much lower than previously thought.

  4. Nonlinear ultimate strength analysis of fixed offshore platforms for earthquake environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.S. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of an offshore platform usually requires the use of ASME B31.3 and API (American Petroleum Institute) RP 2A design codes. ASME B31.3 addresses the design of pressure piping systems for offshore facilities while API RP 2A ``Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms`` (WSD or LRFD) addresses the structural design. This paper first identifies the difference between the ASME B31.3 and API RP 2A on the earthquake load requirements. Second, the paper presents a nonlinear static pushover analysis of a typical fixed offshore platform subject to a ductility level earthquake in 394 ft (120 m) of water depth. The analysis uses a three-dimensional structural model consisting of STRUT, BEAM-COLUMN and LINEAR BEAM elements to determine the structural response while properly accounting for structure-pile-soil interaction effort. Finally, the status of current on-going efforts to implement the API RP 2A code (LRFD version) to the ISO code (International Organization for Standardization), particularly on the earthquake resistant design aspect of fixed offshore the platforms, is briefly reported.

  5. LDRD summary report. Part 1: initiation studies of thin film explosvies used for scabbling concrete. Part 2: investigation of spray techniques for use in explosive scabbling of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benham, R.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Brock, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a new method for the scabbling of concrete surfaces using a thin layer of explosive material sprayed onto the surfaces. We also developed a new explosive mixture that could be applied with commercial spray painting equipment. The first part of our record describes experiments that studied methods for the initiation of the sprayed explosive. We successfully initiated layers 0.36 mm thick using a commercial EBW detonator, a flying plate detonator, and by pellet impact. The second part of our report describes a survey of spray methods and tests with two commercial spray systems that we believe could be used for developing a robotic spray system.

  6. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

  7. MODELING AND TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF WATER SPRAY COOLING IN A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    and expansion has many applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems, including in the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. Since the air

  8. Forced Dispersion of Liquefied Natural Gas Vapor Clouds with Water Spray Curtain Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rana, Morshed A.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of this fuel. In addition, regulatory authorities in the U.S. as well as all over the world expect the implementation of consequence mitigation measures for LNG spills. For the effective and safer use any...

  9. Shotguns, Spray, and Smoke: Regulating Atmospheric Deposition of Pollutants under the Clean Water Act

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antony, Anil J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    involving emissions from coal-fired power plants, but itcoal- and oil-fired power plants, which are designed to reduce mercury emissionscoal-fired power plants represent the largest source of emissions

  10. Purchasing Water-Efficient Faucets, Pre-Rinse Spray Valves, Showerheads,

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric,RM ExitProperty Transfer or TurnCompact

  11. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer coated with CaO and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface deposit at from about 1,000 C to 1,200 C to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO{sub 3} layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power. 5 figs.

  12. Method and closing pores in a thermally sprayed doped lanthanum chromite interconnection layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dense, substantially gas-tight electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an air electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element or elements selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by thermal spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles, either by plasma arc spraying or flame spraying; (C) depositing a mixture of CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 on the surface of the thermally sprayed layer; and (D) heating the doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer coated with CaO and Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 surface deposit at from about 1000.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C. to substantially close the pores, at least at a surface, of the thermally sprayed doped LaCrO.sub.3 layer. The result is a dense, substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the nonselected portion of the air electrode. A fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell, for example for generation of electrical power.

  13. Sodium spray and jet fire model development within the CONTAIN-LMR code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholtyssek, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Murata, K.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment was made of the sodium spray fire model implemented in the CONTAIN code. The original droplet burn model, which was based on the NACOM code, was improved in several aspects, especially concerning evaluation of the droplet burning rate, reaction chemistry and heat balance, spray geometry and droplet motion, and consistency with CONTAIN standards of gas property evaluation. An additional droplet burning model based on a proposal by Krolikowski was made available to include the effect of the chemical equilibrium conditions at the flame temperature. The models were validated against single-droplet burn experiments as well as spray and jet fire experiments. Reasonable agreement was found between the two burn models and experimental data. When the gas temperature in the burning compartment reaches high values, the Krolikowski model seems to be preferable. Critical parameters for spray fire evaluation were found to be the spray characterization, especially the droplet size, which largely determines the burning efficiency, and heat transfer conditions at the interface between the atmosphere and structures, which controls the thermal hydraulic behavior in the burn compartment.

  14. Stray thermal influences in zinc fixed-point cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudtsch, S.; Aulich, A.; Monte, C. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of thermal effects is a major uncertainty contribution to the calibration of Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) in fixed-point cells. Axial heat losses strongly depend on the fixed-point temperature, constructional details of cells and SPRTs and the resulting heat transfer between cell, thermometer, furnace and environment. At the zinc point contributions by heat conduction and thermal radiation must be considered. Although the measurement of temperature gradients in the re-entrant well of a fixed-point cell provides very important information about the influence of axial heat losses, further investigations are required for a reliable estimate of the resulting uncertainty contribution. It is shown that specific modifications of a zinc fixed-point cell, following generally accepted principles, may result in systematic deviations of the measured fixed-point temperatures larger than typically stated in the uncertainty budget of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The underlying heat transport processes are investigated and the consequences for the construction of zinc cells are discussed.

  15. Policy Flash 2015-02 INCREMENTALLY FUNDING FIXED-PRICE ACTIONS...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    02 INCREMENTALLY FUNDING FIXED-PRICE ACTIONS Policy Flash 2015-02 INCREMENTALLY FUNDING FIXED-PRICE ACTIONS Questions concerning this policy flash should be directed to Michael...

  16. Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of aUnicellular N2-Fixing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of aUnicellular N2-Fixing Cyanobacterium Revealedby Electron Tomography. Unique Thylakoid Membrane Architecture of aUnicellular N2-Fixing...

  17. Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo of Lithium Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasch, Kevin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study lithium systems over a range of number of atoms, e.g., atomic anion, dimer, metallic cluster, and body-centered cubic crystal by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. The calculations include both core and valence electrons in order to avoid any possible impact by pseudo potentials. The focus of the study is the fixed-node errors, and for that purpose we test several orbital sets in order to provide the most accurate nodal hyper surfaces. We compare our results to other high accuracy calculations wherever available and to experimental results so as to quantify the the fixed-node errors. The results for these Li systems show that fixed-node quantum Monte Carlo achieves remarkably high accuracy total energies and recovers 97-99 % of the correlation energy.

  18. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality By Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Mi; G. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  19. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 28:113120 (2001) Inuence of Nozzle-to-Skin Distance in Cryogen Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of dis- tance from the nozzle tip. Results: Size of spray cones and sprayed areas vary with distanceLasers in Surgery and Medicine 28:113±120 (2001) In¯uence of Nozzle-to-Skin Distance in Cryogen, the optimal atomizing nozzle design and operating conditions for cooling human skin remain to be determined

  20. Corrosion and wear resistance of tungsten carbide-cobalt and tungsten carbide-cobalt-chromium thermal spray coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quets, J.; Alford, J.R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings provide wear surfaces to new and overhauled components for various industries. Their wear resistance is obtained by incorporating small tungsten carbide particles into a metal matrix. This presentation will show what parameters influence their corrosion resistance in the ASTM B-117 Salt Spray Corrosion Test,

  1. Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    of engines with gasoline direct injection. Exhaust gas aftertreatment requires storage catalystsQuantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct fractions in a gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF

  2. Potential effects of the fire protection system sprays at Browns Ferry on fission product transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemczyk, S.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fire protection system (FPS) sprays within any nuclear plant are not intended to mitigate radioactive releases to the environment resulting from severe core-damage accidents. However, it has been shown here that during certain postulated severe accident scenarios at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, the functioning of FPS sprays could have a significant impact on the radioactive releases. Thus the effects of those sprays need to be taken into account for realistic estimation of source terms for some accident scenarios. The effects would include direct ones such as cooling of the reactor building atmosphere and scrubbing of radioactivity from it, as well as indirect effects such as an altered likelihood of hydrogen burning and flooding of various safety-related pumps in the reactor building basement. Thus some of the impacts of the sprays would be beneficial with respect to mitigating releases to the environment but some others might not be. The effects of the FPS would be very scenario dependent with a wide range of potential effects often existing for a given accident sequence. Any generalization of the specific results presented here for Browns Ferry to other nuclear plants must be done cautiously, as it appears from a preliminary investigation that the relevant physical and operational characteristics of FPS spray systems differ widely among even otherwise apparently similar plants. Likewise the standby gas treatment systems, which substantially impact the effects of the FPS, differ significantly among plants. More work for both Mark I plants and other plants, BWRs and PWRs alike, is indicated so the potential effects of FPS spray systems during severe accidents can be at least ball-parked for more realistic accident analyses.

  3. A comparison of injector flow and spray characteristics of biodiesel with petrodiesel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Longman, D. E; Ramirez, A. I.; Aggarwal, S. K. (Energy Systems)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engines depend strongly on inner nozzle flow and spray behavior. These processes control the fuel air mixing, which in turn is critical for the combustion process. The differences in the physical properties of petrodiesel and biodiesel are expected to significantly alter the inner nozzle flow and spray structure and, thus, the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. In this study, the inner nozzle flow dynamics of these fuels are characterized by using the mixture-based cavitation model in FLUENT v6.3. Because of its lower vapor pressure, biodiesel was observed to cavitate less than petrodiesel. Higher viscosity of biodiesel resulted in loss of flow efficiency and reduction in injection velocity. Turbulence levels at the nozzle orifice exit were also lower for biodiesel. Using the recently developed KH-ACT model, which incorporates the effects of cavitation and turbulence in addition to aerodynamic breakup, the inner nozzle flow simulations are coupled with the spray simulations in a 'quasi-dynamic' fashion. Thus, the influence of inner nozzle flow differences on spray development of these fuels could be captured, in addition to the effects of their physical properties. Spray penetration was marginally higher for biodiesel, while cone angle was lower, which was attributed to its poor atomization characteristics. The computed liquid lengths of petrodiesel and biodiesel were compared with data from Sandia National Laboratories. Liquid lengths were higher for biodiesel due to its higher boiling temperature and heat of vaporization. Though the simulations captured this trend well, the liquid lengths were underpredicted, which was attributed to uncertainty about the properties of biodiesel used in the experiments. Parametric studies were performed to determine a single parameter that could be used to account for the observed differences in the fuel injection and spray behavior of petrodiesel and biodiesel; fuel temperature seems to be the best parameter to tune.

  4. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  5. Conjugate Directions in Lattice Landau and Coulomb Gauge Fixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Hudspith

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide details expanding on our implementation of a non-linear conjugate gradient method with Fourier acceleration for lattice Landau and Coulomb gauge fixing. We find clear improvement over the Fourier accelerated steepest descent method, with the average time taken for the algorithm to converge to a fixed, high accuracy, being reduced by a factor of 2 to 4. We show such improvement for the logarithmic definition of the gauge fields here, having already shown this to be the case for a more common definition. We also discuss the implementation of an optimal Fourier accelerated steepest descent method.

  6. Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachman, L. R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade...

  7. Review of US Nanocorp - SNL Joint Development of Thermal-Sprayed Thin-Film Cathodes for Thermal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.; DAI,JINXIANG; XIAO,T. DANNY; REISNER,DAVID E.

    2000-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of plasma spray to deposit thin metal-sulfide cathode films is described in this paper. Conventional electroactive stack components in thermal batteries are constructed from pressed-powder parts that are difficult to fabricate in large diameters in thicknesses <0.010. Plasma-sprayed electrodes do not steer from this difficulty, allowing greater energy densities and specific energies to be realized. Various co-spraying agents have been found suitable for improving the mechanical as well as electrochemical properties of plasma-sprayed cathodes for thermal batteries. These electrodes generally show equal or improved performance over conventional pressed-powder electrodes. A number of areas for future growth and development of plasma-spray technology is discussed.

  8. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  9. Effects of primary breakup modeling on spray and combustion characteristics of compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Som, S.; Aggarwal, S.K. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Injector flow dynamics and primary breakup processes are known to play a pivotal role in determining combustion and emissions in diesel engines. In the present study, we examine the effects of primary breakup modeling on the spray and combustion characteristics under diesel engine conditions. The commonly used KH model, which considers the aerodynamically induced breakup based on the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, is modified to include the effects of cavitation and turbulence generated inside the injector. The KH model and the new (KH-ACT) model are extensively evaluated by performing 3-D time-dependent simulations with detailed chemistry under diesel engine conditions. Results indicate that the inclusion of cavitation and turbulence enhances primary breakup, leading to smaller droplet sizes, decrease in liquid penetration, and increase in the radial dispersion of spray. Predictions are compared with measurements for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays, as well as with flame measurements. While both the models are able to reproduce the experimentally observed global spray and combustion characteristics, predictions using the KH-ACT model exhibit closer agreement with measurements in terms of liquid penetration, cone angle, spray axial velocity, and liquid mass distribution for non-evaporating sprays. Similarly, the KH-ACT model leads to better agreement with respect to the liquid length and vapor penetration distance for evaporating sprays, and with respect to the flame lift-off location for combusting sprays. The improved agreement is attributed to the ability of the new model to account for the effects of turbulence and cavitation generated inside the injector, which enhance the primary breakup. Results further indicate that the combustion under diesel engine conditions is characterized by a double-flame structure with a rich premixed reaction zone near the flame stabilization region and a non-premixed reaction zone further downstream. This flame structure is consistent with the Dec's model for diesel engine combustion (Dec, 1997), and well captured by a newly developed flame index based on the scalar product of CO and O{sub 2} mass fraction gradients. (author)

  10. WORKING PAPER N 2013 24 Regional Policy Evaluation: Interactive Fixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    s. Keywords: Policy evaluation, Linear factor models, Synthetic controls, Economic geographyWORKING PAPER N° 2013 ­ 24 Regional Policy Evaluation: Interactive Fixed Effects and Synthetic Controls Laurent Gobillon Thierry Magnac JEL Codes: C21, C23, H53, J64, R11 Keywords: Policy evaluation

  11. Economically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    : In this study, a control structure is designed for a 4-product dividing wall (Kaibel) distillation column, basedEconomically Optimal Control of Kaibel Distillation Column: Fixed boilup rate Maryam Ghadrdan distillation column; Vapour split manipulation; Self-optimizing control. 1. INTRODUCTION Thermally coupled

  12. Coherence Progress: A Measure of Interestingness Based on Fixed Compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    Coherence Progress: A Measure of Interestingness Based on Fixed Compressors Tom Schaul, Leo Pape in observations to store them in a compact form, called a compressor. The search for interesting patterns can and the ability of the compressor to learn from observations. Coherence progress considers the increase

  13. Quantum adiabatic evolution using fixed-point quantum search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avatar Tulsi

    2015-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum system can be evolved from the ground state of an initial Hamiltonian to that of a final Hamiltonian by adiabatically changing the Hamiltonian with respect to time. The system remains in the ground-state of time-changing Hamiltonian provided the change is slow enough. More precisely, if $g$ is the minimum energy gap between the ground state and other eigenstates of time-changing Hamiltonian then the evolution time must scale as the inverse square of $g$ for a successful evolution. Childs et al.~\\cite{childs} proposed an alternative, where the system is kept in the ground state of a time-changing Hamiltonian by doing measurements at suitably small enough time intervals. Their scheme is successful only if the time scales as the inverse cube of $g$, and thus the time-scaling is inferior to the adiabatic evolution. Here, we propose another alternative which is essentially similar to the Childs' scheme but uses the concept of fixed-point quantum search (FPQS) algorithm~\\cite{fixed1,fixed2} to recover the inverse-square time-scaling behaviour of adiabatic evolution. Our algorithm uses selective transformations of the unknown ground states and phase-estimation algorithm (PEA) is the main tool to approximate such selective transformations. Thus we demonstrate an important application of fixed-point quantum search which achieves monotonic convergence towards the desired final state.

