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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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1

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can accumulate to harmful levels in drinking water. As radionuclides decay, they emit radioactive parti- cles such as alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Each type of particle produces different effects on humans. Alpha particles... penetrating, alpha particles cause more damage per unit volume than do beta particles or gamma rays. Beta particles and gamma rays deposit their ener- gy over longer distances. Beta particles can be stopped by a piece of wood or a thin sheet of metal...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

2

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

5

Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

6

Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Water Quality Regulations (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of these regulations is to establish water quality standards for the state's surface waters. These standards are intended to restore, preserve and enhance the physical, chemical and...

8

Proceedings of the Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A workshop entitled ''Radionuclide Contamination in Water Resources'' was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan from Tuesday 29 May through Friday 1 June. This workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and three organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan: the Institute of Nonproliferation, the Institute of Hydrogeology and Hydrophysics, and KazAtomProm. Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, three national laboratories, and 13 different organizations from the Republic of Kazakhstan attended the workshop. A complete list of attendees, the workshop program, and information on the background and motivation for this workshop are provided in this report. The objective of the workshop was to identify critical problems, discover what is known about the problems related to radionuclide contamination of groundwater resources, form collaborative teams, and produce a small number proposals that both address further characterization and assess risk via contaminant fate and transport modeling. We plan to present these proposals to U.S. government agencies and international sponsors for funding.

Richardson, J H; Duisebayev, B; Janecky, D R; Knapp, R; Rosenburg, N D; Smith, D K; Tompson, A F B; Tyupkina, O; Veselov, V V

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

9

Ground Water Management Regulations (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The rules and regulations apply to the management of the state's ground water resources. In addition, the Commissioner of Conservation has recommended that oil and gas operators with an interest...

10

State Water Permit Regulation (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the purpose of this regulation to adopt standards applicable to the storage, discharge, or disposal of any waste which, if unregulated, will cause pollution of waters of the state or result...

11

Inland Wetlands and Water Courses Regulations (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Regulated activities in or near inland wetlands and water courses include the removal or depositing of material, land or water obstruction or alteration, construction, pollution, or water diversion...

12

Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation, soil, animals, cistern water, and ground water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is intended as a resource document for the eventual cleanup of Bikini Atoll and contains a summary of the data for the concentrations of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu, and /sup 241/Am in vegetation through 1987 and in soil through 1985 for 14 islands at Bikini Atoll. The data for the main residence island, Bikini, and the most important island, Eneu, are extensive; these islands have been the subject of a continuing research and monitoring program since 1974. Data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, and pigs from Bikini and Eneu Islands are presented. Also included are general summaries of our resuspension and rainfall data from Bikini and Eneu Islands. The data for the other 12 islands are much more limited because samples were collected as part of a screening survey and the islands have not been part of a continuing research and monitoring program. Cesium-137 is the radionuclide that produces most of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake by terrestrial foods and secondly by direct external gamma exposure. Remedial measures for reducing the /sup 137/Cs uptake in vegetation are discussed. 40 refs., 32 figs., 131 tabs.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Stuart, M.L.

1988-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Water Pollution Control Permit Regulations (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations outline the permits and permitting processes for point discharges to surface waters and outline the monitoring and reporting requirements.

14

Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Regulated water production to control water coning in oil wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REGULATED WATER PRODUCTION TO CONTROL WATER CONING IN OIL WELLS A Thesis by ISHWAR SINGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1975 Major... Subject: Petroleum Engineering REGULATED WATER PRODUCTION TO CONTROL WATER CONING IN OIL WELLS A Thesis by ISHWAR SINGH Approved as to style and content by (Chairman of Committee) (Membe ) (Head of Departmen lVlemb ) May 1975 ( I ABST RACT...

Sim?ha, I?s?vara

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

An assessment of natural radionuclides in water of Langat River estuary, Selangor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An estuary is an area that has a free connection with the open sea and it is a dynamic semi-enclosed coastal bodies. Ex-mining, aquaculture and industrial areas in Selangor are the sources of pollutants discharged into the estuary water. Radionuclides are considered as pollutants to the estuary water. Gamma radiations emitted by natural radionuclides through their decaying process may give impact to human. The radiological effect of natural radionuclides which are {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, were explored by determining the respective activity concentrations in filtered water along the Langat estuary, Selangor. Meanwhile, in- situ water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolve oxygen (DO), salinity, total suspended solid (TSS), pH and turbidity were measured by using YSI portable multi probes meter. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K in samples are in the range of 0.17 - 0.67 Bq/L, 0.16 - 0.97 Bq/L and 1.22 - 5.57 Bq/L respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of uranium-238 and thorium-232 were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The thorium concentrations are between 0.17 ppm to 0.28 ppm and uranium concentrations were 0.25 ppm to 0.31 ppm. The results show activity concentrations of radionuclides are slightly high near the river estuary. The Radium Equivalent, Absorbed Dose Rate, External Hazard Index, and Annual Effective Dose of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K are also studied.

Hamzah, Zaini, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Rosli, Tengku Nurliana Tuan Mohd, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Saat, Ahmad, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com; Wood, Ab. Khalik, E-mail: tengkuliana88@gmail.com [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set forth requirements for the registration of water withdrawals and reporting of water losses from the Great Lakes Basin. The regulations apply to water withdrawals from...

19

Naturally-Occurring Radionuclides In Drinking Water From Surface And Groundwater Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactivity in water for human consumption is under closer scrutiny than ever before and many countries adopted guideline values based on total alpha and total beta activity measurements. Although most waters from surface circulation meet these guidelines, it is frequently found that groundwater exceed guideline values. Results of water analyses by alpha spectrometry clarified that the main radionuclides present are from the uranium decay series, such as uranium isotopes, radium ({sup 226}Ra), radon ({sup 222}Rn), and also {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Occasionally, groundwater displayed {sup 226}Ra concentrations higher than 1 Bq L{sup -1} and {sup 222}Rn concentrations above 1000 Bq L{sup -1}. Nevertheless, lack of conformity of these waters with guidelines adopted, generally, is not due to anthropogenic inputs.

Carvalho, F. P.; Madruga, M. J.; Oliveira, J. M.; Lopes, I.; Ferrador, G.; Sequeira, M. M. [Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN) Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

20

Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of /sup 90/Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, /sup 137/Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

1981-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Water-Chemistry Evolution and Modeling of Radionuclide Sorption and Cation Exchange during Inundation of Frenchman Flat Playa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric tests and other experiments with nuclear materials were conducted on the Frenchman Flat playa at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada; residual radionuclides are known to exist in Frenchman Flat playa soils. Although the playa is typically dry, extended periods of winter precipitation or large single-event rainstorms can inundate the playa. When Frenchman Flat playa is inundated, residual radionuclides on the typically dry playa surface may become submerged, allowing water-soil interactions that could provide a mechanism for transport of radionuclides away from known areas of contamination. The potential for radionuclide transport by occasional inundation of the Frenchman Flat playa was examined using geographic information systems and satellite imagery to delineate the timing and areal extent of inundation; collecting water samples during inundation and analyzing them for chemical and isotopic content; characterizing suspended/precipitated materials and archived soil samples; modeling water-soil geochemical reactions; and modeling the mobility of select radionuclides under aqueous conditions. The physical transport of radionuclides by water was not evaluated in this study. Frenchman Flat playa was inundated with precipitation during two consecutive winters in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Inundation allowed for collection of multiple water samples through time as the areal extent of inundation changed and ultimately receded. During these two winters, precipitation records from a weather station in Frenchman Flat (Well 5b) provided information that was used in combination with geographic information systems, Landsat imagery, and image processing techniques to identify and quantify the areal extent of inundation. After inundation, water on the playa disappeared quickly, for example, between January 25, 2011 and February 10, 2011, a period of 16 days, 92 percent of the areal extent of inundation receded (2,062,800 m2). Water sampling provided valuable information about chemical processes occurring during inundation as the water disappeared. Important observations from water-chemistry analyses included: 1) total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride ion (Cl-) concentrations were very low (TDS: < 200 mg/L and Cl-: < 3.0 mg/L, respectively) for all water samples regardless of time or areal extent; 2) all dissolved constituents were at concentrations well below what might be expected for evaporating shallow surface waters on a playa, even when 98 to 99 percent of the water had disappeared; 3) the amount of evaporation for the last water samples collected at the end of inundation, estimated with the stable isotopic ratios ?2H or ?18O, was approximately 60 percent; and 4) water samples analyzed by gamma spectroscopy did not show any man-made radioactivity; however, the short scanning time (24 hours) and relative chemical diluteness of the water samples (TDS ranged between 39 and 190 mg/L) may have contributed to none being detected. Additionally, any low-energy beta emitting radionuclides would not have been detected by gamma spectroscopy. From these observations, it was apparent that a significant portion of water on the playa did not evaporate, but rather infiltrated into the subsurface (approximately 40 percent). Consistent with this water chemistry-based conclusion is particle-size analysis of two archived Frenchman Flat playa soils samples, which showed low clay content in the near surface soil that also suggested infiltration. Infiltration of water from the playa during inundation into the subsurface does not necessarily imply that groundwater recharge is occurring, but it does provide a mechanism for moving residual radionuclides downward into the subsurface of Frenchman Flat playa. Water-mineral geochemical reactions were modeled so that changes in the water chemistry could be identified and the extent of reactions quantified. Geochemical modeling showed that evaporation; equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide and calcite; dissolution of sodium chloride, gypsum, and composite volcanic g

Hershey, Ronald; Cablk, Mary; LeFebre, Karen; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Decker, David

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K{sub d}s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K{sub d}s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K{sub d}s and it was used for the column testing to obtain breakthrough curves under various conditions of pH and brine concentration. The breakthrough point had a dependency on pH and the brine concentration. We found that when the pH was higher or the brine concentration was lower, the longer it took to reach the breakthrough point. The inhibition of strontium adsorption by alkali earth metals would be diminished for conditions of higher pH and lower brine concentration. (authors)

Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 (Japan)] [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 (Japan); Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan)] [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Regulation of Gas, Electric, and Water Companies (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Public Service Commission is responsible for regulating gas, electric, and water companies in the state. This legislation contains provisions for such companies, addressing planning and siting...

24

Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey, in situ measurements with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and hand-held LaBr3 systems, soil sampling with a variety of tools, and laboratory gamma spectrometric analysis of those samples. A further benefit of the measurement campaign was to gain familiarity with the many logistical aspects of performing radiological field work at NNSS ahead of the PRex. Many practical lessons concerning the proper methodologies and logistics of using the surveying and sampling equipment were noted. These Lessons Learned are compiled together in Appendix A. The vehicle-based survey was successful in that it found a previously unknown hotspot (determined to be 232Th) while it demonstrated that a better method for keeping a serpentine track without staking was needed. Some of the soil sampling equipment was found to be impractical for the application, though core sampling would not be the correct way to take soil samples for a fresh vent deposit (as opposed to an old site like DILUTED WATERS). Due to the site’s age, 137Cs was the only fission radioisotope identified, though others were searched for. While not enough samples were taken and analyzed to definitively link the 137Cs to DILUTED WATERS as opposed to other NNSS activities, results were consistent with the historical DILUTED WATERS plume. MDAs were compared for soil sampling and in situ measurements.

Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

radionuclides | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radionuclides radionuclides Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a candidate...

26

Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance in Terrestrial Plants Water Regulation on LandWater Regulation on Land --PlantsPlants WWipip= W= Wrr + W+ Waa --WWtt --WWss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance in Terrestrial Plants Water Regulation on LandWater waters internal water WWrr =Roots=Roots WWaa = Air= Air WWtt = Transpiration= Transpiration WWss = Secretions= Secretions Water Regulation on Land - Plants Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

27

Toxicology 198 (2004) 3944 Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toxicology 198 (2004) 39­44 Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries identified 10 g/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 g

California at Berkeley, University of

28

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, & Infant Mortality in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Regulation of Dams and Bridges Affecting Navigable Waters (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Chapter 31 of the Wisconsin Statutes lays out the regulations relevant to dams and bridges on or near navigable waters. This statute establishes that the Department of Natural Resources has...

30

Sorption coefficients for radionuclides on samples from the water-bearing Magenta and Culebra members of the Rustler Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sorbing characteristics of samples from the Magenta and Culebra dolomites of the Rustler Formation (which overlie the proposed site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico) for various radionuclides have been studied. Core samples extracted from various depths and boreholes within a given formation were selected to provide a cross section of materials which are present in the formations. They varied in composition from pure dolomite to nearly pure anhydrite. The radionuclides used in the sorption coefficient measurements (isotopes of Cs, Sr, Tc, Eu, Am and Pu) were dissolved in a simulated Culebra groundwater at concentrations of 0.1 ..mu..Ci/m1 or less. The results indicate that the sorption coefficients (Kd's) of these water-bearing units may vary widely depending on the borehole area and over several feet in depth in a common borehole. Cesium Kd values from 0.6 to 218 ml/g and 1.2 to 68 on Magenta and Culebra samples, respectively. Strontium Kd values ranged from 1.1 to 30 on Magenta Samples and from 0.6 to 32 on Culebra samples. Variations of Eu, Pu and Am Kd's were generally less than an order of magnitude on both Culebra and Magenta samples. Technetium was not sorbed by any of the samples. With few exceptions, samples with high dolomite contents had higher sorption coefficients than those with high anhydrite concentrations. Clay content may also be a factor for some radionuclides, particularly Cs, which has been shown to sorb preferentially on clay particles in Magenta.

Lynch, A. W.; Dosch, R. G.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards are established pursuant to the provisions of Subchapter 2 of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Act 472 of the Acts of Arkansas...

32

NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES MEASUREMENTS IN DRINKING WATER BY LIQUID SCINTILLATION COUNTING. METHODS AND RESULTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

procedure, standardized by International Standard Organization.4 On the contrary, total indicative dose in view of a large scale monitoring program. World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water

33

Viscosity of interfacial water regulates ice nucleation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ice formation on solid surfaces is an important phenomenon in many fields, such as cloud formation and atmospheric icing, and a key factor for applications in preventing freezing. Here, we report temperature-dependent nucleation rates of ice for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. The results show that hydrophilic surface presents a lower ice nucleation rate. We develop a strategy to extract the thermodynamic parameters, J{sub 0} and ?, in the context of classical nucleation theory. From the extracted J{sub 0} and ?, we reveal the dominant role played by interfacial water. The results provide an insight into freezing mechanism on solid surfaces.

Li, Kaiyong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Qiaolan; Zhang, Yifan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China) [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Shun; Zhou, Xin [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cui, Dapeng; Wang, Jianjun, E-mail: wangj220@iccas.ac.cn; Song, Yanlin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Key Laboratory of Green Printing, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

34

Significance of apparent discrepanices in water ages derived from atmospheric radionuclides at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cosmogenic {sup 36}Cl and {sup 14}C produced in the atmosphere are being used to estimate water residence times in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Results thus far show a systematic discordance in that {sup 14}C-based ages are generally one to two orders of magnitude younger than {sup 36}Cl-based ages. This lack of concordance probably arises from one or more of the following reasons: (1) different transport mechanisms, e.g., vapor transport for {sup 14}C; (2) different magnitudes and timing of bomb-pulse signals; (3) mixing of waters from different flow paths; and (4) possibly inadequate methods for correcting for the effect of sample contamination by carbon or chlorine from sources other than the infiltrating water. Preliminary numerical simulation results using the FEHMN code suggest that spatial variation in infiltration rates can enhance lateral flow and mixing that leads to discordance in apparent ages depending on the dating technique. Examples are presented to show that disparate radiometric ages are inevitable and to be expected where mixing of waters of markedly different ages occurs.

Liu, B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Wolfsberg, A.; Robinson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sharma, P. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

35

Recommended Parameter Values for GENII Modeling of Radionuclides in Routine Air and Water Releases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The GENII v2 code is used to estimate dose to individuals or populations from the release of radioactive materials into air or water. Numerous parameter values are required for input into this code. User-defined parameters cover the spectrum from chemical data, meteorological data, agricultural data, and behavioral data. This document is a summary of parameter values that reflect conditions in the United States. Reasonable regional and age-dependent data is summarized. Data availability and quality varies. The set of parameters described address scenarios for chronic air emissions or chronic releases to public waterways. Considerations for the special tritium and carbon-14 models are briefly addressed. GENIIv2.10.0 is the current software version that this document supports.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen; Napier, Bruce A.; Hay, Tristan R.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

EMSL - radionuclides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

radionuclides en Composition and Interface Analysis of InGaNGaN Multiquantum-Wells on GaN Substrates Using Atom Probe Tomography. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

37

Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Used Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge. Water, Air, and Soilin Ground Level Air and Sewage Sludge. Water, Air, and SoilMeans of Measurements on Sewage Sludge. Water, Air, and Soil

Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Resource Management Services: Water Regulation, Part 600: Applications for Licenses and Preliminary Permits Under the Water Power Act (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations provide instructions for applications proposing the construction, repair, or operation of hydropower sources. Applications are reviewed by the Water Power and Control Commission.

39

Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation Regulations (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations establish Soil and Water Conservation Districts throughout the State of Connecticut. Each district has its own Board of Directors; membership and election procedures are defined...

40

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, and environmental regulations from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. ...

Greenstone, Michael

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Division of Water, Parts 670-672: Reservoir Releases Regulations (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Water releases from New York State reservoirs are subject to monitoring and regulation; these sections establish rules for the Schoharie, Shandaken Tunnel-Esopus Creek, Cannonsville, Pepacton,...

43

Resource Management Services: Water Regulation, Parts 595-599: Hazardous Substances (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations aim to prevent the release of hazardous substances into surface water and groundwater resources. They contain guidance for facilities which store and process hazardous substances,...

44

Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical methods have been applied for the prediction of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through water-saturated fractured porous rock. The presence of colloids may enhance the transport of radionuclides in groundwater by reducing...

Baek, Inseok

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

SciTech Connect: RADTRAD: A simplified model for RADionuclide...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) to estimate transport and removal of radionuclides and dose at...

47

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J. Prouty

2006-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

48

Modeling Treatment Decisions, Costs, and Risk Implications of Regulations for the US Water Supply Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Treatment Decisions, Costs, and Risk Implications of Regulations for the US Water Supply, Carnegie Mellon University ABSTRACT Assessments of the impacts of proposed drinking water standards have. In this research, a new modeling framework is described for evaluating the impacts of multiple drinking water

de Weck, Olivier L.

49

DECEMBER 2008 WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATION AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DECEMBER 2008 WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE: IMPLICATIONS FOR REGULATION AND URBAN PLANNING WRRI Technical Completion Report No. 346 Gwendolyn A. Aldrich Janie Chermak Jennifer A. Thacher NEW MEXICO WATER-0001 Telephone (505) 646-4337 FAX (505) 646-6418 email: nmwrri@wrri.nmsu.edu #12;WATER QUALITY AND LAND USE

Johnson, Eric E.

50

Sediments can be important in regulating stream water P concentrations, and this has implications for establishing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

607 Sediments can be important in regulating stream water P concentrations, and this has and biotic processes to better understand the role of sediments in determining stream water dissolved P concentrations. Sediment and stream water samples were collected during low discharge from 105 streams across

David, Mark B.

51

Managing water demand as a regulated open MAS. (Work in progress)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Managing water demand as a regulated open MAS. (Work in progress) Vicente Botti1 , Antonio Scientific Research Council, {vbotti,agarridot,agiret}@dsic.upv.es, pablo@iiia.csic.es I. WATER MANAGEMENT management models are based on equa- tional descriptions of aggregate supply and demand in a water basin [2

Garrido, Antonio

52

Managing water demand as a regulated open MAS. (Work in progress)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Managing water demand as a regulated open MAS. (Work in progress) Vicente Botti 1 , Antonio Scientific Research Council, {vbotti,agarridot,agiret}@dsic.upv.es, pablo@iiia.csic.es I. WATER MANAGEMENT management models are based on equa­ tional descriptions of aggregate supply and demand in a water basin [2

Garrido, Antonio

53

Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater and Radionuclide Migration in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater, using FEHM, evaluate perturbed groundwater behavior associated with underground nuclear tests to an instantaneous pressurization event caused by a nuclear test when different permeability and porosity

54

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental ...

Greenstone, Michael

55

Division of Water, Part 673: Dam Safety Regulations (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations address dam safety, define dam hazard categories and inspection procedures, and apply to any owner of a dam. Dam owners are required to maintain dams in a safe condition at all...

56

Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Bs. As. (1429) (Argentina)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

58

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

59

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process.

Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations and Water Quality Certification (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations...

62

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides (Spanish)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

materiales, pueden transmitir radion?clidos al agua potable. Con mayor frecuencia se encuentran altos niveles de radion?clidos en el agua subterr?nea (por exemplo, de agua de pozos) que en el agua superficial (tales como lagos y arroyos). Muchos aparatos y... de agua potable, ?ste puede dar una idea de cu?l debe ser el nivel apropiado de un contaminante en los pozos priva- dos para aquellos que utilizan dichas fuentes. Actualmente no existe un MCL para el rad?n. Sin embargo, la EPA est? proponiendo dos...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

63

Database of radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water, fish, waterfowl, gamebirds, and shellfish downstream of Hanford`s single-pass production reactors, 1960--1970. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from radionuclide emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The time periods of greatest interest to the HEDR study vary depending on the type of environmental media concerned. Concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River media from 1960--1970 provide the best historical data for validation of the Columbia River pathway computer models. This report provides the historical radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water (1960--1970), fish (1960--1967), waterfowl (1960--1970), gamebirds (1967--1970), and shellfish (1960--1970). Because of the large size of the databases (845 pages), this report is being published on diskette. A diskette of this report is available from the Technical Steering Panel (c/o K. CharLee, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, Department of Ecology, Technical Support and Publication Information Section, P.O. Box 47651, Olympia, Washington 98504-7651).

