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Sample records for water reclamation plant

  1. Southside Water Reclamation Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Reclamation Plant Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Southside Water Reclamation Plant Biomass Facility Facility Southside Water Reclamation Plant Sector...

  2. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  3. S. 943: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to facilitate the use of abandoned mine reclamation fund moneys to replace water supplies that have been contaminated or diminished by coal mining practices. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, May 9, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The bill describes mandatory and discretionary allocations of funds to a state or Indian reservation for the purpose of water reclamation. The stated objectives of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act are amended to allow 50 percent of a state's mandatory allocation to be used for the construction of public water treatment plants and distribution facilities to take the place of water supplies that have been contaminated as a result of coal practices undertaken prior to August 3, 1977, regardless of whether the contamination has been exacerbated by coal mining practices since that date, when construction would be more economical than repair of existing facilities.

  4. Bureau of Reclamation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enough electricity to serve 3.5 million homes. Today, Reclamation is a contemporary water management agency with a Strategic Plan outlining numerous programs, initiatives and...

  5. Missouri Water Treatment Plant Upgraded

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The city of St. Peters, Missouri obtains its water from one of the best known rivers. Eight pumps from underground wells in the Mississippi River floodplain send water to a lime-softening water treatment plant where it is prepared for drinking water purposes. But because the demand for clean water exists at all times, the plant consumes noticeably large amounts of money and energy.

  6. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  7. Safety problems of water-development works designed for land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shchedrin, V. N.; Kosichenko, Yu. M.

    2011-11-15

    A safety declaration is a fundamental document assuring the safety of water-development works, their correspondence to safety criteria, the design, and active technical regulations and rules.

  8. Analysis of alternative modifications for reducing backwater flooding at the Honey Creek coal strip-mine reclamation site in Henry County, Missouri. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Studies to determine the hydrologic conditions in mined and reclaimed mine areas, as well as areas of proposed mining, have become necessary with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Honey Creek in Henry County, Missouri, has been re-routed to flow through a series of former strip mining pits which lie within the Honey Creek coal strip mine reclamation site. During intense or long duration rainfalls within the Honey Creek basin, surface runoff has caused flooding on agricultural land near the upstream boundary of the reclamation site. The calculated existing design discharge (3,050 cubic feet per second) water-surface profile is compared to the expected water-surface profiles from three assumed alternative channel modifcations within the Honey Creek study area. The alternative channel modifications used in these analyses include (1) improvement of channel bottom slope, (2) relocation of spoil material, and (3) improved by-pass channel flow conditions. The alternative 1, 2, and 3 design discharge increase will reduce the agricultural field current (1990) frequency of backwater flooding from a 3-year to a 6.5-year event.

  9. Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Metro Wastewater Reclamation District Biomass Facility Facility Metro Wastewater Reclamation...

  10. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... been developing an analysis for a potential combined system that includes a coal-fired power plant, a geologic carbon storage system, water extraction from a saline formation, ...

  11. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  12. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  13. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N.

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  14. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1 (Shallow) Site, San Juan Power Plant 1 ... Water Treatment, and Electricity Cost Scenarios 1 ... (e.g., 10,000 grams of salt per 1,000,000 grams of ...

  15. Gansu Zhongyuan Water Conservancy and Hydro Power Plant Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Conservancy and Hydro Power Plant Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Gansu Zhongyuan Water Conservancy and Hydro Power Plant Development Co. Ltd. Place:...

  16. Reclamation of water contaminated with fuel system icing inhibitor: Phase 1, Literature review and information compilation. [281 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Stirling, K.Q.; Whisman, M.L.; Bhan, O.K.

    1988-02-01

    The volume of water that must be removed from an aviation turbine fuel storage tank can be as much as 15,000 to 20,000 gallons per year from a fuel tank of moderate capacity. If each fuel storage facility has 10 fuel storage tanks, a total water volume of 200,000 gallons per terminal per year is a reasonable estimate. Some terminals generate as much as one million gallons per year of FSII contaminated wastewater. In the past, this FSII/water mixture was released from time to time into diked areas around the storage tank where it evaporated or penetrated underlying media. A host of recent studies that have shown these glycol ethers to be toxic now make this practice questionable based on both vapor inhalation toxicity and potential groundwater contamination. The ensuing narrative sections contain a summary of the data and information that have been compiled as a result of computerized literature searches, personal contacts with government and industry representatives knowledgeable in the field of FSII, and contact with vendors of equipment and processes with some applicability to achieving the goals of this research. Our recommendations for the subsequent bench-scale testing phase are included and are based upon this literature compilation and review. If the second phase yields a technically and economically attractive solution, a third phase will follow to implement concept verification studies. 281 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  18. Better Plants Water Pilot - Overview | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Pilot - Overview Better Plants Water Pilot - Overview The Department of Energy (DOE) is expanding the Better Buildings Challenge to help partners demonstrate successful ...

  19. Geothermal Power Plants — Meeting Water Quality and Conservation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    U.S. geothermal power plants can easily meet federal, state, and local water quality and conservation standards.

  20. Surface and groundwater management in surface mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evoy, B.; Holland, M.

    1990-06-01

    This report provides information on surface water and groundwater management for use in the mined-land reclamation planning process in California. Mined-land reclamation, as defined by the California Surface Mining and Reclamation Act, is the combination of land treatments which prevent or minimize water degradation, air pollution, damage to aquatic or wildlife habitat, and erosion resulting from a surface mining operation. Surface water and groundwater management play an integral role in nearly every reclamation plan. Groundwater and surface water runoff (both onto and off of the site) must often be evaluated (1) to design flooding and erosion protection measures such as drainage channels, levees, culverts, or riprap; (2) to prepare and carry out a successful revegetation program; (3) to design stable final slopes; (4) to maximize potential available water for the operation and reclamation stages; (5) to prevent the discharge of contaminants from mine processes or from mined areas; and (6) to limit long-term leachate formation and movement from tailings, pit, or waste rock disposal areas. This report is a guide for mine operators, local government, planners, and plan reviewers.

  1. Surface mine regulations complicate reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltz-Patrash, A.

    1980-09-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 is a landmark environmental law intended to protect U.S. lands from stripmining effects. However, coal mine operators claim that some SMCRA regulations are misguidedcosting time and money, but yielding no substantial environmental benefit. Unlike other environmental acts, SMCRA details specifically the goals of reclamation and the methods that must be implemented to meet these goals. Coal industry representatives believe that this discourages innovation, promotes inefficiency by ignoring regional differences among sites, and results in unnecessary expense to the industry. Reclamation practices and progress among western coal mining companies are evaluated. (1 map, 5 photos)

  2. Mined Land Reclamation on DOE's Uranium Lease Tracts, Southwestern...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mined Land Reclamation on DOE's Uranium Lease Tracts, Southwestern Colorado Mined Land Reclamation on DOE's Uranium Lease Tracts, Southwestern Colorado Mined Land Reclamation on...

  3. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  4. The Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Sept. 11, 2013, covers the energy water nexus for state and local water and wastewater treatment plants.

  5. Managing water temperatures below hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.L.; Vermeyen, T.B.; O`Haver, G.G.

    1995-05-01

    Due to drought-related water temperature problems in the Bureau of Reclamation`s California Central Valley Project in the early 1990`s, engineers were forced to bypass water from the plants during critical periods. This was done at considerable cost in the form of lost revenue. As a result, an alternative method of lowering water temperature was developed and it has successfully lowered water temperatures downstream from hydroelectric facilities by using flexible rubber curtains. This innovative technology is aiding the survival of endangered fish populations. This article outlines the efforts and discusses the implementation of this method at several hydroelectric facilities in the area.

  6. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  7. H. R. 2095: Abandoned Mine Reclamation Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, October 25, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This bill would amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to reauthorize the collection of reclamation fees. This bill explains the additions to the Act relating to collection of interest on that portion of the fund not currently needed; the allocation of funds; the fund objectives; eligible lands and waters; state reclamation programs; voids and tunnels; emergency program; certification; and abandoned minerals and mineral materials mine reclamation fund.

  8. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R.

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  9. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China --- A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhenqi Hu; Hehe Gu

    1995-09-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. Since the Chinese government enacted a reclamation stipulation in 1989, many abandoned mining subsidence lands were produced before 1989. Therefore, reclamation of abandoned subsidence lands has become the focus of research activities in our country. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands --- some parts of the abandoned lands were wetland or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation.

  10. Mined land reclamation in Wisconsin since 1973

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Reclamation has long been recognized as an essential action necessary to mitigate the degradation of land caused by mining activities. But, it is only within the past several decades that reclamation has become an integral component of the mineral extraction process. While the Metallic Mining Reclamation Act (MMRA) was passed in 1973, Wisconsin is yet to enact comprehensive state-wide reclamation requirements for mining other than metallic minerals and the code for metallic mining has yet to establish procedures and standards for reclamation success, specifically revegetation and postmining land use. This study integrates several interdisciplinary methodologies including a history of reclamation; an inventory and status report of mined lands; a critique and comparison of existing reclamation policy with previous state and current federal reclamation policies; in-field case studies of revegetation parameters, procedures, and performance standards; and an economic analysis of reclamation technology. This study makes three major recommendations: (1) The metallic mining code should be amended to establish vegetation parameters, measuring methods, and performance standards for revegetation success similar to those contained in the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA); (2) The metallic mining code should be amended to resolve semantic loopholes by clearly defining the endpoints of terms such as restoration, reclamation, and rehabilitation and by utilizing the reclamation continuum as a planning tool for determining acceptable postmining land use alternatives; and (3) Mandatory statewide nonmetallic legislation should be enacted to strengthen the mineral resource management program in Wisconsin by systematically and uniformly regulating the mining and reclamation of nonmetallic minerals, the state's most important mineral resource.

  11. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  12. The Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on the Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

  13. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those

  14. Modeling Choices and the Effects of Water Runoff on Plant Productivity...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Modeling Choices and the Effects of Water Runoff on Plant Productivity Biological and ... Modeling Choices and the Effects of Water Runoff on Plant Productivity Understanding ...

  15. EECBG Success Story: Missouri Water Treatment Plant Upgraded

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The city of St. Peters, Missouri is installing a water reservoir pump at the water treatment plant and replace seven pump motors with premium efficiency motors on the high service and backwash pumping systems, thanks to an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG). Learn more.

  16. How reclamation tests mechanical governors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, J.C.; Girgis, G.K.; Cline, R.

    1996-08-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has developed its own equipment for testing mechanical-hydraulic governors for hydroelectric generators. The device, called a Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) Simulator, generates a three-phase voltage that will drive the governor ballhead motor at variable speed. Utilizing this equipment, most traditional governor tests can be completed with the generating unit dewatered. In addition, frequency response testing and other detailed analytical tests can be performed to validate governor models. This article describes the development and design of the equipment, and it also discusses its usage in a case study of events at Glen Canyon Dam.