  14. On Plane Bipartite Graphs without Fixed Edges Khaled Salem*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    cycle. Randi [12, 13] used alternating cycles (or conjugated circuits) to estimate resonance energies face is an alternating cycle. Moreover, a polyhex fragment has no fixed edges if and only if the boundaries of its infinite face and the non-hexagonal finite faces are alternating cycles. These results

  15. obligations. When these products are obtained at fixed prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    al. have failed to properly analyze these fixed- price full-requirements load- following products and Andrew Lemon, Power Procurement: What's in Your Mix?, PUB. UTIL. FORTNIGHTLY, Nov. 2006, at 50. 4. Load-following of generation assets in New England has become less concentrated following the use of load-following products

  16. Bandwidth assignment for reliable fixed broadband wireless Grit Claen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    linear programming (ILP) counterparts. We further propose cutset-based valid inequalities to enhanceBandwidth assignment for reliable fixed broadband wireless networks Grit Claßen Lehrstuhl II f of data routing and bandwidth assignment that minimizes the total renewal fees of licenses. This problem

  17. Type-Based Termination, Inflationary Fixed-Points, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Type-Based Termination, Inflationary Fixed-Points, and Mixed Inductive-Coinductive Types Andreas Science (FICS 2012) ETAPS 2012, Tallinn, Estonia 24 March 2012 Andreas Abel (LMU) Type-Based Termination AIM XV 1 / 1 #12;Introduction Aspects of Termination What the talk is about: foundational approach

  18. Experimental Cooperative Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainekos, Georgios E.

    Experimental Cooperative Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Selcuk Bayraktar, Georgios architecture (Cloud cap technologies) Hybrid Modeling (of the Piccolo autopilot) Experiments Autonomous Flight - 20min #12;UAVs @ Penn Servos controlling the payload LaptopPC Dell X200 3.5HP fuel engine Deployable

  19. The 290 fixed-point sublattices of the Leech lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerald Hoehn; Geoffrey Mason

    2015-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the orbits of fixed-point sublattices of the Leech lattice with respect to the action of the Conway group Co_0. There are 290 such orbits. Detailed information about these lattices, the corresponding coinvariant lattices, and the stabilizing subgroups, is tabulated in several tables.

  20. The 290 fixed-point sublattices of the Leech lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoehn, Gerald

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the orbits of fixed-point sublattices of the Leech lattice with respect to the action of the Conway group Co_0. There are 290 such orbits. Detailed information about these lattices, the corresponding coinvariant lattices, and the stabilizing subgroups, is tabulated in several tables.

  1. 14.6 CLOSE-OUT OF FIXED PRICE CONTRACTS Auditors recently have identified three problems with our practices regarding close-out of fixed-price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the Department Head or Division Director to support continued work related to the project. If the end of a fixed-price14.6 CLOSE-OUT OF FIXED PRICE CONTRACTS Auditors recently have identified three problems with our practices regarding close-out of fixed-price contracts when 10% or more of the budget remains in the account

  2. RESEARCH ARTICLE Quantitative X-ray measurements of high-pressure fuel sprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    obtained and used to find mass-averaged velocity of the spray. Comparisons of the radiography data with that from a common rail single-hole light duty injectors under similar injection conditions show several that from the light-duty injector. Moreover, these data display a Gaussian mass distribution across

  3. High order moment method for polydisperse evaporating sprays with mesh movement: application to internal combustion engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to internal combustion engines D. Kaha,3 , O. Emreb,c,d,2 , Q. H. Trand , S. de Chaisemartind, , S. Jayd , F meshes. Extending the approach to internal combustion engine and fuel injection requires solving two simulations with spray in internal combustion engines have become a critical target in the automotive industry

  4. Enhancement of Heat Transfer with Pool and Spray Impingement Boiling on Microporous and Nanowire Surface Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiagarajan, S. J.; Wang, W.; Yang, R.; Narumanchi, S.; King, C.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is leading a national effort to develop next-generation cooling technologies for hybrid vehicle electronics. The goal is to reduce the size, weight, and cost of power electronic modules that convert direct current from batteries to alternating current for the motor, and vice versa. Aggressive thermal management techniques help to increase power density and reduce weight and volume, while keeping chip temperatures within acceptable limits. The viability of aggressive cooling schemes such as spray and jet impingement in conjunction with enhanced surfaces is being explored. Here, we present results from a series of experiments with pool and spray boiling on enhanced surfaces, such as a microporous layer of copper and copper nanowires, using HFE-7100 as the working fluid. Spray impingement on the microporous coated surface showed an enhancement of 100%-300% in the heat transfer coefficient at a given wall superheat with respect to spray impingement on a plain surface under similar operating conditions. Critical heat flux also increased by 7%-20%, depending on flow rates.

  5. Four dimensional visualization of highly transient fuel sprays by microsecond quantitative x-ray tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    -resolved quantitative fuel distribution allowed a realistic numerical fluid dynamic simulation with initial conditions- timal for probing the fuel, a blend of a calibration fluid and a cerium-containing fuel additiveFour dimensional visualization of highly transient fuel sprays by microsecond quantitative x

  6. Concrete chemistry: Chemical admixtures, sprayed concrete, concrete binders and current R&D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    Concrete chemistry: Chemical admixtures, sprayed concrete, concrete binders and current R&D Dr Roar Myrdal, R&D Director Construction Chemicals, Normet International Ltd. Adjunct Prof. Concrete Technology ­ School of Engineering ABSTRACT A short overview of chemical admixtures for concrete ­ types and how

  7. Atomization and Sprays 20(4), 297310 (2010) SPLASHING PHENOMENA DURING LIQUID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    sound speed in liquid, m/s Tsat saturation temperature of droplet at 1 atm, C F force, N V droplet number (V µ/) tc characteristic spreading time, s Cg sound speed in ambient gas, m/s T temperature, C ClAtomization and Sprays 20(4), 297­310 (2010) SPLASHING PHENOMENA DURING LIQUID DROPLET IMPACT Jie

  8. Vacuum 65 (2002) 415425 Plasma spraying of micro-composite thermal barrier coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    . Keywords: Plasma spraying; Gas tunnel-type; Thermal barrier-composite coatings; Aluminum oxide; Zirconium are widely used in the aerospace and in the automotive industries [1­4]. As thermal barrier coatings (TBC]. The automotive industry uses these coatings to protect components such as pistons, valves, and intake and exhaust

  9. 2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    ,buttheseweretoophytotoxic.Eventually, researchersconcentratedondistillatesintherangebetween kerosene and lubricating oils.Three basic classes of carbon structures present in petroleum oils2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop (aromatics and other un- saturated components) in oils that were removable with sulfuric acid; the remainder

  10. Numerical modeling of spray cooling-assisted dermatologic laser surgery for treatment of port wine stains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Numerical modeling of spray cooling-assisted dermatologic laser surgery for treatment of port wine to the epidermis during dermatologic laser surgery (DLS) for removal of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks heat (J/kg/K) c speed of light in i (m/s) D optical diffusion coefficient (m) Ea activation energy

  11. Microstructures of Metallic NiCrBSi Coatings Manufactured via Hybrid Plasma Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    due to the high temperature of the small irradiated area (Ref 6). In this study, atmospheric plasma of plasma spraying and a continuous wave (CW) CO2 laser irradiation (Ref 7). However, generally and in situ melting with a diode laser could result in very good mechanical properties. The increase

  12. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation module. A performance test on each module was executed and the results have been reported. A combined test of the four modules, however, has not been performed as yet. The main objective of the present study is to demonstrate the feasibility of the full PFC spray decontamination process. Decontamination of the inside of the IMEF hot cell by the PFC spray method was also performed. PFC spray decontamination process was demonstrated by using a surrogate wall contaminated with Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The spray pressure was 41 kgf/cm{sup 2}, the orifice diameter was 0.2 mm and the spray velocity was 0.2 L/min. And, the decontaminated area was 100 cm{sup 2}. From previous test results, we found that the decontamination factor of the PFC spray method was in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. When the decontamination efficiency of Co-60 was high, then the decontamination efficiency of Cs-137 was also high. As the surface roughness of the specimen increased, the PFC spray decontamination efficiency decreased. Inferring from the previous results, the surface of the surrogate wall was cleaned by the PFC spray method. The vacuum cup of the collection module operated well and gathered more than 99 % of the PFC solution. Also, filtration and distillation modules operated well. All the filtered PFC solution flowed to the storage chamber where some of the PFC solution was distilled. The coolant of the distillation module was a dry ice. And, the recycled solution was transferred to the spray module by a high pressure pump. To evaluate the PFC spray decontamination efficiency, a smear device was fabricated and operated by a manipulator. Before and after decontamination, a smear test was performed. The tested area was 100 cm{sup 2} and the radioactivity was estimated indirectly by measuring the radioactivity of the filter paper. The average decontamination factor was in the range between 10 and 15. One application time was 2 minutes. The sprayed PFC solution was collected by the vacuum cup and it was stored in the collection equipment. After the termination of the decontamination test, th

  13. Performance characteristics of an induced draft, counterflow, spray cooling tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Charles Edward

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Figuno 1. These entrance bells wore previously calibrated. by means of the pitot tube traverse method. Air flow mct r pressure readings were obtained by means of inclined . " aft gages graduated to 3. 31 inch of' water. Air was drawn through the tower...

  14. SPRAYTRAN 1.0 User’s Guide: A GIS-Based Atmospheric Spray Droplet Dispersion Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Droppo, James G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Bird, S. L.; Thistle, Harold W.

    2006-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    SPRAY TRANsport (SPRAYTRAN) is a comprehensive dispersion modeling system that is used to simulate the offsite drift of pesticides from spray applications. SPRAYTRAN functions as a console application within Environmental System Research Institute’s ArcMap Geographic Information System (Version 9.x) and integrates the widely-used, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved CALifornia PUFF (CALPUFF) dispersion model and model components to simulate longer-range transport and diffusion in variable terrain and spatially/temporally varying meteorological (e.g., wind) fields. Area sources, which are used to define spray blocks in SPRAYTRAN, are initialized using output files generated from a separate aerial-spray-application model called AGDISP (AGricultural DISPersal). The AGDISP model is used for estimating the amount of pesticide deposited to the spray block based on spraying characteristics (e.g., pesticide type, spray nozzles, and aircraft type) and then simulating the near-field (less than 300-m) drift from a single pesticide application. The fraction of pesticide remaining airborne from the AGDISP near-field simulation is then used by SPRAYTRAN for simulating longer-range (greater than 300 m) drift and deposition of the pesticide.

  15. Flame structure of wall-impinging diesel fuel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Jian; Moon, Seoksu; Nishida, Keiya; Matsumoto, Yuhei [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, University of Hiroshima, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8527 (Japan); Zhang, Yuyin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo, 101-8457 (Japan)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an investigation of the flame structure of wall-impinging diesel sprays injected by group-hole nozzles in a constant-volume combustion vessel at experimental conditions typical of a diesel engine. The particular emphasis was on the effect of the included angle between two orifices (0-15 deg. in current study) on the flame structure and combustion characteristics under various simulated engine load conditions. The laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was applied to analyze the spray and mixture properties. Direct flame imaging and OH chemiluminescence imaging were utilized to quantify the ignition delay, flame geometrical parameters, and OH chemiluminescence intensity. The images show that the asymmetric flame structure emerges in wall-impinging group-hole nozzle sprays as larger included angle and higher engine load conditions are applied, which is consistent with the spray shape observed by LAS. Compared to the base nozzle, group-hole nozzles with large included angles yield higher overall OH chemiluminescence intensity, wider flame area, and greater proportion of high OH intensity, implying the better fuel/air mixing and improved combustion characteristics. The advantages of group-hole nozzle are more pronounced under high load conditions. Based on the results, the feasibility of group-hole nozzle for practical direct injection diesel engines is also discussed. It is concluded that the asymmetric flame structure of a group-hole nozzle spray is favorable to reduce soot formation over wide engine loads. However, the hole configuration of the group-hole nozzle should be carefully considered so as to achieve proper air utilization in the combustion chamber. Stoichiometric diesel combustion is another promising application of group-hole nozzle. (author)

  16. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas [NCSU] [NCSU

    2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  17. Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deremble, Bruno; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple ''weather regimes.'' To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, ''bred vectors'' and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemblemore »forecasts issued from clouds (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.« less

  18. Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deremble, Bruno [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (CNRS and IPSL), Paris (France); D'Andrea, Fabio [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (CNRS and IPSL), Paris (France); Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United Staes). Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple ''weather regimes.'' To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, ''bred vectors'' and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemble forecasts issued from clouds (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.

  19. Remarks on a fixed point theorem of Caristi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egle, David Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such that 0 & k & 1 and d(f(x), f(y)) & kd(x, y) for each x, y c X. It is said to be lower semi-continuous on X if and only if for each x c X, given s & 0, there exists a 6 & 0 such that f(x) & f(y) + c for all y s X where d(x, y) & 6. Equivalently, f...(x)) ? d(f(x), f (x))] & (1-k) [d(x, f(x)) - kd(x, f(x))] = d(x, f(x)). Since f is continuous, the conditions of Theorem 1. 3 are satisfied, and f has a fixed point. The uniqueness of the fixed point follows from the contraction condition imposed on f...

  20. Is there a Bigger Fix in the Multiverse?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro F. González-Díaz

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of baby universes which are branched off in pairs from a large universe and whose respective members are entangled to each other has been studied in quantum gravity and string theory. It is shown that the probability measure for such pairs essentially keeps its Planckian form when one of their two members is trapped by a Lorentzian tunnel and travels through it into another large universe, so that the two baby universes of the pairs preserve their mutual entanglement even when they are going to be finally branched in distinct large universes. The conclusion is thus drawn that big fixing the fundamental constants in our universe actually big fixes such constants in the set of all single universes of the multiverse.

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  2. Wave interaction with a fixed vertical flat plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glover, Lanny Bruce

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Science in Ocean Engineering and graduated with merit in 1979. Commissioned an Ensign in the United States Navy he was selected for the Navy's Nuclear Power Program. After completing formal navy training he served onboard the USS TRUXTUN (CGN-35...) Andrew C. Vastano (Member) December )985 ABSTRACT wave Interaction with a Fixed Vertical Flat Plate. (December 1985) Lenny Bruce Glover, B. S. , United States Naval Academy Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. John B. Herbich The lift and drag...

  3. Sailplane glide performance and control using fixed and articulating winglets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colling, James David

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nicks for his guidance and assistance during the investigation. Thanks are also given to Mr. Greg G. Steen, and all the Texas ARM wind tunnel staff for their assistance. The author would like to thank Mr. Peter C. Masak for allowing the use of his... thus reducing the total drag of the aircraft as described by Nicks '. For this investigation, two separate wind tunnel tests were conducted. The first test studied the general behavior of fixed geometry winglets for sailplancs, and performance...

  4. Modeling for Anaerobic Fixed-Bed Biofilm Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, B. Y. M.; Pfeffer, J. T.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific objectives of this research were: 1. to develop an equilibrium model for chemical aspects of anaerobic reactors; 2. to modify the equilibrium model for non-equilibrium conditions; 3. to incorporate the existing biofilm models into the models above to study the biological and chemical behavior of the fixed-film anaerobic reactors; 4. to experimentally verify the validity of these models; 5. to investigate the biomass-holding ability of difference packing materials for establishing reactor design criteria.

  5. Theta vacuum physics from QCD at fixed topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinya Aoki; Hidenori Fukaya; Shoji Hashimoto; Tetsuya Onogi

    2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method to obtain physical quantities in the theta vacuum from those at fixed topology, which are different by finite size effects. Extending the work by Brower et al., we derive the formula to estimate these finite size corrections for arbitrary correlators in terms of the topological susceptibility and the theta dependence. Applying this formula, we show that topological susceptibility can be measured through two-point functions of pseudoscalar operator.