Thiede, M.E.; Duncan, J.P.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Task 3: PNNL Visit by JAEA Researchers to Participate in TODAM Code Applications to Fukushima Rivers and to Evaluate the Feasibility of Adaptation of FLESCOT Code to Simulate Radionuclide Transport in the Pacific Ocean Coastal Water Around Fukushima  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four JAEA researchers visited PNNL for two weeks in February, 2013 to learn the PNNL-developed, unsteady, one-dimensional, river model, TODAM and the PNNL-developed, time-dependent, three dimensional, coastal water model, FLESCOT. These codes predict sediment and contaminant concentrations by accounting sediment-radionuclide interactions, e.g., adsorption/desorption and transport-deposition-resuspension of sediment-sorbed radionuclides. The objective of the river and coastal water modeling is to simulate • 134Cs and 137Cs migration in Fukushima rivers and the coastal water, and • their accumulation in the river and ocean bed along the Fukushima coast. Forecasting the future cesium behavior in the river and coastal water under various scenarios would enable JAEA to assess the effectiveness of various on-land remediation activities and if required, possible river and coastal water clean-up operations to reduce the contamination of the river and coastal water, agricultural products, fish and other aquatic biota. PNNL presented the following during the JAEA visit to PNNL: • TODAM and FLESCOT’s theories and mathematical formulations • TODAM and FLESCOT model structures • Past TODAM and FLESCOT applications • Demonstrating these two codes' capabilities by applying them to simple hypothetical river and coastal water cases. • Initial application of TODAM to the Ukedo River in Fukushima and JAEA researchers' participation in its modeling. PNNL also presented the relevant topics relevant to Fukushima environmental assessment and remediation, including • PNNL molecular modeling and EMSL computer facilities • Cesium adsorption/desorption characteristics • Experiences of connecting molecular science research results to macro model applications to the environment • EMSL tour • Hanford Site road tour. PNNL and JAEA also developed future course of actions for joint research projects on the Fukushima environmental and remediation assessments.

Onishi, Yasuo

2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

65

Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Rules and Regulations for Governing the Administration and Enforcement of the Fresh Water Wetlands Act (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations assert the Department of Environmental Management's authority to administer and enforce the Fresh Water Wetlands Act (R.I. Gen. Laws, ch. 2-1-18 through 2-1-25), and describe...

68

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

H. Miller

2004-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

72

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

73

Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

Hill, P.R.

1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

74

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

75

Improved temperature regulation of process water systems for the APS storage ring.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Beam stability and operational reliability of critical mechanical systems are key performance issues for synchrotron accelerators such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Stability is influenced by temperature fluctuations of the process water (PW) used for cooling and/or temperature conditioning storage ring (SR) components such as vacuum chambers, magnets, absorbers, etc. Operational reliability is crucial in maintaining facility beam operations and remaining within downtime ''budgets.'' Water systems for the APS storage ring were originally provided with a distributive control system (DCS) capable of regulation to {+-}1.0 F, as specified by facility design requirements. After several years of operation, a particular mode of component mortality indicated a need for upgrade of the temperature control system. The upgrade that was implemented was chosen for both improved component reliability and temperature stability (now on the order of {+-}0.2 F for copper components and {+-}0.05 F for aluminum components). The design employs a network of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) for temperature control that functions under supervision of the existing DCS. The human-machine interface (HMI) of the PLC system employs RSView32 software. The PLC system also interfaces with the EPICS accelerator control system to provide monitoring of temperature control parameters. Eventual supervision of the PLC system by EPICS is possible with this design.

Putnam, C.; Dortwegt, R.

2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

Tracing Noble Gas Radionuclides in the Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trace analysis of radionuclides is an essential and versatile tool in modern science and technology. Due to their ideal geophysical and geochemical properties, long-lived noble gas radionuclides, in particular, 39Ar (t1/2 = 269 yr), 81Kr (t1/2 = 2.3x10^5 yr) and 85Kr (t1/2 = 10.8 yr), have long been recognized to have a wide range of important applications in Earth sciences. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the development of practical analytical methods, and has led to applications of these isotopes in the hydrosphere (tracing the flow of groundwater and ocean water). In this article, we introduce the applications of these isotopes and review three leading analytical methods: Low-Level Counting (LLC), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA).

P. Collon; W. Kutschera; Z. -T. Lu

2004-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

77

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

470E-20Ě1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Will Federal Environmental Regulation be Permitted to Infringe on State Vested Water Rights?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Irrigation Dist. v. State Water Resources Control Bd. , 27516. See United States v. State Water Resources Control Bd. ,by the § 8 deference to state water law. 372 U.S. 627, 630-

Dorrity, Kristen

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Construction of a Shallow Underground Low-background Detector for a CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The International Monitoring System (IMS) is a verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and in addition to a series of radionuclide monitoring stations, contains sixteen radionuclide laboratories capable of verification of radionuclide station measurements. This paper presents an overview of a new commercially obtained low-background detector system for radionuclide aerosol measurements recently installed in a shallow (>30 meters water equivalent) underground clean-room facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Specifics such as low-background shielding materials, active shielding methods, and improvements in sensitivity to IMS isotopes will be covered.

Forrester, Joel B.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Miley, Harry S.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

APT radionuclide production experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D. [and others

1994-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

85

Effects of Regulated Water Flows on Regen-eration of Fremont Cottonwood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-long dam and reservoir system designed to provide water and hydroelectric power to the greater Phoenix

86

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

87

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Rules and Regulations Pertaining to a User Fee System for Point Source Dischargers that Discharge Pollutants into the Waters of the State (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations establish a user fee system for point source dischargers that discharge pollutants into the surface waters of the State. The funds from such fees are used by the Department of...

89

Rules and Regulations Governing Geophysical, Seismic or Other Type Exploration on State-Owned Lands Other Than State-Owned Marine Waters (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Rules and Regulations Governing Geophysical, seismic or Other Type Exploration on State-Owned Lands Other than State-Owned Marine Waters is applicable to the Natural Gas Sector and the Coal...

90

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

91

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

92

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2010 INL Report for Radionuclides (2011)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the calendar Year 2010 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.'

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site, Calendar year 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1994, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the ``MEI.`` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

Gleckler, B.P.; Diediker, L.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jette, S.J.; Rhoads, K.; Soldat, S.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site, calendar year 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1992 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to an member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, ``National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,`` Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.``

Diediker, L.P.; Johnson, A.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Rhoads, K.; Klages, D.L.; Soldat, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rokkan, D.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

96

Environmental regulations and technology: use and disposal of municipal waste-water sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The document describes the five major sludge use/disposal options currently available--land application, distribution and marketing of sludge products, land-filling, incineration, and ocean disposal--and factors influencing their selection and implementation. It also provides an initial framework for evaluating sludge use/disposal alternatives, and describes accepted and proven use/disposal technologies and Federal regulations pertinent to sludge management.

Not Available

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

98

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Gas Well Drilling and Water Resources Regulated by the Pennsylvania Oil and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used in drilling and fracking · Recent increase in permit fee to fund new DEP enforcement · Permit fluids ­ return fluids from fracking ­ mixture of water, sand and chemicals Production fluids ­ fluids, manganese, barium, arsenic, etc.) Surfactants/detergents Total suspended solids Oil/Grease Fracking

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

100

Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

Hu, Q; Mori, A

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Pacific Northwest Laboratory facilities radionuclide inventory assessment CY 1992-1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessments for evaluating compliance with airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subparts H and I) were performed for 33 buildings at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory on the Hanford Site, and for five buildings owned and operated by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The assessments were performed using building radionuclide inventory data obtained in 1992 and 1993. Results of the assessments are summarized in Table S.1 for DOE-PNL buildings and in Table S.2 for Battelle-owned buildings. Based on the radionuclide inventory assessments, four DOE-PNL buildings (one with two emission points) require continuous sampling for radionuclides per 40 CFR 61. None of the Battelle-owned buildings require continuous emission sampling.

Sula, M.J.; Jette, S.J.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Borders and Discharges: Regulation of Tribal Activities under the Clean Water Act in States with NPDES Program Authority  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

finds a particular need. State water quality standards wouldpreempt ap- plication of state water quality laws pursuantwith a down- stream state's water quality standards. Clean

Craig, Robin Kundis

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Position Paper on Practicable Performance Criteria for the Removal Efficiency of Volatile Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of fuel reprocessing, volatile radionuclides may be released from the facility stack if no processes are put in place to remove them. The radionuclides that are of concern in this document are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. The question we attempted to answer is how efficient must this removal process be for each of these radionuclides? To answer this question, we examined the three regulations that may impact the degree to which these radionuclides must be reduced before process gases can be released from the facility. These regulations are 40 CFR 61 (EPA 2010a), 40 CFR 190(EPA 2010b), and 10 CFR 20 (NRC 2012). These regulations apply to the total radionuclide release and to a particular organ - the thyroid. Because these doses can be divided amongst all the radionuclides in different ways and even within the four radionuclides in question, we provided several cases. We first looked at the inventories for these radionuclides for three fuel types (PWR UOX, PWR MOX, and AHTGR), several burn-up values, and time out of reactor extending to 200 y. We calculated doses to the maximum exposed individual (MEI) with the EPA code CAP-88 (Rosnick 1992). Finally, we looked at two dose cases. Allocating all of the allowable dose to be used by the volatile radionuclides is one case, but, perhaps, unrealistic. In lieu of this, we arbitrarily selected a value of 10% of the allowable dose to be assigned to the volatile radionuclides. We calculated the required decontamination factors (DFs) for both of these cases, including the case for the thyroid dose for which 14C and 129I were the main contributors. With respect to 129I doses, we found that the highest dose was calculated with iodine as a fine particulate. The dose scaled as the fraction of the total 129I that was particulate. Therefore, we assumed for all of our calculations that 100% of the 129I was particulate and allow the user of the results given here to scale our calculated doses to their needs.

R. T. Jubin; N. Soelberg; D. M. Strachan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

111

Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to Equilibration-Based Radionuclide Sensors for Environmental Monitoring: From Flow Injection Solid-Phase Absorptiometry to Equilibration-Based Abstract: The development...

112

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 2. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a study on sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the effect of sediment on the transport of radionuclides in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York. A source of radioactivity in these creeks is the Western New York Nuclear Service Center which consists of a low-level waste disposal site and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Other sources of radioactivity include fallout from worldwide weapons testing and natural background radioactivity. The major objective of the PNL Field Sampling Program is to provide data on sediment and radionuclide characteristics in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks to verify the use of the Sediment and Radionuclide Transport model, SERATRA, for nontidal rivers. This report covers the results of field data collection conducted during September 1978. Radiological analysis of sand, silt, and clay size fractions of suspended and bed sediment, and water were performed. Results of these analyses indicate that the principal radionuclides occurring in these two water courses, with levels significantly higher than background levels, during the Phase 2 sampling program were Cesium-137 and Strontium-90. These radionuclides had significantly higher activity levels above background in the bed sediment, suspended sediment, and water samples. Other radionuclides that are possibly being released into the surface water environment by the Nuclear Fuel Services facilities are Plutonium-238, 239, and 240, Americium-241, Curium-244, and Tritium. More radionuclides were consistently found in the bed sediment as compared to suspended sediment. The fewest radionuclides were found in the water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. The higher levels were found in the bed sediments for the gamma-emitters and in the suspended sediment for the alpha and beta-emitters (not including Tritium).

Walters, W.H.; Ecker, R.M.; Onishi, Y.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Manger, Ryan P [ORNL

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

Jannik, T.

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

Blunt, B.

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospherically deposited radionuclides...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Be in rainwater. Atmospheric inputs of the radionuclides to Cumbria (UK) were recorded. Rainwater... ; lakes; radionuclide; deposition; history; modelling. Reference ... Source:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

assessing potential radionuclide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deep vadose zones. Using a dual Lu, Zhiming 112 COUNCIL ON RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS POSITION PAPER ON MIXED WASTE CiteSeer Summary: The Council on Radionuclides...

122

a5 radionuclide transport: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pollutants Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 31 COUNCIL ON RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS POSITION PAPER ON MIXED WASTE CiteSeer Summary: The Council on Radionuclides...

123

ambulatory radionuclide monitoring: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

deep vadose zones. Using a dual Lu, Zhiming 78 COUNCIL ON RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS POSITION PAPER ON MIXED WASTE CiteSeer Summary: The Council on Radionuclides...

124

Radionuclide Migation Project 1984 progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses the hydrogeologic settings and histories of studies associated with the Cheshire (U20n), Cambric (U5e), Nash (UE2ce), Bilby (U3cn), Bourbon (U7n), and Faultless (UC1) Events. Radionuclide and some chemical data are presented for water samples from cavity or chimney wells associated with the Cheshire, Cambric, and Bilby Events, and from satellite wells at the Cambric, Nash, Bibly, Bourbon, and Faultless Event sites. The report also gives the results of studies of specific sampling or analytical methodologies. These studies demonstrated that the apparent migration of /sup 155/Eu is an artfact of spectrometric misidentification of gamma- and x-ray peaks from other constituents. A potential problem with atmospheric contamination of samples collected with evacuated thief samples was also identified. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to some of the Cheshire cavity samples collected, and preliminary results suggest that substantial amounts of activity may be associated with colloidal particles in the size range of 0.006 to 0.45 ..mu..m. A study has begun of the recharge of effluent water from RNM-2S (Cambric satellite well) into the desert floor as a result of nine years of continuous pumping. This report gives the initial results of unsaturated zone studies showing the propagation of moisture and tritium fronts through the shallow soil. Geochemical modeling of the behavior of ruthenium and technetium was carried out, with particular emphasis on the identification of ionic species that would be potentially mobile under NTS ground-water conditions. The report compares the results with observations of ruthenium migration to the Cambric satellite well.

Buddemeier, R.W.; Isherwood, D. (comps.)

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2012 INL Report for Radionuclides (2013)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2011 INL Report for Radionuclides (2012)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, 'Protection of the Environment,' Part 61, 'National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,' Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.' The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants—Calendar Year 2013 INL Report for Radionuclides (2014)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the calendar year 2011 radionuclide air emissions and resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public from operations at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory Site. This report was prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, “Protection of the Environment,” Part 61, “National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,” Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.” The effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual member of the public was 4.58E-02 mrem per year, 0.46 percent of the 10 mrem standard.

Mark Verdoorn; Tom Haney

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

131

Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments.

Curtis, D.B.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Estimates of Columbia River radionuclide concentrations: Data for Phase 1 dose calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project to estimate the radiation doses people may have received from historical Hanford Site operations. Under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel, the project is being conducted in phases. The objective of the first phase is to assess the feasibility of the project-wide technical approach for acquiring data and developing models needed to calculate potential radiation doses. This report summarizes data that were generated for the Phase 1 dose calculations. These included monthly average concentrations of specific radionuclides in Columbia River water and sediments between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam for the years 1964 to 1966. Nine key radionuclides were selected for analysis based on estimation of their contribution to dose. Concentrations of these radionuclides in the river were estimated using existing measurements and hydraulic calculations based on the simplifying assumption that dilution and decay were the primary processes controlling the fate of radionuclides released to the river. Five sub-reaches between Priest Rapids Dam and McNary Dam, corresponding to population centers and tributary confluences, were identified and monthly average radionuclide concentrations were calculated for each sub-reach. The hydraulic calculations were performed to provide radionuclide concentration estimates for time periods and geographic locations where measured data were not available. The validity of the calculation method will be evaluated in Phase 2. 12 refs., 13 figs., 49 tabs.

Richmond, M.C.; Walters, W.H.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/use of glands a. Decreased permeability of skin in some sp. b. Secretion of lipids (wax) from skin glands c

Dever, Jennifer A.

134

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= ectothermy Homeothermy = endothermy lTemperature appears as the main limiting factor in the distribution. Herps found in extremely dry environments · Ctenophorus ornatus ­ "ant eater" #12;6 Body temperature of ECTOTHERMY: SUN ­ ultimate heat source... Conduction & Convection ­ indirect heat source. Poikilothermy

Dever, Jennifer A.

135

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= ectothermy Homeothermy = endothermy lTemperature appears as the main limiting factor in the distribution in extremely dry environments · Ctenophorus ornatus ­ "ant eater" Body temperature & thermoregulation I of ECTOTHERMY: SUN ­ ultimate heat source... Conduction & Convection ­ indirect heat source. Poikilothermy

Dever, Jennifer A.

136

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Water Management Act (Massachusetts)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

138

Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. This evaluation was conducted in support of the development of a CAU contaminant transport model for the Frenchman Flat CAU.

Farnham, Irene

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Appendix II. Calculation of Slope Factors for Naturally Occurring Radionuclides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix II. Calculation of Slope Factors for Naturally Occurring Radionuclides In developing calculates the slope factors for the naturally occurring radionuclides under consideration. The Radionuclide products with half-lives of less than 6 months). As explained below, naturally occurring radionuclides

140

System and method for assaying a radionuclide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program: the status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The most credible means for radionuclides disposed as solid wastes in deep-geologic repositories to reach the biosphere is through dissolution of the solid waste and subsequent radionuclide transport by circulating ground water. Thus safety assessment activities must consider the physicochemical interactions between radionculides present in ground water with package components, rocks and sediments since these processes can significantly delay or constrain the mass transport of radionuclides in comparison to ground-water movement. This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radiouclides in ground water and rocks and sediments away from the near-field repository. The primary mechanism discussed is adsorption-desorption, which has been studied using two approaches. Empirical studies of adsorption-desorption rely on distribution coefficient measurements while mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation.

Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Regulations of Wells (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Environmental Protection regulates the construction, repair, and abandonment of wells, as well as the persons and businesses undertaking such practices. Governing boards of water...

143

Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in 1999 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities'', and with the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247. Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The federal regulations in Subpart H of 40 CFR 61 require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from US. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1999 from Hanford Site point sources was 0.029 mrem (2.9 E-04 mSv), which is less than 0.3 percent of the federal standard. WAC 246-247 requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Hanford Site sources, during routine as well as nonroutine operations. The state has adopted the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE into their regulations. The state further requires that the EDE to the MEI be calculated not only from point source emissions but also from diffuse and fugitive sources of emissions. The EDE from diffuse and fugitive emissions at the Hanford Site in 1999 was 0.039 mrem (3.9 E-04 mSv) EDE. The total dose from point sources and from diffuse and fugitive sources of radionuclide emissions during all operating conditions in 1999 was 0.068 mrem (6.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is less than 0.7 percent of the state standard.

ROKKAN, D.J.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Interlayer Water Regulates the Bio-nano Interface of a \\b{eta}-sheet Protein stacking on Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated an integrated bio-nano interface consisting of a \\b{eta}-sheet protein stacked onto graphene. We found that the stacking assembly of the model protein on graphene could be controlled by water molecules. The interlayer water filled within interstices of the bio-nano interface could suppress the molecular vibration of surface groups on protein, and could impair the CH...{\\pi} interaction driving the attraction of the protein and graphene. The intermolecular coupling of interlayer water would be relaxed by the relative motion of protein upon graphene due to the interaction between water and protein surface. This effect reduced the hindrance of the interlayer water against the assembly of protein on graphene, resulting an appropriate adsorption status of protein on graphene with a deep free energy trap. Thereby, the confinement and the relative sliding between protein and graphene, the coupling of protein and water, and the interaction between graphene and water all have involved in the modulation of behaviors of water molecules within the bio-nano interface, governing the hindrance of interlayer water against the protein assembly on hydrophobic graphene. These results provide a deep insight into the fundamental mechanism of protein adsorption onto graphene surface in water.

Wenping Lv; Guiju Xu; Hongyan Zhang; Xin Li; Shengju Liu; Huan Niu; Dongsheng Xu; Renan Wu

2014-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

145

Determination of the Distribution and Inventory of Radionuclides within a Savannah River Site Waterway - 13202  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to evaluate the radionuclide inventory within the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this effort included the analysis of previously existing sampling and analysis data as well as additional stream bed and flood plain sampling and analysis data acquired to delineate horizontal and vertical distributions of the radionuclide as part of the ongoing SRS environmental restoration program, and specifically for the LTR IOU program. While cesium-137 (Cs-137) is the most significant and abundant radionuclide associated with the LTR IOU it is not the only radionuclide, hence the scope included evaluating all radionuclides present and includes an evaluation of inventory uncertainty for use in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The scope involved evaluation of the radionuclide inventory in the P-Reactor and R-Reactor cooling water effluent canal systems, PAR Pond (including Pond C) and the flood plain and stream sediment sections of LTR between the PAR Pond Dam and the Savannah River. The approach taken was to examine all of the available Sediment and Sediment/Soil analysis data available along the P- and R-Reactor cooling water re-circulation canal system, the ponds situated along those canal reaches and along the length of LTR below Par Pond dam. By breaking the IOU into a series of sub-components and sub-sections, the mass of contaminated material was estimated and a representative central concentration of each radionuclide was computed for each compartment. The radionuclide inventory associated with each sub-compartment was then aggregated to determine the total radionuclide inventory that represented the full LTR IOU. Of special interest was the inventory of Cs-137 due to its role in contributing to the potential dose to an offsite member of the public. The overall LTR IOU inventory of Cs-137 was determined to be 2.87 E+02 GBq, which is similar to two earlier estimates. This investigation provides an independent, ground-up estimate of Cs-137 inventory in LTR IOU utilizing the most recent field data. (authors)

Hiergesell, R.A.; Phifer, M.A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNS Bldg. 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNS Bldg. 773-43A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

DETERMINATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION AND INVENTORY OF RADIONUCLIDES WITHIN A SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WATERWAY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to evaluate the radionuclide inventory within the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Savannah River Site (SRS). The scope of this effort included the analysis of previously existing sampling and analysis data as well as additional streambed and floodplain sampling and analysis data acquired to delineate horizontal and vertical distributions of the radionuclide as part of the ongoing SRS environmental restoration program, and specifically for the LTR IOU program. While cesium-137 (Cs-137) is the most significant and abundant radionuclide associated with the LTR IOU it is not the only radionuclide, hence the scope included evaluating all radionuclides present and includes an evaluation of inventory uncertainty for use in sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. The scope involved evaluation of the radionuclide inventory in the P-Reactor and RReactor cooling water effluent canal systems, PAR Pond (including Pond C) and the floodplain and stream sediment sections of LTR between the PAR Pond Dam and the Savannah River. The approach taken was to examine all of the available Sediment and Sediment/Soil analysis data available along the P- and R-Reactor cooling water re-circulation canal system, the ponds situated along those canal reaches and along the length of LTR below Par Pond dam. By breaking the IOU into a series of sub-components and sub-sections, the mass of contaminated material was estimated and a representative central concentration of each radionuclide was computed for each compartment. The radionuclide inventory associated with each sub-compartment was then aggregated to determine the total radionuclide inventory that represented the full LTR IOU. Of special interest was the inventory of Cs-137 due to its role in contributing to the potential dose to an offsite member of the public. The overall LTR IOU inventory of Cs-137 was determined to be 75.5 Ci, which is similar to two earlier estimates. This investigation provides an independent, ground-up estimate of Cs-137 inventory in LTR IOU utilizing the most recent field data.

Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

147

Radionuclide characterization and associated dose from long-lived radionuclides in close-in fallout delivered to the marine environment at Bikini and Enewetak Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between June 1946 and October 1958, Enewetak and Bikini Atolls were used by the United States as testing grounds for 66 nuclear devices. The combined explosive yield from these tests was 107 Mt (Mt TNT equivalents). This testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with quantities of radioactive fission and particle activated products, and unspent radioactive nuclear fuel that entered the aquatic environment of the atolls. Today, the sediments in the lagoons are reservoirs for 10's of TBq of the transuranics and some long-lived fission and activation products. The larger amounts of contamination are associated with fine and coarse sediment material adjacent to the locations of the high yield explosions. Radionuclides are also distributed vertically in the sediment column to various depths in all regions of the lagoons. Concentrations greater than fallout background levels are found in filtered water sampled over several decades from all locations and depths in the lagoons. This is a direct indication that the radionuclides are continuously mobilized to solution from the solid phases. Of particular importance is the fact that the long-lived radionuclides are accumulated to different levels by indigenous aquatic plants and organisms that are used as food by resident people. One might anticipate finding continuous high contamination levels in many of the edible marine organisms from the lagoons, since the radionuclides associated with the sediments are not contained and are available to the different organisms in a relatively shallow water environment. This is not the case. We estimate that the radiological dose from consumption of the edible parts of marine foods at Enewetak and Bikini is presently about 0.05% of the total 50-year integral effective dose from all other exposure pathways that include ingestion of terrestrial foods and drinking water, external exposure and inhalation. The total radiological dose from the marine pathway is dominated by the natural radionuclides, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb. Man-made radionuclides presently contribute less than 0.3% of the dose from these natural radionuclides in the marine food chain.

Noshkin, V. E.; Robison, W. L.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

1998 INEEL National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1998. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1998, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

1999 INEEL National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emission of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,'' each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1999. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contract concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For CY 1999, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 7.92E-03 mrem (7.92E-08 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

J. W. Tkachyk

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Concentrations of radionuclides in reef and lagoon pelagic fish from the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent man-made radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands of the Northern Marshall Islands. The atolls and islands include Rongelap, Utirik, Taka, Bikar, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Likiep, Jemo, Ailuk, Mejet, Wotho, Ujelang and Bikini. Over 4000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef fish, pelagic species, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. A report is given of all available concentration data for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239+240/Pu, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Am as well as naturally occurring /sup 40/K and other gamma emitting radionuclides in tissues and organs of different species of fish collected from the atolls.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.L.; Marsh, K.V.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Radionuclide Migration through Sediment and Concrete: 16 Years of Investigations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Part of these services includes safe disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, performance assessment analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires continuing data collection to increase confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied on to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the order. Cement-based solidification and stabilization is considered for hazardous waste disposal because it is easily done and cost-efficient. One critical assumption is that concrete will be used as a waste form or container material at the Hanford Site to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The radionuclides iodine-129, selenium-75, technetium-99, and uranium-238 have been identified as long-term dose contributors (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, these constituents of potential concern may be released from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and migrate into the surrounding subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989; 1992; 1993a, b; 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. Each of the test methods performed throughout the lifetime of the project has focused on different aspects of the concrete waste form weathering process. Diffusion of different analytes [technetium-99 (Tc-99), iodine-125 (I-125), stable iodine (I), uranium (U), and rhenium (Re)] has been quantified from experiments under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The water-saturated conditions provide a conservative estimate of the concrete’s performance in situ, and the unsaturated conditions provide a more accurate estimate of the diffusion of contaminants from the concrete.

Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Powers, Laura; Whyatt, Greg A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

152

Resource Management Services: Water Regulation, Part 605: Applications for Diversion or Use of Water for Purposes Other Than Hydro-Electric Power Projects (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These rules apply to all applications for a license or a permit to take, divert, appropriate or otherwise use the waters of the State, except applications for hydro-electric power projects....

153

Library Regulations Library Regulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Library Regulations 2012-13 Library Regulations UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM REGULATIONS LIBRARY REGULATIONS Preamble: The Library Regulations apply to all users of library facilities managed on behalf of the University by Library Services, and thus there are sections that apply also to non- members of the University

Birmingham, University of

154

Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

155

Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

156

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

158

Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

Quinn, N.W.T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Computation Of The Residual Radionuclide Activity Within Three Natural Waterways At The Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2010 a Composite Analysis (CA) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Savannah River Site (SRS) was completed. This investigation evaluated the dose impact of the anticipated SRS End State residual sources of radionuclides to offsite members of the public. Doses were assessed at the locations where SRS site streams discharge into the Savannah River at the perimeter of the SRS. Although the model developed to perform this computation indicated that the dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/yr (30 mrem/yr), associated with CA, was not approached at the Points of Assessment (POAs), a significant contribution to the total computed dose was derived from the radionuclides (primarily Cs-137) bound-up in the soil and sediment of the drainage corridors of several SRS streams. DOE’s Low Level Waste Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviewed the 2010 CA and identified several items to be addressed in the SRS Maintenance Program. One of the items recognized Cs-137 in the Lower Three Runs (LTR) Integrator Operable Unit (IOU), as a significant CA dose driver. The item made the recommendation that SRS update the estimated radionuclide inventory, including Cs-137, in the LTR IOU. That initial work has been completed and its radionuclide inventory refined. There are five additional streams at SRS and the next phase of the response to the LFRG concern was to obtain a more accurate inventory and distribution of radionuclides in three of those streams, Fourmile Branch (FMB), Pen Branch (PB) and Steel Creek (SC). Each of these streams is designated as an IOU, which are defined for the purpose of this investigation as the surface water bodies and associated wetlands, including the channel sediment, floodplain sed/soil, and related biota. If present, radionuclides associated with IOUs are adsorbed to the streambed sediment and soils of the shallow floodplains that lie immediately adjacent to stream channels. The scope of this effort included the evaluation of any previous sampling and analysis data that had been collected for various SRS investigations, as well as the additional streambed and floodplain sampling and analysis data acquired more recently as part of the ongoing SRS IOU program, and associated specifically with the FMB, PB, and SC IOUs. Samples have been acquired along the waterways, within the stream channels themselves and in the adjacent floodplain zones. While Cs-137 is the most significant and abundant radionuclide associated with the SRS waterways, it is not the only radionuclide, hence work was conducted to evaluate all radionuclides present.

Hiergesell, R. A.; Phifer, M. A.

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Annual report, October 1980-September 1981 Multimedia radionuclide exposure assessment modeling.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are jointly developing a methodology for assessing exposures of the air, water, and plants to radionuclides as part of an overall development effort of a radionuclide disposal site evaluation methodology. Work in FY-1981 continued the development of the Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) methodology and initiated an assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons, New Mexico, using the methodology. The AIRTRAN model was completed, briefly tested, and documented. In addition, a literature search for existing validation data for AIRTRAN was performed. The feasibility and advisability of including the UNSAT moisture flow model as a submodel of the terrestrial code BIOTRAN was assessed. A preliminary application of the proposed MCEA methodology, as it related to the Mortandad-South Mortandad Canyon site in New Mexico is discussed. This preliminary application represented a scaled-down version of the methodology in which only the terrestrial, overland, and surface water components were used. An update describing the progress in the assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons is presented. 38 references, 47 figures, 11 tables.

Whelan, G.; Onishi, Y.; Simmons, C.S.; Horst, T.W.; Gupta, S.K.; Orgill, M.M.; Newbill, C.A.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Radionuclide release calculations for selected severe accident scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of source term calculations that were performed in support of the NUREG-1150 study. Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five US Nuclear Power Plants.'' This is the sixth volume of a series of reports. It supplements results presented in the earlier volumes. Analyses were performed for three of the NUREG-1150 plants: Peach Bottom, a Mark I, boiling water reactor; Surry, a subatmospheric containment, pressurized water reactor; and Sequoyah, an ice condenser containment, pressurized water reactor. Complete source term results are presented for the following sequences: short term station blackout with failure of the ADS system in the Peach Bottom plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA for the Surry plant; station blackout with a pump seal LOCA in the Sequoyah plant; and a very small break with loss of ECC and spray recirculation in the Sequoyah plant. In addition, some partial analyses were performed which did not require running all of the modules of the Source Term Code Package. A series of MARCH3 analyses were performed for the Surry and Sequoyah plants to evaluate the effects of alternative emergency operating procedures involving primary and secondary depressurization on the progress of the accident. Only thermal-hydraulic results are provided for these analyses. In addition, three accident sequences were analyzed for the Surry plant for accident-induced failure of steam generator tubes. In these analyses, only the transport of radionuclides within the primary system and failed steam generator were examined. The release of radionuclides to the environment is presented for the phase of the accident preceding vessel meltthrough. 17 refs., 176 figs., 113 tabs.

Denning, R.S.; Leonard, M.T.; Cybulskis, P.; Lee, K.W.; Kelly, R.F.; Jordan, H.; Schumacher, P.M.; Curtis, L.A. (Battelle Columbus Div., OH (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Ground Water Management Act (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Under the Ground Water Management Act of 1992, Virginia manages ground water through a program regulating the withdrawals in certain areas called Ground Water Management Areas (GWMA). Currently,...

164

A groundwater flow and transport model of long-term radionuclide migration in central Frenchman flat, Nevada test site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of groundwater flow and transport models were created for the Central Testing Area of Frenchman Flat at the former Nevada Test Site to investigate the long-term consequences of a radionuclide migration experiment that was done between 1975 and 1990. In this experiment, radionuclide migration was induced from a small nuclear test conducted below the water table by pumping a well 91 m away. After radionuclides arrived at the pumping well, the contaminated effluent was discharged to an unlined ditch leading to a playa where it was expected to evaporate. However, recent data from a well near the ditch and results from detailed models of the experiment by LLNL personnel have convincingly demonstrated that radionuclides from the ditch eventually reached the water table some 220 m below land surface. The models presented in this paper combine aspects of these detailed models with concepts of basin-scale flow to estimate the likely extent of contamination resulting from this experiment over the next 1,000 years. The models demonstrate that because regulatory limits for radionuclide concentrations are exceeded only by tritium and the half-life of tritium is relatively short (12.3 years), the maximum extent of contaminated groundwater has or will soon be reached, after which time the contaminated plume will begin to shrink because of radioactive decay. The models also show that past and future groundwater pumping from water supply wells within Frenchman Flat basin will have negligible effects on the extent of the plume.

Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Becker, Naomi M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ruskauff, Gregory [NAVARRO-INTERA, LLC.; De Novio, Nicole [GOLDER AND ASSOC.; Wilborn, Bill [US DOE NNSA NSO

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radionuclide Air Emission Report May 21, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environment, Safety, and Health Division Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Prepared Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Operation Office Information Office: U.S. Department of Energy Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2006 (in compliance with 40 CFR 61, Subpart H) Site Name: Ernest Orlando

166

Water Use Registration and Allocation (North Carolina)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule states regulations for water withdrawals, permits required for withdrawals and water use during water droughts and emergencies. Self-supplied business and industrial water users subject...

167

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The COMPLY computer program for demonstrating compliance with national radionuclide air emission standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed national radionuclide air emission standards for a number of source categories. One of these standards applies to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensees and non-Department of Energy facilities having the potential to release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Approximately 6000 facilities are subject to the standard, which limits the effective whole-body dose commitment to the maximally exposed individual from radionuclide releases to the atmosphere. A computer program to assist the regulated community in determining compliance has been developed by the EPA's Office of Radiation Programs. The computer program COMPLY calculates the dose to an individual residing outside the facility. The program considers dose from inhalation, ingestion of contaminated food, air immersion, and ground deposition. It is based on models developed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Compliance procedures provided in COMPLY are designed to reduce the burden on the regulated community. The approach begins with simple-to-use methods that are very conservative in determining compliance. The methods become progressively less conservative but more complicated at succeeding levels. Each higher level requires the input of site-specific information, but allows a more realistic estimate of dose. This paper describes the COMPLY program, and provides estimates of the work required and the degree of conservatism in the dose computed at each level.

Colli, A.; Beal, S.; Loomis, D. (Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Sequim Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and ashington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. This report meets the calendar year 2012 Sequim Site annual reporting requirement for its operations as a privately-owned facility as well as its federally-contracted status that began in October 2012. Compliance is indicated by comparing the estimated dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) with the 10 mrem/yr Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard. The MSL contains only sources classified as fugitive emissions. Despite the fact that the regulations are intended for application to point source emissions, fugitive emissions are included with regard to complying with the EPA standard. The dose to the Sequim Site MEI due to routine operations in 2012 was 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2012. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Gervais, Todd L.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

"The integrity of the water" --that strangely poetic phrase buried in the legalese of the Clean Water Act --is what's really at stake for all those charged with monitoring, regulating and preventing aquatic pollution. But "integrity" is not an easy goal t  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bottomline "The integrity of the water" -- that strangely poetic phrase buried in the legalese of the Clean Water Act -- is what's really at stake for all those charged with monitoring, regulating and preventing aquatic pollution. But "integrity" is not an easy goal to attain, at last in the realm of San

172

Estimate of radionuclide release characteristics into containment under severe accident conditions. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed review of the available light water reactor source term information is presented as a technical basis for development of updated source terms into the containment under severe accident conditions. Simplified estimates of radionuclide release and transport characteristics are specified for each unique combination of the reactor coolant and containment system combinations. A quantitative uncertainty analysis in the release to the containment using NUREG-1150 methodology is also presented.

Nourbakhsh, H.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Natural attenuation of metals and radionuclides: Report from a workshop held by Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural attenuation is increasingly applied to remediate contaminated soils and ground waters. Roughly 25% of Superfund groundwater remedies in 1995 involved some type of monitored natural attenuation, compared to almost none 5 years ago. Remediation by natural attenuation (RNA) requires clear evidence that contaminant levels are decreasing sufficiently over time, a defensible explanation of the attenuation mechanism, long-term monitoring, and a contingency plan at the very least. Although the primary focus of implementation has to date been the biodegradation of organic contaminants, there is a wealth of scientific evidence that natural processes reduce the bioavailability of contaminant metals and radionuclides. Natural attenuation of metals and radionuclides is likely to revolve around sorption, solubility, biologic uptake and dilution controls over contaminant availability. Some of these processes can be applied to actively remediate sites. Others, such as phytoremediation, are likely to be ineffective. RNA of metals and radionuclides is likely to require specialized site characterization to construct contaminant and site-specific conceptual models of contaminant behavior. Ideally, conceptual models should be refined such that contaminant attenuation can be confidently predicted into the future. The technical approach to RNA of metals and radionuclides is explored here.

Brady, P.V.; Borns, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geochemistry Dept.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford site calendar year 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1995, and the resulting effective dose equivalent (FDE) to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the `MEI.` The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, `National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,` Subpart H, `National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.` This report has also been prepared for and will be submitted in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, `Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.`

Gleckler, B.P., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

175

THE ACCUMULATION OF RADIONUCLIDES BY THE THORNBACK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study of the levels of raclionuclidcs accumulntcd by the thornback ray, Haia chatu, R nomnigratory species, has been made in the Irish Sea, where thcsc fish have been living most of their lives in an environment contaminated with the fission products Ru”“, Cc14’, CP’, and SP’. The rclativc importance of the different radionuclides as contaminants of fish tissues and the importance of determining whether a steady-state system exists in a marine arca receiving radioactive wastes arc ’ discussed.

Raia Clavata L; In The; Irish Sea; John Mauchlinel; Angela M. Taylor

176

Diffusion and Leaching Behavior of Radionuclides in Category 3 Waste Encasement Concrete and Soil Fill Material – Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed, and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The retardation factors for radionuclides contained in the waste packages can be determined from measurements of diffusion coefficients for these contaminants through concrete and fill material. Some of the mobilization scenarios include (1) potential leaching of waste form before permanent closure cover is installed; (2) after the cover installation, long-term diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste form into surrounding fill material; (3) diffusion of radionuclides from contaminated soils into adjoining concrete encasement and clean fill material. Additionally, the rate of diffusion of radionuclides may be affected by the formation of structural cracks in concrete, the carbonation of the buried waste form, and any potential effect of metallic iron (in the form of rebars) on the mobility of radionuclides. The radionuclides iodine-129 ({sup 129}I), technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), and uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) are identified as long-term dose contributors in Category 3 waste (Mann et al. 2001; Wood et al. 1995). Because of their anionic nature in aqueous solutions, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, and carbonate-complexed {sup 238}U may readily leach into the subsurface environment (Serne et al. 1989, 1992a, b, 1993, and 1995). The leachability and/or diffusion of radionuclide species must be measured to assess the long-term performance of waste grouts when contacted with vadose-zone pore water or groundwater. Although significant research has been conducted on the design and performance of cementitious waste forms, the current protocol conducted to assess radionuclide stability within these waste forms has been limited to the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Method 1311 Federal Registry (EPA 1992) and ANSI/ANS-16.1 leach test (ANSI 1986). These tests evaluate the performance under water-saturated conditions and do not evaluate the performance of cementitious waste forms within the context of waste repositories which are located within water-deficient vadose zones. Moreover, these tests assess only the diffusion of radionuclides from concrete waste forms and neglect evaluating the mechanisms of retention, stability of the waste form, and formation of secondary phases during weathering, which may serve as long-term secondary hosts for immobilization of radionuclides. The results of recent investigations conducted under arid and semi-arid conditions (Al-Khayat et al. 2002; Garrabrants et al. 2002; Garrabrants and Kosson 2003; Garrabrants et al. 2004; Gervais et al. 2004; Sanchez et al. 2002; Sanchez et al. 2003) provide valuable information suggesting structural and chemical changes to concrete waste forms which may affect contaminant containm

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Powers, Laura; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

178

Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site Calendar year 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in I998 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) member of the public. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR SI), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,'' and with the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection--Air Emissions. The federal regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H; require the measurement and reporting of radionuclides emitted from Department of Energy facilities and the resulting offsite dose from those emissions. A standard of 10 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent (EDE) is imposed on them. The EDE to the MEI due to routine emissions in 1998 from Hanford Site point sources was 1.3 E-02 mrem (1.3 E-04 mSv), which is 0.13 percent of the federal standard. Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) requires the reporting of radionuclide emissions from all Department of Energy Hanford Site sources. The state has adopted into these regulations the 40 CFR 61 standard of 10 mrem/yr EDE. The EDE to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1998 was 2.5 E-02 mrem (2.5 E-04 mSv). This dose added to the dose from point sources gives a total for all sources of 3.8 E-02 mrem/yr (3.8 E-04 mSv) EDE, which is 0.38 percent of the 10 mrem/yr standard. An unplanned release on August 26, 1998, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site resulted in a potential dose of 4.1 E-02 mrem to a hypothetical individual at the nearest point of public access to that area. This hypothetical individual was not the MEI since the wind direction on the day of the release was away from the MEI residence. The potential dose from the unplanned event was similar in magnitude to that from routine releases during 1998. Were the release from this unplanned event combined with routine releases, the total dose would be less than 1 percent ofthe 10 mrem/yr standard.

DIEDIKER, L.P.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Water Rights (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

180

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Dam Safety Regulation (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of the Dam Safety Regulation is to ensure that all dams constructed in the state of Mississippi are permitted and thus do not potentially harm wildlife, water supplies and property. ...

182

Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

183

Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APRIL 2013 Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in California: A WAsteWAteR And WAteR QuAlity Pe | Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in California Wheeler Institute for Water Law & Policy Center for Law #12;Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in California | 3Berkeley law | wheeler InstItute for water law

Kammen, Daniel M.

184

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

Buehrer, R. Michael

185

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radionuclides radioactivnoe...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sea area there are two possible sources for such radionuclides: Sellafield (earlier Windscale Source: Ris National Laboratory Collection: Multidisciplinary Databases and...

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Be in rainwater. Atmospheric inputs of the radionuclides to Cumbria (UK) were recorded. Rainwater Source: Short, Daniel - Department of Science, Robert Morris University...

187

antibody targeted radionuclides: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PAPER ON MIXED WASTE CiteSeer Summary: The Council on Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals (CORAR) is concerned with the slow progress in providing comprehensive viable...

188

Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Laboratory and field studies related to the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This annual report describes research conducted in FY 1990 by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hydrology/Radionuclide Migration Project. This multi-agency project measures the underground movement of radionuclides related to nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. This project continues the long-term experiment at the site of the Cambric nuclear test. Water pumped from a well adjacent to the explosion cavity continues to show decreasing amounts of tritium and Krypton 85 but no Cesium 139. Analyses of drillback debris shows a distinction between refractory and volatile materials in respect to both their location in the test cavity and their leachability with groundwater. We surveyed materials used during nuclear testing to evaluate any post-test hazard; we concluded that most such materials pose a minimal hazard. The Los Alamos drilling program provided an opportunity for us to sample a collapsed zone above the cavity of a test, which was fired 2 years ago. We continue our research in colloid characterization and in detection of low levels of Technetium 99 in Nevada Test Site water. During FY 1990, we drilled a new hole in the Yucca Flat area to study radionuclide migration. This report also describes Los Alamos management and planning activities in support of this project. 20 refs., 2 figs., 14 tabs.

Thompson, J.L. (comp.)