  17. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  18. Finding Alternative Water Sources for Power Plants with Google Earth

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Sobering news from experts: Rising populations, regional droughts, and decreasing groundwater levels are draining the nation’s fresh water supply. What plant operators need is a system that catalogs in one place nontraditional water sources that can be used for electricity production instead of valuable, limited fresh water. Now, thanks to a Department of Energy (DOE)-supported project, there’s an app for that.

  19. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  20. Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Breakout Session 2-A: The Future of Algae-Based Biofuels ...

  1. EIS-0370: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0370: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability of the Final...

  2. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    . Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness

  4. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  5. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  6. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  7. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  8. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  9. Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 2010 | Department of Energy Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010 Cooling Water Issues and Opportunities at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants, December 2010 Energy and water are both essential to sustainable development and economic productivity. Ample supplies of water are essential to energy production, and water management is dependent on ample supplies of energy for water treatment and transportation. The critical nexus between energy and

  10. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type

  12. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. geothermal_water_use_draft.pdf

  13. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies.

  14. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  16. Georgia-Pacific Palatka Plant Uses Thermal Pinch Analysis and Evaluates Water Reduction in Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes the methods and results used in a plant-wide assessment at a Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Palatka, FL. Assessment personnel recommended several projects, which, if implemented, have the potential to save the plant more than 729,000 MMBtu per year and $2.9 million per year. In addition, the plant could reduce water use by 2,100 gallons per minute.

  17. Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Operation of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies.

  18. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  19. Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  20. Thermoeconomic optimizarion of OC-OTEC electricity and water production plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, D.L.; Girgis, M.A.; Huggins, J.C.; McCluney, R.; Rotundo, L.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Hutchings, B.J.; Stacy, W.D.; Sam, R.G.; Patel, B.R.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of this yearlong project were to: (1) assess the economic and technical viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion of (OC-OTEC) for the production of electricity and/or fresh water based on the current state of the art; (2) develop conceptual designs of optimized OC-OTEC plants that produce electricity and/or fresh water for plant sizes that are economically attractive; and (3) identify the research issues that must be resolved before a commercial plant can be built. Oceanographic data for six potential sites were evaluated and generic site characteristics were developed. The generic site has a 20/sup 0/C temperature differential between the ocean surface and a depth of 1000 m. This temperature differential occurs at a distance of 5 km from shore. Current and projected prices and requirements for electricity and water at potential sites were obtained. The state of the art of components comprising the OC-OTEC plant was reviewed. Design options for each component were identified. The highest performing, least costly, and least technically uncertain design for each component was selected. Component cost and performance models were then developed and integrated into thermoeconomic system models for single- and double-stage OC-OTEC plants that produced electricity and/or fresh water. A computerized optimization procedure was developed to obtain optimal (minimum cost) plant configurations for the production of electricity and/or fresh water. All plant types - floating, moored, shelf-mounted, shallow-water and land-based plants - were evaluated. Based on the state-of-the-art and typical characteristics of potential sites, the primary thrust of the program was directed towards shallow-water and land-based plants. The shallow-water/land-based plant configurations selected had a 5-km long cold-water supply pipe and a 1-km long discharge pipe for the evaporator and condenser.

  1. City Water and Light Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    861 Data Utility Id 9879 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying...

  2. Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-05-01

    Report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Report contains results from utility scale analysis and site visits, as well as facility scale screening and site visits.

  3. Alternative schemes for production of chilled water and cogeneration of electricity at Ashley Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    William Tao Associates, Inc. (TAO) evaluated alternative systems for the generation of Chilled Water at Ashley Plant. The generation of chilled water is necessary for several reason; initially as a source of revenue for St. Louis Thermal Energy Corporation (SLTEC), but more importantly as a necessary component of the Trash-to-Energy Plant proposed north of Ashley Plant. The chilled water system provides a base load for steam generated by the Trash-to-Energy Plant. The benefits include reduced tip-fees to the City of St. Louis, lower cost of energy to customers of both the district steam system and the proposed chilled water system, and will result in lower energy and operating costs for the system than if individual services are provided. This symbiotic relationship is main advantage of the Trash-to-Energy system. TAO provided preliminary engineering of the chilled water line route. The basic assumptions of an initial load of 10,000 tons with an ultimate load of 20,000 tons at a temperature difference of 16{degree}F remain. The findings of the pipeline study, although not incorporated into this document, remain valid. Assumptions include the following: An initial design load of 6000 tons which has the capability of growing to 20,000 tons; Incremental costs of steam generated by Ashley Plant and the Trash-to-Energy plant; The turbine room at Ashley Plant is suitable for gut rehab except for turbines No. 7 and No. 9 which should remain operational; and Daily chilled water flow and annual load profile. The paper describes the findings on 8 alternative chiller systems. Additional studies were performed on the following: chilled water storage; low-pressure absorption chiller for balancing plant steam loads; economizer cycle for chiller system; auxiliary equipment energy source; variable flow water pumps; and comparison to satellite chilled water plant study.

  4. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  5. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  6. Illinois abandoned mined lands reclamation program: a progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmann, T.J.; Jenkusky, S.M.; Massie, S.

    1985-12-01

    The Illinois Abandoned Mined Lands Reclamation Council (AMLRC), created in 1975, is responsible for the abatement of hazardous and environmental problems associated with pre-law abandoned coal mines throughout the State. The availability of federal funds for reclamation, through passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), greatly expanded the program. With funds provided through early cooperative agreements and current annual grants from the federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM), the State has reclaimed, or is currently reclaiming, 182 mine sites and has assisted OSM in the abatement of 67 emergency situations. This paper reviews the progress made by the AMLRC in dealing with the State's abandoned mine problems. Specifically, the numbers and types of problem sites reclaimed annually, their costs, and reclamation methods are identified. Progress of the program relative to the entire State's abandoned mine problems is reviewed. The effects of other reclamation factors, such as natural revegetation, remaining privately-funded reclamation, and secondary carbon recovery, on the overall scope of the State's program are also examined. General comments are made concerning grant preparation, State-OSM cooperation and AML-Inventory control. Selected reclamation projects and techniques are also discussed. 11 references, 3 tables.

  7. pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search pH Adjustment of Power Plant Cooling Water with Flue Gas/ Fly Ash Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (801 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryIncreased recycling of power plant cooling water calls for low-cost means of preventing the formation of calcium carbonate and silicate scale. Hardness (Ca and Mg) and silica are two of

  8. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be

  9. Manual for training reclamation inspectors in the fundamentals of hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, W.R.; Dyer, K.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be a desk reference to help nonhydrologists achieve a basic understanding of hydrology as it relates to surface mining and reclamation. Surface coal mining and reclamation inspectors and other staff will find it useful in implementing regulatory programs. The handbook is not meant to be a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The handbook can be used in the training of surface-mining and reclamation inspectors, both Federal and State, and as a basic reference for inspectors in carrying out their assigned duties. The handbook describes clues and indicators of potential problems, suggests ways to prevent or mitigate them, and discusses various observation and sampling techniques.

  10. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  11. Thermoeconomic optimization of OC-OTEC electricity and water production plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, D.L.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    The study on the thermoeconomic evaluation of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) objectives were to assess the economic and technical viability of OC-OTEC for the production of electricity and fresh water based on the current state-of-the-art; develop conceptual designs of optimized OC-OTEC plants that produce electricity and fresh water for plant sizes that are economically attractive; and identify the research issues that must be resolved before a commercial plant can be built. Oceanographic data for six potential sites were evaluated and ''generic'' site characteristics were developed. Current and projected prices and requirements for electricity and water at potential sites were obtained. The state-of-the-art of components comprising the OC-OTEC plant was reviewed. The highest performing, least costly, and least technically uncertain design for each component was selected. Component cost and performance models were then developed and integrated into thermoeconomic system models for single- and double-stage OC-OTEC plants that produced electricity and fresh water. A computerized optimization procedure was developed to obtain optimal plant configurations for the production of electricity and fresh water. Small-scale OC-OTEC appears economically and technologically feasible for many potential sites. OC-OTEC may represent a technology with tremendous near-term potential. It is recommended that it be aggressively pursued.

  12. Bureau of Reclamation Small Conduit Hydropower Development and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Bureau of Reclamation Small Conduit Hydropower Development and Rural Jobs Act of 2013Legal...

  13. Simultaneous production of desalinated water and power using a hybrid-cycle OTEC plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1987-05-01

    A systems study for simultaneous production of desalinated water and electric power using the hybrid-cycle OTEC system was carried out. The hybrid cycle is a combination of open and closed-cycle OTEC systems. A 10 MWe shore-based hybrid-cycle OTEC plant is discussed and corresponding operating parameters are presented. Design and plant operating criteria for adjusting the ratio of water production to power generation are described and their effects on the total system were evaluated. The systems study showed technical advantages of the hybrid-cycle power system as compared to other leading OTEC systems for simultaneous production of desalinated water and electric power generation.

  14. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  15. Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore C. Hsiao

    1998-08-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.

  16. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  17. Desalting in wastewater reclamation using capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J.H.; Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; de Pruneda, J.A.H.; Mack, G.V.; Poco, J.F.; Nielsen, J.K.; Pekala, R.W.

    1996-07-01

    Capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes is an efficient and economical new process for removing salt and impurities from water. Carbon aerogel is a material that enables the successful purification of water because of its high surface area, optimum pore size, and low electrical resistivity. The electrodes are maintained at a potential difference of about one volt; ions are removed from the water by the imposed electrostatic field and retained on the electrode surface until the polarity is reversed. The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated. The overall process offers advantages when compared to conventional water-purification methods, requiring neither pumps, membranes, distillation columns, nor thermal heaters. Consequently, the overall process is both robust and energy efficient. The current state of technology development commercialization, and potential applications of this process are reviewed. Particular attention and comparison with alternate technologies will be done for seawater, brackish water, and desalting in wastewater reclamation.

  18. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWR) (NUREG-1123) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog and Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations (NUREG-1121) will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55. The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at boiling water reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring personnel and public health and safety. The BWR K/A Catalog is organized into five major sections: Plant-wide Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. The BWR Catalog represents a modification of the form and content of the K/A Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Pressurized Water Reactors (NUREG-1122). First, categories of knowledge and ability statements have been redefined. Second, the scope of the definition of emergency and abnormal plant evolutions has been revised in line with a symptom-based approach. Third, K/As related to the operational applications of theory have been incorporated into the delineations for both plant systems and emergency and abnormal plant evolutions, while K/As pertaining to theory fundamental to plant operation have been delineated in a separate theory section. Finally, the components section has been revised.

  19. Best Management Practices (BMP) plan for potable water discharges Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiest, M.C. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    This plan provides guidance to minimize the environmental effects from discharges of chlorinated waters, including: Flushing of potable water lines; Releases from fire hydrants during testing and maintenance of fire protection systems; Releases from sprinkler systems for maintenance or testing purposes; and Other significant releases of chlorinated water. This BMP plan is intended to meet the Y-12 Plant National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit condition, requiring that BWs be used for flushing potable water lines and similar activities. Close adherence to the steps provided in this plan will help prevent the discharge of chlorinated waters ``in concentrations sufficient to be hazardous or otherwise detrimental to humans, livestock, wildlife, plant life, or fish and aquatic life in the receiving stream``.