  6. ON AUTOMORPHISM-FIXED SUBGROUPS OF A FREE GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventura, Enric

    Sq., London, U. K. e-mail: A.Martino@city.ac.uk E. Ventura Dep. Mat. Apl. III, Univ. Pol. Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain e-mail: enric.ventura@upc.es Abstract Let F be a finitely generated free group, and let n-Turner [IT], using the result of [BH], showed that any 1-endo-fixed subgroup of Fn has rank at most n. Dicks-Ventura

  7. The fixed irreducible bridge ensemble for self-avoiding walks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael James Gilbert

    2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We define a new ensemble for self-avoiding walks in the upper half-plane, the fixed irredicible bridge ensemble, by considering self-avoiding walks in the upper half-plane up to their $n$-th bridge height, $Y_n$, and scaling the walk by $1/Y_n$ to obtain a curve in the unit strip, and then taking $n\\to\\infty$. We then conjecture a relationship between this ensemble to $\\SLE$ in the unit strip from $0$ to a fixed point along the upper boundary of the strip, integrated over the conjectured exit density of self-avoiding walk spanning a strip in the scaling limit. We conjecture that there exists a positive constant $\\sigma$ such that $n^{-\\sigma}Y_n$ converges in distribution to that of a stable random variable as $n\\to\\infty$. Then the conjectured relationship between the fixed irreducible bridge scaling limit and $\\SLE$ can be described as follows: If one takes a SAW considered up to $Y_n$ and scales by $1/Y_n$ and then weights the walk by $Y_n$ to an appropriate power, then in the limit $n\\to\\infty$, one should obtain a curve from the scaling limit of the self-avoiding walk spanning the unit strip. In addition to a heuristic derivation, we provide numerical evidence to support the conjecture and give estimates for the boundary scaling exponent.

  8. Model studies to investigate the effects of fixed streamlines on water flooding performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Axel Venton

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for advice and assistance in building the equipment for this project and to Mrs' Jeanne Green for typing the thesis' 26 REFERENCES 1 ~ Higgins, R. V. and Leighton, A. J. : "A Computer Method to Calculate Two-Phase Flow in Any Irregularly Bounded Porous...

  9. A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the temperature range of the liquid. Results were compared to the SPC, SPC/E, and MSPC/E models, vapor pressures, critical parameters, and the second virial coefficient. It is inferior to the SPC interactions. Models of this type include the Bernal-Fowler1 , ST22 , TIPS23 , TIP4P4 , SPC5 , SPC/E6

  10. Method for the assessment of airborne off-target pesticide spray concentrations due to aircraft wing-tip vortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliva, Sergio Eduardo

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for assessing airborne concentrations caused by off-target pesticide drift. Concentrations are bounded by the worst credible circumstances within a normal aircraft pesticide spraying. It is assumed...

  11. Phase control in the synthesis of yttrium oxide nano and micro-particles by flame spray pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Mallika

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The project synthesizes phase pure Yttria particles using flame spray pyrolysis, and to experimentally determines the effect of various process parameters like residence time, adiabatic flame temperature and precursor droplet size on the phase...

  12. Scalable Manufacture of Built-to-Order Nanomedicine: Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Functionalization of PRINT Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herlihy, Kevin P.

    Scalable methods, PRINT particle fabrication, and spray-assisted Layer-by-Layer deposition are combined to generate uniform and functional nanotechnologies with precise control over composition, size, shape, and surface ...

  13. Effectiveness of two spraying systems for bollworm suppression, canopy penetration, and drift reduction in the Rolling Plains of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John Robert Calvert

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO SPRAYING SYSTEMS FOR BOLLWORM SUPPRESSION, CANOPY PENETRATION, AND DRIFT REDUCTION IN THE ROLLING PLAINS OF TEXAS A Thesis by JOHN ROBERT CALVERT ROBINSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8B University... in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Entomology EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO SPRAYING SYSTEMS FOR BOLLWORM SUPPRESSION, CANOPY PENETRATION, AND DRIFT REDUCTION IN THE ROLLING PLAINS OF TEXAS A...

  14. The KIVA-II computer program for transient multidimensional chemically reactive flows with sprays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its public release in 1985, the KIVA computer program has been utilized for the time dependent analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays in two and three space dimensions. This paper describes some of the improvements to the original version that have been made since that time. The new code called KIVA-II is planned for public release in early 1988. KIVA-II improves the earlier version in the accuracy and efficiency of the computational procedure, the accuracy of the physics submodels, and in versatility and ease of use. Numerical improvements include the use of the ICE solution procedure in place of the acoustic subcycling method and the implementation of a quasi-second-order-accurate convection scheme. Major extensions to the physical submodels include the inclusion of an optional k-epsilon turbulence model, and several additions to the spray model. We illustrate some of the new capabilities by means of example solutions. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry: Spray Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutland, Christopher J.

    2009-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion (TSTC) project is a multi-university collaborative effort to develop a high-fidelity turbulent reacting flow simulation capability utilizing terascale, massively parallel computer technology. The main paradigm of the approach is direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring the highest temporal and spatial accuracy, allowing quantitative observations of the fine-scale physics found in turbulent reacting flows as well as providing a useful tool for development of sub-models needed in device-level simulations. Under this component of the TSTC program the simulation code named S3D, developed and shared with coworkers at Sandia National Laboratories, has been enhanced with new numerical algorithms and physical models to provide predictive capabilities for turbulent liquid fuel spray dynamics. Major accomplishments include improved fundamental understanding of mixing and auto-ignition in multi-phase turbulent reactant mixtures and turbulent fuel injection spray jets.

  16. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helminiak, M. A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yanar, N. M. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pettit, F. S. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Taylor, T. A. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Meier, G. H. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  17. Fixed Block Compression Boosting in FM-Indexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kärkkäinen, Juha

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed full-text self-index occupies space close to that of the compressed text and simultaneously allows fast pattern matching and random access to the underlying text. Among the best compressed self-indexes, in theory and in practice, are several members of the FM-index family. In this paper, we describe new FM-index variants that combine nice theoretical properties, simple implementation and improved practical performance. Our main result is a new technique called fixed block compression boosting, which is a simpler and faster alternative to optimal compression boosting and implicit compression boosting used in previous FM-indexes.

  18. Biodegradation of xenobiotics in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seignez, C.; Mottier, V.; Pulgarin, C.; Adler, N.; Peringer, P. (Swiss Federal Institute of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific example of an at-source biological wastewater treatment has been elaborated and developed. A two-phase fixed-bed bioreactor system was tested for its efficiency using phenol as a test substance and then, the degradation of sodium anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (SAS) was studied and performed. The continuous aerobic degradation of phenol or SAS as the sole source of carbon was investigated. For SAS degradation with an immobilized mixed bacterial culture, industrial activated sludge was used as inoculum, while for phenol a domestic activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and activated Actizym-sludge prepared with Actizym[sup [reg sign

  19. 15 Squares mod p Fix a prime p.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Dinakar

    15 Squares mod p Fix a prime p. Basic question: Given a, how can we determine if #b # Z such that a # b 2 (mod p)? Trivial case if p|a, take b # 0. So from now on take (a, p) = 1. p=3 p=5 p=7 x x 2 x x 2 x x 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 ­1 2 4 3 ­1 4 2 ­1=4 1 5 4 6 1 1 # d p 1, 4 as mod 5 1, 2, 4 as mod p 2

  20. 15 Squares mod p Fix a prime p.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Dinakar

    15 Squares mod p Fix a prime p. Basic question: Given a, how can we determine if b Z such that a b2 (mod p)? Trivial case if p|a, take b 0. So from now on take (a, p) = 1. p=3 p=5 p=7 x x2 x x2 x x2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 -1 2 4 3 -1 4 2 -1=4 1 5 4 6 1 1 dp 1, 4 as mod 5 1, 2, 4 as mod p 2 2, 3 3

  1. Surface tension in bilayer membranes with fixed projected area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Imparato

    2006-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the elastic response of bilayer membranes with fixed projected area to both stretching and shape deformations. A surface tension is associated to each of these deformations. By using model amphiphilic membranes and computer simulations, we are able to observe both the types of deformation, and thus, both the surface tensions, related to each type of deformation, are measured for the same system. These surface tensions are found to assume different values in the same bilayer membrane: in particular they vanish for different values of the projected area. We introduce a simple theory which relates the two quantities and successfully apply it to the data obtained with computer simulations.

  2. Fixed Bed Adsorption of Acetone and Ammonia onto Oxidized Activated Carbon Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    Fixed Bed Adsorption of Acetone and Ammonia onto Oxidized Activated Carbon Fibers Christian L a fixed bed configuration. An oxidation treatment with nitric and sulfuric acids resulted in a significant

  3. The conformation change of model polymers in stochastic flow fields: Flow through fixed beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    The conformation change of model polymers in stochastic flow fields: Flow through fixed beds Alisa that as a polymer solution flows through a fixed bed, the pressure drop neces- sary to pump the solution may

  4. Investigation of the June 29, 2012, Fall from a Fixed Ladder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the fixed ladder and fell from a height of approximately 15-feet landing on asphalt pavement. Investigation of the June 29, 2012, Fall from a Fixed Ladder at Building 830, at the...

  5. Physical stability of spray dried solid dispersions of amorphous tolfenamic acid and polyvinylpyrolidone K30

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thybo, Pia

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet-Gas Contact mixing and flow pattern Drying of Droplets moisture / volatiles evaporation (~ 10 sec.) Product Recovery separation of particles from the gas GPEN October 2006 Side 8 Pia Thybo The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences... Formation of surface GPEN October 2006 Side 11 Pia Thybo The Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences Schematic picture of spray drying process Feed Heater 2 fluid nozzle Feed flow Nozzle gas flow Drying chamber Cyclone Collection vessel Bag filter...

  6. In-situ formation of multiphase air plasma sprayed barrier coatings for turbine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine component (10), such as a turbine blade, is provided which is made of a metal alloy (22) and a base, planar-grained thermal barrier layer (28) applied by air plasma spraying on the alloy surface, where a heat resistant ceramic oxide overlay material (32') covers the bottom thermal barrier coating (28), and the overlay material is the reaction product of the precursor ceramic oxide overlay material (32) and the base thermal barrier coating material (28).

  7. Synthesis of mesoporous NiO doped TiO{sub 2} submicrosphere via spray hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahadur, J.; Sen, D.; Prakash, J.; Singh, Ripandeep; Paul, B.; Mazumder, S.; Sathiyamoorthy, D. [Solid State Physics Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085, India (India); Powder Metallurgy Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Solid State Physics, Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Materials Processing Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Solid State Physics Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Powder Metallurgy Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    NiO doped TiO{sub 2} submicrosphere have been prepared via spray hydrolysis. The doping concentration has been varied form 2 wt% to 15 wt%. Morphology of the submicrospheres has been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Elemental analysis has been carried out by energy dispersive X-ray analysis which confirms the doping concentrations. The mesopores in submicrospheres possess cylindrical morphology.

  8. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  9. A Lesson Learned on Determination of Radionuclides on Metal Surface Fixed Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEZNARICH, H.K.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Measurement of fixed surface contamination required to determine classification as low-level or as transuranic waste.

  10. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, D.E. (ed.)

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  11. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Mi; X. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with different surface preparation conditions before applying the coating, e.g., grit-blasted surface, wire-brush cleaned surface, and a dirty surface. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that the three surface preparation conditions can be successfully differentiated by looking into the impedance difference observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. More specimens are also prepared with variations of process parameters, such as spray angle, stand-off distance, and application of corrosion protective sealant, etc. They are blindly tested to evaluate the reliability of the eddy current system. Quantitative relations between the coating bond strength and the eddy current response are also established with the support of destructive testing. This non-contact, non-destructive, easy to use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  12. Comparison of diesel spray combustion in different high-temperature, high-pressure facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, Caspar (Technical University of Denmark); Hermant, Laurent (IFP); Malbec, Louis-Marie (IFP); Bruneaux, Gilles (IFP); Genzale, Caroline L.; Pickett, Lyle M.; Schramm, Jesper (Technical University of Denmark)

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diesel spray experiments at controlled high-temperature and high-pressure conditions offer the potential for an improved understanding of diesel combustion, and for the development of more accurate CFD models that will ultimately be used to improve engine design. Several spray chamber facilities capable of high-temperature, high-pressure conditions typical of engine combustion have been developed, but uncertainties about their operation exist because of the uniqueness of each facility. For the IMEM meeting, we describe results from comparative studies using constant-volume vessels at Sandia National Laboratories and IFP. Targeting the same ambient gas conditions (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m{sup 3}, 15% oxygen) and sharing the same injector (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K), we describe detailed measurements of the temperature and pressure boundary conditions at each facility, followed by observations of spray penetration, ignition, and combustion using high-speed imaging. Performing experiments at the same high-temperature, high-pressure operating conditions is an objective of the Engine Combustion Network (http://www.ca.sandia.gov/ECN/), which seeks to leverage the research capabilities and advanced diagnostics of all participants in the ECN. We expect that this effort will generate a high-quality dataset to be used for advanced computational model development at engine conditions.

  13. Plasma Spray Synthesis Of Nanostructured V2O5 Films For Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate for the first time, the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films and coatings using plasma spray technique. V2O5 has been used in several applications such as catalysts, super-capacitors and also as an electrode material in lithium ion batteries. In the present studies, V2O5 films were synthesized using liquid precursors (vanadium oxychloride and ammonium metavanadate) and powder suspension. In our approach, the precursors were atomized and injected radially into the plasma gun for deposition on the substrates. During the flight towards the substrate, the high temperature of the plasma plume pyrolyzes the precursor particles resulting into the desired film coatings. These coatings were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Among the precursors, vanadium oxychloride gave the best results in terms of nanocrystalline and monophasic films. Spraying of commercial powder suspension yielded multi-phasic mixture in the films. Our approach enables deposition of large area coatings of high quality nanocrystalline films of V2O5 with controllable particle morphology. This has been optimized by means of control over precursor composition and plasma spray conditions. Initial electrochemical studies of V2O5 film electrodes show potential for energy storage studies.

  14. Raspberry derived mesoporous carbon-tubules and fixed-bed adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Raspberry derived mesoporous carbon-tubules and fixed-bed adsorption of pharmaceutical drugs Shashi Accepted 28 June 2013 Available online 22 July 2013 Keywords: Carbon-tubules Fixed-bed Mesoporous Octanol selected for the study. Batch and fixed-bed studies were performed to investigate the adsorption

  15. Drop breakup in the flow through fixed fiber beds: An experimental and computational investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    Drop breakup in the flow through fixed fiber beds: An experimental and computational investigation; accepted 11 January 2003; published 2 April 2003 Dilute fixed fiber beds provide a model system. DOI: 10.1063/1.1557051 I. INTRODUCTION As drops are carried by a suspending fluid through a fixed bed

  16. Drop breakup in the flow through fixed beds via stochastic simulation in model Gaussian fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaqfeh, Eric

    Drop breakup in the flow through fixed beds via stochastic simulation in model Gaussian fields that the flow through a dilute disordered fixed bed of fibers produces large polymer conformation change beyond on the shape and breakup of viscous drops. Because the flow through a dilute fixed bed is equivalent

  17. Dynamic modeling of three-phase upflow fixed-bed reactor including pore diffusion C. Julcoura

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dynamic modeling of three-phase upflow fixed-bed reactor including pore diffusion C. Julcoura , R-phase upflow fixed-bed reactor are investigated using a non-isothermal heterogeneous model including gas not limiting, so that the simplest model predicts accurately the transient reactor behavior. Keywords: fixed-bed

  18. Nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampler supplementary testing - AEAT doc 2926-2-002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REICH, F.R.