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

192

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The EDE to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine emissions in 2011 from PNNL Site sources was 1.7E 05 mrem (1.7E-7 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2011. The total radiological dose for 2011 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions was more than 10,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

193

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2012 from PNNL Site sources is 9E-06 mrem (9E-08 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 1E-7 mrem (1E-9 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 2E-6 mrem (2E-08 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2012. The total radiological dose for 2012 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 1E-5 mrem (1E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

194

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Campus Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emissions that result in the highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a member of the public, referred to as the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The report has been prepared in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection Air Emissions. The dose to the PNNL Site MEI due to routine major and minor point source emissions in 2013 from PNNL Site sources is 2E-05 mrem (2E-07 mSv) EDE. The dose from fugitive emissions (i.e., unmonitored sources) is 2E-6 mrem (2E-8 mSv) EDE. The dose from radon emissions is 1E-11 mrem (1E-13 mSv) EDE. No nonroutine emissions occurred in 2013. The total radiological dose for 2013 to the MEI from all PNNL Site radionuclide emissions, including fugitive emissions and radon, is 2E-5 mrem (2E-7 mSv) EDE, or 100,000 times smaller than the federal and state standard of 10 mrem/yr, to which the PNNL Site is in compliance

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Radionuclide Partitioning in an Underground Nuclear Test Cavity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2004, a borehole was drilled into the 1983 Chancellor underground nuclear test cavity to investigate the distribution of radionuclides within the cavity. Sidewall core samples were collected from a range of depths within the re-entry hole and two sidetrack holes. Upon completion of drilling, casing was installed and a submersible pump was used to collect groundwater samples. Test debris and groundwater samples were analyzed for a variety of radionuclides including the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 155}Eu, the activation products {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu, and the actinides U, Pu, and Am. In addition, the physical and bulk chemical properties of the test debris were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Microprobe measurements. Analytical results were used to evaluate the partitioning of radionuclides between the melt glass, rubble, and groundwater phases in the Chancellor test cavity. Three comparative approaches were used to calculate partitioning values, though each method could not be applied to every nuclide. These approaches are based on: (1) the average Area 19 inventory from Bowen et al. (2001); (2) melt glass, rubble, and groundwater mass estimates from Zhao et al. (2008); and (3) fission product mass yield data from England and Rider (1994). The U and Pu analyses of the test debris are classified and partitioning estimates for these elements were calculated directly from the classified Miller et al. (2002) inventory for the Chancellor test. The partitioning results from this study were compared to partitioning data that were previously published by the IAEA (1998). Predictions of radionuclide distributions from the two studies are in agreement for a majority of the nuclides under consideration. Substantial differences were noted in the partitioning values for {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 129}I, and uranium. These differences are attributable to two factors: chemical volatility effects that occur during the initial plasma condensation, and groundwater remobilization that occurs over a much longer time frame. Fission product partitioning is very sensitive to the early cooling history of the test cavity because the decay of short-lived (t{sub 1/2} < 1 hour) fission-chain precursors occurs on the same time scale as melt glass condensation. Fission product chains that include both volatile and refractory elements, like the mass 99, 125, and 129 chains, can show large variations in partitioning behavior depending on the cooling history of the cavity. Uranium exhibits similar behavior, though the chemical processes are poorly understood. The water temperature within the Chancellor cavity remains elevated (75 C) more than two decades after the test. Under hydrothermal conditions, high solubility chemical species such as {sup 125}Sb and {sup 129}I are readily dissolved and transported in solution. SEM analyses of melt glass samples show clear evidence of glass dissolution and secondary hydrothermal mineral deposition. Remobilization of {sup 99}Tc is also expected during hydrothermal activity, but moderately reducing conditions within the Chancellor cavity appear to limit the transport of {sup 99}Tc. It is recommended that the results from this study should be used together with the IAEA data to update the range in partitioning values for contaminant transport models at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site).

Rose, T P; Hu, Q; Zhao, P; Conrado, C L; Dickerson, R; Eaton, G F; Kersting, A B; Moran, J E; Nimz, G; Powell, B A; Ramon, E C; Ryerson, F J; Williams, R W; Wooddy, P T; Zavarin, M

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

197

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

198

Water Pollution Control and Abatement (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of the Environment is responsible for protecting the water quality of the state and enacting regulations to prevent and mitigate water pollution. The Water Management Administration ...

199

Chapter 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This administrative regulation establishes procedures to protect the surface waters of the Commonwealth, and thus protect water resources. It states the designated uses of surface water and...

200

Surface Water Quality Standards (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain surface water quality standards, stream classifications, discussion of lakes and impounded basins, and water...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A Coincidence Signature Library for Multicoincidence Radionuclide Analysis Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing multicoincidence systems to perform trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point, for applications that include emergency response, nuclear forensics, and environmental monitoring. Quantifying radionuclide concentrations with these systems requires a library of accurate emission intensities for each detected signature, for all candidate radionuclides. To meet this need, a Coincidence Lookup Library (CLL) is being developed to calculate the emission intensities of coincident signatures from a user-specified radionuclide, or conversely, to determine the radionuclides that may be responsible for a specific detected coincident signature. The algorithms used to generate absolute emission intensities and various query modes for our developmental CLL are described.

Smith, Leon E.; Ellis, J E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Miley, Harry S.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Reducing booster-pump-induced contaminant intrusion in Indian water systems with a self-actuated, back-pressure regulating valve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intermittently-operated water systems struggle to equitably and effectively distribute clean water to customers. One common customer response to intermittency is to supplement the water system's pressure by using a household, ...

Taylor, David Donald James

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Removal and recovery of radionuclides and toxic metals from wastes, soils and materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the removal of metals and radionuclides from contaminated materials, soils, and waste sites (Figure 1). In this process, citric acid, a naturally occurring organic complexing agent, is used to extract metals such as Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and radionuclides Co, Sr, Th, and U from solid wastes by formation of water soluble, metal-citrate complexes. Citric acid forms different types of complexes with the transition metals and actinides, and may involve formation of a bidentate, tridentate, binuclear, or polynuclear complex species. The extract containing radionuclide/metal complex is then subjected to microbiological degradation followed by photochemical degradation under aerobic conditions. Several metal citrate complexes are biodegraded and the metals are recovered in a concentrated form with the bacterial biomass. Uranium forms binuclear complex with citric acid and is not biodegraded. The supernatant containing uranium citrate complex is separated and upon exposure to light, undergoes rapid degradation resulting in the formation of an insoluble, stable polymeric form of uranium. Uranium is recovered as a precipitate (uranium trioxide) in a concentrated form for recycling or for appropriate disposal. This treatment process, unlike others which use caustic reagents, does not create additional hazardous wastes for disposal and causes little damage to soil which can then be returned to normal use.

Francis, A.J.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Waste Form and Indrift Colloids-Associated Radionuclide Concentrations: Abstraction and Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Model Report describes the analysis and abstractions of the colloids process model for the waste form and engineered barrier system components of the total system performance assessment calculations to be performed with the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application model. Included in this report is a description of (1) the types and concentrations of colloids that could be generated in the waste package from degradation of waste forms and the corrosion of the waste package materials, (2) types and concentrations of colloids produced from the steel components of the repository and their potential role in radionuclide transport, and (3) types and concentrations of colloids present in natural waters in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. Additionally, attachment/detachment characteristics and mechanisms of colloids anticipated in the repository are addressed and discussed. The abstraction of the process model is intended to capture the most important characteristics of radionuclide-colloid behavior for use in predicting the potential impact of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport on repository performance.

R. Aguilar

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

205

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers. Phase 3. Field sampling program for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A field sampling program was conducted on Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York during April 1979 to investigate the transport of radionuclides in surface waters as part of a continuing program to provide data for application and verification of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) sediment and radionuclide transport model, SERATRA. Bed sediment, suspended sediment and water samples were collected during unsteady flow conditions over a 45 mile reach of stream channel. Radiological analysis of these samples included gamma ray spectrometry analysis, and radiochemical separation and analysis of Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241 and Cm-244. Tritium analysis was also performed on water samples. Based on the evaluation of radionuclide levels in Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, the Nuclear Fuel Services facility at West Valley, New York, may be the source of Cs-137, Sr-90, Cs-134, Co-60, Pu-238, Pu-239, 240, Am-241, Cm-244 and tritium found in the bed sediment, suspended sediment and water of Buttermilk and Cattaraugus Creeks. This field sampling effort was the last of a three phase program to collect hydrologic and radiologic data at different flow conditions.

Ecker, R.M.; Walters, W.H.; Onishi, Y.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

207

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

209

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

210

Water Pollution Fee (Michigan)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Groundwater Program regulates discharge to groundwater under Part 31, Water Resources Protection, of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act, 1994 PA 451 and Part 22 Rules....

211

Water Pollution (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states regulations for water quality standards, effluent standards, monitoring and reporting methods, sewer discharge criteria and information about permits. It is the purpose of...

212

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. ARRRG and FOOD: computer programs for calculating radiation dose to man from radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The computer programs ARRRG and FOOD were written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from the radionuclides in the environment and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Using ARRRG, radiation doses to man may be calculated for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim or boat. With the FOOD program, radiation doses to man may be calculated from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. Fifteen crop or animal product pathways may be chosen. ARRAG and FOOD doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute (one-time) exposure. The equations for calculating internal dose and dose commitment are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an infinite flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness. A modifying factor to compensate for finite extent is included in the shoreline calculations.

Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health ...........................................................................................5 Priority Environmental Public Health Challenges for Small Drinking Water Systems

214

Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed Roles of Fermentative Activity on Fate and Transport of U and Cr. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. In addition, there are numerous sites around the world that are contaminated with a mixture of organic and inorganic contaminants. In most sites, over time, water infiltrates the wastes, and releases metals, radionuclides and other contaminants causing transport into the surrounding environment. We investigated the role of fermentative microorganisms in such sites that may control metal, radionuclide and organics migration from source zones. The project was initiated based on the following overarching hypothesis: Metals, radionuclides and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. Microbial communities of lignocellulose degrading and fermenting microorganisms present in the subsurface of contaminated DOE sites can significantly impact migration by directly reducing and immobilizing metals and radionuclides while degrading complex organic matter to low molecular weight organic compounds. These low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols can increase metal and radionuclide mobility by chelation (i.e., certain organic acids) or decrease mobility by stimulating respiratory metal reducing microorganisms. We demonstrated that fermentative organisms capable of affecting the fate of Cr6+, U6+ and trinitrotoluene can be isolated from organic-rich low level waste sites as well as from less organic rich subsurface environments. The mechanisms, pathways and extent of contaminant transformation depend on a variety of factors related to the type of organisms present, the aqueous chemistry as well as the geochemistry and mineralogy. This work provides observations and quantitative data across multiple scales that identify and predict the coupled effects of fermentative carbon and electron flow on the transport of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic contaminants in the subsurface; a primary concern of the DOE Environmental Remediation Science Division (ERSD) and Subsurface Geochemical Research (SBR) Program.

Gerlach, Robin [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Peyton, Brent M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Apel, William A. [Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

215

Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

A rugged continuous air monitor for sampling radionuclides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new rugged continuous air monitor (CAM) for sampling radionuclide has been developed. The sampler was designed for analyzing aerosols from occupied environments of laboratories and samples extracted from stacks and ducts. Experiments were...

Martinez, Joseph Thaddeus

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

219

Radionuclide limits for vault disposal at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site is developing a facility called the E-Area Vaults which will serve as the new radioactive waste disposal facility beginning early in 1992. The facility will employ engineered below-grade concrete vaults for disposal and above-grade storage for certain long-lived mobile radionuclides. This report documents the determination of interim upper limits for radionuclide inventories and concentrations which should be allowed in the disposal structures. The work presented here will aid in the development of both waste acceptance criteria and operating limits for the E-Area Vaults. Disposal limits for forty isotopes which comprise the SRS waste streams were determined. The limits are based on total facility and vault inventories for those radionuclides which impact groundwater, and or waste package concentrations for those radionuclides which could affect intruders.

Cook, J.R.

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

220

Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation. The fifth section looks at specific in s

Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

Premuzic, E.T.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

223

Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

224

Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking, the most conservative data were selected. Conservative assumptions and values were used for radionuclide uptake factors and for marine food ingestion rates by human receptors. The dispersion of material in the marine environment utilized a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved model (CORMIX). In addition, the screening level of 1 x 10{sup -6} or 1 excess cancer in 1 million is considered by the EPA to be below the level of concern. The end result, as presented in this report, is a highly conservative estimate of potential risks that are well below the EPA's most conservative risk threshold for both subsistence users and commercial-catch consumers.

NNSA /NV

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Review of technical documents supporting proposed revisions to EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) regulations for the disposal/reuse of sewage sludge under Section 405(D) of the Clean Water Act. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 1985 the Environmental Engineering Committee of the Science Advisory Board was asked by the Office of Water Regulations and Standards (OWRS) to review technical documents supporting development of EPA regulations for the disposal/reuse of sewage sludge under Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act. The Committee was also asked by the Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection (OMEP) to review technical documents supporting revisions of the EPA ocean dumping regulations. The Committee chose to review the two sets of documents together, since they both dealt with a common subject, and since they shared, in some respects, a common methodology. The report, however, covers only the review of the OWRS documents, which consist of a set of risk-assessment methodologies (1,2,3,4) for four sludge disposal/reuse options (landfilling, land application/distribution and marketing, incineration, and ocean disposal). The reviews of the OMEP documents are covered in separate Committee reports. The Committee's principal findings are outlined.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Laboratory and Field Studies Related to Radionuclide Migration at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, we describe the work done in FY 1998 at Los Alamos National Laboratory as part of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMA) funded by the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE/NV). The major part of our research effort was to measure radionuclides present in water or soil samples collected from near nuclear tests. We report our measurements for materials collected in both saturated and unsaturated horizons adjacent to nuclear test cavities or collapse chimneys and from within several cavities. Soil samples collected from above the cavities formed by the Halfbeak, Jerboa, and Bobac tests contained no radioactivity, although a test similar to Bobac in the same area had been contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. Water samples from near the Shoal test contained no measurable radionuclides, whereas those from near Faultless and Aleman had concentrations similar to previous measurements. Water from the Tybo-Benham site was similar to earlier collections at that site; this year, we added {sup 241}Am to the list of radionuclides measured at this location. Two Bennett pumps in tandem were used to extract water from the piezometer tube in the cavity of the Dalhart event. This extraction is a significant achievement in that it opens the possibility of purging similar tubes at other locations on the NTS. The Cheshire post shot hole was reconfigured and pumped from two horizons for the first time since mid-1980. We are especially interested in examining water from the level of the working point to determine the hydrologic source term in a cavity filled with groundwater for over 20 years. We devoted much time this year to examining the colloid content of NTS groundwater. After developing protocols for collecting, handling, and storing groundwater samples without altering their colloid content, we analyzed water from the Tybo-Benham and from the Cheshire sites. Whereas the colloid concentration did not vary much with depth at Tybo-Benham, there were 20 times more colloids in groundwater from the Cheshire cavity than were found a few hundred meters higher. Electron micrographs show the wide variety of colloid sizes and shapes present in NTS groundwater. Our experiences with filtration of groundwater samples illustrate the difficulties of colloid size characterization using this methodology. Our report ends with a description of our consultative and educational activities and a list of recent publications.

B. A. Martinez; D. L. Finnegan; Joseph L. Thompson; K. S. Kung

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Integrated Water Management Options in the Nebraska Ground Water Management &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ag chemical best management practices 7. soil testing 8. voluntary or mandatory educational programs regulate ground water development (well spacing regulations, well drilling prohibitions) and ground water by implementing the above GMA regulations, well drilling may be halted or conditioned. NRD permits are required

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

229

Modeling the Hydrogeochemical Transport of Radionuclides through Engineered Barriers System in the Proposed LLW Disposal Site of Taiwan - 12082  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed site for final disposal of low-level radioactive waste located in Daren Township of Taitung County along the southeastern coast has been on the selected list in Taiwan. The geology of the Daren site consists of argillite and meta-sedimentary rocks. A mined cavern design with a tunnel system of 500 m below the surface is proposed. Concrete is used as the main confinement material for the engineered barrier. To investigate the hydrogeochemical transport of radionuclides through engineered barriers system, HYDROGEOCHEM5.0 model was applied to simulate the complex chemical interactions among radionuclides, the cement minerals of the concrete, groundwater flow, and transport in the proposed site. The simulation results showed that the engineered barriers system with the side ditch efficiently drained the ground water and lowered the concentration of the concrete degradation induced species (e.g., hydrogen ion, sulfate, and chloride). The velocity of groundwater observed at side ditch gradually decreased with time due to the fouling of pore space by the mineral formation of ettringite and thaumasite. The short half-life of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 significantly reduced the concentrations, whereas the long half-life of I-129(1.57x10{sup 7} years) and Am-241(432 years) remain stable concentrations at the interface of waste canister and concrete barrier after 300 years. The mineral saturation index (SI) was much less than zero due to the low aqueous concentration of radionuclide, so that the precipitation formation of Co-60, Sr-90, I-129, Cs-137 and Am-241 related minerals were not found. The effect of adsorption/desorption (i.e., surface complexation model) could be a crucial geochemical mechanism for the modeling of liquid-solid phase behavior of radionuclide in geochemically dynamic environments. Moreover, the development of advanced numerical models that are coupled with hydrogeochemical transport and dose assessment of radionuclide is required in the future. (authors)

Lin, Wen-Sheng [Hydrotech Research Institute, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing; Tsao, Jui-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Li, Ming-Hsu [Institute of Hydrological and Oceanic Sciences, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Determination of operating limits for radionuclides for a proposed landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The operating limits for radionuclides in sanitary and industrial wastes were determined for a proposed landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky. These limits, which may be very small but nonzero, are not mandated by law or regulation but are needed for rational operation. The approach was based on analyses of the potential contamination of groundwater at the plant boundary and the potential exposure to radioactivity of an intruder at the landfill after closure. The groundwater analysis includes (1) a source model describing the disposal of waste and the release of radionuclides from waste to the groundwater, (2) site-specific groundwater flow and contaminant transport calculations, and (3) calculations of operating limits from the dose limit and conversion factors. The intruder analysis includes pathways through ingestion of contaminated vegetables and soil, external exposure to contaminated soil, and inhalation of suspended activity from contaminated soil particles. In both analyses, a limit on annual effective dose equivalent of 4 mrem (0.04 mSv) was adopted. The intended application of the results is to refine the radiological monitoring standards employed by the PGDP Health Physics personnel to determine what constitutes radioactive wastes, with concurrence of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.

Wang, J.C.; Lee, D.W.; Ketelle, R.H.; Lee, R.R.; Kocher, D.C.

1994-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

231

Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. The hydrologic source term (HST) of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total RST that is released into the groundwater over time following the test. In this report, the HST represents radionuclide release some time after the explosion and does not include the rapidly evolving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes during the explosion. The CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine has many more detonations and a wider variety of settings to consider compared to other CAUs. For instance, the source term analysis and evaluation performed for CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa and CAU 98: Frenchman Flat did not consider vadose zone attenuation because many detonations were located near or below the water table. However, the large number of Yucca Flat/Climax Mine tests and the location of many tests above the water table warrant a more robust analysis of the unsaturated zone.

Peter Martian

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Rhode Island Pretreatment Regulations (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations set standards for water pretreatment prior to release to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs), and require effluent data including the identity, amount, frequency, concentration...

233

Water Rights and Appropriation (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

All uses of water in South Dakota, with the exception of domestic water uses, require a Water Right Permit. The Board of Water and Natural Resources has the authority to regulate and control the...

234

Voltage-Regulated Water Flux through Aquaporin Channels In Silico Jochen S. Hub,6* Camilo Aponte-Santamaria,6 Helmut Grubmuller, and Bert L. de Groot  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Santamari´a,6 Helmut Grubmu¨ller, and Bert L. de Groot Department for Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala flux, whereas a negative potential favors a down-state, which reduces the single-channel water was embedded in a lipid membrane, and 150 mM sodium chloride was added to each of the two water compart- ments

de Groot, Bert

235

REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in-growth were calculated over the time period from 2015 to 3115. This provided a basis for characterizing the radionuclide content of SB7a over time and for identifying the 'reportable radionuclides.' Details of the characterization methodology and the analytical results are the focus of this report. This work was performed at the request of the Waste Solidification Engineering Department of Savannah River Remediation, initiated via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. A minor revision in the reporting requirements was requested via a subsequent email communication. The work was conducted in accordance with the protocols identified in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01218 and Analytical Study Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01219. All of the raw data related to this scope have been recorded in laboratory notebook SRNL-NB-2011-00061. The overall goal of this task was to characterize the radionuclide content of the SB7a waste sufficiently to meet the WAPS and DWPF reporting requirements. The specific objectives were: (1) Quantify the current concentrations of all radionuclides impacting (or potentially-impacting) the total curie content between calendar years 2011 and 3115. Also quantify the current concentrations of other radionuclides specifically requested in the TTR or required by the WAPS. (2) Calculate future concentrations of decayed and in-grown radionuclides impacting the total curie content between calendar years 2015 and 3115; (3) Identify as 'reportable' all radionuclides contributing {ge} 0.01% of the total curie content from 2015 to 3115 and having half-lives {ge} 10 years.

Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

236

VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

Heams, T J [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A [UKAEA, Winfrith, (England); Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheatley, C J [UKAEA, Culcheth (England); Dickson, L W [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada); Osborn-Lee, I [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Alexander, C A [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Lee, R Y [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Permitting of Consumptive Uses of Water (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Local water management districts are required to establish programs and regulations to provide for the permitting of consumptive uses of water. Such permitting programs are subject to the...

238

Water, Power, and Development in Twenty-First Century China: The Case of the South-North Water Transfer Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over basic water management and environmental concerns.to environmental regulation and water pollution managementfiguring into water management is the parallel environmental

Crow-Miller, Brittany Leigh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Water, Power, and Development in Twenty-First Century China: The Case of the South-North Water Transfer Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to environmental regulation and water pollution managementover basic water management and environmental concerns.figuring into water management is the parallel environmental

Crow-Miller, Brittany Leigh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C.; Gervais, Todd L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.; Barnett, J. M.

2011-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

242

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Edwards, Daniel L.

2003-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

243

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D.; Edwards, Daniel R.

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

244

Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Chernobyl nuclear accident hydrologic analysis and emergency evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Dnieper River, Ukraine, during the 1993 summer flood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes joint activities of Program 7.1.F, ``Radionuclide Transport in Water and Soil Systems,`` of the USA/Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety to study the hydrogeochemical behavior of radionuclides released to the Pripyat and Dnieper rivers from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine. These joint activities included rapid evaluation of radionuclide distributions in the Pripyat and Dnieper river system and field data evaluation and modeling for the 1993 summer flood to assist the Ukrainian government in their emergency response during the flood. In July-August 1993, heavy rainfall over the Pripyat River Catchment in Belarus and Ukraine caused severe flooding, significantly raising {sup 90}Sr concentrations in the river. Near the Chernobyl area, the maximum {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Pripyat River reached 20--25 PCi/L in early August; near the Pripyat River mouth, the concentration rose to 35 pCi/L. The peak {sup 90}Sr concentration in the Kiev Reservoir (a major source of drinking water for Kiev) was 12 pCi/L. Based on these measured radionuclide levels, additional modeling results and the assumption of water purification in a water treatment station, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in Kiev`s drinking water were estimated to be less than 8 pCi/L. Unlike {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs concentrations in the Pripyat River during the flood did not rise significantly to the pre-flood levels. Estimated {sup 137}Cs concentrations for the Kiev drinking water were two orders of magnitude lower than the drinking water standard of 500 pCi/L for {sup 137}Cs.