  20. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  1. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project Near Surface Test Facility 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of the reclamation project for the Hanford Site Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation project is to return disturbed sites as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native species. Gable Mountain is dominated by two plant communities: a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) -- Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) community and a stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida) -- Sandberg's bluegrass community. Disassembly of the site installations began on March 15, 1988, and the site was returned to original contours by December 12, 1988. Two separate revegetation methods were employed at the NSTF to meet differing site constraints. Vegetative cover and density in the revegetation plots were assessed in April 1989 and again in June 1989 and 1990. It is extremely unlikely that the sand pit, borrow pit, box cuts, generator pad area, or ventilation fan area will reach the reclamation objectives set for these areas within the next 50 years without further intervention. These areas currently support few living plants. Vegetation on revegetated native soils appears to be growing as expected. Vegetation growth on the main waterline is well below the objective. To date, no shrubs have grown on the area, growth of native grasses is well below the objective, and much of the area has been covered with the pit run material, which may not support adequate growth. Without further treatments, the areas without the pit run material will likely revert to a nearly pure cheatgrass condition. 44 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q.

    2010-09-17

    Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology, reservoir

  3. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the

  4. Water and Heat Balance Model for Predicting Drainage Below the Plant Root Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-11-01

    UNSAT-H Version 2.0 is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamic processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and the uptake of water from soil by plants. The model was developed for assessing the water dynamics of arid sites used or proposed for near-surface waste disposal. In particular, the model is used for simulating the water balance of cover systems over buried waste and for estimating the recharge rate (i.e., the drainage rate beneath themore » plant root zone when a sizable vadose zone is present). The mathematical base of the model are Richards'' equation for water flow, Ficks'' law for vapor diffusion, and Fouriers law for heat flow. The simulated profile can be homogeneous or layered. The boundary conditions can be controlled as either constant (potential or temperature) or flux conditions to reflect actual conditions at a given site.« less

  5. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  6. EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K– and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

  7. Water Pollution Control Plant Solar Site Evaluation: San José

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  8. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  9. Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund - a view from the West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Congress created the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund (AML) in 1977 as part of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. The AML is funded by a special tax on coal mining. About one-third of AML fees will be paid by coal operators in the western states. The author examines the disbursement of AML funds under the Reagan Administration. He describes how the western state governments expected a generous portion of the AML funds for coal and non-coal reclamation, as well as community impact assistance projects in their states. Finally, the author shows how the Office of Surface Mining has largely frustrated the western expectations through its interpretation of the AML disbursement priorities.

  10. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act: A Utah perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, D.

    1989-01-01

    The authority to regulate the coal industry at the state level, under state statute and rules, the importance of the coal industry to the state, the importance of an environmentally sound regulatory program, and the benefit of a state-managed abandoned mine reclamation program, in short the ability of the state to manage its own natural resources, make state primacy a necessity, not an option. Implementation of SMCRA cannot be measured in the myriad of oversight statistics. Effectiveness means cost-effective, timely reclamation of abandoned sites; consistent, workable rules and regulatory practices; responsive program management; and compliance which is internalized in the mine's operations.

  11. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  12. Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.

    2012-02-23

    Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  14. Mccallum study area: resource and potential reclamation evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to collect baseline data for establishing reclamation objectives and lease stipulations. The report includes data on climate, biological and cultural resources, physiography, geology, coal resources, soil overburden, vegetation, and hydrology. The study area is within Moffat County in Colorado.

  15. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2010-10-01

    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system

  16. Western surface mine permitting and reclamation. Volume 2. Contractor documents. Part B. Hydrologic evaluation and reclamation technologies for western surface coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The report presents an analysis of the hydrologic evaluation and reclamation technologies of western surface coal mining as they have evolved and advanced since passage of the Federal Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). The primary emphasis of the report is threefold, addressing: Hydrologic data used in the preparation and review of mining and reclamation plans. Analytical techniques used to predict and evaluate the hydrologic impacts of mining. Evaluation criteria used to determine the success of hydrologic restoration. The report also discusses special reclamation practices used to preserve and restore the essential hydrologic functions of alluvial valley floors.

  17. Storm water runoff for the Y-12 Plant and selected parking lots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of storm water runoff from the Y-12 Plant and selected employee vehicle parking lots to various industry data is provided in this document. This work is an outgrowth of and part of the continuing Non-Point Source Pollution Elimination Project that was initiated in the late 1980s. This project seeks to identify area pollution sources and remediate these areas through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process as managed by the Environmental Restoration Organization staff. This work is also driven by the Clean Water Act Section 402(p) which, in part, deals with establishing a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges. Storm water data from events occurring in 1988 through 1991 were analyzed in two reports: Feasibility Study for the Best Management Practices to Control Area Source Pollution Derived from Parking Lots at the DOE Y-12 Plant, September 1992, and Feasibility Study of Best Management Practices for Non-Point Source Pollution Control at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, February 1993. These data consisted of analysis of outfalls discharging to upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the confines of the Y-12 Plant (see Appendixes D and E). These reports identified the major characteristics of concern as copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate (as nitrogen), zinc, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, and aluminum. Specific sources of these contaminants were not identifiable because flows upstream of outfalls were not sampled. In general, many of these contaminants were a concern in many outfalls. Therefore, separate sampling exercises were executed to assist in identifying (or eliminating) specific suspected sources as areas of concern.

  18. Chemical reclamation of scrap rubber. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.C.; Chan, S.M.; Culberson, O.L.; Perona, J.J.; Larsen, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolysis of the rubber, and pyrolysis data obtained in a bench-scale flow apparatus. An economic assessment of the plant was made in terms of late 1979 dollars, for ranges in scrap tire costs and prices for the principal products: carbon black and the fuel gases and oil. Profitability at these 1979 costs and prices is somewhat modest by chemical processing industry standards for new processes, but any increases in energy and carbon black prices would cause favorable changes in this assessment.

  19. Reclamation of urban stormwater. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, R.

    1993-01-01

    Rainfall runoff becomes contaminated as it passes over urban land. Billions of gallons of water can be recovered for beneficial uses if urban stormwater is properly controlled and treated. The Storm and Combined Sewer Program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development has continuously supported the development and demonstration of stormwater control systems and treatment processes. Water quality of the treated storm runoff can meet the required standards for subpotable usage. Current urban stormwater control and treatment technology are discussed, leading to the feasibility of urban stormwater reuse for various purposes in industry, irrigation and recreation. A hypothetical case study illustrating the cost effectiveness of reclaiming urban stormwater for complete industrial supply is presented.

  20. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  1. Land use and value after reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, W.R.

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of analyzing the size and condition of producing land parcels concerning management and income relationships, tract location, and soil and water conservation structures. It reviews production schemes for crops such as corn, soybeans, wheat, alfalfa hay, and warm season grasses, as well as use for recreation. Management of tenants and leases is discussed concerning evaluation of crop share leases, cash renting, custom farming, and tenant selection. Factors involving subsidence due to underground mining by longwall or room and pillar extraction are discussed. Issues related to planning for and management of taxes, long-term improvements, and other land costs are presented.

  2. Approval of State and Indian Reclamation Program grants under Title IV of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977: final environmental import statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Approval of annual grant applications to states and Indian tribes is proposed in accordance with Title IV of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). The grants are financed through assessments for abandoned coal mine reclamation. Fund collections are to continue through 1992. Granting of all available funds would provide the maximum possible amount of money and promote the highest level of reclamation of mined areas. Health and safety hazards associated with unreclaimed mines would be lessened, and habitat for fish, wildlife, and vegetation would be enhanced significantly. Mining reclamation projects would require evacuation of residents in affected areas. Reclamation activities would create dust and sediments, degrading air quality and surface flows. Endangered bat species dwelling in mine openings would be displaced or destroyed due to mine closures.

  3. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  4. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and

  5. Federal oversight of alternative bond systems under SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beier, A.E.; McElfish, J.M. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) requires mine operators to post reclamation bonds before mining begins. The Federal Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE) has approved alternative bond systems in seven states. These systems, rather than requiring bond amounts at the full cost of reclamation, require operators to submit only a flat rate, acreage specific bond. Additional reclamation costs should be covered by a supplemental fund composed generally of permit fees, taxes, or penalties. In many cases, alternative bond systems fail to ensure that funds will be available to reclaim coal mined land in the event of operator default, as required by SMCRA. OSMRE needs to take a more active role in oversight of existing state alternative bond systems to ensure that reclamation occurs.

  6. The ecological evaluation of surface water outfalls at a manufacturing plant in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harman, C.R.; Gilchrist, W.

    1995-12-31

    Historic metal machining operations at a manufacturing plant in northern New Jersey had resulted in the contamination of three surface water outfalls leading from the plant to a second-order stream used for trout fishing. The outfalls were fed by a combination of non-contact cooling water, stormwater runoff and groundwater infiltration. The outfalls ranged in length from 180 meters to 600 meters. All three of the outfalls pass through forested wetland areas and contained emergent wetland pockets. The ecological evaluation consisted of the collection of sediment samples to evaluate the extent of chemical contamination and the evaluation of the biological integrity of a portion of the surface water outfalls. Additionally, an ecological characterization of the surrounding habitat was prepared. Sediment sampling indicated elevated concentrations of antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc. Nickel concentrations were the most significant, with concentrations ranging up to 9,850 mg/kg. PCB concentrations ranged between 0.45 mg/kg and 6.4 mg/kg. Elevated concentrations of metals and PCBs were detected to a sediment depth of 45 centimeters. To evaluate the potential for biological impacts from the metals in the sediments, a modified Rapid Bioassessment Protocol 1 evaluation was conducted on the macroinvertebrate population. The results of the evaluation indicated a very sparse macroinvertebrate community. Those organisms that were identified were typical of highly contaminated surface water system. The surrounding wetland systems appeared to be unaffected by the outfall contamination. Based on the results of the first phase of the ecological evaluation, a program of additional sediment sampling and further biological evaluation was prepared.

  7. EIS-0370: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability of the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0370: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement Windy Gap Firming Project, Colorado Download Document EIS-0370: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior, Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (144.87 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0370: Record

  8. EIS-0480: Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service Notice of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement | Department of Energy 80: Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0480: Bureau of Reclamation and National Park Service Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Impact Statement Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan for the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam The Bureau of Reclamation and the National Park Service issued a notice of availability of a Draft EIS

  9. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-07-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  10. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  11. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, Chad; Dastgheib, Seyed A.; Yang, Yaning; Ashraf, Ali; Duckworth, Cole; Sinata, Priscilla; Sugiyono, Ivan; Shannon, Mark A.; Werth, Charles J.

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  12. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Neutron Source Reclamation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, R.G.; Jones, S.W.

    1994-05-01

    Over the past fifty years, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed an extensive capability to handle significant quantities of nuclear materials as part of its role in support of DOE Defense Program activities. The goals and objectives of these activities are met through a base program in nuclear materials technology research, development, and demonstration as well as through additional programs (such as the Neutron Source Reclamation Program) aimed at specific, often near-term goals. This base program encompasses (1) plutonium process technology research, development and demonstration activities, (2) technology transfer and offsite technical support, (3) nuclear materials recycle and recovery, and (4) nuclear facility operations and maintenance.