    1999-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of cold testing, completed by AEAT, as part of the proof-of-principle testing for a proposed nested, fixed-depth fluidic sampling system. This sampling system will provide waste samples from the PHMC feed tank to support the privatization contract with BNFL. Proof-of-principle tests were completed with 2 wt% and 10 wt% sand/water and 25 wt% kaolin clay/water simulants with a test setup that spanned the 24 ft to 57 ft height required in the feed tank. The tests demonstrated that the system could pump and sample waste materials with low and with high solids content. In addition, the tests demonstrated a need for some design upgrades to the sampling system, as there was material loss when the sample bottle was removed from the sampling needle. These were complementary tests, completed as part of an EM-50 Tank Focus Area (TFA) to develop a sampling system for validating LAW and HLW waste batches for the Privatization Contract.

  19. Effect of the substrate temperature on the physical properties of molybdenum tri-oxide thin films obtained through the spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, H.M. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia)] [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Torres, J., E-mail: njtorress@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Lopez Carreno, L.D. [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia)] [Grupo de Materiales con Aplicaciones Tecnologicas, Departamento de Fisica Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Bogota (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)] [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro., Mexico (Colombia)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycrystalline molybdenum tri-oxide thin films were prepared using the spray pyrolysis technique; a 0.1 M solution of ammonium molybdate tetra-hydrated was used as a precursor. The samples were prepared on Corning glass substrates maintained at temperatures ranging between 423 and 673 K. The samples were characterized through micro Raman, X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance and DC electrical conductivity. The species MoO{sub 3} (H{sub 2}O){sub 2} was found in the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 423 K. As the substrate temperature rises, the water disappears and the samples crystallize into {alpha}-MoO{sub 3}. The optical gap diminishes as the substrate temperature rises. Two electrical transport mechanisms were found: hopping under 200 K and intrinsic conduction over 200 K. The MoO{sub 3} films' sensitivity was analyzed for CO and H{sub 2}O in the temperature range 160 to 360 K; the results indicate that CO and H{sub 2}O have a reduction character. In all cases, it was found that the sensitivity to CO is lower than that to H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A low cost technique is used which produces good material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films are prepared using ammonium molybdate tetra hydrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of the physical properties of the samples could be done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calculation method is proposed to determine the material optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis could be used as gas sensor.

  20. The Do's & Don'ts of Saving Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty

    2004-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    dishes, washing foods, shaving, washing hands or brushing teeth. Fill bathtub to the top (stop at ? full). Allow toilets to leak (find leaks and fix them). Use the toilet as a waste basket. Water lawns during heat of the day (water in early...

  1. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  2. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  3. Should mobile Internet services be an extension of the fixed Internet? Context-of-use, fixed-mobile reinforcement and personal innovativeness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    reinforcement and personal innovativeness Mark de Reuver Faculty Technology, Policy and Management Delft Innovation & Interaction Utrecht, The Netherlands Harry Bouwman Faculty Technology, Policy and ManagementShould mobile Internet services be an extension of the fixed Internet? Context-of-use, fixed-mobile

  4. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  5. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  6. Grate assembly for fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A grate assembly for a coal gasifier of a moving-bed or fixed-bed type is provided for crushing agglomerates of solid material such as clinkers, tailoring the radial distribution of reactant gases entering the gasification reaction zone, and control of the radial distribution of downwardly moving solid velocities in the gasification and combustion zone. The clinker crushing is provided by pinching clinkers between vertically oriented stationary bars and angled bars supported on the upper surface of a rotating conical grate. The distribution of the reactant gases is provided by the selective positioning of horizontally oriented passageways extending through the grate. The radial distribution of the solids is provided by mounting a vertically and generally radially extending scoop mechanism on the upper surface of the grate near the apex thereof.

  7. Fixed point of second virial coefficients in the glass transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jialin Wu

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical thermodynamic theory still holds true in subsystem that is a percolation connected by 8 orders of self-similar 2-body-3-body coupling clusters. The fixed point, $B_2^* \\equiv 3/8$, for the clusters of different size, existing in reduced second Virial coefficients has been proved by scaling theory in percolation field. It is shown that, if $B_2^* \\equiv 3/8$ is combined with $B_3^* \\equiv 5/8$, the potentials of 2-body-3-body coupling clusters, in critical local cluster growth phase transition, balance the kinetic energy in the glass transition. It is also proved that the glass transition corresponds to the regime in which the chemical potentials in all subsystems hold zero.

  8. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  9. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  10. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create nine (9) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry FGD technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  11. COMMERCIAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE MANUFACTURED AGGREGATE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UTILIZING SPRAY DRYER ASH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Scandrol

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Universal Aggregates, LLC proposes to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the Universal Aggregates share is $12.3 (63%). The project team consists of CONSOL Energy Inc., P.J. Dick, Inc., SynAggs, LLC, and Universal Aggregates, LLC. The Birchwood Facility will transform 115,000 tons per year of spray dryer by-products that are currently being disposed of in an offsite landfill into 167,000 tons of a useful product, lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight aggregates that can be used to manufacture lightweight and medium weight masonry blocks. In addition to the environmental benefits, the Birchwood Facility will create eight (8) manufacturing jobs plus additional employment in the local trucking industry to deliver the aggregate to customers or reagents to the facility. A successful demonstration would lead to additional lightweight aggregate manufacturing facilities in the United States. There are currently twenty-one (21) spray dryer facilities operating in the United States that produce an adequate amount of spray dryer by-product to economically justify the installation of a lightweight aggregate manufacturing facility. Industry sources believe that as additional scrubbing is required, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies will be the technology of choice. Letters from potential lightweight aggregate customers indicate that there is a market for the product once the commercialization barriers are eliminated by this demonstration project.

  12. Plasma Sprayed Pour Tubes and Other Melt Handling Components for Use in Gas Atomization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, David; Rieken, Joel; Heidloff, Andy; Besser, Matthew; Anderson, Iver

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory has successfully used plasma sprayed ceramic components made from yttria stabilized zirconia as melt pouring tubes for gas atomization for many years. These tubes have proven to be strong, thermal shock resistant and versatile. Various configurations are possible both internally and externally. Accurate dimensions are achieved internally with a machined fugitive graphite mandrel and externally by diamond grinding. The previous study of the effect of spray parameters on density was extended to determine the effect of the resulting density on the thermal shock characteristics on down-quenching and up-quenching. Encouraging results also prompted investigation of the use of plasma spraying as a method to construct a melt pour exit stopper that is mechanically robust, thermal shock resistant, and not susceptible to attack by reactive melt additions. The Ames Laboratory operates two close-coupled high pressure gas atomizers. These two atomizers are designed to produce fine and coarse spherical metal powders (5{mu} to 500{mu} diameter) of many different metals and alloys. The systems vary in size, but generally the smaller atomizer can produce up to 5 kg of powder whereas the larger can produce up to 25 kg depending on the charge form and density. In order to make powders of such varying compositions, it is necessary to have melt systems capable of heating and containing the liquid charge to the desired superheat temperature prior to pouring through the atomization nozzle. For some metals and alloys this is not a problem; however for some more reactive and/or high melting materials this can pose unique challenges. Figure 1 is a schematic that illustrates the atomization system and its components.

  13. Wave Energy Extraction from an Oscillating Water Column in a Truncated Circular Cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao

    2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Oscillating Water Column (OWC) device is a relatively practical and convenient way that converts wave energy to a utilizable form, which is usually electricity. The OWC is kept inside a fixed truncated vertical cylinder, which is a hollow structure...

  14. Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

    Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

  15. Iron-Based Amorphous Coatings Produced by HVOF Thermal Spray Processing-Coating Structure and Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beardsley, M B

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility to coat large SNF/HLW containers with a structurally amorphous material (SAM) was demonstrated on sub-scale models fabricated from Type 316L stainless steel. The sub-scale model were coated with SAM 1651 material using kerosene high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) torch to thicknesses ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm. The process parameters such as standoff distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow, were optimized in order to improve the corrosion properties of the coatings. Testing in an electrochemical cell and long-term exposure to a salt spray environment were used to guide the selection of process parameters.

  16. Focused analyte spray emission apparatus and process for mass spectrometric analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick J. (Kennewick, WA); Laskin, Julia (Richland, WA); Laskin, Alexander (Richland, WA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and process are disclosed that deliver an analyte deposited on a substrate to a mass spectrometer that provides for trace analysis of complex organic analytes. Analytes are probed using a small droplet of solvent that is formed at the junction between two capillaries. A supply capillary maintains the droplet of solvent on the substrate; a collection capillary collects analyte desorbed from the surface and emits analyte ions as a focused spray to the inlet of a mass spectrometer for analysis. The invention enables efficient separation of desorption and ionization events, providing enhanced control over transport and ionization of the analyte.

  17. Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong, Frank M. G.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Ji, Xiaoyan (Jane); Day, Sumner D.; Blue, Craig A.; Rivard, John D. K.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Kohler, Leslie K.; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J.; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H.; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

  18. Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J; Ji, Xiaoyan; Day, Sumner D; Blue, Craig A; Rivard, John D.K.; Aprigliano, Louis F; Kohler, Leslie K; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

  19. SPRAY FOAM IN ACCESSIBLE SPACES:BEST PRACTICES AND CASE STUDIES FOR RETROFIT IN MIXED-HUMID CLIMATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Gant, Kathy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating and cooling the house is one of the homeowners major expenses. Reducing these costs, saving energy, and creating a healthier, more comfortable indoor environment are good reasons to consider improving the building thermal envelope. Improvements usually consider increasing the amount of insulation, reducing the infiltration of outside air, and controlling moisture in existing buildings. This report describes the use of spray foam materials to insulate, seal, and control moisture. This discussion is limited to treating areas that are accessible. What is accessible, however, can vary depending on the type of renovation. If the building has been gutted or exterior surfaces removed, there are more options. This report will look at areas to consider for spray foam application and discuss the types of spray foams available and their uses. A number of case studies are presented to show the effectiveness of this retrofit in existing houses based on performance data.

  20. The usage of trisiloxanes is common as adjuvants in pesticide formulation to assist with the delivery of agrochemicals to a spray mixture. The unique ability of trisiloxane superspreaders to promote rapid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller-Dintelmann, Robert

    with the delivery of agrochemicals to a spray mixture. The unique ability of trisiloxane superspreaders to promote

  1. soluble fish proteins obtained by enzymatic treatment of fresh fish offals dried according to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to the Hatmaker or Spray methods. Six artificial milks were made by dry pelleting of either cow skim- milk powder

  2. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  3. Isolated thermocouple amplifier system for stirred fixed-bed gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensing system is provided for determining the bed temperature profile of the bed of a stirred, fixed-bed gasifier including a plurality of temperature sensors for sensing the bed temperature at different levels, a transmitter for transmitting data based on the outputs of the sensors to a remote operator's station, and a battery-based power supply. The system includes an isolation amplifier system comprising a plurality of isolation amplifier circuits for amplifying the outputs of the individual sensors. The isolation amplifier circuits each comprise an isolation operational amplifier connected to a sensor; a first "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the application of power from the power supply to the isolation amplifier; an output sample and hold circuit connected to the transmitter; a second "flying capacitor" circuit for, in operation, controlling the transfer of the output of the isolation amplifier to the sample and hold circuit; and a timing and control circuit for activating the first and second capacitor circuits in a predetermined timed sequence.

  4. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A. (Pt. Jefferson, NY); Cerniglia, Philip (Moriches, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  5. In celebration of the fixed target program with the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey A. Appel et al.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tevatron is the world's first large superconducting accelerator. With its construction, we gained the dual opportunities to advance the state of the art in accelerator technology with the machine itself and in particle physics with the experiments that became possible in a higher energy regime. There have been 43 experiments in the Tevatron fixed target program. Many of these are better described as experimental programs, each with a broad range of physics goals and results, and more than 100 collaborating physicists and engineers. The results of this program are three-fold: (1) new technologies in accelerators, beams and detectors which advanced the state of the art; (2) new experimental results published in the refereed physics journals; and (3) newly trained scientists who are both the next generation of particle physicists and an important part of the scientific, technical and educational backbone of the country as a whole. In this book they compile these results. There are sections from each experiment including what their physics goals and results were, what papers were published, and which students have received degrees. Summaries of these results from the program as a whole are quite interesting, but the physics results from this program are too broad to summarize globally. The most important of the results appear in later sections of this booklet.

  6. Temperature dependence of dynamic Young's modulus and internal friction in three plasma sprayed NiCrAlY coating alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Lloyd Steven

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF DYNAM'IIC YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION IN THREE PLASMA SPRAYED NiCrAlY COATING -ALLOYS A Thesis LLOYD STEVEN COOK Submitted to the 08ice of Graduate Studies of Texas AE M University in part. al full...'illment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Itiajor Subject: l'dechanical Engineering TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF DYNAMIC YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION IN THREE PLASMA SPRAYED NiCrAIY COATING ALLOYS A Thesis by LLOYD STEVEN COOK...

  7. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  9. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF FIXED FOUNDATION WIND TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent analysis of offshore wind turbine foundations using both applicable API and IEC standards show that the total load demand from wind and waves is greatest in wave driven storms. Further, analysis of overturning moment loads (OTM) reveal that impact forces exerted by breaking waves are the largest contributor to OTM in big storms at wind speeds above the operating range of 25 m/s. Currently, no codes or standards for offshore wind power generators have been adopted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) for use on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Current design methods based on allowable stress design (ASD) incorporate the uncertainty in the variation of loads transferred to the foundation and geotechnical capacity of the soil and rock to support the loads is incorporated into a factor of safety. Sources of uncertainty include spatial and temporal variation of engineering properties, reliability of property measurements applicability and sufficiency of sampling and testing methods, modeling errors, and variability of estimated load predictions. In ASD these sources of variability are generally given qualitative rather than quantitative consideration. The IEC 61400‐3 design standard for offshore wind turbines is based on ASD methods. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods are being increasingly used in the design of structures. Uncertainties such as those listed above can be included quantitatively into the LRFD process. In LRFD load factors and resistance factors are statistically based. This type of analysis recognizes that there is always some probability of failure and enables the probability of failure to be quantified. This paper presents an integrated approach consisting of field observations and numerical simulation to establish the distribution of loads from breaking waves to support the LRFD of fixed offshore foundations.

  10. Spray drift collector efficiency: Assessment of deposition on 2 mm diameter PVC line in a wind tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spray drift collector efficiency: Assessment of deposition on 2 mm diameter PVC line in a wind and Miller and Hadfield, 1989) and to trap it on passive collectors. This method is cheap and easy to set-up but the efficiency of the collectors has to be evaluated. The cylindrical collectors with a diameter of 2 mm

  11. Soot formation modelling of n-heptane sprays under diesel engine conditions using the Conditional Moment Closure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    1 Soot formation modelling of n-heptane sprays under diesel engine conditions using the Conditional-volume vessel under diesel engine conditions under different ambient densities (14.8 and 30 kg/m3 ) and ambient that the conditional moment closure approach is a promising framework for soot modelling under Diesel engine conditions

  12. ON THE USE OF SPRAY SYSTEMS: AN EXAMPLE OF R&D WORK IN HYDROGEN SAFETY FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 ON THE USE OF SPRAY SYSTEMS: AN EXAMPLE OF R&D WORK IN HYDROGEN SAFETY FOR NUCLEAR APPLICATIONS systems related to hydrogen safety in nuclear power plants have been the subject of several experimental l'Energie Atomique, CEA Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SFME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France 2 Institut de

  13. ILASS Europe 2013, 25th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chania, Greece, 1-4 September 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chambers, the injection of fuel is commonly achieved by air-blast atomizers which create a spray sheared liquid sheet by a planar air-blast atomizer (Figure 1). Here, this database is used as a reference carried out in which both the influence of the mesh resolution and the effect of some relevant physical

  14. Arbitrage With Fixed Costs" and Interest Rate Models Elys JOUINI Clotilde NAPPy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Arbitrage With Fixed Costs" and Interest Rate Models Elyès JOUINI Clotilde NAPPy June 26, 2007 Congress participants and in particular D. Feldman. 1 #12;Arbitrage With "Fixed Costs" and Interest Rate Models Abstract In this paper, we study securities market models with "...xed costs." We characterize

  15. Key Factors for Information Dissemination on Communicating Products and Fixed Databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Key Factors for Information Dissemination on Communicating Products and Fixed Databases Sylvain, a multitude of informational vectors take place in such environments like fixed databases or manufactured products on which we are able to em- bed significant proportion of data. By considering distributed

  16. When Auction Meets Fixed Price: A Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Buy-it-Now

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faloutsos, Christos

    such as the customer's cost of participating in the auction, the seller's reserve price, and the number of potential design. Economists advocate the efficiency of auctions over fixed price markets when auction costsWhen Auction Meets Fixed Price: A Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Buy-it-Now Auctions Xin

  17. Joint Turbo Equalization and Channel Estimation with Fixed-Lag Extended Kalman Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Tan F.