Voitsekhovitch, O.V. [Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Inst., Kiev (Ukraine); Zheleznyak, M.J. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine). Cybernetics Center; Onishi, Y. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Radionuclide Concentrations in Terrestrial Vegetation and Soil Samples On and Around the Hanford Site, 1971 Through 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental monitoring is conducted on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to comply with DOE Orders and federal and state regulations. Major objectives of the monitoring are to characterize contaminant levels in the environment and to determine site contributions to the contaminant inventory. This report focuses on surface soil and perennial vegetation samples collected between 1971 and 2008 as part of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Surface Environmental Surveillance Project performed under contract to DOE. Areas sampled under this program are located on the Hanford Site but outside facility boundaries and on public lands surrounding the Hanford Site. Additional samples were collected during the past 8 years under DOE projects that evaluated parcels of land for radiological release. These data were included because the same sampling methodology and analytical laboratory were used for the projects. The spatial and temporal trends of six radionuclides collected over a 38-year period were evaluated. The radionuclides----cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and uranium (reported either as uranium-238 or total uranium)----were selected because they persist in the environment and are still being monitored routinely and reported in Hanford Site environmental reports. All these radionuclides were associated with plutonium production and waste management of activities occurring on the site. Other sources include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which ended in 1980, and the Chernobyl explosion in 1986. Uranium is also a natural component of the soil. This assessment of soil and vegetation data provides important information on the distribution of radionuclides in areas adjacent to industrial areas, established perimeter locations and buffer areas, and more offsite nearby and distant locations. The concentrations reflect a tendency for detection of some radionuclides close to where they were utilized onsite, but as one moves to unindustrialized areas on the site, surrounding buffer areas and perimeter location into the more distant sites, concentrations of these radionuclides approach background and cannot be distinguished from fallout activity. More importantly, concentrations in soil and vegetation samples did not exceed environmental benchmark concentrations, and associated exposure to human and ecological receptors were well below levels that are demonstratively hazardous to human health and the environment.

Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Fritz, Brad G.; Bisping, Lynn E.

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

247

33 CFR 2.36: Navigable Waters of the United States, navigable...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigable waters, and territorial watersLegal Abstract This regulation provides the definition for "navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial...

248

Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Benchmarking Analysis for Five Radionuclide Vadose Zone Models (Chain, Multimed{_}DP, Fectuz, Hydrus, and Chain 2D) in Soil Screening Level Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED{_}DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in radionuclide soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide ({sup 99}Tc) release scenario at the Las Cruces Trench Site in New Mexico. Sensitivity of three model outputs to the input parameters were evaluated and compared among the models. The three outputs were peak contaminant concentrations, time to peak concentrations at the water table, and time to exceed the contaminants maximum critical level at a representative receptor well. Model parameters investigated include soil properties such as bulk density, water content, soil water retention parameters and hydraulic conductivity. Chemical properties examined include distribution coefficient, radionuclide half-life, dispersion coefficient, and molecular diffusion. Other soil characteristics, such as recharge rate, also were examined. Model sensitivity was quantified in the form of sensitivity and relative sensitivity coefficients. Relative sensitivities were used to compare the sensitivities of different parameters. The analysis indicates that soil water content, recharge rate, saturated soil water content, and soil retention parameter, {beta}, have a great influence on model outputs. In general, the results of sensitivities and relative sensitivities using five models are similar for a specific scenario. Slight differences were observed in predicted peak contaminant concentrations due to different mathematical treatment among models. The results of benchmarking and sensitivity analysis would facilitate the model selection and application of the model in SSL calculations.

Chen, J-S.; Drake, R.; Lin, Z.; Jewett, D. G.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

251

antibody alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 41 COUNCIL ON RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS POSITION PAPER ON MIXED WASTE CiteSeer Summary: The Council on Radionuclides...

252

air-filter environment radionuclide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 41 COUNCIL ON RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS POSITION PAPER ON MIXED WASTE CiteSeer Summary: The Council on Radionuclides...

253

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. [Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

256

Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Original article Radionuclides and selected elements in soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Radionuclides and selected elements in soil and honey from Gorski Kotar, Croatia and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boškovi&jadnr; Institute, Bijeni&jadnr;ka 54, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia b, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia d Faculty of Forestry, Svetosimunska 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia e Faculty

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

258

Estimates of potential radionuclide migration at the Bullion site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bullion site in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site has been selected for an intensive study of the hydrologic consequences of underground testing, including subsequent radionuclide migration. The bulk of the chimney and cavity lie in zeolitized tuffs of low hydraulic conductivity, while the base of the cavity may extend downward into more conductive rhyolite flows. A mathematical analog to the Bullion setting is used here to estimate expected radionuclide migration rates and concentrations. Because of a lack of hydrologic data at the site, two contrasting scenarios are considered. The first is downward-transport, in which downward hydraulic gradients flush chimney contents into the conductive underlying units, enhancing migration. The other is upward-transport, in which upward gradients tend to drive chimney contents into the low-conductivity zeolitized tuffs, discouraging migration. In the downward-transport scenario, radionuclide travel times and concentrations are predicted to be similar to those encountered at Cheshire, requiring approximately 10 years to reach a proposed well 300 m downgradient. The upward transport scenario yields predicted travel times on the order of 2,000 years to the downgradient well. The most likely scenario is a combination of these results, with vertical movement playing a limited role. Radionuclides injected directly into the rhyolites should migrate laterally very quickly, with travel times as in the downward-transport scenario. Those in the zeolitized tuff-walled portion of the chimney should migrate extremely slowly, as in the upward-transport scenario.

Brikowski, T.H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Biologically mediated reductive dissolution and precipitation of metals and radionuclides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on transport of trace levels of uranium under natural condi- tions, as well as the effectiveness of uranium remedial strategy). Keywords: reactive transport, heterogeneity, modeling, groundwater, uranium. BACKGROUND) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium, strontium, cesium, technetium, and plutonium). These elements are long

Roden, Eric E.

260

Water Quality Standards Implementation (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality regulates Oklahoma's Water Quality Standards. The law states the requirements and standards for point source discharges. It also establishes...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Storm Water Discharge Permits (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Wisconsin's storm water runoff regulations include permitting requirements for construction sites and industrial facilities, including those processing or extracting coal or gas. The purpose of the...

262

Louisiana Water Control Law (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality administers the proper protection and maintenance of the state's waters, and regulate the discharges of waste materials, pollutants, and other...

263

Radioactive Water Treatment at a United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site - 12322  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A water treatment system at a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund site impacted by radiological contaminants is used to treat water entering the site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is actively managing the remedial action for the USEPA using contracts to support the multiple activities on site. The site is where former gas mantle production facilities operated around the turn of the century. The manufacturing facilities used thorium ores to develop the mantles and disposed of off-specification mantles and ore residuals in the surrounding areas. During Site remedial actions, both groundwater and surface water comes into contact with contaminated soils and must be collected and treated at an on-site treatment facility. The radionuclides thorium and radium with associated progeny are the main concern for treatment. Suspended solids, volatile organic compounds, and select metals are also monitored during water treatment. The water treatment process begins were water is pumped to a collection tank where debris and grit settle out. Stored water is pumped to a coagulant tank containing poly-aluminum chloride to collect dissolved solids. The water passes into a reaction tube where aspirated air is added or reagent added to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC'S) by mass transfer and convert dissolved iron to a solid. The water enters the flocculent polymer tank to drop solids out. The flocculated water overflows to a fluidized bed contact chamber to increase precipitation. Flocculation is where colloids of material drop out of suspension and settle. The settled solids are periodically removed and disposed of as radioactive waste. The water is passed through filters and an ion exchange process to extract the radionuclides. Several million liters of water are processed each year from two water treatment plants servicing different areas of the remediation site. Ion exchange resin and filter material are periodically replaced and disposed of as radioactive waste. A total of 0.85 m{sup 3} of waste sludge per year requires disposal on average, in addition to another 6.6 m{sup 3} of waste cartridge filters. All water discharges are regulated by a state of New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit implemented by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). Laboratory analyses are required to satisfy requirements of the state NPDES permit. Specific monitoring parameters and discharge rates will be provided. Use of the water treatment systems drastically reduces the amount of contaminated water requiring solidification and water disposal to near zero. Millions of liters of potentially contaminated water from excavation activities is treated and released within permit limits. A small volume of solid radioactive waste (21 cubic meters) is generated annually from water treatment process operations. Management of ground and surface water is effectively controlled in remediation areas by the use of sumps, erosion control measures and pumping of water to storage vessels. Continued excavations can be made as water impacting the site is effectively controlled. (authors)

Beckman, John C. [US Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides a description of a model of the radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident. This document serves as the user's manual for the computer code called VICTORIA, based upon the model. The VICTORIA code predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions between fission products and structural materials, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. This document provides a detailed description of each part of the implementation of the model into VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided. The VICTORIA code was developed upon a CRAY-XMP at Sandia National Laboratories in the USA and a CRAY-2 and various SUN workstations at the Winfrith Technology Centre in England. 60 refs.

Heames, T.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Chown, N.M. (UKAEA Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith (UK)); Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Wheatley, C.J. (UKAEA Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth (UK))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

LONG-TERM COLLOID MOBILIZATION AND COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES IN A SEMI-ARID VADOSE ZONE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main purpose of this project was to improve the fundamental mechanistic understanding and quantification of long-term colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone, with special emphasis on the semi-arid Hanford site. While we focused some of the experiments on hydrogeological and geochemical conditions of the Hanford site, many of our results apply to colloid and colloid-facilitated transport in general. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the mechanisms of colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in undisturbed Hanford sediments under unsaturated flow, (2) to quantify in situ colloid mobilization and colloid-facilitated radionuclidetransport from Hanford sediments under field conditions, and (3) to develop a field-scale conceptual and numerical model for colloid mobilization and transport at the Hanford vadose zone, and use that model to predict long-term colloid and colloid- facilitated radionuclide transport. To achieve these goals and objectives, we have used a combination of experimental, theoretical, and numerical methods at different spatial scales, ranging from microscopic investigationsof single particle attachment and detachment to larger-scale field experiments using outdoor lysimeters at the Hanford site. Microscopic and single particle investigations provided fundamental insight into mechanisms of colloid interactions with the air-water interface. We could show that a moving air water interface (such as a moving water front during infiltration and drainage) is very effective in removing and mobilizing particles from a stationary surface. We further demonstrated that it is particularly the advancing air-water interface which is mainly responsible for colloid mobilization. Forces acting on the colloids calculated from theory corroborated our experimental results, and confirm that the detachment forces (surface tension forces) during the advancing air-water interface movement were stronger than during the receding movement. Theory indicates that, for hydrophilic colloids, the advancing interface movement generally exerts a stronger detachment force than the receding, except when the hysteresis of the colloid-air-water contact angle is small. These results of our study are particularly relevant for colloid mobilization and transport related to three process in the vadose zone at Hanford: (1) water infiltration into sediments during rainfall or snowmelt events, (2) groundwater fluctuations as caused by river stage fluctuations, and (3) steady-state, low-flow recharge in deep vadose zone sediments. Transient water flow, like during infiltration or groundwater level fluctuations, are most conducive for colloid mobilization, but even during steady-state, low-flow recharge, colloids can be mobile, although to a much lesser extent. The results of this project have led to a comprehensive and fundamental understanding of colloid transport and mobilization under unsaturated flow conditions at the Hanford site.

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; Fred Zhang; Glendon W. Gee; Earl D. Mattson; Peter C. L

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, indepth statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 millisievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the ''effective'' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including the physical decay half-life and the environmental dispersion half-life) is provided. The ''creek mouth'' fisherman is the next most critical pathway at SRS. On an annual basis, three species of fish (panfish, catfish, and bass) are sampled from the mouths of the five SRS streams. Three composites of up to five fish of each species are analyzed from each sampling location. Long-term trending of the Cs-137 concentrations in fish and the subsequent doses from consumption of SRS fish is provided.

Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.; Lee, P. L.; Eddy, T. P.; Blount, G. C.; Whitney, G. R.

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

267

Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate-scale tests will be used to bridge the gap between the small-scale foam transport studies and the field-scale demonstration. Numerical simulation studies on foam delivery under vadose conditions will be performed to simulate observed foam transport behavior under vadose zone conditions and predict the foam delivery performance at field-scale.

Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Conceptual Approach For Estimating Potential Air Toxics And Radionuclide Airborne Emissions From A Temporary Exhaust System For The 216-Z-9 Crib Removal Action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 216-Z-9 Crib, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeastern Washington State, was the site of a successful mining effort to recover plutonium from the contaminated soils at the disposal site. A CERCLA Action Memorandum (AM) issued by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires the removal of the buildings associated with this mining effort to facilitate a remedial action planned for the near future. The decontamination and demolition of the 216 Z-9 Crib facilities is required under a consent order between the DOE, the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). Removal of the buildings located on and near the concrete cover slab over the 216-Z-9 Crib will require removal of the large soil-packaging glovebox located inside the 216-Z- 9A Building. Prior to cleaning out the glovebox, it will be necessary to provide active filtered ventilation capability to ensure a negative pressure exists between the glovebox and the adjacent airspace while hands-on work proceeds within. The glovebox floor is open to the Z-9 crib cavern environment below. For this reason the crib and glovebox currently share a common airspace. The functional requirements for safely conducting work within the glovebox include provision of a negative pressure in the box of about 0.5 inches of water gage (nominal) less than the interior of the building. In addition, the building surrounding the glovebox will be maintained at a slight negative pressure with respect to outdoor ambient pressure. In order to assess the relevant and appropriate clean air requirements for the new temporary ventilation system and associated emissions monitoring, it was necessary to reliably predict the nature of the exhaust air stream. Factors used to predict the presence and concentrations of certain radionuclide particulates and certain gases considered to be air toxics, included reliability parameters, flow rates, radionuclide content, and off-gas compositions. Radionuclide content includes transuranic isotopes, primarily of plutonium and americium. Air toxics include carbon tetrachloride, butane, methanol, acetone and toluene. Flow rate prediction was based on available design and test data and considered equipment sizes, glovebox negative pressure requirements, and filter flow characteristics. The approach used to predict the off-gas composition from the crib required experience-based predictive analysis combined with crib head space analytical results. Input information for emission estimates included: (1) gas composition sample data obtained from recent samples taken within the crib head space during static conditions, and (2) air in-leakage/dilution estimates based on physical characteristics of both the crib and the new temporary ventilation system. The conceptual approach combined measurement-based data with conservative assumptions, and provides the estimates necessary to determine relevance and appropriateness of substantive requirements under federal and state laws and regulations. (authors)

Hopkins, A.; Sutter, C.; O'Brien, P.; Bates, J.; Klos, B. [Fluor Hanford Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Teal, J. [Fluor Federal Services, Richland, WA (United States); Oates, L. [Environmental Quality Management, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Rules and Regulations for the Investigation and Remediation of Hazardous Material Releases (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations establish procedures for the investigation and remediation of contamination resulting from the unpermitted release of hazardous materials. The regulations aim to protect water...

270

Rules and Regulations for Dredging and the Management of Dredged Material (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations apply to dredging conducted in a marine environment. The regulations aim to ensure that dredging does not unduly impact groundwater and surface water quality while streamlining...

271

Rules and Regulations for Underground Storage Facilities Used for Petroleum Products and Hazardous Materials (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations apply to underground storage facilities for petroleum and hazardous waste, and seek to protect water resources from contamination. The regulations establish procedures for the...

272

Radionuclide Inventory Distribution Project Data Evaluation and Verification White Paper  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Testing of nuclear explosives caused widespread contamination of surface soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Atmospheric tests produced the majority of this contamination. The Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) was developed to determine distribution and total inventory of radionuclides in surface soils at the NTS to evaluate areas that may present long-term health hazards. The RIDP achieved this objective with aerial radiological surveys, soil sample results, and in situ gamma spectroscopy. This white paper presents the justification to support the use of RIDP data as a guide for future evaluation and to support closure of Soils Sub-Project sites under the purview of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Use of the RIDP data as part of the Data Quality Objective process is expected to provide considerable cost savings and accelerate site closures. The following steps were completed: - Summarize the RIDP data set and evaluate the quality of the data. - Determine the current uses of the RIDP data and cautions associated with its use. - Provide recommendations for enhancing data use through field verification or other methods. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

273

Water Quality Control (Texas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state of Texas is to promote the quality of the state's water by regulating existing industries, taking into consideration the economic development of the state, and by...

274

Water Rules (Alabama)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These rules and regulations shall apply to all water systems subject to the jurisdiction of the Alabama Public Service Commission. They are intended to promote good utility practices, to assure...

275

Radionuclide air emissions report for the Hanford Site -- calendar year 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents radionuclide air emission from the Hanford Site in 1997, and the resulting effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed member of the public, referred to as the MEI. The report has been prepared in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities. This report has also been prepared in accordance with the reporting requirements of the Washington Administrative Code Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions. The effective dose equivalent to the MEI from the Hanford Site`s 1997 point source emissions was 1.2 E-03 mrem (1.2 E-05 mSv), which is well below the 40 CFR 61 Subpart H regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr. Radon and thoron emissions, exempted from 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, resulted in an effective dose equivalent to the MEI of 2.5 E-03 mrem (2.5 E-05 mSv). The effective dose equivalent to the MEI attributable to diffuse and fugitive emissions was 2.2 E-02 mrem (2.2 E-04 mSv). The total effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions was 2.6 E-02 mrem (2.6 E-04 mSv). The effective dose equivalent from all of the Hanford Site`s air emissions is well below the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 246-247, regulatory limit of 10 mrem/yr.

Gleckler, B.P.; Rhoads, K.

1998-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

276

Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Georgia Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) is a set of environmental regulations and permitting requirements that comply with the federal Clean Water Act. The Georgia Water Quality Control Act...

277

Ground and Surface Water Protection (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation implements the New Mexico Water Quality Act. Any person intending to make a new water contaminant discharge or to alter the character or location of an existing water contaminant...

278

Alternative Regulation (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Utility regulators, including the Public Service Board, have applied a new type of regulation, often called "alternative regulation" or "incentive regulation." There are many variants of this type...

279

Government Regulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract. Interest in the use of so-called voluntary approaches to supplement or replace formal environmental regulation is on the rise, both in Europe and in the United States. These approaches fall into two general ...

Ashford, Nicholas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Radio-nuclide mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-nuclides includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-nuclides includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.

Nelson, Karl Einar

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Energetic Protons, Radionuclides and Magnetic Activity in Protostellar Disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the location of the magnetically-inactive dead zone in the minimum-mass protosolar disk, under ionization scenarios including stellar X-rays, long- or short-lived radionuclide decay, and energetic protons arriving from the general interstellar medium, from a nearby supernova explosion, from the disk corona, or from the corona of the young star. The disk contains a dead zone in all scenarios except those with small dust grains removed and a fraction of the short-lived radionuclides remaining in the gas. All the cases without exception have an "undead zone" where intermediate resistivities prevent magneto-rotational turbulence while allowing shear-generated large-scale magnetic fields. The mass column in the undead zone is typically greater than the column in the turbulent surface layers. The results support the idea that the dead and undead zones are robust consequences of cold, dusty gas with mass columns exceeding 1000 g/cm^2.

Turner, N J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

Napier, B.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to dose in 1945  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow's milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.

Napier, B.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides: symposium proceedings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose was to define the current role and state-of-the-art regarding the development, clinical applications, and usefulness of generator-produced single-photon ultrashort-lived radionuclides (SPUSLR's) and to predict their future impact on medicine. Special emphasis was placed on the generator production of iridium-191, gold-195, and krypton-81. This report contains expanded summaries of the included papers. (ACR)

Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W. (eds.)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Oncogene mRNA Imaging with Radionuclide-PNA-Peptides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New cancer gene hybridization probes to carry radionuclides were made. Noninvasive technetium-99m gamma imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated, followed by noninvasive technetium-99m imaging of MYC cancer gene activity. Noninvasive imaging of CCND1 cancer gene activity in human breast cancer tumors in mice was demonstrated with a positron-emitting copper-64 probe, followed by noninvasive positron imaging of IRS1 cancer gene activity.

Wickstrom, Eric

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

286

Summary Report for the Development of Materials for Volatile Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2010, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogenides. For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated.

Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Henager, Charles H.; Matyas, Josef; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

287

Laboratory column experiments for radionuclide adsorption studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radionuclide transport experiments were carried out using intact cores obtained from the Culebra member of the Rustler Formation inside the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Air Intake Shaft. Twenty-seven separate tests are reported here and include experiments with {sup 3}H, {sup 22}Na, {sup 241}Am, {sup 239}Np, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}U and {sup 241}Pu, and two brine types, AIS and ERDA 6. The {sup 3}H was bound as water and provides a measure of advection, dispersion, and water self-diffusion. The other tracers were injected as dissolved ions at concentrations below solubility limits, except for americium. The objective of the intact rock column flow experiments is to demonstrate and quantify transport retardation coefficients, (R) for the actinides Pu, Am, U, Th and Np, in intact core samples of the Culebra Dolomite. The measured R values are used to estimate partition coefficients, (kd) for the solute species. Those kd values may be compared to values obtained from empirical and mechanistic adsorption batch experiments, to provide predictions of actinide retardation in the Culebra. Three parameters that may influence actinide R values were varied in the experiments; core, brine and flow rate. Testing five separate core samples from four different core borings provided an indication of sample variability. While most testing was performed with Culebra brine, limited tests were carried out with a Salado brine to evaluate the effect of intrusion of those lower waters. Varying flow rate provided an indication of rate dependent solute interactions such as sorption kinetics.

Lucero, D.A.; Heath, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, G.O. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Dept.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Numerous sets of tests were initiated in fiscal years (FY) 2006-2009 to evaluate (1) diffusion of iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, (2) I and rhenium (Re) diffusion from contaminated soil into fractured concrete, (3) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, (4) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell, (5) the reactivity and speciation of uranium (VI) (U(VI)) compounds in concrete porewaters, (6) the rate of dissolution of concrete monoliths, and (7) the diffusion of simulated tank waste into concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Skinner, De'Chauna J.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Wood, Marcus I.

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia after the Chernobyl accident  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric Chernobyl-released radioactivity, assessed at about 2 x 10{sup 18} Bq, caused global environmental contamination. Contaminated air masses appeared in the Transcaucasian region in early May, 1986. Rains that month promoted intense radionuclide deposition all over Georgia. The contamination level of western Georgia considerably exceeded the contamination level of eastern Georgia. The Black Sea coast of Georgia suffered from the Chernobyl accident as much as did strongly contaminated areas of the Ukraine and Belarus`. Unfortunately, governmental decrees on countermeasures against the consequences of the Chernobyl accident at that time did not even refer to the coast of Georgia. The authors observed the first increase in radioactivity background in rainfall samples collected on May 2, 1986, in Tbilisi. {gamma}-Spectrometric measurements of aerosol filters, vegetation, food stuffs, and other objects, in addition to rainfall, persistently confirmed the occurrence of short-lived radionuclides, including {sup 131}I. At first, this fact seemed unbelievable, because the Chernobyl accident had occurred only 4-5 days earlier and far from Georgia. However, these arguments proved to be faulty. Soon, environmental monitoring of radiation in Georgia became urgent. Environmental radionuclide distribution in Georgia shortly after the Chernobyl accident, as well as the methods of analysis, are reported in this paper.