  13. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  14. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responsesmore » of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.« less

  15. Impacts of precipitation variability on plant species and community water stress in a temperate deciduous forest in the central US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hosman, Kevin P.; Sun, Ying

    2015-12-11

    Variations in precipitation regimes can shift ecosystem structure and function by altering frequency, severity and timing of plant water stress. There is a need for predictively understanding impacts of precipitation regimes on plant water stress in relation to species water use strategies. Here we first formulated two complementary, physiologically-linked measures of precipitation variability (PV) - Precipitation Variability Index (PVI) and Average Recurrence Interval of Effective Precipitation (ARIEP). We then used nine-year continuous measurements of Predawn Leaf Water Potential Integral (PLWPI) in a central US forest to relate PVI and ARIEP to actual plant water availability and comparative water stress responses of six species with different capacities to regulate their internal water status. We found that PVI and ARIEP explained nearly all inter-annual variations in PLWPI for all species as well as for the community scaled from species measurements. The six species investigated showed differential sensitivities to variations in precipitation regimes. Their sensitivities were reflected more in the responses to PVI and ARIEP than to the mean precipitation rate. Further, they exhibited tradeoffs between responses to low and high PV. Finally, PVI and ARIEP were closely correlated with temporal integrals of positive temperature anomalies and vapor pressure deficit. We suggest that the comparative responses of plant species to PV are part of species-specific water use strategies in a plant community facing the uncertainty of fluctuating precipitation regimes. In conclusion, PVI and ARIEP should be adopted as key indices to quantify physiological drought and the ecological impacts of precipitation regimes in a changing climate.

  16. Promoting economic incentives for environmental protection in the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977: an analysis of the design and implementation of reclamation performance bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webber, B.S.; Webber, D.J.

    1985-04-01

    This article examines the bonding system designed by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) and some alternatives developed by several states in their regulatory programs. As well, it evaluates the systems for their potential to provide economic incentives for coal operators to engage in environmentally sound mining techniques throughout the duration of the mining activities. The first section of this article briefly reviews the SMCRA. The second section outlines the specific reclamation bonding provisions of the act. The third section analyzes economic incentives and their application to coal mining, and the fourth section more particularly evaluates the reclamation bonding provisions of the act as market based incentives. Finally, the article assesses the design of reclamation bonds and suggests modifications intended to provide greater incentives for coal producers to protect the environment. 132 references.

  17. Design of a photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plant in off-grid operation for desalination of brackish water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeker, C.; Carvalho, P.C.M.; Menne, K.; Ortjohann, E.; Temme, L.; Voss, J.

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaically operated reverse osmosis plants in off-grid operation constitute a promising system technology for meeting a part of the water requirements in regions without dependable water supply and electric grid system power supply. This paper presents a new procedure for optimum system design configuration. The goal is to provide the cheapest possible water supply while fulfilling all regional and technical boundary conditions. The starting point of the procedure is a rough design based on a load duration curve. Subsequent time sequence simulations which image the system behavior completely, permit checking of various plant variants for compliance with the boundary conditions. Objective mutual comparisons of the plant variants are possible, also taking the system costs into consideration. The possibilities of the developed procedure are demonstrated taking a village supply in Northeast Brazil as example.

  18. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  19. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  20. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  1. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  2. Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01

    The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

  3. Thermal reclamation of used blast grit. Technology spotlight report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Naval shipyards and other domestic port facilities generate thousands of tons of used blast grit annually. There are also thousands of steel bridges in the United States on a repaint schedule that requires grit blasting for surface preparation. All the used grit, along with the paint residue it contains, is currently disposed of in landfills. Cleaning and recycling used blast grit is an attractive alternative. Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed a fluidized-bed sand calciner that is well suited for cleaning and recycling used blast grit. Essentially, IGT researchers applied a transfer/adaptation of fluidized-bed calcination originally developed for the reclamation of foundry sand. The calciner has a patented sloped-grid design that enhances the combustion of paint residues and promotes the isolation of reusable material.

  4. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse osmosis to "super purify" water allows the system to reuse water and cool down our powerful yet thirsty computers. January 30, 2014 Super recycled water: quenching computers LANL's Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, key to reducing the Lab's discharge of liquid. Millions of gallons of industrial

  5. Setting the course for the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, R.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 focuses on ensuring reclamation of the land after mining by restoring land affected to a condition capable of supporting prior uses and sets up a program for reclaiming abandoned mined land to be financed by a tax on coal produced. This article discusses the landmark legal decisions which represent major efforts to limit the federal role in the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 through the Commerce Clause, the Tenth Amendment, and statutory interpretation.

  6. Implementing a program of cooperative federalism: The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines the legislative history of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 and describes the forces that promoted a federalist arrangement of shared powers and responsibility for implementing the environmental reclamation provisions of the Act. The major components of the Act are reviewed and the Act is examined in terms of its general effectiveness in promoting reclamation as well as its contribution to the practice of American federalism and the capacity of state government to implement complex regulatory programs. The article concludes that SMCRA has had a positive impact in terms of improving state capabilities, expanding public involvement in decision making, and enhancing federal and state cooperation.

  7. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ``Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors`` which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ``substantial meltdown of the core``. This ``source term``, tile basis for tile NRC`s Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC`s reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ``source term`` release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ``source term`` is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it.

  8. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  9. Title 43 CFR 429 Use of Bureau of Reclamation Land, Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    29 Use of Bureau of Reclamation Land, Facilities, and Waterbodies Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal...

  10. Reclamation fee on coal production: an example of federal regulatory taxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, C.E.

    1983-09-01

    The coal mining reclamation fee is part of the federal government's efforts to regulate the strip mining of coal and to use proceeds from the fee for land use and pollution control problems associated with abandoned mines. Authorized by the 1977 Surface Mining Contol and Reclamation Act rather than the Internal Revenue Code, the exaction is still shown to be both a regulatory and a severance tax. 41 references. (DCK)

  11. Limitations and requirements of using the chemical speciation code, MINTEQA2, to predict water quality impacts at fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danzig, A.J.; McEntyre, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    The chemical speciation model, MINTEQA2, was used to simulate the effects of proposed waste process changes on the final waste water effluent at coal-fired power plants. The chemistry of the waste water system at the plants was extremely complex, involving factors such as temperature, redox couples, ionic strength, adsorption, and gas phase equilibria. MINTEQA2 is capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting. This paper focuses on the limitations and requirements of using the model for these purposes. Specifics include sampling protocols, biological factors, and knowledge of how MINTEQA2 works. This approach could be used to aid in modeling treatment systems for a variety of power generated wastes.

  12. American National Standard: design requirements for light water reactor spent fuel storage facilities at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-07

    This standard presents necessary design requirements for facilities at nuclear power plants for the storage and preparation for shipment of spent fuel from light-water moderated and cooled nuclear power stations. It contains requirements for the design of fuel storage pool; fuel storage racks; pool makeup, instrumentation and cleanup systems; pool structure and integrity; radiation shielding; residual heat removal; ventilation, filtration and radiation monitoring systems; shipping cask handling and decontamination; building structure and integrity; and fire protection and communication.

  13. Environmental Evaluation for Installation of Solar Arrays at San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to review the options to develop a potential solar array development (Project) within or adjacent to western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) habitat in the buffer lands that surround the San José/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and to determine if there is a ground-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV) configuration that would enable a workable co-existence between the burrowing owl habitat and the PV arrays.

  14. Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

  15. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  16. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

  17. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Director: Dr. Jie Chen (317) 274-5918 jchen3@iupui.edu DOE Headquarters Program Manager: John Smegal John.Smegal@ee.doe.gov Sustainable Water Utilities: Scott Hutchins Scott.Hutchins@hq.doe.gov DOE Industrial Assessment Centers Serving EPA Region 5 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES March 2016 What Water Quality Professionals are Saying DOE Resources for Water Utilities One of the unique attributes of the IAC

  18. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Iowa State Director: Dr. Gregory M. Maxwell (515) 294-8645 gmaxwell@iastate.edu DOE Headquarters Program Manager: John Smegal John.Smegal@ee.doe.gov Sustainable Water Utilities: Scott Hutchins Scott.Hutchins@hq.doe.gov DOE Industrial Assessment Centers Serving EPA Region 5 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES March 2016 What Water Quality Professionals are Saying DOE Resources for Water Utilities One of the unique attributes of the IAC program is that they work with

  19. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Michigan Director: Dr. Arvind Atreya (734) 647-4790 aatreya@engin.umich.edu DOE Headquarters Program Manager: John Smegal John.Smegal@ee.doe.gov Sustainable Water Utilities: Scott Hutchins Scott.Hutchins@hq.doe.gov DOE Industrial Assessment Centers Serving EPA Region 5 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES March 2016 What Water Quality Professionals are Saying DOE Resources for Water Utilities One of the unique attributes of the IAC program is that they work with

  20. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Dayton Director: Dr. Kelly Kissock (937) 229-2852 kkissock@udayton.edu DOE Headquarters Program Manager: John Smegal John.Smegal@ee.doe.gov Sustainable Water Utilities: Scott Hutchins Scott.Hutchins@hq.doe.gov DOE Industrial Assessment Centers Serving EPA Region 5 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES March 2016 What Water Quality Professionals are Saying DOE Resources for Water Utilities One of the unique attributes of the IAC program is that they work with other

  1. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    West Virginia University Director: Dr. B. Gopalakrishnan (304) 293-4607, 3709 Bhaskaran.Gopalakrishnan@ mail.wvu.edu DOE Headquarters Program Manager: John Smegal John.Smegal@ee.doe.gov Sustainable Water Utilities: Scott Hutchins Scott.Hutchins@hq.doe.gov DOE Industrial Assessment Centers Serving EPA Region 5 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES March 2016 What Water Quality Professionals are Saying DOE Resources for Water Utilities One of the unique attributes of the

  2. Industrial Assessment Centers Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Director: Dr. Chris Yuan (414) 229-5639 cyuan@uwm.edu DOE Headquarters Program Manager: John Smegal John.Smegal@ee.doe.gov Sustainable Water Utilities: Scott Hutchins Scott.Hutchins@hq.doe.gov DOE Industrial Assessment Centers Serving EPA Region 5 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES March 2016 What Water Quality Professionals are Saying DOE Resources for Water Utilities One of the unique attributes of the IAC program is that they work

  3. The use of plants to enhance microbial degradation of de-icing agents in soil and surface water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, P.J.; Coats, J.R.; Anderson, T.A.