    Joint Turbo Equalization and Channel Estimation with Fixed-Lag Extended Kalman Filtering Xin Li. In the receiver, a fixed-lag Kalman equalizer jointly estimates the channel and equalizes the data symbols channel estimators employing least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and Kalman filtering

  18. Approximate Response Time for Fixed Priority Real-Time Systems with Energy-Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Approximate Response Time for Fixed Priority Real-Time Systems with Energy-Harvesting Yasmina sufficient schedulability tests for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling of a real-time system under energy constraints. In this problem, energy is harvested from the ambient environment and used to replenish a storage

  19. Energy-efficient Multicasting in Wireless Networks with Fixed Node Transmission Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    Energy-efficient Multicasting in Wireless Networks with Fixed Node Transmission Power Christos Computer Technology Institute, Greece manos@ceid.upatras.gr ABSTRACT In this work, we propose an energy-efficient are fixed. Our algorithm is based on the multicost approach and selects an optimal energy-efficient set

  20. Schedulability Analysis for Fixed Priority Real-Time Systems with Energy-Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Schedulability Analysis for Fixed Priority Real-Time Systems with Energy-Harvesting Yasmina sufficient schedulability tests for fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling of a real-time system under energy constraints. In this problem, energy is harvested from the ambient environment and used to replenish a storage

  1. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  2. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  3. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  4. Validation of Hot Water and Lactic Acid Sprays for the Reduction of Enteric Pathogens on the Surface of Beef Carcasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Kyle D.

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , monitor, and verify the effectiveness of each intervention implemented to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. For this study, microbial decontamination interventions at two beef slaughter facilities were validated to demonstrate effectiveness...

  5. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  6. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  7. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  8. The Advantages of Fixed Facilities in Characterizing TRU Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FRENCH, M.S.

    2000-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1998 the Hanford Site started developing a program for characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. After less than two years, Hanford will have a program certified by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). By picking a simple waste stream, taking advantage of lessons learned at the other sites, as well as communicating effectively with the CAO, Hanford was able to achieve certification in record time. This effort was further simplified by having a centralized program centered on the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility that contains most of the equipment required to characterize TRU waste. The use of fixed facilities for the characterization of TRU waste at sites with a long-term clean-up mission can be cost effective for several reasons. These include the ability to control the environment in which sensitive instrumentation is required to operate and ensuring that calibrations and maintenance activities are scheduled and performed as an operating routine. Other factors contributing to cost effectiveness include providing approved procedures and facilities for handling hazardous materials and anticipated contingencies and performing essential evolutions, and regulating and smoothing the work load and environmental conditions to provide maximal efficiency and productivity. Another advantage is the ability to efficiently provide characterization services to other sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex that do not have the same capabilities. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is a state-of-the-art facility designed to consolidate the operations necessary to inspect, process and ship waste to facilitate verification of contents for certification to established waste acceptance criteria. The WRAP facility inspects, characterizes, treats, and certifies transuranic (TRU), low-level and mixed waste at the Hanford Site in Washington state. Fluor Hanford operates the $89 million facility under the Project Hanford Management Contract. This paper describes the operating experiences and results obtained during the first year of full operations at WRAP. Interested audiences include personnel involved in TRU waste characterization activities, TRU waste treatment and disposal facilities and TRU waste certification. The conclusions of this paper are that WRAP has proven itself to be a valuable asset for low-level and TRU waste management.

  9. Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  10. Heat Transfer Analysis for a Fixed CST Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of a small column ion exchange (SCIX) process for the Savannah River Site waste processing program, a transient two-dimensional heat transfer model that includes the conduction process neglecting the convection cooling mechanism inside the crystalline silicotitanate (CST) column has been constructed and heat transfer calculations made for the present design configurations. For this situation, a no process flow condition through the column was assumed as one of the reference conditions for the simulation of a loss-of-flow accident. A series of the modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. Results for the baseline model indicate that transit times to reach 130 degrees Celsius maximum temperature of the CST-salt solution column are about 96 hours when the 20-in CST column with 300 Ci/liter heat generation source and 25 degrees Celsius initial column temperature is cooled by natural convection of external air as a primary heat transfer mechanism. The modeling results for the 28-in column equipped with water jacket systems on the external wall surface of the column and water coolant pipe at the center of the CST column demonstrate that the column loaded with 300 Ci/liter heat source can be maintained non-boiling indefinitely. Sensitivity calculations for several alternate column sizes, heat loads of the packed column, engineered cooling systems, and various ambient conditions at the exterior wall of the column have been performed under the reference conditions of the CST-salt solution to assess the impact of those parameters on the peak temperatures of the packed column for a given transient time. The results indicate that a water-coolant pipe at the center of the CST column filled with salt solution is the most effective one among the potential design parameters related to the thermal energy dissipation of decay heat load. It is noted that the cooling mechanism at the wall boundary of the column has significant impact on maximum and wall temperatures of the column. In addition, the results computed by the present model were verified by the theoretical results. The analysis results will provide quantitative information associated with the process heat control and management of the CST base design. For example, transient responses of the CST system under a loss-of-flow accident condition will provide safety design information for an emergency cooling system of the column.

  11. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped phosphor particles are used. This spherical morphology will result in better light extraction and so an improvement of efficiency in the overall device. Cabot is a 2.5 billion dollar company that makes specialized materials using propriety spray based technologies. It is a core competency of Cabot's to exploit the spray based technology and resulting material/morphology advantages. Once a business opportunity is clearly identified, Cabot is positioned to increase the scale of the production to meet opportunity's need. Cabot has demonstrated the capability to make spherical morphology micron-sized phosphor powders by spray based routes for PDP and CRT applications, but the value proposition is still unproven for LED applications. Cabot believes that the improvements in phosphor powders yielded by their process will result in a commercial advantage over existing technologies. Through the SSL project, Cabot has produced a number of different compositions in a spherical morphology that may be useful for solid state lights, as well as demonstrated processes that are able to produce particles from 10 nanometers to 3 micrometers. Towards the end of the project we demonstrated that our process produces YAG:Ce powder that has both higher internal quantum efficiency (0.6 compared to 0.45) and external quantum efficiency (0.85 compared to 0.6) than the commercial standard (see section 3.4.4.3). We, however, only produced these highly bright materials in research and development quantities, and were never able to produce high quantum efficiency materials in a reproducible manner at a commercial scale.

  12. Tungsten Coating on Low Activation Vanadium Alloy by Plasma Spray Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Noda, Nobuaki [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Kawamura, Masashi [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD (Japan); Ise, Hideo [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD (Japan); Kurishita, Hiroaki [Tohoku University (Japan)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten (W) coating on fusion candidate V-4Cr-4Ti (NIFS-HEAT-2) substrate was demonstrated with plasma spray process for the purpose of applying to protection of the plasma facing surface of a fusion blanket. Increase in plasma input power and temperature of the substrate was effective to reduce porosity of the coating, but resulted in hardening of the substrate and degradation of impact property at 77 K. The hardening seemed to be due to contamination with gaseous impurities and deformation by thermal stress during the coating process. Since all the samples showed good ductility at room temperature, further heating seems to be acceptable for the vanadium substrate. The fracture stress of the W coating was estimated from bending tests as at least 313 MPa, which well exceeds the design stress for the vanadium structure in fusion blanket.

  13. Application of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Ferrite Layers for Particle Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Taborelli, M; Schulz, C; Bobzin, K; Wu, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A common problem in all kinds of cavity-like structures in particle accelerators is the occurrence of RF-resonances. Typically, ferrite plates attached to the walls of such structures as diagnostic devices, kickers or collimators, are used to dampen those undesired modes. However, the heat transfer rate from these plates to the walls is rather limited. Brazing ferrite plates to the walls is not possible in most cases due to the different thermal expansion coefficients. To overcome those limitations, atmospheric plasma spraying techniques have been investigated. Ferrite layers with a thickness from 50 ?m to about 300 ?m can be deposited on metallic surfaces like stainless steel exhibiting good thermal contact and still reasonable absorption properties. In this paper the technological aspects of plasma deposition are discussed and results of specifically developed RF loss measurement procedures for such thin magnetically lossy layers on metal are presented.

  14. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  15. Deposition of nanostructured photocatalytic zinc ferrite films using solution precursor plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dom, Rekha; Sivakumar, G.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Joshi, Shrikant V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India)] [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India); Borse, Pramod H., E-mail: phborse@arci.res.in [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly economic solution precursor route capable of producing films/coating even for mass scale production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure spinel phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} porous, immobilized films deposited in single step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameter optimization yields access to nanostructuring in SPPS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ecofriendly immobilized ferrite films were active under solar radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such magnetic system display advantage w.r.t. recyclability after photocatalyst extraction. -- Abstract: Deposition of pure spinel phase, photocatalytic zinc ferrite films on SS-304 substrates by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the first time. Deposition parameters such as precursor solution pH, concentration, film thickness, plasma power and gun-substrate distance were found to control physico-chemical properties of the film, with respect to their crystallinity, phase purity, and morphology. Alkaline precursor conditions (7 < pH {<=} 10) were found to favor oxide film formation. The nanostructured films produced under optimized conditions, with 500 mM solution at pH {approx} 8.0, yielded pure cubic phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. Very high/low precursor concentrations yielded mixed phase, less adherent, and highly inhomogeneous thin films. Desired spinel phase was achieved in as-deposited condition under appropriately controlled spray conditions and exhibited a band gap of {approx}1.9 eV. The highly porous nature of the films favored its photocatalytic performance as indicated by methylene blue de-coloration under solar radiation. These immobilized films display good potential for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  17. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  18. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  19. Comparative genomics and natural distributions of phenotypically distinct strains of the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bench, Shellie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature 412:635- 38.fixing bacteria in the Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53:fixing bacteria in the Pacific Ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr. 53,

  20. Development of a fixed abrasive slicing technique (FAST) for reducing the cost of photovoltaic wafers. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--14 April 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, F. [Crystal Systems, Inc., Salem, MA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines a wafer slicing technique developed by Crystal Systems, Inc. that reduces the cost of photovoltaic wafers. This fixed, abrasive slicing technique (FAST) uses a multiwire bladepack and a diamond-plated wirepack; water is the coolant. FAST is in the prototype production stage and reduces expendable material costs while retaining the advantages of a multiwire slurry technique. The cost analysis revealed that costs can be decreased by making more cuts per bladepack and slicing more wafers per linear inch. Researchers studied the degradation of bladepacks and increased wirepack life. 21 refs.

  1. An investigation of fixed separation in quasi-periodic and aperiodic, unsteady, two-dimensional flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helu, Moneer Mohammad

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study asses the kinematic theory of fixed separation in unsteady, two-dimensional flows that has been proposed by Haller (2004). Experimental investigations were conducted that utilized the rotor-oscillator flow to ...

  2. Model Checking Fixed Point Logic with Chop Martin Lange and Colin Stirling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stirling, Colin

    for Foundations of Computer Science Division of Informatics University of Edinburgh {martin,cps, properties expressed by L µ formulas are essentially ``regular''. In [9], MË?uller­Olm introduced FLC, fixed

  3. Model Checking Fixed Point Logic with Chop Martin Lange and Colin Stirling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stirling, Colin

    for Foundations of Computer Science Division of Informatics University of Edinburgh {martin,cps, properties expressed by �µ formulas are essentially "regular". In [9], M¨uller-Olm introduced FLC, fixed

  4. Coordinating Inventory Control and Pricing Strategies with Random Demand and Fixed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xin

    Coordinating Inventory Control and Pricing Strategies with Random Demand and Fixed Ordering Cost, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 1. Introduction Traditional inventory strategies to manage their inventory effectively. For example, techniques such as revenue management have

  5. Fixing and pelleting chromatin/nuclei from extracts onto coverslips for immunofluorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    Fixing and pelleting chromatin/nuclei from extracts onto coverslips for immunofluorescence Arshad. poly-lysine coated coverslips. 4. spin down tubes (or equivalent method to pellet onto coverslips; our

  6. FAIR MATCHING ALGORITHM: FIXED-LENGTH FRAME SCHEDULING IN ALL-PHOTONIC NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAIR MATCHING ALGORITHM: FIXED-LENGTH FRAME SCHEDULING IN ALL-PHOTONIC NETWORKS Nahid Saberi email:nahid.saberi@mail.mcgill.ca, coates@ece.mcgill.ca Abstract Internal switches in all

  7. VaR Constrained Hedging of Fixed Price Load-Following Obligations in Competitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VaR Constrained Hedging of Fixed Price Load-Following Obligations in Competitive Electricity. In either case the entity holding the load following obligation is exposed to the load variation

  8. Vibrational characteristics of a long and very flexible rotating fixed-free beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarco Cruz, Juan Carlos

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The differential eigenvalue problem of a long and very flexible rotating fixed-free beam is studied. This kind of system produces a singular perturbation equation with a turning point. The perturbation factor arises because of the division...

  9. EM Finds Success with Fixed-Priced Hybrid Contract Approach Benefittin...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    successful at the Hanford site. The Hanford success story marked EM's latest use of a hybrid fixed-price contract. The estimated 99 million contract went to HPM Corp., a...

  10. Context Interchange Mediation for Semantic Interoperability and Dynamic Integration of Autonomous Information Sources in the Fixed Income Securities Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Michael

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine semantic interoperability problems in the fixed income securities industry and propose a knowledge representation architecture for context interchange ...

  11. The effect of velocity and porosity profiles on the performance of fixed bed reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Kaushik

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE EFFECT OF VELOCITY AND POROSITY PROFILES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FIXED BED REACTORS A Thesis by KAUSHIK AHIN Approved as to style and content by: R. G. Anthony (Chairman) Aydin german... (m r) R. H. Loeppert (member) C. D. 1 and (Head of the Dept. ) December 1983 ABSTRACT THE Effect of Velocity and Porosity Profiles on the Performance of Fixed Bed Reactors (December 1983) Kaushik Amin, B. S. , M. S. University of Barcda...

  12. Bound states for Overlap and Fixed Point Actions close to the chiral limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Haeusler; C. B. Lang

    2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the overlap and the fixed point Dirac operators for massive fermions in the two-flavor lattice Schwinger model. The masses of the triplet (pion) and singlet (eta) bound states are determined down to small fermion masses and the mass dependence is compared with various continuum model approximations. Near the chiral limit, at very small fermion masses the fixed point operator has stability problems, which in this study are dominated by finite size effects,

  13. Inverse fixed energy scattering problem for the two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger operator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgios Fotopoulos; Valery Serov

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work studies the direct and inverse fixed energy scattering problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation with rather general nonlinear index of refraction. In particular, using the Born approximation we prove that all singularities of the unknown compactly supported potential from $L^2$-space can be obtained uniquely by the scattering data with fixed positive energy. The proof is based on the new estimates for the Faddeev-Green's function in $L^\\infty$-space.