Mosulishvili, L.M.; Shoniya, N.I.; Katamadze, N.M. [Institute of Physics, Tbilisi, Georgia (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Department of Energy's team's analyses of Soviet designed VVERs (water-cooled water-moderated atomic energy reactors)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains apprendices A through P of this report. Topics discussed are: a cronyms and technical terms, accident analyses reactivity control; Soviet safety regulations; radionuclide inventory; decay heat; operations and maintenance; steam supply system; concrete and concrete structures; seismicity; site information; neutronic parameters; loss of electric power; diesel generator reliability; Soviet codes and standards; and comparisons of PWR and VVER features. (FI)

Not Available

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of Metal/Radionuclide-reducing Bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Title: Deduction and Analysis of the Interacting Stress Response Pathways of Metal/Radionuclide-reducing Bacteria DOE Grant Number: DE-FG02-06ER64205 Principal Investigator: Jizhong (Joe) Zhou (University of Oklahoma) Key members: Zhili He, Aifen Zhou, Christopher Hemme, Joy Van Nostrand, Ye Deng, and Qichao Tu Collaborators: Terry Hazen, Judy Wall, Adam Arkin, Matthew Fields, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, and David Stahl Summary Three major objectives have been conducted in the Zhou group at the University of Oklahoma (OU): (i) understanding of gene function, regulation, network and evolution of Desulfovibrio vugaris Hildenborough in response to environmental stresses, (ii) development of metagenomics technologies for microbial community analysis, and (iii) functional characterization of microbial communities with metagenomic approaches. In the past a few years, we characterized four CRP/FNR regulators, sequenced ancestor and evolved D. vulgaris strains, and functionally analyzed those mutated genes identified in salt-adapted strains. Also, a new version of GeoChip 4.0 has been developed, which also includes stress response genes (StressChip), and a random matrix theory-based conceptual framework for identifying functional molecular ecological networks has been developed with the high throughput functional gene array hybridization data as well as pyrosequencing data from 16S rRNA genes. In addition, GeoChip and sequencing technologies as well as network analysis approaches have been used to analyze microbial communities from different habitats. Those studies provide a comprehensive understanding of gene function, regulation, network, and evolution in D. vulgaris, and microbial community diversity, composition and structure as well as their linkages with environmental factors and ecosystem functioning, which has resulted in more than 60 publications.

Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; He, Zhili [University of Oklahoma

2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Unclassified Sources Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or more tests is known as the radiologic source term (RST). The RST is comprised of radionuclides in water, glass, or other phases or mineralogic forms. The hydrologic source term (HST) of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total RST that is released into the groundwater over time following the test. In this report, the HST represents radionuclide release some time after the explosion and does not include the rapidly evolving mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes during the explosion. The CAU 97: Yucca Flat/Climax Mine has many more detonations and a wider variety of settings to consider compared to other CAUs. For instance, the source term analysis and evaluation performed for CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa and CAU 98: Frenchman Flat did not consider vadose zone attenuation because many detonations were located near or below the water table. However, the large number of Yucca Flat/Climax Mine tests and the location of many tests above the water table warrant a more robust analysis of the unsaturated zone. The purpose of this report is to develop and document conceptual models of the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine HST for use in implementing source terms for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine models. This document presents future plans to incorporate the radionuclide attenuation mechanisms due to unsaturated/multiphase flow and transport within the Yucca Flat CAU scale modeling. The important processes that influence radionuclide migration for the unsaturated and saturated tests in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate settings are identified. Many different flow and transport models developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including original modeling of multiphase flow and transport by the Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture (SNJV), are integrated to form a general understanding of how the RST relates to the HST. This report is unlike the Frenchman Flat source term analysis because it does not calculate the HST for each test. Instead, this work only identifies the important processes that must be considered when the CAU-transport modeling is performed.

Peter Martian

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in the 0-4 cm surface layer are estimated to be less than 35% of the total inventory to depth in the sediment column.

Noshkin, V.E.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION SAMPLING OF HIGH EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES IN THE PRESENCE OF RADIONUCLIDES AND RADIONUCLIDE SURROGATE METALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Donna Beals, D

2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

295

PATHWAY: a simulation model of radionuclide-transport through agricultural food chains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

PATHWAY simulates the transport of radionuclides from fallout through an agricultural ecosystem. The agro-ecosystem is subdivided into several land management units, each of which is used either for grazing animals, for growing hay, or for growing food crops. The model simulates the transport of radionuclides by both discrete events and continuous, time-dependent processes. The discrete events include tillage of soil, harvest and storage of crops,and deposition of fallout. The continuous processes include the transport of radionuclides due to resuspension, weathering, rain splash, percolation, leaching, adsorption and desorption of radionuclides in the soil, root uptake, foliar absorption, growth and senescence of vegetation, and the ingestion assimilation, and excretion of radionuclides by animals. Preliminary validation studies indicate that the model dynamics and simulated values of radionuclide concentrations in several agricultural products agree well with measured values when the model is driven with site specific data on deposition from world-wide fallout.

Kirchner, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Otis, M.D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Development of EPA radiation site cleanup regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the EPA program to develop radiation site cleanup and identifies many of the issues related to that effort. The material is drawn from portions of the Agency`s Issues Paper on Radiation Site Cleanup Regulations (EPA 402-R-93-084). The site cleanup regulations will be designed to protect human health and the environment and to facilitate the cleanup of sites. EPA believes that developing specific cleanup standards for radionuclides will ensure consistent, protective, and cost-effective site remediation. They will apply to all Federal facilities such as those operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DoD), and sites licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and its Agreement States.

Burnett, J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Potential Effects of Organic Carbon Production on Ecosystems and Drinking Water Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, disinfectantsand implications for drinking water quality and the Deltaand control in drinking water. American Chemical Society,

Brown, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Improvements of oil-in-water analysis for produced water using membrane filtration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The accuracy of oil-in-water analysis for produced water is increasingly crucial as the regulations for disposal of this water are getting more stringent world wide.… (more)

Khor, Ee Huey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

officials on the new Phase II Storm Water NPDES regulations and Best Management Practices available requirements. In addition, they are typically unaware of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that are availableArkansas Water Resources Center STORMWATER POLLUTION PREVENTION BMP WORKSHOP, DEMONSTRATION

Soerens, Thomas

300

Investigation of magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid extraction and assay of alpha-emitting radionuclides from urine: Demonstration of a novel radiobioassay method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the event of an accidental or intentional release of radionuclides into a populated area, three things must occur in a timely manner: food and drinking water supplies must be determined to be safe to eat / drink, civilians and/or military personnel must be surveyed to ensure that they do not have external contamination, and they must be screened to ensure that significant ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides has not occurred (this paper is concerned with the latter). In the event of such a disaster, the volume of radiobioassays to be performed would be tremendous. If the event released significant levels of ?- or ?-emitting radionuclides, in vivo assays would be ineffective. Therefore, highly efficient and rapid analytical methods for radionuclide detection from submitted spot urine samples (? 50 mL) would be required. At present, the quantitative determination of ?-emitting radionuclides from urine samples is highly labor intensive, and requires significant sample preparation and analysis time. Sorbent materials that provide effective collection and enable rapid assay could significantly streamline the radioanalytical process. We have demonstrated the use of paramagnetic nanoparticles as a novel class of extracting media for four ?-emitting radionuclides of concern (Po, Ra, Am, and U) from chemically unmodified and pH 2 human urine. Herein the initial experimental sorption results are presented along with a novel method that utilizes paramagnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of radionuclides from unmodified human urine followed by the magnetic field-induced collection of the particles for subsequent ?-counting-source preparation. Additionally, we construct a versatile human dose model that determines the detector count times required to estimate internal human dose at specific protective action thresholds. The model provides a means to assess a method’s detection capabilities and use fundamental health physics parameters and actual experimental data as core variables. The modeling shows that with effective sorbent materials, rapid screening for internalized ?-emitters is possible from a 50 mL spot urine sample volume collected within one week of exposure/intake.

O'Hara, Matthew J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method for immobilizing mixed waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and other hazardous wastes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method for the encapsulation of soluble radioactive waste chloride salts containing radionuclides such as strontium, cesium and hazardous wastes such as barium so that they may be permanently stored without future threat to the environment. The process consists of contacting the salts containing the radionuclides and hazardous wastes with certain zeolites which have been found to ion exchange with the radionuclides and to occlude the chloride salts so that the resulting product is leach resistant.

Lewis, Michele A. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solutin and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY); Gillow, Jeffrey B. (Valley Cottage, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Microbial stabilization and mass reduction of wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided to treat wastes containing radionuclides and toxic metals with Clostridium sp. BFGl to release a large fraction of the waste solids into solution and convert the radionuclides and toxic metals to a more concentrated and stable form with concurrent volume and mass reduction. The radionuclides and toxic metals being in a more stable form are available for recovery, recycling and disposal. 18 figures.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.; Gillow, J.B.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

304

2 C.C.R. 410 - Rules and Regulations for the Management and Control...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Regulations for the Management and Control of Designated Ground Water Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 2...

305

1996 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, ``National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities,`` each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1996. The Idaho Operations Office of the DOE is the primary contact concerning compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) at the INEEL. For calendar year 1996, airborne radionuclide emissions from the INEEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 3.14E-02 mrem (3.14E-07 Sievert). This effective dose equivalent (EDE) is well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute radionuclide activity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(subroutine Summary: driving forces in accelerating the release of radionuclides is the rainwater which infiltrates through... -hour unitday, s saturated absolute humidity...

307

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radionuclides behavior Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

7 Be in rainwater. Atmospheric inputs of the radionuclides to Cumbria (UK) were recorded. Rainwater Source: Short, Daniel - Department of Science, Robert Morris University...

308

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificial radionuclides transport Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

transport and sedimentology... on the detection of -radiation emitted by naturally occurring radionuclides play a major role in this thesis... radiation transport and play an...

309

Colloid and Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport at the Semi-Arid Hanford Site .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Considerable amount of radioactive waste has been released to vadose zone sediments at the Hanford site. Colloids can facilitate the movement of radionuclides through the… (more)

[No author

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Cogeneration and its regulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the near term, regulators, utility managements, and legislators will grapple with numerous issues surrounding the development of cogeneration projects as sources of electric power. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission predicts that 12,000 MW of new cogeneration plants will be constructed during the 1980s, and all 50 states are in the process of implementing new regulations pursuant to the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act. The US utility system's overall fuel efficiency of 29% offers rich opportunities to conserve fuel, reduce costs, and decrease pollution via cogeneration. Policymakers should stop viewing utilities simply as efficiency tax collectors on the one hand and opponents of innovation on the other. In addition to mothballing inefficient central utility stations, the US must rapidly deploy district heating with cogenerated heat; policymakers should look beyond the obsolete stream systems and encourage development of the high-temperature hot-water systems so successful in Europe.

Casten, T.R.; Ross, H.E.

1981-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nutrient Management Module No. 12 Water Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nutrient Management Module No. 12 Water Quality Considerations and Regulations by Susan Mc Management Competency Area II: Nutrient movement in soil and water. Objectives After completing this module issues 3.Become familiar with federal and state water quality regulations 4.Identify Best Management

Lawrence, Rick L.

312

Regulation 28: Library REGULATION 28: LIBRARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regulation 28: Library 180 REGULATION 28: LIBRARY The purpose of this Regulation is to safeguard the common interests of all Library users. All persons are admitted on the understanding that they have read and agreed to observe the Library Regulations. Breach of this Regulation could result in membership being

Sussex, University of

313

Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Regulation Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act enacts the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, which is a joint state and federal effort to provide for the conservation of the Everglades region. The plan regulates land and water...

314

1997 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) -- Radionuclides annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under Section 61.94 of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H, National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities, each Department of Energy (DOE) facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for calendar year (CY) 1997. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of the INEEL facilities and a brief description of the radioactive materials and processes at the facilities. Section 2 identifies radioactive air effluent release points and diffuse sources at the INEEL and actual releases during 1997. Section 2 also describes the effluent control systems for each potential release point. Section 3 provides the methodology and EDE calculations for 1997 INEEL radioactive emissions.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. Concentrations in produced water discharge plume/receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

317

Radionuclides, Metals, and Hydrocarbons in Oil and Gas Operational Discharges and Environmental Samples Associated with Offshore Production Facilities on the Texas/Louisiana Continental Shelf with an Environmental Assessment of Metals and Hydrocarbons.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents concentrations of radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons in samples of produced water and produced sand from oil and gas production platforms located offshore Texas and Louisiana. concentrations in produced water discharge plume / receiving water, ambient seawater, sediment, interstitial water, and marine animal tissue samples collected in the vicinity of discharging platforms and reference sites distant from discharges are also reported and discussed. An environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentration of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Chalcogen-Based Aerogels as Sorbents for Radionuclide Remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient capture of radionuclides having long half-lives such as technetium-99 (99Tc), uranium-238 (238U), and iodine-129 (129I) is pivotal to prevent their transport into groundwater and/or release into the atmosphere. While different sorbents have been considered for capturing each of them, in the current work, a new nanostructured chalcogen-based aerogel, called a chalcogel, is shown to be very effective to capture ionic forms of 99Tc and 238U, as well as nonradioactive gaseous iodine (i.e., a surrogate for 129I), irrespective of the sorbent polarity. Some of the chalcogels performed better than others but the PtGeS sorbent performed the best with capture efficiencies of 98% and 99.4% for 99Tc and 238U, respectively. All sorbents showed >99% capture efficiency for iodine over the test duration. This unified sorbent would be an attractive option in environmental remediation for various radionuclides associated with legacy wastes from nuclear weapons production, wastes from nuclear power production, or potential future nuclear fuel reprocessing.

Riley, Brian J.; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Olszta, Matthew J.; Li, Xiaohong; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

319

ASSESSMENT OF RELEASE RATES FOR RADIONUCLIDES IN ACTIVATED CONCRETE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Maine Yankee (MY) nuclear power plant is undergoing the process of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). Part of the process requires analyses that demonstrate that any radioactivity that remains after D&D will not cause exposure to radioactive contaminants to exceed acceptable limits. This requires knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the remaining material and their potential release mechanisms from the material to the contacting groundwater. In this study the concern involves radionuclide contamination in activated concrete in the ICI Sump below the containment building. Figures 1-3 are schematic representations of the ICI Sump. Figure 2 and 3 contain the relevant dimensions needed for the analysis. The key features of Figures 2 and 3 are the 3/8-inch carbon steel liner that isolates the activated concrete from the pit and the concrete wall, which is between 7 feet and 7 feet 2 inches thick. During operations, a small neutron flux from the reactor activated the carbon steel liner and the concrete outside the liner. Current MY plans call for filling the ICI sump with compacted sand.

SULLIVAN,T.M.

2003-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

320

Water Distribution and Removal Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes of this WD&R model (CRWMS M&O 2000b) are to quantify and evaluate the distribution and drainage of seepage water within emplacement drifts during the period of compliance for post-closure performance. The model bounds the fraction of water entering the drift that will be prevented from contacting the waste by the combined effects of engineered controls on water distribution and on water removal. For example, water can be removed during pre-closure operation by ventilation and after closure by natural drainage into the fractured rock. Engineered drains could be used, if demonstrated to be necessary and effective, to ensure that adequate drainage capacity is provided. This report provides the screening arguments for certain Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) that are related to water distribution and removal in the EBS. Applicable acceptance criteria from the Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs) developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC 1999a; 1999b; 1999c; and 1999d) are also addressed in this document.

Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

2012 APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, pool heaters, pool pumps, electric spas, pool pump motors, plumbing fittings, plumbing fixtures, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan

322

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

323

A Radionuclide Transport Model for the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain Bruce A. Robinson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Radionuclide Transport Model for the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain Bruce A. Robinson Zhiming model calculations for radionuclide transport in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The model developed by the Yucca Mountain Project based on calibrations to site data. The particle-tracking technique

Lu, Zhiming

324

Radioactivity-Synchronized Fluorescence Enhancement Using a Radionuclide Fluorescence-Quenched Dye  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radioactivity-Synchronized Fluorescence Enhancement Using a Radionuclide Fluorescence-Quenched Dye that demonstrates the feasibility of altering the fluorescence properties of an organic dye as a function effect on the dye fluorescence. Correlation of the radionuclide decay with the dye fluorescence

Larson-Prior, Linda

325

INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPENING RADIONUCLIDE SHIPMENTS All packages containing radioactive material are physically received at the Department of Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are monitored and contamination of the package exterior is assessed. The radioactive stock vialINSTRUCTIONS FOR OPENING RADIONUCLIDE SHIPMENTS All packages containing radioactive material radionuclide packages. GENERAL PROCEDURES 1. Radioactive packages must be opened and inspected as soon

Firestone, Jeremy

326

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

FLUKA calculations of radionuclides, star, and neutron fluence in soil around high-energy electron and proton linear accelerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUKA calculations of radionuclides, star, and neutron fluence in soil around high-energy electron and proton linear accelerators

Puryear, A; Rokni, S H

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Regulators, Requirements, Statutes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Statutes Regulators, Requirements, Statutes The Laboratory must comply with environmental laws and regulations that apply to Laboratory operations. Contact Environmental...

329

Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford?s Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

Reboul, S. H.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

330

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES [U(VI), Sr, Cs] IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS AT THE HANFORD SITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FATE AND TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES [U(VI), Sr, Cs] IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS AT THE HANFORD SITE AND TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES [U(VI), Sr, Cs] IN VADOSE ZONE SEDIMENTS AT THE HANFORD SITE Abstract by Kenton A that influence radionuclide fate and transport in the Hanford vadose zone. Hanford was established for nuclear

Flury, Markus

331

Management and Storage of Surface Waters (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Environmental Protection regulates the use and storage of surface waters in the state. A permit from either the Department or the local Water Management District is required for...

332

Pretreatment/Radionuclide Separations of Cs/Tc from Supernates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant improvements have been made in ion exchange and solvent extraction materials and processes available for separation of the radionuclides cesium and technetium from both acid and alkaline waste solutions. New ion exchange materials and solvent extraction reagents are more selective for Cs over sodium and potassium than previous materials. The higher selectivity gives higher Cs capacity and improved separation processes. Technetium removal has been improved by new ion exchange resins, which have either improved capacity or easier elution. Several different crown ethers have been shown to extract pertechnetate ion selectively over other anions. Organic complexants in some waste solutions reduce pertechnetate ion and stabilize the reduced species. Selective oxidation allows conversion to pertechnetate without oxidation of the organic complexants.

Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Division of Water, Part 666: Regulation for Administration and Management of the Wild, Scenic and Recreational Rivers System in New York State Excepting Private Land in the Adirondack Park (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act establishes statewide regulations for the management, protection, enhancement and control of land use and development in river areas on all designated wild, scenic and recreational rivers...

334

Three-Dimensional Radionuclide Transport Through the Unsaturated Zone of the Yucca Mountain Site 3 Colloids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors investigated colloid transport in the unsaturated fractured zone by means of three-dimensional site-scale numerical model under present-day climate infiltration, considering varying colloid diameters, kinetic declogging, and filtration. The radionuclide transport model was used to simulate continuous release of colloids into fractures throughout the proposed repository, in which any components of engineered barrier system such as waste package or drip shield were not considered. the results of the study indicate the importance of subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The simulations indicate that (1) colloid transport is not significantly affected by varying the filtration parameters, (2) travel time to the water table decreases with the colloid size, (3) larger colloids show little retardation whereas very small ones are retarded significantly, and (4) fracture filtration can have an impact on transport. Because of uncertainties in the fundamentals of colloid transport and an extremely conservative approach (based on an improbably adverse worst-case scenario), caution should be exercised in the analysis and interpretation of the 3-D simulation results. The results discussed here should be viewed as an attempt to identify and evaluate the mechanisms, processes, and geological features that control colloidal transport.

G. J. Moridis; Y. Seol

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

335

Water heater control module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

Hammerstrom, Donald J

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

336

Criteria and Conditions for Authorizing Withdrawal, Diversion, and Storage of Water (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations describe the criteria for the issuance of water withdrawal, diversion, and storage permits for irrigation, industrial use, and power generation, among other uses. The regulations...

337

Radionuclide contaminant analysis of small mammels, plants and sediments within Mortandad Canyon, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small mammals, plants and sediments were sampled at one upstream location (Site 1) and two downstream locations (Site 2 and Site 3) from the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System outfall {number_sign}051-051 in Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos County, New Mexico. The purpose of the sampling was to identify radionuclides potentially present, to quantitatively estimate and compare the amount of radionuclide uptake at specific locations (Site 2 and Site 3) within Mortandad Canyon to an upstream site (Site 1), and to identify the primary mode (inhalation ingestion, or surface contact) of contamination to small mammals. Three composite samples of at least five animals per sample were collected at each site. Pelts and carcasses of each animal were separated and analyzed independently. In addition, three composite samples were also collected for plants and sediments at each site. Samples were analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total U. With the exception of total U, all mean radionuclide concentrations in small mammal carcasses and sediments were significantly higher at Site 2 than Site 1 or Site 3. No differences were detected in the mean radionuclide concentration of plant samples between sites. However, some radionuclide concentrations found at all three sites were higher than regional background. No differences were found between mean carcass radionuclide concentrations and mean pelt radionuclide concentrations, indicating that the two primary modes of contamination may be equally occurring.

Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Radionuclide concentrations in agricultural products near the Hanford Site, 1982 through 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed monitoring data for agricultural products collected from 1982 through 1992 near the Hanford Site to determine radionuclide concentration trends. While samples were collected and analyzed, and results reported annual in Hanford Site environmental reports, an 11-year data set was reviewed for this report to increase the ability to assess trends and potential Hanford effects. Products reviewed included milk, chicken, eggs, beef, vegetables, fruit, wine, wheat, and alfalfa. To determine which radionuclides were detected sufficiently often to permit analysis for trends and effects, each radionuclide concentration and its associated uncertainty were ratioed. Radionuclides were considered routinely detectable if more than 50% of the ratios were between zero and one. Data for these radionuclides were then analyzed statistically, using analyses of variance. The statistical analyses indicated the following: for the most part, there were no measurable effects for Hanford operations; radionuclide concentrations in all products reviewed remained relatively low when compared to concentrations that would result in a 1-mrem effective dose equivalent to an individual; radionuclide concentrations are decreasing in general; however, {sup 90}Sr concentrations in all media and {sup 129}I in milk increased from 1982 to 1986, then decreased gradually for the remainder of the review period. The {sup 129}I concentrations may be correlated with processing of irradiated reactor fuel at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant.