    1995-12-31

    Significant quantities of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) enter the environment through de-icing of aircraft, spills, and improper disposal of used antifreeze. An estimated 80% of the de-icing fluids spill onto the ground, which may lead to the contamination of soil, surface water, and groundwater. EG and PG contamination of surface waters creates a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) that can adversely impact aquatic communities. Plants and rhizosphere soils have been shown to enhance the degradation of organic pollutants in the soil. The research investigates the use of vegetation to enhance the transformation of EG and PG in soil by studying the fate of these chemicals in nonrhizosphere and rhizosphere soils at three temperatures ({minus}10 C, 0 C, 20 C). Terrestrial and aquatic emergent plants were evaluated as a cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing way to remediate and restore soil and surface waters contaminated with chemical de-icing agents. Additional surface runoff and vegetated undisturbed soil column studies were used to determine the influence of vegetation on the prevention of offsite movement by surface runoff and infiltration. Enhanced degradation of EG occurred in all the rhizosphere soils in comparison to the nonrhizosphere and autoclaved soils. After 28 days at 0 C, 40%, 41%, and 18% of applied EG degraded to CO{sub 2} in the Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) rhizosphere soil, and nonrhizosphere soil, respectively.

  4. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1996 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  5. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  6. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

  8. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  9. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  10. Plan for support of large-plant (post-CRBR) needs in large-leak sodium-water reaction area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whipple, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Work in the large leak test and analysis area of steam generator development has been carried out at GE-ARSD under 189a SG037 since 1973. The currently planned master schedule for the SG037 program is shown. Principal activities are the large leak testing program being carried out at the Large Leak Test Rig and the analysis methods development. The plan for supporting the large plant (post-CRBR) needs in the large leak sodium-water reaction area is outlined. Most of the needs will be answered in the current SG037 large leak program. (DLC)

  11. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  12. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J.

    2006-10-01

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  14. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  15. Highwall elimination and return to approximate original contour as required in the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The report covers the following issues concerning: highwall elimination, reclamation, and approximate original contour in surface-mining applications.

  16. Application of a watershed computer model to assess reclaimed landform stability in support of reclamation liability release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, M.R.; Zevenbergen, L.W.; Cochran, J.

    1995-09-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) instituted specific requirements for surface coal mine reclamation that included reclamation bonding and tied release of liability to achieving acceptable reclamation standards. Generally, such reclamation standards include successfully revegetating the site, achieving the approved postmine land use and minimizing disturbances to the prevailing hydrologic balance. For western surface coal mines the period of liability continues for a minimum of 10 years commencing with the last year of augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation or other work. This paper describes the methods and procedures conducted to evaluate the runoff and sediment yield response from approximately 2,700 acres of reclaimed lands at Peabody Western Coal Company`s (PWCC) Black Mesa Mine located near Kayenta, Arizona. These analyses were conducted in support of an application for liability release submitted to the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) for reclaimed interim land parcels within the 2,700 acres evaluated.

  17. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  18. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced.

  19. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  20. Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke; Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin

    2013-07-01

    Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K{sub d}s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K{sub d}s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K{sub d}s and it

  1. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  2. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Water Power News Water Power News RSS September 9, 2016 The Energy Department's marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) portfolio-commonly known as wave and tidal energy-is one of the more up-and-coming renewable energy sources being explored on an international scale. Energy Department Leads International Efforts to Unlock Ocean Energy The U.S. Department of Energy's marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) portfolio-commonly known as wave and tidal energy-is one of the more up-and-coming renewable energy sources

  3. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  5. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  8. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  9. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  10. GrayQbTM Single-Faced Version 2 (SF2) Hanford Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) deployment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, J. R.; Immel, D. M.; Serrato, M. G.; Dalmaso, M. J.; Shull, D. J.

    2015-11-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in partnership with CH2M Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) deployed the GrayQbTM SF2 radiation imaging device at the Hanford Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) to assist in the radiological characterization of the canyon. The deployment goal was to locate radiological contamination hot spots in the PRF canyon, where pencil tanks were removed and decontamination/debris removal operations are on-going, to support the CHPRC facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) effort. The PRF canyon D&D effort supports completion of the CHPRC Plutonium Finishing Plant Decommissioning Project. The GrayQbTM SF2 (Single Faced Version 2) is a non-destructive examination device developed by SRNL to generate radiation contour maps showing source locations and relative radiological levels present in the area under examination. The Hanford PRF GrayQbTM Deployment was sponsored by CH2M Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) through the DOE Richland Operations Office, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO), DOE-RL IEWO- M0SR900210.

  11. Supercritical water oxidation of colored smoke, dye, and pyrotechnic compositions. Final report: Pilot plant conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Chan, Jennifer P.; Raber, T.N.; Macmillan, D.C.; Rice, S.F.; Tschritter, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    The existing demilitarization stockpile contains large quantities of colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. For many years, these munitions have been stored in magazines at locations within the continental United States awaiting completion of the life-cycle. The open air burning of these munitions has been shown to produce toxic gases that are detrimental to human health and harmful to the environment. Prior efforts to incinerate these compositions have also produced toxic emissions and have been unsuccessful. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly developing hazardous waste treatment method that can be an alternative to incineration for many types of wastes. The primary advantage SCWO affords for the treatment of this selected set of obsolete munitions is that toxic gas and particulate emissions will not occur as part of the effluent stream. Sandia is currently designing a SCWO reactor for the US Army Armament Research, Development & Engineering Center (ARDEC) to destroy colored smoke, spotting dye, and pyrotechnic munitions. This report summarizes the design status of the ARDEC reactor. Process and equipment operation parameters, process flow equations or mass balances, and utility requirements for six wastes of interest are developed in this report. Two conceptual designs are also developed with all process and instrumentation detailed.

  12. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  13. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous

  14. Reclamation Project Act of 1939 U.S.C. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reclamation Project Act of 1939 U.S.C. Reclamation Project Act of 1939 U.S.C. CITE: 42USCC12 TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485a TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485b TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485c TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485d TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485e TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485f TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485g TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485h TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485i TITLE 43--PUBLIC LANDS CITE: 43USC485j TITLE 43--PUBLIC

  15. Taxation of expenditures required by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNally, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    There has been disagreement over whether the expenditures made by the mine operator to comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 are characterized as capital or deductible expenses. An examination of expenditures made by mine operators during the life of a mine illustrates the dichotomy between deductible and capital expenditures in which special rules may override general capitalization rules to allow the mine operator to deduct a capital expenditure. This makes some expenditures difficult to categorize. Citing case law, the author treats expenditures for exploration and mining permits, performance bonds, and liability insurance. A new provision, section 468, allowing the current deduction for future reclamation and closing costs removed the uncertainty created by prior case law.

  16. Cost analysis of aerial photographic and satellite imagery for monitoring mined land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.E.; Buschur, J.P.

    1980-12-01

    Five sections of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 require information that is easily and efficiently obtainable by aerial photographic and remote sensing methods. Most states in which mining is important and to which the Act most specifically applies, maintain or have available to them aerial photographic or remotely sensed information of the type required. This information could be used to meet the requirements of the Act which call for monitoring reclamation progress, identifying land areas unsuitable for mining and determining land use prior to mining to name a few examples. At the regional scale, LANDSAT imagery of a scale of 1:250,000 provides a good combination of aerial coverage and detail for regional problem solving. At the local scale, such coverage as is provided by the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service through their aerial observation method of compliance technique can supply local, detailed information to meet site specific needs.

  17. Scientific soundness and socio-economic realities in reclamation for habitat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, K.D.

    1997-12-31

    Reclamation projects must balance data requirements for scientifically-sound design with uncertainty and socio-economic constraints. Whether designing for physical stability, cultural benefits or ecological enhancements, the reclamation project can work with or fight natural processes (physical, chemical, biological). Projects which anticipate and design to fit natural processes have greater chances of success with lower short and long-term cost, and with achievement of a greater range of social objectives. However, the cost of anticipating natural processes (succession, geomorphic patterns, etc.) increases the budget allocation at the design stage in order to save on construction and maintenance. In southern Ontario, once design teams recognize that designing for an {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} natural condition is not feasible, they too often revert to conventional, single-objective approaches which compromise design integrity and social benefits. Case studies are reviewed with analysis of alternative approaches that seek to balance ranges of achievable objectives with cost allocation and scientific soundness.

  18. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. McCallum study area: resource and potential reclamation evaluation: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to collect baseline data for establishing reclamation objectives and lease stipulations. The report includes data on climate, biological and cultural resources, physiography, geology, coal resources, soil overburden, vegetation, and hydrology. The study area is within Moffat County in Colorado. The overall effect of mining on hydrology of the area should be minimal, primarily because only small areas of the basins will be mined.

  2. Public participation under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977: a panoply of rights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The public participation rights included in the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 are outlined. Described by some as intricate and complex enough to be a lawyer's dream, the act has nagging rules that may be incapable of serving citizens' rights. This is felt to be too harsh a judgement, however. The goals of an informed participating citizenry can be achieved if the rules are perceived to be aids rather than stumbling blocks. (DCK)

  3. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-based procedure for field activities: results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron; LeBlanc, Katya

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  4. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  5. Surface coal mining operations in two Oklahoma Counties raise questions about prime farmland reclamation and bond adequacy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-08

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 allows prime farmland to be mined but requires the coal operator to reclaim it according to special reclamation standards. To be considered prime farmland, the soil must meet the Secretary of Agriculture's definition of prime soil and have historically been used for intensive agricultural purposes. In Oklahoma, the historical-use provision has generally been applied to lands that have been used for cropland for 5 of the preceding 10 years. GAO's review of mining activities in two Oklahoma counties showed that the land comprising 54 of the 58 mine permits issued since the act's passage contained some prime soil. None, however, required reclamation to prime farmland standards because landowners signed letters stating that the land had not been farmed for crops for five of the preceding 10 years. GAO also found that numerous sites in the two counties were abandoned by mining companies after the act was passed. Since abandonment, no reclamation has occurred on most of these sites. The Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining questions whether the bonds on the unreclaimed sites, if collected, will be adequate to do the necessary reclamation. Oklahoma's Department of Mines has taken action to increase bond amounts on newly-issued permits and on some older permitted areas in order to prevent future reclamation problems.

  6. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  7. Feasibility of automatic storage reclamation with concurrent program execution in a LISP environment. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, K.G.

    1985-12-01

    Storage reclamation is the process of reclaiming discarded information and returning the memory space occupied by that discarded information to an available area or list in memory that is available to be utilized by programmers. This increased interest in storage reclamation is a result of the increasing use of list-processing environments. A list-processing environment is a system in which the language manipulates data structures called lists. In classical LISP implementations, program execution/computation continues until there is no more memory available (i.e., the free list of available cells has become exhausted). When this happens, user program(s) HALT and then storage reclamation, in the form of garbage collection, takes over. This halting of programs in the midst of their computation is not only frustrating to programmers and researchers but can also be of crucial importance in other applications. This thesis investigates the feasibility of allowing concurrent program execution with garbage collection. LISP has been selected because it has been estimated that typical LISP programs take 10%-30% of their processing time to perform garbage collection.

  8. Spatial and temporal variations in plant water-use efficiency inferred from tree-ring, eddy covariance and atmospheric observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Groenendijk, Margriet; Booth, Ben B. B.; Huntingford, Chris; Cox, Peter M.