  14. Assessment study of RELAP5/MOD2, CYCLE 36. 04 based on spray start-up test for DOEL-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeyaert, P.; Stubbe, E.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an assessment study for the code RELAP-5 MOD-2 based on a pressurizer spray start-up test of the Doel-4 power plant. Doel-4 is a three loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant ordered by the EBES utility with a nominal power rating of 1000 MWe and equipped with preheater type E steam generators. A large series of commissioning tests are normally performed on new plants, of which the so called pressurizer spray and heater test (SU-PR-01) was performed on February 2nd 1985. TRACTEBEL, being the Architect-Engineer for this plant was closely involved with all start-up tests and was responsible for the final approval of the tests.

  15. Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two-and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    measurements of turbulent flow were obtained over a fixed flat bed, two- dimensional (2-D) dunes and four types over 2-D dunes conforms with previous observations of flow over mobile and fixed bed forms. Bed formTurbulent flow and drag over fixed two- and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2 Received

  16. A Fixed Point Formulation of the k-Means Algorithm and a Connection to Mumford-Shah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    A Fixed Point Formulation of the k-Means Algorithm and a Connection to Mumford-Shah Johnathan M of the k-means segmentation algorithm and show that the iteration's fixed points are solutions of the Euler between the k-means algorithm and Mumford- Shah segmentation via a fixed point formulation of k-means

  17. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  18. An evaluation of high viscosity, crowded phase emulsions as herbicide carriers when applied through the bifluid spray system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Phil J

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    times larger than for the less viscous standard emulsion. Several types of application equipment were tested by Akesson, et al. (1960) for spraying invert emulsions. Samples of spzay pattern were taken by vacuum azr samplers elevated 5 feet frozn... or inter- cepted in the sampbng zone, Such procedure involved the use of elec- trically driven, vacuum-type air sampling devices (Figures 8, 9, and 10) powered by a portable generator. Collection was made on filter paper which covered the intake orifice...

  19. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  20. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  1. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  2. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  3. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  4. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  5. Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO{sub 3} thin films for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivakumar, R.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.; Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M.; Trivedi, D.C.; Sanjeeviraja, C

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The n-type tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250 deg. C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15 ml/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied. Mott-Schottky (M-S) studies of WO{sub 3}/FTO electrodes were conducted in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution to identify their nature and extract semiconductor parameters. The electrochromic properties of the as-deposited and lithiated WO{sub 3}/FTO thin films were analyzed by employing them as working electrodes in three electrode electrochemical cell using an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) solution.

  6. Characterization of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] removals in a spray dryer/baghouse system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, W.J.; Markussen, J.M.; Pennline, H.W. (Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Resnik, K.P. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of NO to NO[sub 2] has been proposed as a method for enhancing NO[sub x] removals in conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This experimental investigation characterizes the removals of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] in a 1.1 m[sup 3](standard)/min spray dryer/baghouse system. Flue gas was generated by burning a No. 2 fuel oil, which was subsequently spiked upstream of the spray dryer with NO[sub 2] or SO[sub 2] or both. Lime slurry was injected via a rotary atomizer into the spray dryer. Variables studied include the approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature, stoichiometric ratio, SO[sub 2] concentration, and NO[sub 2] concentration. Significant quantities of NO[sub 2] are scrubbed in this system, and over half of the total removal (at inlet NO[sub 2] > 400 ppm) occurs in the baghouse. Increasing NO[sub 2] concentrations enhance the amount of NO[sub x] removed in the system. Also, the presence of significant quantities of NO[sub 2] enhances the baghouse SO[sub 2] removal. Although up to 72% NO[sub 2] removals were obtained, concentrations of NO[sub 2] that exited the system were greater than 50 ppm for all conditions investigated.

  7. Synthesis of Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} ceramic pigments by spray drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyubenova, T. Stoyanova [University Jaume I, Campus del Riu Sec, 12071 Castellon de la Plana (Spain)], E-mail: stoyanov@qio.uji.es; Matteucci, F.; Costa, A.L.; Dondi, M. [Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics, ISTEC-CNR, via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza (Italy); Ocana, M. [Materials Science Institute of Seville, c/Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Carda, J. [University Jaume I, Campus del Riu Sec, 12071 Castellon de la Plana (Spain)

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Cr-doped CaTiSiO{sub 5} was synthesized by spray drying and conventional ceramic method in order to assess its potential as ceramic pigment. The evolution of the phase composition with thermal treatment was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and thermal analyses (DTA-TGA-EGA). Powder morphology and particle size distribution were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser diffraction, respectively. The color efficiency of pigments was evaluated by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and colorimetric analysis (CIE Lab). Results proved that spray drying is an efficient procedure to prepare highly reactive pigment precursors. The spray-dried powders consist of hollow spherical particles with aggregate size in the 1-10 {mu}m range, developing a brown coloration. Optical spectra reveal the occurrence of Cr(III) and Cr(IV), both responsible for the brown color of this pigment. The former occupies the octahedral site of titanite, in substitution of Ti(IV), while the latter is located at the tetrahedral site, where replaces Si(IV)

  8. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  9. Trap and recombination centers study in sprayed Cu?ZnSnS? thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courel, Maykel, E-mail: maykelcourel@gmail.com; Vigil-Galán, O.; Jiménez-Olarte, D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), C.P. 07738, México DF (Mexico); Espíndola-Rodríguez, M. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), C.P. 07738, México DF (Mexico); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Saucedo, E. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a study of trap and recombination center properties in polycrystalline Cu?ZnSnS? thin films is carried out in order to understand the poor performance in Cu?ZnSnS? thin film solar cells. Thermally stimulated current has been studied in Cu?ZnSnS? deposited by pneumatic spray pyrolysis method using various heating rates, in order to gain information about trap centers and/or deep levels present within the band-gap of this material. A set of temperature-dependent current curves revealed three levels with activation energy of 126±10, 476±25, and 1100±100 meV. The possible nature of the three levels found is presented, in which the first one is likely to be related to Cu{sub Zn} antisites, while second and third to Sn vacancies and Sn{sub Cu} antisites, respectively. The values of frequency factor, capture cross section, and trap concentration have been determined for each center.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of thorium phosphate phases by spray pyrolysis: chemistry of thorium phosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchin, L.; Trombe, J.C.; Verelst, M

    2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the synthesis of some thorium phosphate compounds with different Th/P ratio (1/2, 2/3 and 3/4) by a spray pyrolysis technique. The so-prepared rough compounds were annealed at different temperatures for 2 h and then analyzed by mainly X-ray diffraction on powder and infrared spectroscopy. Every rough compound is composed by very badly crystallized ThO{sub 2} phase polluted by carbon residue. An annealing treatment at 800 deg. C leads to the thorium diphosphate phase, {alpha}-ThP{sub 2}O{sub 7} in every case. At 900 deg. C, such a phase is decomposed into a thorium phosphate diphosphate phase (Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, called TPD). However, a thorium excess in the initial mixture (Th/P = 3/4) leads also to observe the ThO{sub 2} phase. The TPD phase is stable up to 1200 deg. C and does not react with the ThO{sub 2} compound. Beyond 1200 deg. C, the TPD phase is slowly decomposed into a thorium phosphate compound which should be a thorium oxide phosphate; this compound does not contain any diphosphate species.

  11. Characterization of grain boundary conductivity of spin-sprayed ferrites using scanning microwave microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, J.; Nicodemus, T.; Zhuang, Y., E-mail: yan.zhuang@wright.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Watanabe, T.; Matsushita, N. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain boundary electrical conductivity of ferrite materials has been characterized using scanning microwave microscope. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spin-sprayed thin films onto glass substrates for different length of growth times were investigated using a scanning microwave microscope, an atomic force microscope, a four-point probe measurement, and a made in house transmission line based magnetic permeameter. The real part of the magnetic permeability shows almost constant between 10 and 300?MHz. As the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film thickness increases, the grain size becomes larger, leading to a higher DC conductivity. However, the loss in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at high frequency does not increase correspondingly. By measuring the reflection coefficient s{sub 11} from the scanning microwave microscope, it turns out that the grain boundaries of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit higher electric conductivity than the grains, which contributes loss at radio frequencies. This result will provide guidance for further improvement of low loss ferrite materials for high frequency applications.

  12. Simulations of spray autoignition and flame establishment with two-dimensional CMC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Y.M.; Boulouchos, K. [Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Technology Laboratory, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); De Paola, G.; Mastorakos, E. [Hopkinson Laboratory, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unsteady two-dimensional conditional moment closure (CMC) model with first-order closure of the chemistry and supplied with standard models for the conditional convection and turbulent diffusion terms has been interfaced with a commercial engine CFD code and analyzed with two numerical methods, an 'exact' calculation with the method of lines and a faster fractional-step method. The aim was to examine the sensitivity of the predictions to the operator splitting errors and to identify the extent to which spatial transport terms are important for spray autoignition problems. Despite the underlying simplifications, solution of the full CMC equations allows a single model to be used for the autoignition, flame propagation ('premixed mode'), and diffusion flame mode of diesel combustion, which makes CMC a good candidate model for practical engine calculations. It was found that (i) the conditional averages have significant spatial gradients before ignition and during the premixed mode and (ii) that the inclusion of physical-space transport affects the calculation of the autoignition delay time, both of which suggest that volume-averaged CMC approaches may be inappropriate for diesel-like problems. A balance of terms in the CMC equation before and after autoignition shows the relative magnitude of spatial transport and allows conjectures on the structure of the premixed phase of diesel combustion. Very good agreement with available experimental data is found concerning ignition delays and the effect of background air turbulence on them.

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  14. Impact of deep-water renewal events on fixed nitrogen loss from seasonally-anoxic Saanich Inlet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamme, Roberta C.

    of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada Abstract We interpreted profiles of N2/Ar ratios, 15 N-N2, and O2 submitted to Marine Chemistry August 6, 2010 #12;In these months, the average isotopic composition

  15. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  16. Growth, physiology, and [delta] 13C of loblolly and shortleaf pine as affected by ozone and soil water deficit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsik, Christine Golemboski

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    44 48 CHAPTER Page VI STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE COMPOSITION AND LEAF INTERNAL CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION OF LOBLOLLY AND SHORTLEAF PINE AS AFFECTED BY OZONE AND WATER STRESS Introduction Experimental Methods Results . Discussion Summary..., ) and two water regimes (well-watered and water- stressed) during one growing in season open-top field chambers equipped with fixed raincaps. Conventional methods were used to measure growth, biomass allocation, foliar chlorophyll concentration...

  17. Coherent diffraction of a single virus particle: The impact of a water layer on the available orientational information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F.; Weckert, E.; Ziaja, B.; Larsson, D. S. D.; Spoel, D. van der [HASYLAB, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Box 596, S-75124 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) may provide a unique opportunity for high-resolution structural analysis of single particles sprayed from an aqueous solution into the laser beam. As a result, diffraction images are measured from randomly oriented objects covered by a water layer. We analyze theoretically how the thickness of the covering water layer influences the structural and orientational information contained in the recorded diffraction images. This study has implications for planned experiments on single-particle imaging with XFELs.

  18. Finding Non-Zero Stable Fixed Points of the Weighted Kuramoto model is NP-hard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Taylor

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kuramoto model when considered over the full space of phase angles [$0,2\\pi$) can have multiple stable fixed points which form basins of attraction in the solution space. In this paper we illustrate the fundamentally complex relationship between the network topology and the solution space by showing that determining the possibility of multiple stable fixed points from the network topology is NP-hard for the weighted Kuramoto Model. In the case of the unweighted model this problem is shown to be at least as difficult as a number partition problem, which we conjecture to be NP-hard. We conclude that it is unlikely that stable fixed points of the Kuramoto model can be characterized in terms of easily computable network invariants.

  19. An Efficient Hybrid Power Control Algorithm for Capacity Improvement of CDMA-based Fixed Wireless Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeeshan, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Yasir

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Fixed Wireless Applications (FWA), the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is the most promising candidate for wideband data access. The reason is the soft limit on the number of active mobile devices. Many Fixed Wireless Applications impose an upper bound on the BER performance which restricts the increase in number of mobile users. The number of active mobile users or Capacity is further reduced in Multipath Fading Environment (MFE). This paper presents an effective method of improving the capacity of CDMA based Fixed Wireless Networks by using a hybrid power control algorithm. The proposed scheme improves the capacity two times as compared to the conventional CDMA based networks. Simulation results have been presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  20. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  1. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  2. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  3. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  4. The four fixed points of scale invariant single field cosmological models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, BingKan, E-mail: bxue@princeton.edu [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new set of flow parameters to describe the time dependence of the equation of state and the speed of sound in single field cosmological models. A scale invariant power spectrum is produced if these flow parameters satisfy specific dynamical equations. We analyze the flow of these parameters and find four types of fixed points that encompass all known single field models. Moreover, near each fixed point we uncover new models where the scale invariance of the power spectrum relies on having simultaneously time varying speed of sound and equation of state. We describe several distinctive new models and discuss constraints from strong coupling and superluminality.

  5. Forces on a fixed barge due to Stokes 5th-Order laboratory waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Nag Joon

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FORCES ON A FIXED BARGE DUE TO STOKES 5 -ORDER LABORATORY WA VES A Thesis by NAG JOON CHOI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 2001 Major Subject: Ocean Engineenng FORCES ON A FIXED BARGE DUE TO STOKES 5 n-ORDER LABORATORY WAVES A Thesis by NAGJOON CHOI Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  6. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  7. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus afternoon NWRA board of director's meeting. Plains farmers survey their land in western Nebraska, probably

  8. Cultivation of macroscopic marine algae and fresh water aquatic weeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORCA clone of the red seaweed Gracilaria tikvahiae has been in culture continuously for over two years. Yield for the past year has averaged 12 g ash-free dry wt/m/sup 2/ .day (17.5 t/a.y) in suspended 2600-1 aluminum tank cultures with four exchanges of enriched seawater per day and continuous aeration. Yields from nonintensive pond-bottom culture, similar to commercial Gracilaria culture methods in Taiwan, averaged 3 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day in preliminary experiments. Rope and spray cultures were not successful. Yields of water hyacinths from March 1978 to March 1979 averaged 25 g afdw/m/sup 2/.day (37 t/a.y). Season, nutrient availability (form and quantity) and stand density were found to affect the relative proportions of structural and nonstructural tissue in water hyacinths and thereby significantly affect digestibility of and methane production by the plants. Pennywort (Hydrocotyle) grew poorly in winter and its annual yield averaged only one-third that of water hyacinth. Water lettuce (Pistia) appears more comparable to hyacinths in preliminary studies and its yields will be monitored throughout a complete year. Stable, continuous anaerobic digestion of both water hyacinths and Gracilaria has been maintained with an average gas production from both species of 0.4 1/g volatile solids at 60% methane.

  9. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  10. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  11. Manual for the thermal and hydraulic design of direct contact spray columns for use in extracting heat from geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report outlines the current methods being used in the thermal and hydraulic design of spray column type, direct contact heat exchangers. It provides appropriate referenced equations for both preliminary design and detailed performance. The design methods are primarily empirical and are applicable for us in the design of such units for geothermal application and for application with solar ponds. Methods for design, for both preheater and boiler sections of the primary heat exchangers, for direct contact binary powers plants are included. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  12. An Evaluation of the Effects of Fixed-Time Schedules on Response Maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, Steven Wade

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    it is currently unclear as to what mechanisms are responsible for this maintenance. The purposes of the current study were to (a) replicate previous research showing that responding will maintain under fixed-time (FT) schedules after a history of response...