Antonio, E.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

340

History, contamination and monitoring of water bodies at the P/A Mayak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The facts concerning the history and contamination data of surface water at Mayak Production Association are given in the article. Data about the monitoring of contaminated water are presented. The monitoring program solved three main problems: assessment of the water quality of basins, examination of water quality in accordance with actual specifications, and reception of new data about the migration of the most important radionuclides.

Drozhko, E.G.; Sharalapov, V.I.; Posokhov, A.K.; Kuzina, N.V.; Postovalova, G.A. [Ministry of Atomic Energy, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Water Quality Act (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act establishes the Water Quality Control Commission and states the powers and duties of the commission. Rules are stated for adoption of regulations and standards and information is provided...

342

Long-Term Assessment of Critical Radionuclides and Associated Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site - 13038  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses and risks to the public. At SRS dose and risk assessments indicate tritium oxide in air and surface water, and Cs-137 in fish and deer have been, and continue to be, the critical radionuclides and pathways. In this assessment, statistical analyses of the long-term trends of tritium oxide in atmospheric and surface water releases and Cs-137 concentrations in fish and deer are provided. Correlations also are provided with 1) operational changes and improvements, 2) geopolitical events (Cold War cessation), and 3) recent environmental remediation projects and decommissioning of excess facilities. For example, environmental remediation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility have resulted in a measurable impact on the tritium oxide flux to the onsite Fourmile Branch stream. Airborne releases of tritium oxide have been greatly affected by operational improvements and the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, the effects of SRS environmental remediation activities and ongoing tritium operations on tritium concentrations in the environment are measurable and documented in this assessment. Controlled hunts of deer and feral hogs are conducted at SRS for approximately six weeks each year. Before any harvested animal is released to a hunter, SRS personnel perform a field analysis for Cs-137 concentrations to ensure the Hunter's dose does not exceed the SRS administrative game limit of 0.22 milli-sievert (22 mrem). However, most of the Cs-137 found in SRS onsite deer is not from site operations but is from nuclear weapons testing fallout from the 1950's and early 1960's. This legacy source term is trended in the SRS deer, and an assessment of the 'effective' half-life of Cs-137 in deer (including the physical decay half-life and the environmental dispersion half-life) is provided. The 'creek mouth' fisherman is the next most critical pathway at SRS. On an annual basis, three species of fish (panfish, catfish, and bass) are sampled from the mouths of the five SRS streams. Three composites of up to five fish of each species are analyzed from each sampling location. Long-term trending of the Cs-137 concentrations in fish and the subsequent doses from consumption of SRS fish is provided. (authors)

Jannik, G.T.; Baker, R.A.; Lee, P.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Eddy, T.P.; Blount, G.C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Whitney, G.R. [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [US Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

National low-level waste management program radionuclide report series, Volume 15: Uranium-238  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Volume 15 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U). The purpose of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the waste disposal facility environment. This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 238}U can be found, and {sup 238}U behavior in the environment and in the human body.

Adams, J.P.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

Mays, Larry W.

346

Compression and immersion tests and leaching of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination waste collected from nuclear power stations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate structural stability and leachability of radionuclides, stable metals, and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from seven commercial boiling water reactors and one pressurized water reactor. The decontamination methods used at the reactors were the Can-Decon, AP/Citrox, Dow NS-1, and LOMI processes. Samples of untreated resin waste and solidified waste forms were subjected to immersion and compressive strength testing. Some waste-form samples were leach-tested using simulated groundwaters and simulated seawater for comparison with the deionized water tests that are normally performed to assess waste-form leachability. This report presents the results of these tests and assesses the effects of the various decontamination methods, waste form formulations, leachant chemical compositions, and pH of the leachant on the structural stability and leachability of the waste forms. Results indicate that releases from intact and degraded waste forms are similar and that the behavior of some radionuclides such as {sup 55}Fe, {sup 60}Co, and {sup 99}Tc were similar. In addition, the leachability indexes are greater than 6.0, which meets the requirement in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Essentials for GA Water Planning The Relationship  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

" FL Water Law Regulated Riparianism "Heavy" Admin Water Law ? #12;Comprehensive Water Resource Study Supply a. Water Allocation ­ Withdrawal Permit Program b. Water Storage & Delivery c. Interbasin TransferThe Essentials for GA Water Planning The Relationship Between the Proposed GA State Comprehensive

Rosemond, Amy Daum

348

Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello.

Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2010, LBNL Report number LBNL-470E  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Request for Approval for LBNL to Revise Its Radionuclidefrom EPA Region 9 to R. Pauer, LBNL, documenting approval ofLBNL-470E-2010 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared

,

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Analysis of Radionuclide Deposition Ratios from the Fukushima-Daiichi Incident  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Consequence management radiological dose assessors make several assumptions in dose projections regarding radionuclide depositions following a radiological release from a nuclear power plant. During training and exercises these coordinators and dose...

Smith, Micheal Rashaun

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

352

An extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of adaptation to extreme environments. Introduction Nuclear energy technologies generate radioactiveAn extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear Blignyabcd Nuclear activities generate radioactive elements which require processes for their decontamination

Boyer, Edmond

353

Transuranic radionuclides in the environment surrounding radioactive waste diposal sites, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e. site specific). An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. In an attempt to gather relevant information about the transuranic radionuclides in a variety of environments, we conducted an extensive literature search. In our literature search we identified over 5700 potential written sources of information for review. In addition, we have identified many references which were not found through the literature searches, but which were known to contain useful data. A total of approximately 2600 documents were determined to contain information which would be useful for an in depth study of radionuclides in different environments. The journal articles, books, reports and other documents were reviewed to obtain the source term of the radionuclides studied. Most references containing laboratory study data were not included in our databases. Although these may contain valuable data, we were trying to compile references with information on the behavior of the transuranics in the specific environment being studied.

Stoker, A.C.; Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Brunk, J.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Jones, H.E.; Kehl, S.; Stuart, M.L.; Wasley, L.M.; Bradsher, R.V. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Uranium-series constraints on radionuclide transport and groundwater flow at the Nopal I uranium deposit, Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium-series data for groundwater samples from the Nopal I uranium ore deposit were obtained to place constraints on radionuclide transport and hydrologic processes for a nuclear waste repository located in fractured, unsaturated volcanic tuff. Decreasing uranium concentrations for wells drilled in 2003 are consistent with a simple physical mixing model that indicates that groundwater velocities are low ({approx}10 m/y). Uranium isotopic constraints, well productivities, and radon systematics also suggest limited groundwater mixing and slow flow in the saturated zone. Uranium isotopic systematics for seepage water collected in the mine adit show a spatial dependence which is consistent with longer water-rock interaction times and higher uranium dissolution inputs at the front adit where the deposit is located. Uranium-series disequilibria measurements for mostly unsaturated zone samples indicate that {sup 230}Th/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.005-0.48 and {sup 226}Ra/{sup 238}U activity ratios range from 0.006-113. {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U mass ratios for the saturated zone are <2 x 10{sup -14}, and Pu mobility in the saturated zone is >1000 times lower than the U mobility. Saturated zone mobility decreases in the order {sup 238}U{approx}{sup 226}Ra > {sup 230}Th{approx}{sup 239}Pu. Radium and thorium appear to have higher mobility in the unsaturated zone based on U-series data from fractures and seepage water near the deposit.

Goldstein, S.J.; Abdel-Fattah, A.I.; Murrell, M.T.; Dobson, P.F.; Norman, D.E.; Amato, R.S.; Nunn, A. J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Public Versus Private: Does It Matter for Water Conservation? Insights from California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

driver of water management was the environmental regulator’sEnvironmental and Resource Economics Marvin S, Guy S (1997) Consuming water: evolving strategies of water managements Urban Water Sector. Environmental Management 41(6):863–877

Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Forest Road Building Regulations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources has regulations for building a forest road, if development requires one. Regulations include zoning ordinances and permits for stream crossing, grading...

358

Biogeochemical Processes Controlling Microbial Reductive Precipitation of Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is focused on elucidating the principal biogeochemical reactions that govern the concentrations, chemical speciation, and distribution of the redox sensitive contaminants uranium (U) and technetium (Tc) between the aqueous and solid phases. The research is designed to provide new insights into the under-explored areas of competing geochemical and microbiological oxidation-reduction reactions that govern the fate and transport of redox sensitive contaminants and to generate fundamental scientific understanding of the identity and stoichiometry of competing microbial reduction and geochemical oxidation reactions. These goals and objectives are met through a series of hypothesis-driven tasks that focus on (1) the use of well-characterized microorganisms and synthetic and natural mineral oxidants, (2) advanced spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to monitor redox transformations of U and Tc, and (3) the use of flow-through experiments to more closely approximate groundwater environments. The results are providing an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that govern the redox dynamics of radionuclides in subsurface environments. For purposes of this poster, the results are divided into three sections: (1) influence of Ca on U(VI) bioreduction; (2) localization of biogenic UO{sub 2} and TcO{sub 2}; and (3) reactivity of Mn(III/IV) oxides.

Fredrickson, James K.; Brooks, Scott C.

2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

359

Access to water in a Nairobi slum: women’s work and institutional learning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company and the water vendors could . . . discuss [concernswent into the Kibera water vendors’ association, Maji Boraan association of vendors to ‘promote self-regulation,

Crow, Ben D; Odaba, Edmond

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Montana's Water very person who lives in or visits Montana participates in water manage-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Managing Montana's Water E very person who lives in or visits Montana participates in water manage management involves people who allocate water sup- plies, issue permits, regulate the resource according to state and federal laws, and enforce laws when violations occur. Without water management, more human

Lawrence, Rick L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Evaluation of Uranium Measurements in Water by Various Methods - 13571  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In December 2000, EPA amended its drinking water regulations for radionuclides by adding a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for uranium (so called MCL Rule)[1] of 30 micrograms per liter (?g/L). The MCL Rule also included MCL goals of zero for uranium and other radionuclides. Many radioactively contaminated sites must test uranium in wastewater and groundwater to comply with the MCL rule as well as local publicly owned treatment works discharge limitations. This paper addresses the relative sensitivity, accuracy, precision, cost and comparability of two EPA-approved methods for detection of total uranium: inductively plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Both methods are capable of measuring the individual uranium isotopes U-234, U- 235, and U-238 and both methods have been deemed acceptable by EPA. However, the U-238 is by far the primary contributor to the mass-based ICP-MS measurement, especially for naturally-occurring uranium, which contains 99.2745% U-238. An evaluation shall be performed relative to the regulatory requirement promulgated by EPA in December 2000. Data will be garnered from various client sample results measured by ALS Laboratory in Fort Collins, CO. Data shall include method detection limits (MDL), minimum detectable activities (MDA), means and trends in laboratory control sample results, performance evaluation data for all methods, and replicate results. In addition, a comparison will be made of sample analyses results obtained from both alpha spectrometry and the screening method Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) performed at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) FUSRAP Maywood Laboratory (UFML). Many uranium measurements occur in laboratories that only perform radiological analysis. This work is important because it shows that uranium can be measured in radiological as well as stable chemistry laboratories and it provides several criteria as a basis for comparison of two uranium test methods. This data will indicate which test method is the most accurate and most cost effective. This paper provides a benefit to Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and other Department of Defense (DOD) programs that may be performing uranium measurements. (authors)

Tucker, Brian J. [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States)] [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Group, 150 Royall Street, Canton, MA (United States); Workman, Stephen M. [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)] [ALS Laboratory Group, Environmental Division, 225 Commerce Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80524 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Workshop in Regulation &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Institute, "Regulatory Issues" Michael A. Crew, Rutgers University, "Incentive Regulation" Howard

Lin, Xiaodong

363

RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the radionuclide inventory of each DOE-added radionuclide for the compartments of each IOU by applying the representative, central value concentration to the mass of contaminated soil • Totaling the inventory for all compartments associated with each of the IOUs Using this approach the 2013 radionuclide inventories for each sub-compartment associated with each of the three IOUs were computed, by radionuclide. The inventories from all IOU compartments were then rolled-up into a total inventory for each IOU. To put the computed estimate of radionuclide activities within FMB, PB, and SC IOUs into context, attention was drawn to Cs-137, which was the radionuclide with the largest contributor to the calculated dose to a member of the public at the perimeter of SRS within the 2010 SRS CA (SRNL 2010). The total Cs-137 activity in each of the IOUs was calculated to be 9.13, 1.5, and 17.4 Ci for FMB, PB, and SC IOUs, respectively. Another objective of this investigation was to address the degree of uncertainty associated with the estimated residual radionuclide activity that is calculated for the FMB, PB, and SC IOUs. Two primary contributing factors to overall uncertainty of inventory estimates were identified and evaluated. The first related to the computation of the mass of contaminated material in a particular IOU compartment and the second to the uncertainty associated with analytical counting errors. The error ranges for the mass of contaminated material in each IOU compartment were all calculated to be approximately +/- 9.6%, or a nominal +/-10%. This nominal value was added to the uncertainty associated with the analytical counting errors that were associated with each radionuclide, individually. This total uncertainty was then used to calculate a maximum and minimum estimated radionuclide inventories for each IOU.

Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

365

Past and present levels of some radionuclides in fish from Bikini and Enewetak atolls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bikini and Enewetak were the sites in the Northern Marshall Islands that were used by the United States as testing grounds for nuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The testing produced close-in fallout debris that was contaminated with different radionuclides and which entered the aquatic environment. The contaminated lagoon sediments became a reservoir and source term of manmade radionuclides for the resident marine organisms. This report contains a summary of all the available data on the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs {sup 60}Co and {sup 217}Bi in flesh samples of reef and pelagic fish collected from Bikini and Enewetak Atolls between 1964 and 1995. The selection of these three radionuclides for discussion is based on the fact that these are the only radionuclides that have been routinely detected by gamma spectrometry in flesh samples from all fish for the last 20 y. Flesh from fish is an important source of food in the Marshallese diet. These radionuclides along with the transuranic radionuclides and {sup 90}Sr contribute most of the small radiological dose from ingesting marine foods. Some basic relationships among concentrations in different tissues and organs are discussed. The reef fish can be used as indicator species because their body burden is derived from feeding, over a lifetime, within a relatively small contaminated area of the lagoon. Therefore, the emphasis of this report is to use this extensive and unique concentration data base to describe the effective half lives and cycling for the radionuclides in the marine environments during the 31-y period between 1964 and 1995. 26 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Best-basis estimates of solubility of selected radionuclides in sludges in Hanford single-shell tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) model (Rev. 4) (Agnew et al. 1997) projects inventories (as of January 1, 1994) of 46 radionuclides in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. To model the distribution of the 46 radionuclides among the 177 tanks, it was necessary for Agnew et al. to estimate the solubility of each radionuclide in the various waste types originally added to the single-shell tanks. Previous editions of the HDW model used single-point solubility estimates. The work described in this report was undertaken to provide more accurate estimates of the solubility of all 46 radionuclides in the various wastes.

HARMSEN, R.W.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

368

Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The broad, long-term objectives of this application are to 1. develop easily implementable tools for radionuclide dosimetry that can be used to predict normal organ toxicity and tumor response in targeted radionuclide therapy; and 2. to apply these tools to the analysis of clinical trial data in order to demonstrate dose-response relationships for radionuclide therapy treatment planning. The work is founded on the hypothesis that robust dose-response relationships have not been observed in targeted radionuclide therapy studies because currently available internal dosimetry methodologies are inadequate, failing to adequately account for individual variations in patient anatomy, radionuclide activity distribution/kinetics, absorbed dose-distribution, and absorbed dose-rate. To reduce development time the previously available software package, 3D-ID, one of the first dosimetry software packages to incorporate 3-D radionuclide distribution with individual patient anatomy; and the first to be applied for the comprehensive analysis of patient data, will be used as a platform to build the functionality listed above. The following specific aims are proposed to satisfy the long-term objectives stated above: 1. develop a comprehensive and validated methodology for converting one or more SPECT images of the radionuclide distribution to a 3-D representation of the cumulated activity distribution; 2. account for differences in tissue density and atomic number by incorporating an easily implementable Monte Carlo methodology for the 3-D dosimetry calculations; 3. incorporate the biologically equivalent dose (BED) and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) models to convert the spatial distribution of absorbed dose and dose-rate into equivalent single values that account for differences in dose uniformity and rate and that may be correlated with tumor response and normal organ toxicity; 4. test the hypothesis stated above by applying the resulting package to patient trials of targeted radionuclide therapy to obtain normal organ and tumor dose vs. response correlations. Completion of the aims outlined above will make it possible to perform patient-specific dosimetry that incorporates considerations likely to provide robust dose-response relationships. Such an advance will improve targeted radionuclide therapy by making it possible to adopt treatment planning methodologies.

George Sgouros, Ph.D.

2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

369

Review of information on hydrology and radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site 1976--1988, and annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide information on changes in the state of knowledge on the hydrology and radionuclide migration that have occurred at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1976. In the present study, a literature review was conducted to examine information published since 1976 about the various activities that have occurred at the NTS. Information was collected from the literature on the site's geological, hydrological, geochemical, and geomorphic characteristics related to the impacts on the ground water from weapons testing and the disposal of waste at the NTS. This information was used to identify the state of knowledge about the NTS and the potential impacts of NTS activities on the ground water. More than 250 reports were reviewed, of which about 200 contained information pertinent to the subject of this report. Because the reports have never been collected in a single location, only those that were supplied by the US Department of Energy and other cooperating organizations could be reviewed, and some pertinent documents may have been missed. Appendix A contains an annotated bibliography of the reports reviewed. 149 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

Raymond, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Wallace, R.W.; Foley, M.G.; Bierschenk, W.H.; Harrison, R.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); IT Corp., Richland, WA (USA); Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

1980-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

Water Purification Using Functional Nanomaterials: Sequestering Toxic Heavy Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water, and water quality, are issues of critical importance to the future of humankind. Our water supply has been contaminated by a wide variety of industrial, military and natural sources. There is a serious need for technologies to remove toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the world’s water supplies. Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramics condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. These mesoporous architectures can be subsequently functionalized through molecular self-assembly. These functional mesoporous materials offer significant capabilities in terms of removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from groundwater and other liquid media. They are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Their rigid, open pore structure allows for rapid, efficient sorption kinetics. This manuscript provides an overview of the design, synthesis and performance of the sorbent materials.

Fryxell, Glen E.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

show about it, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all the results of our water-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even

Duchowski, Andrew T.

373

Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

show about it, and other things you should know about drinking water. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control have strict standards for all of our water-quality analyses. Every regulated contaminant that was detected in the water, even

Duchowski, Andrew T.

374

Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Transport at the Climax Mine sub-CAU, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Yucca Flat-Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit (CAU) on the Nevada Test Site comprises 747 underground nuclear detonations, all but three of which were conducted in alluvial, volcanic, and carbonate rocks in Yucca Flat. The remaining three tests were conducted in the very different hydrogeologic setting of the Climax Mine granite stock located in Area 15 at the northern end of Yucca Flat. As part of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU, models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport will be developed for Yucca Flat. However, two aspects of these CAU-scale models require focused modeling at the northern end of Yucca Flat beyond the capability of these large models. First, boundary conditions and boundary flows along the northern reaches of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU require evaluation to a higher level of detail than the CAU-scale Yucca Flat model can efficiently provide. Second, radionuclide fluxes from the Climax tests require analysis of flow and transport in fractured granite, a unique hydrologic environment as compared to Yucca Flat proper. This report describes the Climax Mine sub-CAU modeling studies conducted to address these issues, with the results providing a direct feed into the CAI for the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU. Three underground nuclear detonations were conducted for weapons effects testing in the Climax stock between 1962 and 1966: Hard Hat, Pile Driver, and Tiny Tot. Though there is uncertainty regarding the position of the water table in the stock, it is likely that all three tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone. In the early 1980s, the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) was constructed to evaluate the feasibility of retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercial nuclear reactor wastes. Detailed mapping of fractures and faults carried out for the SFT-C studies greatly expanded earlier data sets collected in association with the nuclear tests and provided invaluable information for subsequent modeling studies at Climax. The objectives of the Climax Mine sub-CAU work are to (1) provide simulated heads and groundwater flows for the northern boundaries of the Yucca Flat-Climax Mine CAU model, while incorporating alternative conceptualizations of the hydrogeologic system with their associated uncertainty, and (2) provide radionuclide fluxes from the three tests in the Climax stock using modeling techniques that account for groundwater flow in fractured granite. Meeting these two objectives required two different model scales. The northern boundary groundwater fluxes were addressed using the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model (Belcher, 2004) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey as a modeling framework, with refined hydrostratigraphy in a zone north of Yucca Flat and including Climax stock. Radionuclide transport was simulated using a separate model confined to the granite stock itself, but linked to regional groundwater flow through boundary conditions and calibration targets.

K. Pohlmann; M. Ye; D. Reeves; M. Zavarin; D. Decker; J. Chapman

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

375

Preliminary Interpretation of a Radionuclide and Colloid Tracer Test in a Granodiorite Shear Zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In February and March 2012, a tracer test involving the injection of a radionuclide-colloid cocktail was conducted in the MI shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland, as part of the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) project. The colloids were derived from FEBEX bentonite, which is mined in Spain and is being considered as a potential waste package backfill in a Spanish nuclear waste repository. The tracer test, designated test 12-02 (second test in 2012), involved the injection of the tracer cocktail into borehole CFM 06.002i2 and extraction from the Pinkel surface packer at the main access tunnel wall approximately 6.1 m from the injection interval. The test configuration is depicted in Figure 1. This configuration has been used in several conservative tracer tests and two colloid-homologue tracer tests since 2007, and it is will be employed in an upcoming test involving the emplacement of a radionuclide-doped bentonite plug into CFM 06.002i2 to evaluate the swelling and erosion of the bentonite and the transport of bentonite colloids and radionuclides from the source to the extraction point at the tunnel wall. Interpretive analyses of several of the previous tracer tests, from 09-01 through 12-02 were provided in two previous Used Fuel Disposition Program milestone reports (Arnold et al., 2011; Kersting et al., 2012). However, only the data for the conservative tracer Amino-G Acid was previously analyzed from test 12-02 because the other tracer data from this test were not available at the time. This report documents the first attempt to quantitatively analyze the radionuclide and colloid breakthrough curves from CFM test 12-02. This report was originally intended to also include an experimental assessment of colloid-facilitated transport of uranium by bentonite colloids in the Grimsel system, but this assessment was not conducted because it was reported by German collaborators at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) that neither uranium nor neptunium adsorbed appreciably to FEBEX bentonite colloids in Grimsel groundwater (Huber et al., 2011). The Grimsel groundwater has a relatively high pH of {approx}9, so the lack of uranium and neptunium adsorption to clay is not surprising given the tendency for these actinides to form very stable negative or neutrally-charged uranyl- or calcium-uranyl-carbonate complexes at these pH, particularly in a water that is effectively saturated with respect to calcite. It was also observed in testing conducted at LANL earlier in 2012 that uranium did not adsorb measurably to Grimsel granodiorite in a synthetic Grimsel groundwater at pH {approx}8.5 (Kersting et al., 2012). Thus, the planned experimental work was not pursued because all the available information clearly pointed to an expected result that uranium transport would not be facilitated by clay colloids in the Grimsel system.