    2016-06-28

    Plant water-use efficiency (WUE), which is the ratio of the uptake of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis to the loss of water through transpiration, is a very useful metric of the functioning of the land biosphere. WUE is expected to increase with atmospheric CO2, but to decline with increasing atmospheric evaporative demand – which can arise from increases in near-surface temperature or decreases in relative humidity. We have used Δ13C measurements from tree rings, along with eddy covariance measurements from Fluxnet sites, to estimate the sensitivities of WUE to changes in CO2 and atmospheric humidity deficit. This enables us to reconstructmore » fractional changes in WUE, based on changes in atmospheric climate and CO2, for the entire period of the instrumental global climate record. We estimate that overall WUE increased from 1900 to 2010 by 48 ± 22 %, which is more than double that simulated by the latest Earth System Models. This long-term trend is largely driven by increases in CO2, but significant inter-annual variability and regional differences are evident due to variations in temperature and relative humidity. Here, there are several highly populated regions, such as western Europe and East Asia, where the rate of increase of WUE has declined sharply in the last 2 decades. Our data-based analysis indicates increases in WUE that typically exceed those simulated by Earth System Models – implying that these models are either underestimating increases in photosynthesis or underestimating reductions in transpiration.« less

  9. Implementation of passive samplers for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.E.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Baker, J.L.; Ramm, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    Passive sampling for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a possible replacement to the traditional bailer method used at the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) for routine groundwater monitoring. To compare methods, groundwater samples were collected from 19 KCP wells with VOC concentrations ranging from non-detectable to > 100,000 {micro}g/L. Analysis of the data was conducted using means and medians of multiple measurements of TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE and VC. All 95% confidence intervals of these VOCs overlap, providing evidence that the two methods are similar. The study also suggests that elimination of purging and decontamination of sampling equipment reduces the labor required to sample by approximately 32%. Also, because the passive method generates no waste water, there are no associated disposal costs. The results suggest evidence to continue studies and efforts to replace traditional bailer methods with passive sampling at KCP based on cost and the similarity of the methods.

  10. In-situ biological reclamation of contaminated ground water. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fant, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Four triaxial permeability devices were designed and constructed for use in the Environmental Engineering Department at the Georgia Institute of Technology. These devices were used to determine how time and changing permeants affected a soil sample's hydraulic conductivity. Also the attenuation of the priority pollutant, 2,4-dichlorophenol, was studied. Two areas were looked at concerning attenuation, microbial degradation and adsorption. Microbes were grown in the laboratory and then placed into the soil samples. A permeant containing the pollutant, an oxidant, and nutrients was then passed through the soil sample with the microbes. The effects on the effluent concentration were then studied. Two breakthrough curves and two isotherm tests were run in an attempt to distinguish between microbial decay and adsorptive attenuation. Results of the attenuation studies unfortunately were inconclusive, but valuable knowledge was gained on the operation of and experimental procedures with the triaxial permeability devices.

  11. Tenth anniversary of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Testimony was heard from representatives from the Society of American Archeology, the Office of Surface Mining and Reclamation Enforcement, the Office of Environmental Energy Management of Pennsylvania, National Wildlife Federation, Sierra Club, Western Organizations of Resource Councils, Southwest Research and Information Center, West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, Illinois South Project, Concern About Water Loss Due to Mining, Mountain Stream Monitors, Citizens Organized Against Longwalling, Environmental Policy Institute, Kentucky Fair Tax Coalition, Save Our Cumberland Mountains, Navajo Nation, several coal mining companies, the National Coal Association, and Small Coal Operator Advisory Council. Prepared statements from all witnesses plus additional materials are included.

  12. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  13. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  14. Scratching the surface: State implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheberle, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 has been criticized as sporadic, lackluster, and dependent upon the political proclivities of primacy states. This dissertation explores the effect of national-level and state-level variables on implementation patterns in Colorado, Wyoming, and Virginia. Surveys and personal interviews, combined with longitudinal analyses of implementation performances of the Office of Surface Mining and individual state agencies, provide the heart of the research data. The research findings suggest the importance of considering state variables when explaining implementation performance. Moreover, support for both national and state variables as important determinants of the implementation process are provided by the research results.

  15. Water-Balance Cover Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    show that the plantings control the soil water balance in the source area, preventing ... plantings with high nitrate water pumped from the alluvial aquifer, is also underway. ...

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilpatrick, Laura E.; Cotter, Ed

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that collectively

  17. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-12-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  18. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  19. Study of Pu consumption in light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants, compilation of Phase 1C task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-15

    This report summarizes the evaluations conducted during Phase 1C of the Pu Disposition Study have provided further results which reinforce the conclusions reached during Phase 1A & 1B: These conclusions clearly establish the benefits of the fission option and the use of the ABWR as a reliable, proven, well-defined and cost-effective means available to disposition the weapons Pu. This project could be implemented in the near-term at a cost and on a schedule being validated by reactor plants currently under construction in Japan and by cost and schedule history and validated plans for MOX plants in Europe. Evaluations conducted during this phase have established that (1) the MOX fuel is licensable based on existing criteria for new fuel with limited lead fuel rod testing, (2) that the applicable requirements for transport, handling and repository storage can be met, and (3) that all the applicable safeguards criteria can be met.

  20. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The

  1. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A.; Figueroa, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  2. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A. ); Figueroa, L.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  3. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was

  4. Evaluating mine reclamation habitats at the landscape level following mountain-top removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, S.N.

    1998-12-31

    Present-day regulations of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act were based largely on the technologies and mining methods of the late 1970`s. Thus reclamation management practices today may not fully address the landscape changes that are possible now from mountain-top removal and associated contour mining operations. This study has sought to evaluate the changes in human and natural resource systems associated with large-scale mining in the Coal River Valley region of south-central West Virginia. The Coal River Valley region was studied at a local to a landscape-scale using ground-level sampling, aerial photomaps and constructed GIS maps, starting from a site-specific-scale of natural and restored habitat types. Six watershed-drainage areas were selected for study. Three of these represented contour mining primarily and three other drainage areas encompassed mountain-top removal mining. Landscape components were characterized by overlaying slope, elevation and contour data from maps onto aerial photomaps. On-the-ground sampling was used to distinguish restoration habitat types. The site-specific measurements were obtained using transects placed across the man-made landforms (i.e., backfill, valleyfill, field, pond and drainage ditch) of the reclamation sites in each of the six watershed drainage areas. All of the measured sites had been revegetated with a seed mixture for a wildlife management plan and ranged in age from 2 to 12 years of vegetative growth at the time of the study. Percentage cover by herbaceous and woody species was determined in two-meter square quadrats placed mechanically along all transect lines to quantify the various site-specific vegetation types. Based on the site-specific evaluation, distinguishable habitats were found on each of the man-made landforms. The percentage of mountaintop removal habitats with non-native species has increased over the last decade. Percentages of total area mined in the region over thirty years were

  5. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  6. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  7. The impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants: Case study, PWR (pressurized-water reactor) during an outage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This report is the second in a series of case studies designed to evaluate the magnitude of increase in occupational radiation exposures at commercial US nuclear power plants resulting from small incidents or abnormal events. The event evaluated is fuel cladding failure, which can result in elevated primary coolant activity and increased radiation exposure rates within a plant. For this case study, radiation measurements were made at a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) during a maintenance and refueling outage. The PWR had been operating for 22 months with fuel cladding failure characterized as 105 pin-hole leakers, the equivalent of 0.21% failed fuel. Gamma spectroscopy measurements, radiation exposure rate determinations, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) assessments, and air sample analyses were made in the plant's radwaste, pipe penetration, and containment buildings. Based on the data collected, evaluations indicate that the relative contributions of activation products and fission products to the total exposure rates were constant over the duration of the outage. This constancy is due to the significant contribution from the longer-lived isotopes of cesium (a fission product) and cobalt (an activation product). For this reason, fuel cladding failure events remain as significant to occupational radiation exposure during an outage as during routine operations. As documented in the previous case study (NUREG/CR-4485 Vol. 1), fuel cladding failure events increased radiation exposure rates an estimated 540% at some locations of the plant during routine operations. Consequently, such events can result in significantly greater radiation exposure rates in many areas of the plant during the maintenance and refueling outages than would have been present under normal fuel conditions.

  8. Reclamation of greater than Class C sealed sources at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrens, R.G.; Jones, S.W.

    1995-02-01

    One of the important overriding themes of the Los Alamos National Laboratory as a world-class scientific institution is to utilize its expertise in enhancing the long-term welfare of society by minimizing negative side effects of nuclear technology over the past five decades. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is therefore committed to the use of its technical competencies and nuclear facilities, developed through programs in the areas of defense and civilian nuclear research, to support activities which will benefit the United States as a whole. As such, this paper discusses the organizational details and requirements of the Neutron Source Reclamation Program at Los Alamos. This program has as its mission the retrieval, interim storage, and chemical reprocessing of {sup 238}PuBe, {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 24l}AmBe neutron sources residing in the hands of private companies and industries, academic institutions, and various state and Federal government agencies.

  9. Assessing the impacts of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, U.

    1989-01-01

    Even a dozen years since the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) there is little agreement on how well it has worked. The paper attempts to assess the impacts of SMCRA in six major surface coal producing states. Although it is not possible to make an unqualified overall national assessment, the evidence presented in the paper indicates that in many (but by no means all) cases, surface coal mining is now carried out in environmentally less destructive ways then before the Act. However, the accomplishments have fallen far short of expectations. The situation in some states has gotten worse than before the Act. Overall, the impact of the Act on the ground has been mixed and has depended on the rigor with which the Act has been implemented in individual coal states.

  10. State implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, C.E.; Davis, S.K.; Peacock, D.

    1989-01-01

    The implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 in coal producing states is guided by a partial preemption policy approach that establishes a balance between federal and state decision-making authority. The usefulness of this approach is assessed by analyzing state enforcement actions in relation the institutional capacity of states to shoulder regulatory responsibilities and the propensity of the federal Office of Surface Mining (OSM) to oversee state enforcement actions and, if necessary, to undertake corrective action. The authors results indicated that state administration of SMCRA was constrained by the lack of effective federal oversight but was largely unaffected by interstate differences in political, economic, or administrative characteristics.

  11. Management of the aging of critical safety-related concrete structures in light-water reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. ); Arndt, E.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant safety-related structures for continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued-service determinations. Objectives, accomplishments, and planned activities under each of these tasks are presented. Major program accomplishments include development of a materials property data base for structural materials as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, a review and assessment of inservice inspection techniques for concrete materials and structures has been complete, and work on development of a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future condition assessment of concrete structures is well under way. 43 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Accident investigation board report on the May 14, 1997, chemical explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility, Hanford Site,Richland, Washington - final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerton, R.E.