  13. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL TRANSIT SIGNAL PRIORITY BENEFITS ALONG A FIXED-TIME SIGNALIZED ARTERIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakha, Hesham A.

    corridor, in Arlington, Virginia. The study uses the INTEGRATION microscopic traffic simulation model buses along the arterial, and to all buses within the study corridor. The priority logic that is considered in the study provides simple green extensions and green recalls within a fixed-time traffic signal

  14. Buying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Professor of Purchasing Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellekoop, Michel

    , in markets like money, stock or oil markets; sometimes they are rather lengthy, in markets like the steelBuying in a volatile market: variable or fixed price? Jan Telgen Professor of Purchasing Management Many commodities are bought in a volatile market, where the purchasing price changes constantly

  15. A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry III: representations of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Köhler, Kai

    A fixed point formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry III: representations We give a new proof of the Jantzen sum formula for integral repre- sentations of Chevalley formula of Lefschetz type in Arakelov geometry to generalized flag varieties. Our proof involves

  16. Carbon fixed during fumigation with elevated [CO2] (which was depleted in stable 13C isotope,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon fixed during fumigation with elevated [CO2] (which was depleted in stable 13C isotope, red in a sweetgum plantation after 11 years of CO2-enrichment. Global Change Biology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365 in relatively deep soil. · Final harvest of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory free-air CO2-enrichment (FACE

  17. Cyclic Testing of Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Bridge Piers having Encased Fixed-Based Detail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    Cyclic Testing of Concrete-Filled Circular Steel Bridge Piers having Encased Fixed-Based Detail elements during earthquakes, this paper reports on cyclic inelastic tests executed to determine the maximum strength and ductility of four concrete-filled circular steel piers joined to a foundation detail proposed

  18. A Systemic Design Methodology of PM Generators for Fixed-Pitch Marine Current Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that for an offshore application and particularly for tidal power generation, enhancing reliability and reducing of permanent magnet (PM) generator associated with fixed-pitch turbine for tidal energy generation. The main of the drive-train. In offshore energy generation, the maintenance should be minimized as much as possible

  19. Fixed Priority Scheduling Strategies for Ambient Energy-Harvesting Embedded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fixed Priority Scheduling Strategies for Ambient Energy-Harvesting Embedded systems Maryline Chetto the capability to harvest energy from the environment. The electrical energy which is available to power these devices changes over time and is limited by the size of the energy storage unit such as battery

  20. Thermodynamics in 2+1 flavor QCD with improved Wilson quarks by the fixed scale approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Umeda; S. Aoki; S. Ejiri; T. Hatsuda; K. Kanaya; Y. Maezawa; H. Ohno

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study thermodynamic properties of 2+1 flavor QCD with improved Wilson quarks coupled with the RG improved Iwasaki glue, using the fixed scale approach. We present the results for the equation of state, renormalized Polyakov loop, and chiral condensate.

  1. Conformal Bootstrap Approach to O(N) Fixed Points in Five Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin-Beom Bae; Soo-Jong Rey

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether O(N)-invariant conformal field theory exists in five dimensions with its implication to higher-spin holography was much debated. We find an affirmative result on this question by utilizing conformal bootstrap approach. In solving for the crossing symmetry condition, we propose a new approach based on specification for the low-lying spectrum distribution. We find the traditional one-gap bootstrapping is not suited since the nontrivial fixed point expected from large-N expansion sits at deep interior (not at boundary or kink) of allowed solution region. We propose two-gap bootstrapping that specifies scaling dimension of two lowest scalar operators. The approach carves out vast region of lower scaling dimensions and universally features two tips. We find that the sought-for nontrivial fixed point now sits at one of the tips, while the Gaussian fixed point sits at the other tip. The scaling dimensions of scalar operators fit well with expectation based on large-N expansion. We also find indication that the fixed point persist for lower values of N all the way down to N=1. This suggests that interacting unitary conformal field theory exists in five dimensions for all nonzero N.

  2. 1 Edgar Nett Mobile Computer Communication SS'10 Problems compared to fixed networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Edgar Nett Mobile Computer Communication SS'10 Problems compared to fixed networks Higher loss-Hoc-Networks routing, service localization, reachability #12;2 Edgar Nett Mobile Computer Communication SS'10 Layering: The philosopher-translator-secretary architecture #12;3 Edgar Nett Mobile Computer Communication SS'10 source

  3. Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method at fixed energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Palmai; Miklos Horvath; Barnabas Apagyi

    2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Simplified solutions of the Cox-Thompson inverse quantum scattering method at fixed energy are derived if a finite number of partial waves with only even or odd angular momenta contribute to the scattering process. Based on new formulae various approximate methods are introduced which also prove applicable to the generic scattering events.

  4. Effects of sea severity on wave-overtopping for FPSO fixed in head seas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakrawala, Murtaza A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments applying regular linear, nonlinear waves (Stokes 5th order-like) and random waves on a fixed FPSO model were performed in the wave-flume tank. Statistical information was gathered for wave overtopping of extreme waves...

  5. A description of auto-fixed subgroups in a free A. Martino a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventura, Enric

    A description of auto-fixed subgroups in a free group A. Martino a , E. Ventura b aDept. of Math(F)/Inn(F) is the outer Email addresses: AMartino@crm.es (A. Martino), enric.ventura@upc.es (E. Ventura). Preprint

  6. Beacon Training in a Water Maze Can Facilitate and Compete With Subsequent Room Cue Learning in Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Beacon Training in a Water Maze Can Facilitate and Compete With Subsequent Room Cue Learning experiments in which rats completed a water-maze blocking procedure, experimental groups were trained to use location. A Room Test (landmarks and background cues only) showed that Stage 1 training with a fixed

  7. Water Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm On December 12, 2014, in Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water...

  9. Water Management Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

  10. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  11. Physical characterization of laminar spray flames in the pressure range 0.1-0.9 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Stefano; Gomez, Alessandro [Yale Center for Combustion Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yale University, P.O. Box 208286, New Haven, CT 06520-8286 (United States)

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study is reported on the physical characterization of the structure of ethanol/argon/oxygen coflow laminar spray diffusion flames in the pressure range 0.1-0.9 MPa. Diagnostic techniques include phase Doppler anemometry to measure the droplet size distribution and the axial and radial velocity components of the droplets. The gas-phase velocity is determined using measurements from the smallest (low Stokes number) droplets and is corrected for thermophoretic effects. Temperature information is obtained using thin-film pyrometry combined with an infrared camera. All flames present a cold inner core, in which little or no vaporization takes place, surrounded by an envelope flame buried in a thermal boundary layer, where most of the droplet evaporation occurs. The thickness of this thermal boundary layer scales with the inverse of the Peclet number. Especially near the base of the flame, photographic evidence of streaks, which in some case even reveal the presence of soot, suggests that some droplets survive the common envelope flame and burn isolated on the oxidizer side in a mixed regime of internal/external group combustion. The reconstruction of the entire droplet vaporization history confirms this evidence quantitatively. A criterion for droplet survival beyond the envelope flame based on the critical value of a suitably defined vaporization Damkohler number is proposed. The scaling and self-similar behavior of the investigated flames suggest that a mixed regime is established, with a momentum-controlled cold core and a buoyancy-controlled high-temperature boundary layer, the thickness of which varies significantly with pressure, as expected from Peclet number scaling. The growth of this layer and the thickness of the vaporization region are reduced at pressures above atmospheric because of density effects on thermal diffusivity. Some aspects of the design of the combustion chamber and of the atomizer system are discussed in detail since they are critical to the suppression of instabilities and to the establishment of a well-defined high-pressure quasi-steady laminar environment. (author)

  12. Commercial Demonstration of the Manufactured Aggregate Processing Technology Utilizing Spray Dryer Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milton Wu; Paul Yuran

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Universal Aggregates LLC (UA) was awarded a cost sharing Co-operative Agreement from the Department of Energy (DOE) through the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program (PPII) to design, construct and operate a lightweight aggregate manufacturing plant at the Birchwood Power Facility in King George, Virginia in October 2001. The Agreement was signed in November 2002. The installation and start-up expenses for the Birchwood Aggregate Facility are $19.5 million. The DOE share is $7.2 million (37%) and the UA share is $12.3 million (63%). The original project team consists of UA, SynAggs, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc. and P. J. Dick, Inc. Using 115,000 ton per year of spray dryer ash (SDA), a dry FGD by-product from the power station, UA will produce 167,000 tons of manufactured lightweight aggregate for use in production of concrete masonry units (CMU). Manufacturing aggregate from FGD by-products can provide an economical high-volume use and substantially expand market for FGD by-products. Most of the FGD by-products are currently disposed of in landfills. Construction of the Birchwood Aggregate Facility was completed in March 2004. Operation startup was begun in April 2004. Plant Integration was initiated in December 2004. Integration includes mixing, extrusion, curing, crushing and screening. Lightweight aggregates with proper size gradation and bulk density were produced from the manufacturing aggregate plant and loaded on a stockpile for shipment. The shipped aggregates were used in a commercial block plant for CMU production. However, most of the production was made at low capacity factors and for a relatively short time in 2005. Several areas were identified as important factors to improve plant capacity and availability. Equipment and process control modifications and curing vessel clean up were made to improve plant operation in the first half of 2006. About 3,000 tons of crushed aggregate was produced in August 2006. UA is continuing to work to improve plant availability and throughput capacity and to produce quality lightweight aggregate for use in commercial applications.

  13. Regulatory Concerns on the In-Containment Water Storage System of the Korean Next Generation Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Jae-Hun; Bang, Young-Seok; Kim, Hho-Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-containment water storage system (IWSS) is a newly adopted system in the design of the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). It consists of the in-containment refueling water storage tank, holdup volume tank, and cavity flooding system (CFS). The IWSS has the function of steam condensation and heat sink for the steam release from the pressurizer and provides cooling water to the safety injection system and containment spray system in an accident condition and to the CFS in a severe accident condition. With the progress of the KNGR design, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has been developing Safety and Regulatory Requirements and Guidances for safety review of the KNGR. In this paper, regarding the IWSS of the KNGR, the major contents of the General Safety Criteria, Specific Safety Requirements, Safety Regulatory Guides, and Safety Review Procedures were introduced, and the safety review items that have to be reviewed in-depth from the regulatory viewpoint were also identified.

  14. Effect of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance of R-134a and R-22 in tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A. [Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States); Pate, M.B. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the effects of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance. Tests were conducted with refrigerant R-134a and triangular-pitch tube bundles made from enhanced-condensation, enhanced-boiling, low-finned, and plain-surface tubes. A 340-SUS polyol-ester (POE) oil was used for the R-134a testing because this lubricant is being integrated into industry for use with this refrigerant. Refrigerant was sprayed onto the tube bundles with low-pressure-drop, wide-angle nozzles located directly above the bundle. Collector testing was conducted with both R-134a and R-22 to determine the percentage of refrigerant contacting the tue bundle. It was found that small concentrations of the polyol-ester lubricant yielded significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of R-134a. The shell-side heat transfer coefficient was more dependent on lubricant concentration than on film-feed supply rate within the range of the respective parameters evaluated in this study. As expected, pure R-22 results show higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with pure R-134a at the same saturation temperature of 2.0 C (35.6 F).

  15. Drinking Water Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  16. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  17. Selective hydrogenation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene in up-flow and down-flow fixed bed reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selective hydrogenation of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene in up-flow and down-flow fixed bed reactors, trickle-bed, modeling, selective hydrogenation. INTRODUCTION For many years fixed bed reactors with co and flooded bed reactors has been investigated and compared for an exothermic multi- step catalytic reaction

  18. Relative performance of body fitted and fictitious domain simulations of flow through fixed packed beds of spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Sourabh V.

    porescale flow in complex configurations of fixed packed beds of spheres at moderate pore Reynolds numbersRelative performance of body fitted and fictitious domain simulations of flow through fixed packed beds of spheres Justin Finn , Sourabh V. Apte School of Mechanical Industrial and Manufacturing

  19. Stability of the numerical method of solving the 3D inverse scattering problem with fixed-energy data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of the numerical method of solving the 3D inverse scattering problem with fixed- energy Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;Inverse Problems 6 (1990) L7-LI2. Printed in the UK with fixed-energy data A G Ramm Mathematics Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

  20. >300GHz Fixed-Frequency and Voltage-Controlled Fundamental Oscillators in an InP DHBT Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    >300GHz Fixed-Frequency and Voltage-Controlled Fundamental Oscillators in an InP DHBT Process, 93106, USA Abstract -- We report fundamental fixed-frequency and voltage-controlled oscillators bandwidth. Index Terms -- Millimeter-wave oscillators, voltage-controlled oscillators, MMIC oscillators. I

  1. Execution timesand execution jitter analysis of real-time tasks under fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bril, Reinder J.

    Execution timesand execution jitter analysis of real-time tasks under fixed-priority pre In this paper, we present worst-case and best-case execution times and (absolute) execution jitter analysis fixed-priority pre-emptive scheduling (FPPS), arbitrary phasing, (absolute) activation jitter

  2. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  3. Solar tracker motor having a fixed caliper and a translating caliper each with an electromagnetic brake system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Scott James

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Concepts and technologies described herein provide for an accurate and cost-effective method for rotating a solar array disk for tracking the movement of the sun. According to various aspects, a motor includes a fixed caliper and a translating caliper positioned adjacent to one another. Electromagnetically controlled brakes on the translating caliper grip the solar array disk while adjacent, but spaced apart, electromagnets on the fixed caliper and the translating caliper are energized to create an attractive force that pulls the translating caliper with the solar array disk toward the fixed caliper. After reaching the fixed caliper, brakes on the fixed caliper are engaged with the disk, brakes on the translating caliper are released from the disk, and the translating caliper is pushed back to the starting location where the process repeats until the desired rotation is completed.

  4. Development and Deployment of Fixed Wireless Access in South West Nigeria: Performance and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeniran, Oluwaranti

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) involves the use of wireless technology to replace copper to connect subscribers to the telephone network. It is a variant of wireless broadband which provides an alternative in the so-called 'last mile' connectivity between the subscriber and the fixed telecommunications network. FWA could either be narrowband or broadband and it is predominantly deployed using the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology. In assessing the extent of development and deployment of FWA, the perspective of the operators and users was elicited primarily through the use of questionnaires. Issues like setup cost, tax, Government incentive, availability of infrastructure and manpower applied to the operators while on the users' part factors like quality of service, signal strength as well as call rate were considered. The South western zone of Nigeria is regarded as one of the most urbanized regions in the south of Sahara, this is not out of place considering the fact that Lagos which is the nation...

  5. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  6. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Memorandum, Managed Phase Out of Halon Fixed Fire Suppression Systems- May 5, 1993

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this memorandum is to provide additional interim departmental criteria on the management of the reduction and potential elimination of Halon fire extinguishing systems within the Department of Energy (DOE). This memorandum supplements the joint Office of Safety and Quality Assurance/Office of Projects and Facilities Management memorandum of September 27, 1990, in which guidance was provided on the installation of new Halon 1301 fixed fire suppression systems and halon 1211 portable fire extinguishers.

  8. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  9. 5d fixed points from brane webs and O7-planes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren Bergman; Gabi Zafrir

    2015-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the properties of five-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories living on 5-brane webs in orientifold 7-plane backgrounds. These include $USp(2N)$ and $SO(N)$ gauge theories with fundamental matter, as well as $SU(N)$ gauge theories with symmetric and antisymmetric matter. We find a number of new 5d fixed point theories that feature enhanced global symmetries. We also exhibit a number of new 5d dualities.