Reimus, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

July 2010 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis was conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites. (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analysis. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. An additional water sample was collected from well 29-6 Water Hole for analysis of tritium and gamma-emitting radionuclides. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Resource Management Services, Part 609: Reclassification of Waters (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations provide procedures to propose a reclassification of State waters for permitting purposes. Requests must address the factual basis for reclassification, including the size, depth,...

378

Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a salt dome repository: a technical memorandum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes is a major environmental problem influencing further development of nuclear energy in this country. Salt domes in the Gulf Coast Basin are being investigated as repository sites. A major concern is geologic and hydrologic stability of candidate domes and potential transport of radionuclides by groundwater to the biosphere prior to their degradation to harmless levels of activity. This report conceptualizes a regional geohydrologic model for transport of radionuclides from a salt dome repository. The model considers transport pathways and the physical and chemical changes that would occur through time prior to the radionuclides reaching the biosphere. Necessary, but unknown inputs to the regional model involve entry and movement of fluids through the repository dome and across the dome-country rock interface and the effect on the dome and surrounding strata of heat generated by the radioactive wastes.

Kier, R.S.; Showalter, P.A.; Dettinger, M.D.

1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

380

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

Smart, John E. (West Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Bounding Radionuclide Inventory and Accident Consequence Calculation for the 1L Target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bounding radionuclide inventory for the tungsten of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) IL Target is calculated. Based on the bounding inventory, the dose resulting from the maximum credible incident (MCI) is calculated for the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOl). The design basis accident involves tungsten target oxidation following a loss of cooling accident. Also calculated for the bounding radionuclide inventory is the ratio to the LANSCE inventory threshold for purposes of inventory control as described in the target inventory control policy. A bounding radionuclide inventory calculation for the lL Target was completed using the MCNPX and CINDER'90 codes. Continuous beam delivery at 200 {micro}A to 2500 mA{center_dot}h was assumed. The total calculated activity following this irradiation period is 205,000 Ci. The dose to the MEOI from the MCI is 213 mrem for the bounding inventory. The LANSCE inventory control threshold ratio is 132.

Kelsey, Charles T. IV [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is created Pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act,...

384

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Regulations of the Arkansas Operating Air Permit Program (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Regulations of the Arkansas Air Operating Program are adopted in accordance with the provisions of Part UU of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act, Arkansas Code Annotated 8-4-101,...

386

Environmental regulations handbook for enhanced oil recovery. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A guide to environmental laws and regulations which have special significance for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, federal regulations, and state regulations are discussed. This handbook has been designed as a planning tool and a convenient reference source. The 16 states included comprise the major oil-producing states in various regions of the state. The major topics covered are: general guidelines for complying with environmental laws and regulations; air pollution control; water pollution control; protecting drinking water: underground injection control; hazardous waste management; and federal laws affecting siting or operation of EOR facilities. (DMC)

Wilson, T.D.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

BUCKS COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH RULES AND REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protection as set forth under the PA Safe Drinking Water Act. Monitoring, test, agricultural, and geothermal wells not used for human consumption do not fall under these rules and regulations. SECTION TWO

388

Governing Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protocol, which led to the phasing out of CFCs, and the Basel Convention, which regulates hazardous waste

Carchidi, Victoria

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.12 Restrictions. 327.13 Explosives, firearms, other weapons and fireworks. 327.14 Public property. 327 of Engineers. ALL OTHER FEDERAL, STATE AND LOCAL LAWS AND REGULATIONS REMAIN IN FULL FORCE AND EFFECT WHERE force and effect on project lands or waters which are outgranted by the District Commander by lease

US Army Corps of Engineers

390

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Simula on of Radionuclide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Applica on to Yucca Mountain, Nevada This paper describes the numerical methods developed to simulate at the Yucca Mountain. Regardless of the disposi on of the Yucca Mountain License Applica on, this method has to the water table through the unsaturated zone for the Yucca Mountain system. Abbrevia ons: ADE, advec on

Lu, Zhiming

391

Natural Gas Regulations (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kentucky Administrative Regulation title 805 promulgates the rules and regulations pertaining to natural gas production in Kentucky. In addition to KAR title 405, chapter 30, which pertains to any...

392

Investigation of the possibility of decontamination of bitumen concrete pavement contaminated with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive contamination of the environment is possible during operation of nuclear power plants and the utilization of radionuclide sources in the economy. The problem of decontaminating the surfaces of industrial objects and environmental objects which are contaminated by radionuclides can be solved by different methods of depending on the character of the object: chemical treatment of metallic surfaces of equipment parts by application of different washing fluids, mechanical removal of contaminants or washing contaminants off with a jet of liquid, as well as adding different abrasive additives, the use of film-forming substances for sorption and removal of the decontaminating layer from the surface being cleaned, and other methods.

Karlina, O.K.; Ovchinnikov, A.V.; Ozhovan, M.I. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Simulation of water flow and solute transport in free-drainage lysimeters and field soils with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation of water flow and solute transport in free-drainage lysimeters and field soils for studying the fate and transport of chemicals in soil. Large-scale field lysimeters are used to assess pesticide behaviour and radionuclide transport, and are assumed to represent natural field conditions better

Flury, Markus

394

Centre for the study of Regulated Industries PUBLICATIONS &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, National Audit Office · Social issues in energy and water ~ Professor Cosmo Graham, University of Leicester Norton of Louth, University of Hull · The National Audit Office's audit programme ~ Ed Humpherson Nisbet & Alan Greig, QCA · Energy regulation ~ Maxine Frerk, Ofgem · Food standards regulation ~ Dame

Burton, Geoffrey R.

395

NOTICE OF PROPOSED REGULATION AMENDMENT Date: August 18, 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Deputy Director of Florida Solar Energy Center COMMENTS CONCERNING THE PROPOSED REGULATION AMENDMENT in the solar hearing industry and to refer to updated standards prepared by the Florida Solar Energy Center TEXT OF THE PROPOSED REGULATION AMENDMENT: 6C7-8.005 SolarThermal and Photovoltaic Domestic Water

Wu, Shin-Tson

396

3 Library Regulations Definitions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 Library Regulations Definitions In Regulation 3: 'Library' means the University Library as defined in Regulation 3.1; 'Library staff' means the staff of the University Library; 'Librarian' means the University Librarian and Head of Information Resources Directorate or nominee; `Library Committee' means

Mottram, Nigel

397

Computer Use Regulation Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer Use Regulation #12;Introduction · The following training materials will reference the contents of the Computer Use Regulations, but should not serve as a substitute for reading the actual responsibilities NCSU employees have under the regulations. · North Carolina State University's computer networks

Liu, Paul

398

CARD No. 53 Consideration of Underground Sources of Drinking Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

exposure of individuals and the possible levels of radioactive contamination of ground water due resulting from exposure to radioactive contaminants in underground sources of drinking water (USDWs.34, which implement the general containment requirements of the radioactive waste disposal regulations

399

Plant phytotoxicity: A self-regulating pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the session on regulating sludge utilization, held at BioCycle's 19th Annual National conference on Composting and Recycling, a participant asked one of the speakers, Dr. Alan Rubin of the US EPA's Office of Water Regulations and Standards, why the plant phytotoxicity pathway should be the most limiting, especially when there is no concern about human or animal health. The question related specifically to copper being the most limiting metal concentration limit for many sludge composting and land application programs under the proposed Part 503 regulations. And the most limiting pathway for copper is Pathway 7, sludge-soil-plant phytotoxicity. Rubin responded that the regulation is supposed to protect both human health and the environment, e.g. plants and animals other than humans.

Not Available

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2011-0004; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 7b Qualification Studies. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00247, Rev. 0 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2011-00248, Rev. 0. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB7b (MB9), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 27 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100-year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB7b to 29. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are similar to those performed in the previous SB7a MB8 work. Some method development/refine

Crawford, C. L.; DiPrete, D. P.

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2011-0004; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 7b Qualification Studies. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 6 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00247, Rev. 0 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2011-00248, Rev. 0. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB7b (MB9), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy’s (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U- 235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 27 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB7b to 29. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are similar to those performed in the previous SB7a MB8 work. Some method development/ref

Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that 'The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115'. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) with H-Canyon Np transfers completed after the start of processing SB5, and Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2009-0014; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 6 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask III, Item 2 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2009-00473, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), SRNL-RP-2009-00474, Rev. 1. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB6 (MB7), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes were excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, 30 radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB6 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The WCP and WQR require that all of the radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB6, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100-year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes (Pu-238, -239, -240, -241, and -242) and other U isotopes (U-233, -234, and -238) identified in WAPS 1.6 were already determined to be reportable according to WAPS 1.2 This brings the total number of reportable radionuclides for SB6 to 32. The radionuclide measurements made for SB6 are the most extensive condu

Bannochie, C.; Diprete, D.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Load regulating expansion fixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Radiation site cleanup regulations: Technical support document for the development of radionuclide cleanup levels for soil. Review draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents EPA`s approach to assessing some of the beneficial and adverse radiation health effects associated with various possible values for an annual dose limit. In particular, it discusses the method developed to determine how the choice of cleanup criterion affects (1) the time-integrated numbers of non-fatal and fatal radiogenic cancers averted among future populations, (2) the occurrence of radiogenic cancers among remediation workers and the public caused by the cleanup process itself, and (3) the volume of contaminated soil that may require remediation.

Wolbarst, A.B.; Mauro, J.; Anigstein, R.; Back, D.; Bartlett, J.W.

1994-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

406

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

May 2013 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site (Data Validation Package)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Annual sampling was conducted at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, site for the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program May 14-16, 2013, to monitor groundwater and surface water for potential radionuclide contamination. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location CER #1 Black Sulphur. Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides by high-resolution gamma spectrometry and for tritium using the conventional and enrichment methods.

None

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Water Pollution Control Act (New Jersey)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This act states the rules and regulations to prevent and control pollution of waters in the state. It is unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant unless the discharge conforms with a...

411

National Low-Level Waste Management Program radionuclide report series. Volume 13, Curium-242  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Volume 13 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of curium-242 ({sup 242}Cm). This report also includes discussions about waste types and forms in which {sup 242}Cm can be found and {sup 242}Cm behavior in the environment and in the human body.

Adams, J.P.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The Role of Dispersion in Radionuclide Transport - Data and Modeling Requirements: Revision No. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the collaborative effort of the members of an ad hoc subcommittee of the Underground Test Area Project Technical Working Group. This subcommittee was to answer questions and concerns raised by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, regarding Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102. The document attempts to synthesize the combined comments made by each member of this subcommittee into insights made in the role of dispersion in radionuclide transport data and modeling. Dispersion is one of many processes that control the concentration of radionuclides in groundwater beneath the Nevada Test Site where CAUs 101 and 102 are located. In order to understand the role of dispersion in radionuclide transport, there is a critical need for CAU- or site-specific data related to transport parameters which is currently lacking, particularly in the case of Western a nd Central Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this technical basis document is to: (1) define dispersion and its role in contaminant transport, (2) present a synopsis of field-scale dispersion measurements, (3) provide a literature review of theories to explain field-scale dispersion, (4) suggest approaches to account for dispersion in CAU-scale radionuclide modeling, and (5) to determine if additional dispersion measurements should be made at this time.

Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Assessment of Dose to the Nursing Infant from Radionuclides in Breast Milk  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer software package was developed to predict tissue doses to an infant due to intake of radionuclides in breast milk based on bioassay measurements and exposure data for the mother. The package is intended mainly to aid in decisions regarding the safety of breast feeding by a mother who has been acutely exposed to a radionuclide during lactation or pregnancy, but it may be applied to previous intakes during the mother s adult life. The package includes biokinetic and dosimetric information needed to address intake of Co-60, Sr-90, Cs-134, Cs-137, Ir-192, Pu-238, Pu-239, Am-241, or Cf-252 by the mother. It has been designed so that the library of biokinetic and dosimetric files can be expanded to address a more comprehensive set of radionuclides without modifying the basic computational module. The methods and models build on the approach used in Publication 95 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2004), Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mothers Milk . The software package allows input of case-specific information or judgments such as chemical form or particle size of an inhaled aerosol. The package is expected to be more suitable than ICRP Publication 95 for dose assessment for real events or realistic planning scenarios in which measurements of the mother s excretion or body burden are available.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, Volume 17: Plutonium-239  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report, Volume 17 of the National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of plutonium-239 (Pu-239). This report also discusses waste types and forms in which Pu-239 can be found, waste and disposal information on Pu-239, and Pu-239 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

J. P. Adams; M. L. Carboneau

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Assessment of unsaturated zone radionuclide contamination in the 200 areas of the Hanford site, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 200 East and 200 West Areas at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site in southeastern Washington, contain chemical and nuclear fuel processing facilities that disposed of large volumes of chemical and radionuclide effluents to the ground via various structures such as ponds, cribs and ditches. A geophysical logging investigation was implemented in 1992 to assess the nature and extent of contamination beneath select liquid disposal sites in the 200 Areas. The borehole geophysical logging was accomplished with a recently developed spectral gamma-ray logging system called the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS). This system has a high-resolution, intrinsic germanium detector mounted in a downhole probe and is calibrated and operated specifically for use in a borehole environment. It provides a means to develop in-situ, gamma-emitting radioelement concentration profiles. Approximately 50 boreholes were logged in this study. The RLS log data provided information about the migration and deposition patterns of specific radionuclides in the unsaturated zone and their impacts on the groundwater. Approximately 10 radionuclide species were detected and quantified. Results of the field investigation are being used to refine site specific conceptual models, support Hanford Site remediation decisions and focus future characterization activities.

Brodeur, J.R.; Wittreich, C.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 4 MACROBATCH 5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS)1 1.2 require that 'The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115'. As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP)2 and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR)3. However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the previous contents of Tank 40 (Sludge Batch 3) and the sludge that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge from Tank 51 and Tank 40 defines Sludge Batch 4 (also referred to as Macrobatch 5 (MB5)). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities and determines the radionuclide activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Task Technical Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-2005-0034; Rev. 0 entitled Sludge Batch 4 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing4. Specifically, this report details results from performing, in part, Subtask 3 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00310, Rev. 15 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2006-00458, Rev. 16. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) (Macro Batch 5 (MB5)), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-nine radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB4 (MB5) as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 29 reportable nuclides are: Ni-59; Ni-63; Se-79; Sr-90; Zr-93; Nb-93m; Tc-99; Sn-126; Cs-137; Sm-151; U-233; U-234; Np-237; U-238; Pu-238; Pu-239; Pu-240; Am-241; Pu-241; Pu-242; Am-242m; Am-243; Cm-244; Cm-245; Cm-246; Cm-247; Bk-247; Cm-248; and Cf-251. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB4 (MB5), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the calendar year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to the list of reportable radionuclides in order to meet WAPS 1.6. All of the Pu isotopes and other U isoto

Bannochie, C; Ned Bibler, N; David Diprete, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 5 (MACROBATCH 6)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that ''The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115''. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Tank 40 (Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)), Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51, and H-Canyon Np transfers completed after the start of processing. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 6 (MB6). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities and determines the radionuclide activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to the radionuclide inventory. This work was initiated through Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2008-0010; Rev. 2 entitled Sludge Batch 5 SRNL Shielded Cells Testing. Specifically, this report details results from performing Subtask II, 5 of the TTR and, in part, meets Deliverable 7 of the TTR. The work was performed following the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), WSRC-RP-2008-00137, Rev. 2 and Analytical Study Plan (ASP), WSRC-RP-2008-00138, Rev. 2. In order to determine the reportable radionuclides for SB5 (MB6), a list of radioisotopes that may meet the criteria as specified by the Department of Energy's (DOE) WAPS was developed. All radioactive U-235 fission products and all radioactive activation products that could be in the SRS HLW were considered. In addition, all U and Pu isotopes identified in WAPS 1.6 were included in the list. This list was then evaluated and some isotopes excluded from the projection calculations. Based on measurements and analytical detection limits, twenty-six radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB5 as specified by WAPS 1.2. The 26 reportable radionuclides are: Cl-36, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Tc-99, Sn-126, Cs-137, Sm-151, U-233, U-234, Np-237, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Am-241, Pu-241, Pu-242, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, Cm-246, Cf-251. Chlorine-36 is reported for the first time based on the upper bounding activity determined from the aqua regia digested sludge slurry. The WCP and WQR require that all of radionuclides present in the Design Basis glass be considered as the initial set of reportable radionuclides. For SB5 (MB6), all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for four radionuclides: Se-79, Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time through the year 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. Two additional uranium isotopes (U-235 and -236) must be added to

Bannochie, C.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, D.

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

418

COLLOID AND COLLOID-FACILITATED RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AT THE SEMI-ARID HANFORD SITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COLLOID AND COLLOID-FACILITATED RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT AT THE SEMI-ARID HANFORD SITE By ZIRU LIU Hanford project. Unfortunately, he just passed away this January and could not see the completion-ARID HANFORD SITE Abstract by Ziru Liu, Ph.D. Washington State University May 2013 Chair: Markus Flury

Flury, Markus

419

Aerobic uranium (VI) bioprecipitation by metal-resistant bacteria isolated from radionuclide-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerobic uranium (VI) bioprecipitation by metal-resistant bacteria isolated from radionuclide uranium [U(VI)] mediated by the intrinsic phosphatase acti- vities of naturally occurring bacteria leaks occur, these wastes come into contact with surrounding geologic media, allowing for migration

Skolnick, Jeff

420

Water Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water regulations radionuclides" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Public Versus Private: Does It Matter for Water Conservation? Insights from California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

driver of water management was the environmental regulator’ss Urban Water Sector. Environmental Management 41(6):863–877Environmental Economics and Management 40(1):37–55 Savedoff WD, Spiller PT (1999) Spilled water:

Kallis, Giorgos; Ray, Isha; Fulton, Julian; McMahon, James E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO{sub 2} fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model developed from it and presented in Section 6.7.2.3 are primarily intended to support sensitivity evaluations in performance assessment. This AMR was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The scope of this AMR is outlined in the section ''Mixed Phase Dissolved Radionuclide Concentration Limits'' of the technical work plan.

R. Finch

2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

423

Possible effects of UO/sub 2/ oxidation on light water reactor spent fuel performance in long-term geologic disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a conventionally mined geologic formation is the nearest-term option for permanently isolating radionuclides from the biosphere. Because irradiated uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) fuel pellets retain 95 to 99% of the radionuclides generated during normal light water reactor operation, they may represent a significant barrier to radionuclide release. This document presents a technical assessment of published literature representing the current level of understanding of spent fuel characteristics and conditions that may degrade pellet integrity during a geologic disposal sequence. A significant deterioration mechanism is spent UO/sub 2/ oxidation with possible consequences identified as fission gas release, rod diameter increases, cladding breach extension, and release of solid fuel particles containing radionuclides. Areas requiring further study to support development of a comprehensive spent fuel performance prediction model are highlighted. A program and preliminary schedule to obtain the information needed to develop model correlations are also presented.

Almassy, M.Y.; Woodley, R.E.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Monitoring Trace Radionuclides by ICP Mass Spectrometry with Femtosecond  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment SurfacesResource ProgramModification andinterface of water.OrganicNov 4 5 6Laser

425

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the gravels.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

426

Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution. (ACR)

Biscaye, P.E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A New Methodology for Characterization of Environmentally Important Radionuclide Species Via Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Selective and sensitive detection and characterization of radionuclide contaminants in subsurface environments is essential to safely and to cost-effectively locate, treat, isolate or destroy contaminants encountered in DOE's environmental cleanup activity. Currently, techniques for monitoring and characterizing radionuclides rely primarily on liquid scintillation counting, ICP-MS and some limited use of the spectrofluorimetry based on fluorescence of radionuclide species under laser or UV excitation. These techniques require chemical handling, e.g., the use of complexing media, scintillation cocktails and phosphoric acids, in order to enhance signals. Furthermore, only fluorescent radionuclides (U22O+, Cm(III) and Am(III)) can be detected by the last technique. Many environmentally-important radionuclides such as plutonium, neptunium and technetium species have no strong fluorescence signals and, therefore, can not be characterized via fluorescence spectroscopy. The research presented serves to replace existing radionuclide-detection techniques through the development of a novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost and sample manipulation.

Dai, Sheng; Bao, Li-Li; Mahurin, Shannon; Gu, Baohua

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

428

Pressure reducing regulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure reducing regulator that controls its downstream or outlet pressure to a fixed fraction of its upstream or inlet pressure. The regulator includes a housing which may be of a titanium alloy, within which is located a seal or gasket at the outlet end which may be made of annealed copper, a rod, and piston, each of which may be made of high density graphite. The regulator is insensitive to temperature by virtue of being without a spring or gas sealed behind a diaphragm, and provides a reference for a system in which it is being used. The rod and piston of the regulator are constructed, for example, to have a 1/20 ratio such that when the downstream pressure is less than 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator opens and when the downstream pressure exceeds 1/20 of the upstream pressure the regulator closes.

Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA); Dilgard, Lemoyne W. (Willits, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Fuel cell water transport  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Marketing water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center...tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Tidal Wetlands Regulations (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Most activities occurring in or near tidal wetlands are regulated, and this section contains information on such activities and required permit applications for proposed activities. Applications...

432

Regulation of natural monopolies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical literature on the regulation of natural monopolies. It covers alternative definitions of natural monopoly, regulatory goals, alternative ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Nuclear Regulation (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute establishes a regulatory program for sources of ionizing radiation, to be administered by the Montana Department of Health and Human Services. These regulations address permitting and...

434

Utility Regulation (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission enforces regulations in this legislation that apply to all individuals, corporations, companies, and partnerships that may own, operate, manage, or control...

435

Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state.

436

WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the important that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking is the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concern is generated by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is due to potential releases as groundwater conta