    1997-07-25

    On May 14, 1997, at 7:53 p.m. (PDT), a chemical explosion occur-red in Tank A- 109 in Room 40 of the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (Facility) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, approximately 30 miles north of Richland, Washington. The inactive processing Facility is part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). On May 16, 1997, Lloyd L. Piper, Deputy Manager, acting for John D. Wagoner, Manager, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), formally established an Accident Investigation Board (Board) to investigate the explosion in accordance with DOE Order 225. 1, Accident Investigations. The Board commenced its investigation on May 15, 1997, completed the investigation on July 2, 1997, and submitted its findings to the RL Manager on July 26, 1997. The scope of the Board`s investigation was to review and analyze the circumstances of the events that led to the explosion; to analyze facts and to determine the causes of the accident; and to develop conclusions and judgments of need that may help prevent a recurrence of the accident. The scope also included the application of lessons learned from similar accidents within DOE. In addition to this detailed report, a companion document has also been prepared that provides a concise summary of the facts and conclusions of this report, with an emphasis on management issues (DOE/RL-97-63).

  13. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  14. Saving Water at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Andy

    2015-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory decreased its water usage by 26 percent in 2014, with about one-third of the reduction attributable to using reclaimed water to cool a supercomputing center. The Laboratory's goal during 2014 was to use only re-purposed water to support the mission at the Strategic Computing Complex. Using reclaimed water from the Sanitary Effluent Reclamation Facility, or SERF, substantially decreased water usage and supported the overall mission. SERF collects industrial wastewater and treats it for reuse. The reclamation facility contributed more than 27 million gallons of re-purposed water to the Laboratory's computing center, a secured supercomputing facility that supports the Laboratory’s national security mission and is one of the institution’s larger water users. In addition to the strategic water reuse program at SERF, the Laboratory reduced water use in 2014 by focusing conservation efforts on areas that use the most water, upgrading to water-conserving fixtures, and repairing leaks identified in a biennial survey.

  15. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Flapper, Joris; Ke, Jing; Kramer, Klaas; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and water

  16. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was

  17. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, G A

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  18. Water Technology Research | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Technology Research Wastewater treatment plant Wastewater treatment plant Water is an increasingly valuable natural resource. By identifying typical sources and distribution ...

  19. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 2006 through 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2011-08-22

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. A report released in January 2011 examined the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. This report continues the analysis and examines the financial implications of the experimental flows conducted at the GCD from 2006 to 2010. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area

  20. Type II preliminary pilot-plant evaluation of a coal-liquefaction residue - water slurry using vaccum-tower bottoms from the H-Coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    About 6.7 tons of vacuum tower bottoms (residue) which were obtained during the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal from the H-Coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky were successfully gasified at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory. The single 9.5-hour run with H-Coal liquefaction residue-water slurry was completed at 750 to 760 psig gasifier pressure. The run consisted of two test periods, each at a different gasifier temperature. Over 99.6 percent conversion of carbon in the feed to syngas was achieved yielding 32.9 to 33.7 standard cubic feet of dry syngas per pound of residue charged. The oxygen requirement was about 1.0 pound of oxygen per pound of residue. The dry syngas contained 78.5 to 79.7 (vol.) percent carbon monoxide plus hydrogen.

  1. Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N.

    2009-04-15

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  2. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  3. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.C.; Green, T.S.; Hull, L.C.

    2001-02-28

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  4. Evaluation of Confining Layer Integrity Beneath the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, Dade County, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, Robert Charles; Green, Timothy Scott; Hull, Laurence Charles

    2001-02-01

    A review has been performed of existing information that describes geology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is operated by the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, in Dade County, Florida. Treated sanitary wastewater is injected into a saline aquifer beneath the plant. Detection of contaminants commonly associated with treated sanitary wastewater in the freshwater aquifer that overlies the saline aquifer has indicated a need for a reevaluation of the ability of the confining layer above the saline aquifer to prevent fluid migration into the overlying freshwater aquifer. Review of the available data shows that the geologic data set is not sufficient to demonstrate that a competent confining layer is present between the saline and freshwater aquifers. The hydrogeologic data also do not indicate that a competent confining layer is present. The geochemical data show that the freshwater aquifer is contaminated with treated wastewater, and the spatial patterns of contamination are consistent with upward migration through localized conduits through the Middle Confining Unit, such as leaking wells or natural features. Recommendations for collection and interpretation of additional site characterization data are provided.

  5. Better Buildings, Better Plants Look Ahead - January 22, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water and wastewater sector outreach - DOE is expanding the Better Plants Program to partner with water and wastewater treatment plants, which face unique challenges in managing ...

  6. Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in New Pilot Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Des Moines Metropolitan Wastewater Reclamation Authority (WRA) and Des Moines Water Works have committed to participate in the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program as the first members of a new program pilot. SEP recognizes facilities that meet the ISO 50001 global energy management standard and demonstrate improved energy performance.

  7. WATER TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  8. H. R. 4804: A bill to amend titles I, II, IV and V of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, and to add a new title X, to encourage the remining and reclamation of abandoned mined lands by active mining operations, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, June 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Surface coal mining operations can be effective in the reclamation of abandoned mined lands and are being encouraged by the amendments to the existing Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The new section X - Remining spells out the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to enter into agreements with mining companies to use excess spoil from an active surface mine to reclaim an abandoned site, to develop a bond guarantee program whereby the operators may be compensated with reclamation bond credits for up to 80% of the reclamation costs incurred, and to make funds available on a matching basis to states or tribes to collect certain geologic and hydrologic data for watersheds or regions adversely affected by past coal mining abuses for the use of regulatory authorities to assist applicants for surface mining permits within such areas.

  9. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit

  10. Economic assessment of the impact on coal production due to enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Benefits report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, T.N.; McOmber, R.M.; Roberts, J.M.

    1980-10-31

    The study assesses the major economic benefits and costs that are associated with the enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation ACt (SMCRA). The report addresses the benefits of surface coal mining and land reclamation that follow from the Act. As originally conceived, the study was to evaluate, preferably in monetary terms, the specific benefits and socio-economic impacts of SMCRA. However, it was apparent, in the course of the initial analysis, that historical evaluation of specific benefits and socio-economic/environmental impacts is complicated by the short time that SMCRA has been in operation. It was also apparent that development of substantive, and defensible, quantified estimates of benefits and impacts is hindered by the absence of a great deal of needed numerical data, and by incomplete understanding of the reclamation processes that the Act is intended to enhance. Rather than attempt to evaluate specific benefits and socio-economic/environmental impacts, the study evaluated existing research studies on the impacts of surface mining, land reclamation, and SMCRA, and evaluated existing data sources relevant to surface mining, land reclamation, and SMCRA.

  11. H. R. 5162: an act making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 197, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, July 25, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The appropriations cited in this bill use funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated for energy and water development programs during fiscal year 1987. The funds are to be available to the Corps of Engineers for projects involving rivers and harbors, flood control beach erosion, and other related purposes. The bill allocates funds for specific projects in each category. Title II allocates funds for the administration and operation of the Bureau of Reclamation and for emergency and special funds. Title II allocates funds for DOE activities in the purchase, construction, and acquisition of plant and capital equipment and other expenses associated with research and development of energy supply and power marketing. Title IV covers independent agencies, including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Tennessee Valley Authority.

  12. PowerSlicing to determine fluorescence lifetimes of water-soluble organic matter derived from soils, plant biomass, and animal manures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Tsutomu; Wang, Zheming; Bro, Rasmus

    2008-04-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) which plays an important role in soil ecosystem processes. WSOM was extracted from plant biomass, animal manures, and soils from controlled cropping systems studies with known histories of organic amendments. Lifetime constants were derived using the multi-way PowerSlicing method which provides a non-iterative, multi-exponential fitting of decay profiles. The lifetimes obtained by PowerSlicing were not significantly different from those obtained using the traditional discrete components analysis. The three components attributed to WSOM had lifetimes of 0.38 0.14, 2.110.72, and 7.081.18 ns which are in agreement with previous lifetimes reported for humic substances. This study provides further support for the new paradigm for the structure of soil organic matter where the organic matter is composed of low-molecular-weight components held together by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions.

  13. Proceedings of the 15. annual national meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation. Mining -- Gateway to the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Throgmorton, D.; Nawrot, J.; Mead, J.; Galetovic, J.; Joseph, W.

    1998-12-31

    The 124 papers of these proceedings are arranged under the following topical sections: Minerals education; Hydrology--Characterization and monitoring; Tailings--Reclamation; Reforestation; Mine drainage--Biogeochemical processes; Mine drainage--Treatment, general; Mine drainage--Passive treatment, wetlands; Mine drainage--Prediction and monitoring; Acid soils--Reclamation practices; Wildlife and fisheries habitat; Subsidence--Engineering practices and environmental effects; OSM acid forming materials mini workshops; RUSLE--Erosion prediction techniques on mined construction and reclaimed lands; IDNR wetlands technology transfer program; Mine planning and postmining land use; Vegetation establishment--Principles and practices; Vegetation establishment--Warm season grasses; Coal combustion by-products--General; Coal combustion by-products--Mine drainage treatment; and Prime farmland reclamation and mine soils management. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  14. disrupting the plant cell wall

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disrupting the plant cell wall - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  15. Better Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Leading manufacturers and industrial-scale energy-using organizations demonstrate their commitment to improving energy performance by signing a voluntary pledge to reduce their energy intensity by 25% over a ten year period. The U.S. Department of Energys Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is an important partnership which consists of approximately 150 industrial companies, representing about 2,300 facilities and close to 11% of the total U.S. manufacturing energy footprint as well as several water and wastewater treatment organizations.

  16. H.R. 2372: A Bill to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Amendments Act of 1995. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This report discusses a bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to minimize duplication in regulatory programs and to give States exclusive responsibility under approved States program for permitting and enforcement of the provisions of that Act with respect to surface coal mining and reclamation operations, and for other purposes.

  17. Better Plants Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  18. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements content in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue of Lynas advanced materials plant (LAMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. Majid, Amran Ab. Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-02-12

    Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) has been licensed to produce the rare earths elements since early 2013 in Malaysia. LAMP processes lanthanide concentrate (LC) to extract rare earth elements and subsequently produce large volumes of water leach purification (WLP) residue containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This residue has been rising up the environmental issue because it was suspected to accumulate thorium with significant activity concentration and has been classified as radioactive residue. The aim of this study is to determine Th-232, U-238 and rare earth elements in lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue collected from LAMP and to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of the WLP residue on the environment. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and γ-spectrometry were used for determination of Th, U and rare earth elements concentrations. The results of this study found that the concentration of Th in LC was 1289.7 ± 129 ppm (5274.9 ± 527.6Bq/kg) whereas the Th and U concentrations in WLP were determined to be 1952.9±17.6 ppm (7987.4 ± 71.9 Bq/kg) and 17.2 ± 2.4 ppm respectively. The concentrations of Th and U in LC and WLP samples determined by γ- spectrometry were 1156 ppm (4728 ± 22 Bq/kg) and 18.8 ppm and 1763.2 ppm (7211.4 Bq/kg) and 29.97 ppm respectively. This study showed that thorium concentrations were higher in WLP compare to LC. This study also indicate that WLP residue has high radioactivity of {sup 232}Th compared to Malaysian soil natural background (63 - 110 Bq/kg) and come under preview of Act 304 and regulations. In LC, the Ce and Nd concentrations determined by INAA were 13.2 ± 0.6% and 4.7 ± 0.1% respectively whereas the concentrations of La, Ce, Nd and Sm in WLP were 0.36 ± 0.04%, 1.6%, 0.22% and 0.06% respectively. This result showed that some amount of rare earth had not been extracted and remained in the WLP and may be considered to be reextracted.