  10. Towards Quantum Gravity: A Framework for Probabilistic Theories with Non-Fixed Causal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucien Hardy

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    General relativity is a deterministic theory with non-fixed causal structure. Quantum theory is a probabilistic theory with fixed causal structure. In this paper we build a framework for probabilistic theories with non-fixed causal structure. This combines the radical elements of general relativity and quantum theory. The key idea in the construction is physical compression. A physical theory relates quantities. Thus, if we specify a sufficiently large set of quantities (this is the compressed set), we can calculate all the others. We apply three levels of physical compression. First, we apply it locally to quantities (actually probabilities) that might be measured in a particular region of spacetime. Then we consider composite regions. We find that there is a second level of physical compression for the composite region over and above the first level physical compression for the component regions. Each application of first and second level physical compression is quantified by a matrix. We find that these matrices themselves are related by the physical theory and can therefore be subject to compression. This is the third level of physical compression. This third level of physical compression gives rise to a new mathematical object which we call the causaloid. From the causaloid for a particular physical theory we can calculate verything the physical theory can calculate. This approach allows us to set up a framework for calculating probabilistic correlations in data without imposing a fixed causal structure (such as a background time). We show how to put quantum theory in this framework (thus providing a new formulation of this theory). We indicate how general relativity might be put into this framework and how the framework might be used to construct a theory of quantum gravity.

  11. Large Lagrangian Actions on Elliptical Solutions of 2-Body and 3-Body Problems with Fixed Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Lv; Shiqing Zhang

    2011-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the works of Gordon ([4]) and Zhang-Zhou([8])) on the variational minimizing properties for Keplerian orbits and Lagrangian solutions of Newtonian 2-body and 3-body problems, we use the constrained variational principle of Ambrosetti-Coti Zelati ([1]) to compute the Lagrangian actions on Keplerian and Lagrangian elliptical solutions with fixed energies, we also find an interesting relationship between period and energy for Lagrangian elliptical solutions with Newtonian potentials.

  12. A non-equilibrium model for fixed-bed multi-component adiabatic adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harwell, Jeffrey Harry

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to enter the bed. Solutions along a z ~ constant char- acteristic are the history of the. volumn element of the bed located a s constant, This physical interpretat1on is a physical approximation of the real world where adsorber discontinuities... 1 3. 3. 2 3e3e3 3. 3. 4 3. 3. 5 Solution of the multi-component adiabatic adsorption equation, . ~ ~ ~ Fluid phase equations. Fixed-bed solid phase equations. , ~ Construction of the solution surface by stepwise integra- tion...

  13. Analysis of the Newton-Sabatier scheme for inverting fixed-energy phase shifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Ramm

    2001-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proved that the Newton-Sabatier (NS) procedure does not solve the inverse scattering problem with fixed-energy data and is not a valid inversion method, in the following sense: 1) the basic integral equation, introduced by R. Newton without derivation, in general, may be not solvable for some $r>0$, and in this case NS procedure breaks down: it produces a potential which is not locally integrable. 2) the ansatz $(\\ast)$ $K(r,s) = \\sum^\\infty_{l=0} c_l \\phi_l (r) u_l (s)$, used by R. Newton, is incorrect: the transformation operator $I-K$, corresponding to a generic does not have $K$ of the form $(\\ast),$ and 3) the set of potentials $q \\in L_{1,1},$ that can possibly be obtained by NS procedure, is not dense in the set of all $L_{1,1}$ potentials in the norm of $L_{1,1}$. Therefore one cannot justify NS procedure even for approximate solution of the inverse scattering problem with fixed-energy phase shifts as data. Thus, the NS procedure, if considered as a method for solving the inverse scattering problem, is based on an incorrect ansatz, the basic integral equation of NS procedure is, in general, not solvable for some $r>0$, and in this case this procedure breaks down, and NS procedure is not an inversion theory: it cannot recover generic potentials $q \\in L_{1,1}$ from their fixed-energy phase shifts. Suppose now that one considers another problem: given fixed-energy phase shifts, corresponding to some potential, find a potential which generates the same phase shifts. Then NS procedure does not solve this problem either: the basic integral equation, in general, may be not solvable for some $r>0$, and then NS procedure breaks down.

  14. Cai, Powell, Yue, Narayanan, Wang, Tate, Renzi, Ercan, Fontes & Gruner. Quantitative analysis of highly transient fuel sprays by time-resolved x-radiography. Appl. Phys. Lett.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    processes are the basis of modern internal combustion engines. Despite decades of intensive experi- mental into the combustion cylinder as opposed to the air intake port , has greatly improved internal combustion engine per computational fluid dynamic simulations of high-pressure sprays and combustion. © 2003 American Institute

  15. Design of 7 wt.% Y2O3-ZrO2/Mullite Plasma-Sprayed Composite Coatings for Increased Creep Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trice, Rodney W.

    examined using X-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and compression creep. Creep test were conducted on all specimens for all combinations of temperature and stress tested, the creep response of the compositeDesign of 7 wt.% Y2O3-ZrO2/Mullite Plasma-Sprayed Composite Coatings for Increased Creep Resistance

  16. Decontamination of Vegetables Sprayed With OP 233 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 136, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    esterase (CaE) B1 intracellularly was constructed and cultivated. The harvested wet cells were vacuum dried was superior to that of the treatments of water, detergent, and a com- mercially available enzyme product. Additionally, the products of pesticide hydrolysis generated by treatment with the enzyme extract were

  17. CaO-based sorbents for CO2 capture prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    -combustion scheme to integrate with WGS or methane steam reforming processes.9 A sorption-enhanced water­gas shi] and aluminum nitrate nonahydrate [Al(NO3)3$9H2O] in ethanol were nebulized via ultrasound, and the resulting

  18. A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical parameterizations, but can vary between biologically productive and non-productive regions, and seasonally within a given region. Major uncertainties include the bubble film thickness at bursting and the variability of organic surfactant activity in the ocean, which is poorly constrained. In addition, marine colloids and cooperative adsorption of polysaccharides may make important contributions to the aerosol, but are not included here. This organic fractionation framework is an initial step towards a closer linking of ocean biogeochemistry and aerosol chemical composition in Earth system models. Future work should focus on improving constraints on model parameters through new laboratory experiments or through empirical fitting to observed relationships in the real ocean and atmosphere, as well as on atmospheric implications of the variable composition of organic matter in sea spray.

  19. Salt spray testing of sacrificial and barrier type coatings for the purpose of finding a corrosion resistant and environmentally acceptable replacement for cadmium plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, E.J.; Haeberle, T.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium plate is used to protect various components of offshore oil and gas production equipment from surface marine environments such as salt spray. This research project was performed to find an environmentally acceptable coating which provides equivalent or superior resistance to surface marine corrosion when compared to cadmium plate. In order to find a replacement for cadmium plate, a large number of sacrificial and barrier type coatings were exposed to an accelerated salt spray test in accordance with ASTM B117-94. The only sacrificial coating which resisted 1,000 hours of accelerated salt spray testing without any indication of failure was the 0.0006-in. thick zinc-nickel plate with an olive drab chromate treatment. Based on these test results, zinc-nickel plate is recommended as a corrosion resistant and environmentally acceptable replacement for cadmium plate for use in surface marine environments. Electroless nickel coatings with a minimum applied thickness of 0.002-in. also resisted 1,000 hours of accelerated salt spray testing without indication of failure. Electroless nickel is not recommended for corrosion resistance in salt spray environments for two reasons. Electroless nickel is susceptible to microcracking when heat treated at moderate to high temperatures. Heat treatment improves the hardness and resultant wear resistance of the coating. Microcracking will compromise the integrity of the coating resulting in pitting, cracking or crevice corrosion of the substrate in corrosive environments. Secondly, any significant mechanical damage to the coating or disbonding of the coating substrate interface will also result in corrosive attack of the substrate.

  20. Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

  1. Effect of annealing on the properties of Sb doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N. Sadananda; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka,Surathkal - 575025, Mangalore (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Sb doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the as deposited films are polycrystalline in nature with (100) preferred orientation. Whereas the films annealed at 450° C for 6h show a preferential orientation along (101) direction. Crystallites size varies from 15.7 nm to 34.95 nm with annealing duration. The Scanning electron microscopic analysis shows the plane and smooth surface of the films. The optical properties of annealed films have shown a variation in the band gap between 3.37 eV and 3.19 eV. Transparency of as grown and annealed films decreases from 78 % to 65% respectively in the visible region. The electrical conductivity of the as grown film shows an increase in the electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude with increase in the annealing duration.

  2. Atomized Spraying of Liquid Metal Droplets on Desired Substrate Surfaces as a Generalized Way for Ubiquitous Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct electronics printing technique through atomized spraying for patterning room temperature liquid metal droplets on desired substrate surfaces is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. This method has generalized purpose and is highly flexible and capable of fabricating electronic components on any desired target objects, with either flat or rough surfaces, made of different materials, or different orientations from 1-D to 3-D geometrical configurations. With a pre-designed mask, the liquid metal ink can be directly deposited on the substrate to form various specific patterns which lead to the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. Further, extended printing strategies were also suggested to illustrate the adaptability of the method such that the natural porous structure can be adopted to offer an alternative way of making transparent conductive film with an optical transmittance of 47% and a sheet resistance of 5.167{\\Omega}/O. Different from the former direct writing technolog...

  3. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  4. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  5. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  6. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

  7. Late Holocene Radiocarbon Variability in Northwest Atlantic Slope Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwood, O; Edinger, E; Guilderson, T P; Ghaleb, B; Risk, M J; Scott, D B

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep-sea gorgonian corals secrete a 2-part skeleton of calcite, derived from dissolved inorganic carbon at depth, and gorgonin, derived from recently fixed and exported particulate organic matter. Radiocarbon contents of the calcite and gorgonin provide direct measures of seawater radiocarbon at depth and in the overlying surface waters, respectively. Using specimens collected from Northwest Atlantic slope waters, we generated radiocarbon records for surface and upper intermediate water layers spanning the pre- and post bomb-{sup 14}C eras. In Labrador Slope Water (LSW), convective mixing homogenizes the pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C signature (-67 {+-} 4{per_thousand}) to at least 1000 m depth. Surface water bomb-{sup 14}C signals were lagged and damped (peaking at {approx} +45{per_thousand} in the early 1980s) relative to other regions of the northwest Atlantic, and intermediate water signals were damped further. Off southwest Nova Scotia, the vertical gradient in {Delta}{sup 14}C is much stronger. In surface water, pre-bomb {Delta}{sup 14}C averaged -75 {+-} 5{per_thousand}. At 250-475 m depth, prebomb {Delta}{sup 14}C oscillated quasi-decadally between -80 and -100{per_thousand}, likely reflecting interannual variability in the presence of Labrador Slope Water vs. Warm Slope Water (WSW). Finally, subfossil corals reveal no systematic changes in vertical {Delta}{sup 14}C gradients over the last 1200 years.

  8. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    of common minerals and contaminants found in Arizona water sources. · Adescriptionofdrinkingwaterregulations...............................................15 2. Properties of Water 2.1 Minerals in Water...............................................23 2.2 Contaminants in Water......................................27 3. Water Quality and Regulations 3.1 Major Water

  9. Deuterium adsorption on water preadsorbed uranium-niobium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jachimowski, T. A. (Thomas Alan); Paffett, M. T. (Mark T.); Kelly, D. (Daniel); Hanrahan, R. J. (Robert J.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the adsorptiodreaction of deuterium on water pre-adsorbed oxidized uranium-niobium alloys at pressures near 1 Torr. Deuterium exposures were conducted at pressures from 1 to 4 Torr at surface temperatures between 300 and 600 K using a fixed dosing time of 30 seconds. Water is preadsorbed at room temperature at a pressure of {approx} 1 Torr for 30 seconds. Subsequent to gaseous exposure the surface temperature of the alloy was increased in a controlled manner and deuterium desorption was monitored using mass spectroscopy. Deuterium is observed to adsorb both at the surface and in the bulk of the uranium-niobium alloys. Water preadsorption prevents deuterium adsorption on all surfaces. The water forms a surface passivation layer at low temperatures that prevents deuterium uptake into the bulk and surface of the sample. As the adsorption temperature of the deuterium increases the amount of deuterium that adsorbs also increases.

  10. Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

  11. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  12. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of transportation, urban blight, agricultural practices, land use, etc. Water resources problems often result fromWATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING formulate sound policy without a good deal of knowledge not presently available. Without adequate models

  13. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  14. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

  15. The infrared fixed point of Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axel Weber

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last decade, the infrared behavior of Yang-Mills theory in the Landau gauge has been scrutinized with the help of Dyson-Schwinger equations and lattice calculations. In this contribution, we describe a technically simple approach to the deep infrared regime via Callan-Symanzik renormalization group equations in an epsilon expansion. This approach recovers, in an analytical and systematically improvable way, all the solutions previously found as solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equations and singles out the solution favored by lattice calculations as the infrared-stable fixed point (for space-time dimensions above two).

  16. Intelligent system design with fixed-base simulation validation for general aviation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong, Jie; Ding, Yuanyuan; Valasek, J.; Painter, John H.

    2003-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Proceedmgs of the 2003 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control Houston Texas *October 5-8.2003 Intelligent System Design with Fixed-Base S imu 1 at i on Va 1 i d a t i on for G en er a 1 Av i at i on Jie Rong Yuanyuan Ding John... Commander 700, which is a light twin-engine, typical CA aircraft. This simulation model also possesses a three-axis autopilot with gain scheduling 0-7803-7891-1/03/$17.00 0 2003 IEEE 580 Authorized licensed use limited to: Texas A M University...

  17. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula A. Buitrago, Mike Morrill, JoAnn S. Lighty, Geoffrey D.; Silcox,

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300- W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150oC. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and intraparticle diffusion. The Freundlich isotherm more accurately described in-flight mercury capture. Using these parameters, very little intraparticle diffusion was evident. Consistent with other data, smaller particles resulted in higher mercury uptake due to available surface area. Therefore, it is important to capture the particle size distribution in the model. At typical full-scale sorbent feed rates, the calculations underpredicted adsorption, suggesting that wall effects can account for as much as 50 percent of the removal, making it an important factor in entrained-mercury adsorption models.

  18. Many-body state engineering using measurements and fixed unitary dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mads Kock Pedersen; Jens Jakob W. H. Sørensen; Malte C. Tichy; Jacob F. Sherson

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a scheme to prepare a desired state or subspace in high-dimensional Hilbert-spaces using repeated applications of a single static projection operator onto the desired target and fixed unitary dynamics. Benchmarks against other control schemes, performed on generic Hamiltonians and on Bose-Hubbard systems, establish the competitiveness of the method. As a concrete application of the control of mesoscopic atomic samples in optical lattices we demonstrate the near deterministic preparation of Schr\\"{o}dinger cat states of all atoms residing on either the odd or the even sites.

  19. Preparation of a primary argon beam for the CERN fixed target physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Küchler, D., E-mail: detlef.kuchler@cern.ch; O’Neil, M.; Scrivens, R. [CERN, BE Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)] [CERN, BE Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Thomae, R. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa)] [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fixed target experiment NA61 in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron is studying phase transitions in strongly interacting matter. Up to now they used the primary beams available from the CERN accelerator complex (protons and lead ions) or fragmented beams created from the primary lead ion beam. To explore a wider range of energies and densities a request was made to provide primary argon and xenon beams. This paper describes the results of the setting up and 10 week test run of the Ar{sup 11+} beam from the 14.5 GHz ECR ion source and the linear accelerator (Linac3) at CERN.

  20. The Problem of Two Fixed Centers: Bifurcation Diagram for Positive Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcello Seri

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a comprehensive analysis of the Euler-Jacobi problem of motion in the field of two fixed centers with arbitrary relative strength and for positive values of the energy. These systems represent nontrivial examples of integrable dynamics and are analysed from the point of view of the energy-momentum mapping from the phase space to the space of the integration constants. In this setting we describe the structure of the scattering trajectories in phase space and derive an explicit description of the bifurcation diagram, i.e. the set of critical value of the energy-momentum map.