  19. Water pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

  20. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Colstrip","Coal","Talen Montana LLC",2094 2,"Noxon Rapids","Hydroelectric","Avista Corp",580.5 3,"Libby","Hydroelectric","USACE Northwestern Division",525 4,"Hungry Horse","Hydroelectric","U S Bureau of Reclamation",428

  1. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Grand Coulee","Hydroelectric","U S Bureau of Reclamation",7079 2,"Chief Joseph","Hydroelectric","USACE Northwestern Division",2456.2 3,"Transalta Centralia Generation","Coal","TransAlta Centralia Gen LLC",1340 4,"Rocky

  2. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Grand Coulee","Hydroelectric","U S Bureau of Reclamation",7079 2,"Palo Verde","Nuclear","Arizona Public Service Co",3937 3,"Martin","Natural gas","Florida Power & Light Co",3695 4,"W A Parish","Coal","NRG Texas Power LLC",3675

  3. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is...

  4. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants GETEM ...

  5. Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operation of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water ...

  6. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is ...

  7. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Main Report and Appendix A evaluate water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low...

  8. Walk-through survey report: Control technology for metal reclamation industries at East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc. , Lyon Station, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.M.

    1994-08-12

    A walk through survey was conducted at the East Penn Manufacturing Company (SIC-3341), Lyon Station, Pennsylvania to identify and evaluate potentially effective controls and work practices in the lead (7439921) reclamation industry. The facility was a secondary lead smelter which operated 7 days a week, and recycled about 20,000 batteries a day, primarily automobile batteries. The company employed automation, local exhaust ventilation, partial enclosures, and enclosed ventilation systems in the reverberatory furnace operations, blast furnace operations, and casting and refinery area to reduce employee exposure to lead. The arsenic (7440382) personal exposure time weighted averages ranged from 0.10 to 1.14 microg/cubic m in the industrial battery breaking area and ranged from nondetected to 6.16 microg/cubic m in the alloying/pots area.

  9. Abandoned mine lands: a mid-course review of the national reclamation program for coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    The Committee on Abandoned Mine Lands (CAML) analyzed how the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI) Office of Surface Mining (OSM) has and is administering the Title IV (Abandoned Mine Lands) Program of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. In the course of focusing on the effectiveness of the program, the Committee evaluated the program not only in terms of its probable accomplishments over its fifteen-year life, between 1977 and 1992, when the program statutorily ends, but also the magnitude and nature of the AML problems remaining to be remedied in the post-1992 period, if Congress decides to extend it. The Committee made nineteen recommendations about how OSM could improve the AML program's current effectiveness as well as prepare to assist Congress in reaching a decision to terminate or extend the program. Over the fifteen-year life of the program, some $3.3 billion will have been spent.

  10. Federal-state relations in the implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 not only established national performance standards and permitting procedures for the coal industry, but also provided for state primacy. The principle of state primacy is both simple and intuitively appealing. Because states do not have adequate resources to develop effective regulatory programs, the federal government would set up comprehensive procedures and criteria to guide the states in preparing their own plans. The obvious advantage of state primacy is that it provides for flexibility in implementation. Ultimately, state primacy is an experiment in cooperative federalism, a sharing of authority and responsibility between the states and the federal government to insure both the general welfare and sensitivity to local conditions. The history of surface mining regulation is instructive because it points out the pitfalls and promise of cooperative federalism as well as the critical role of the courts in making state primacy work.

  11. Water Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Energy Water Energy Below are resources for Tribes on water energy technologies. Guide on How to Develop a Small Hydropower Plant This guide aims to give potential developers ...

  12. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2012-07-16

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the experimental releases, and

  13. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  14. Plant Operational Status - Pantex Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Operational Status Plant Operational Status Page Content Shift 1 - Day The Pantex Plant is open for normal Day Shift operations. Plant personnel are to report as assigned. Personnel may call 477-3000, Option 1 for additional details. Shift 2 - Swing The Pantex Plant is open for normal Swing Shift operations. Plant personnel are to report as assigned. Personnel may call 477-3000, Option 1 for additional details. Shift 3 - Grave The Pantex Plant is open for normal Graveyard Shift operations.

  15. Secondary plant succession on disturbed sites at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angerer, J.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Schultz, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study of secondary plant succession on disturbed sites created during initial site investigations in the late 1970s and early 1980s at Yucca Mountain, NV. Specific study objectives were to determine the rate and success of secondary plant succession, identify plant species found in disturbances that may be suitable for site-specific reclamation, and to identify environmental variables that influence succession on disturbed sites. During 1991 and 1992, fifty seven disturbed sites were located. Vegetation parameters, disturbance characteristics and environmental variables were measured at each site. Disturbed site vegetation parameters were compared to that of undisturbed sites to determine the status of disturbed site plant succession. Vegetation on disturbed sites, after an average of ten years, was different from undisturbed areas. Ambrosia dumosa, Chrysothamnus teretifolius, Hymenoclea salsola, Gutierrezia sarothrae, Atriplex confertifolia, Atriplex canescens, and Stephanomeria pauciflora were the most dominant species across all disturbed sites. With the exception of A. dumosa, these species were generally minor components of the undisturbed vegetation. Elevation, soil compaction, soil potassium, and amounts of sand and gravel in the soil were found to be significant environmental variables influencing the species composition and abundance of perennial plants on disturbed sites. The recovery rate for disturbed site secondary succession was estimated. Using a linear function (which would represent optimal conditions), the recovery rate for perennial plant cover, regardless of which species comprised the cover, was estimated to be 20 years. However, when a logarithmic function (which would represent probable conditions) was used, the recovery rate was estimated to be 845 years. Recommendations for future studies and site-specific reclamation of disturbances are presented.

  16. Manufacturers in U.S. Energy Department's Better Plants Program...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Better Plants Program Save More Than 2 Billion in Energy Costs; Program Expands to Help America's Water Systems Manufacturers in U.S. Energy Department's Better Plants Program ...

  17. Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Power Plants Principal Investigator: Greg Mines ... eere.energy.gov Project focus: Air-cooled plants for EGS resource developments - Water ...

  18. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  19. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M.; Tierney, G.

    1997-10-01

    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.

  20. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  1. Adequacy of bonds to ensure reclamation of surface mines. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, June 26, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Jed Christensen, Director of the Office of Surface Mining's Reclamation and Enforcement Department, and Michael Gryschowiec of the General Accounting Office (GAO) were the principal witnesses at a hearing held to examine the effects of Section 509 of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. At issue was the bonding program and unhappiness on the part of landowners who want their land restored and coal operators who are having difficulty obtaining bonds for reclamation. Gryschowiec described the GAO's review of the bonding system for funding reclamation, and its finding that existing bonds are inadequate. Christensen focused his testimony on efforts to improve the bonding process, including a bond estimating handbook, extensive oversight of State bonding and permitting procedures, and evaluation of the bond pooling system. Correspondence and statements submitted for the record follow the testimony.

  2. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  3. Preliminary results of calculations for heavy-water nuclear-power-plant reactors employing {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 232}Th as a fuel and meeting requirements of a nonproliferation of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ioffe, B. L.; Kochurov, B. P.

    2012-02-15

    A physical design is developed for a gas-cooled heavy-water nuclear reactor intended for a project of a nuclear power plant. As a fuel, the reactor would employ thorium with a small admixture of enriched uranium that contains not more than 20% of {sup 235}U. It operates in the open-cycle mode involving {sup 233}U production from thorium and its subsequent burnup. The reactor meets the conditions of a nonproliferation of nuclear weapons: the content of fissionable isotopes in uranium at all stages of the process, including the final one, is below the threshold for constructing an atomic bomb, the amount of product plutonium being extremely small.

  4. Geothermal/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Use < Geothermal(Redirected from Water Use) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Grid...

  5. Geothermal/Water Use | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Use < Geothermal Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Land Use Planning Leasing Exploration Well Field Power Plant Grid Connection Environment Water...

  6. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

  7. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 9A. Subcontract information. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; water supply and civil engineering subcontracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Volume 9A considers subcontract work done at the site involving hydrogeological studies with respect to water supply and geotechnical work with respect to the building foundations necessary based on boreholes drilled and the lithology of the area. (LTN)

  8. Exergetic, thermal, and externalities analyses of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, M.B.; Curtiss, P.; Blanton, P.H.; McBrayer, T.B.

    2006-02-15

    A thermodynamic study of an 88.4 MW cogeneration plant located in the United States is presented in this paper. The feedstock for this actual plant is culm, the waste left from anthracite coal mining. Before combustion in circulating fluidized bed boilers, the usable carbon within the culm is separated from the indigenous rock. The rock and ash waste from the combustion process fill adjacent land previously scared by strip mining. Trees and grass are planted in these areas as part of a land reclamation program. Analyses based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics using actual operating data are first presented to acquaint the reader with the plant's components and operation. Using emission and other relevant environmental data from the plant, all externalities study is outlined that estimates the plant's effect on the local population. The results show that the plant's cycle performs with a coefficient of utilization of 29% and all approximate exergetic efficiency of 34.5%. In order to increase these values, recommended improvements to the plant are noted. In addition, the externality costs associated with the estimated SO{sub 2} and NOx discharge from the culm fed plant are lower (85-95%) than those associated with a similarly sized coal fed plant. The plant's cycle efficiencies are lower than those associated with more modern technologies; such as all integrated gas turbine combined cycle. However, given the abundant, inexpensive supply of feedstock located adjacent to the plant and the environmental benefit of removing culm banks, the plant's existing operation is unique from an economical and environmental viewpoint.

  9. FORM EIA-923 POWER PLANT OPERATIONS REPORT INSTRUCTIONS

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by-products, operational cooling water data, and operational data for NOx, SO2, ...cooling, steam for purchase or hot water) from a common source. 7. CHP Plant ...

  10. East Mesa Magmamax Power Process Geothermal Generating Plant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of geothermal resources would be of the hydrothermal, or pressurized hot water type. ... WELLS; HEAT EXCHANGERS; HOT SPRINGS; HOT WATER; IMPERIAL VALLEY; MAGMA; PILOT PLANTS; ...

  11. Preliminary research study for the construction of a pilot cogeneration desalination plant in southern California. Water treatment technology program report No. 7 (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadros, S.K.

    1995-05-01

    A conceptual plant design and a slightly conservative cost estimate were developed to evaluate the economic desirability and the overall system efficiency impact. The conceptual design includes a gas turbine-generator set with a heat recovery steam generator to produce electricity and steam. The steam is utilized in the desalination processes. For this study, two desalination technologies were considered: multi-effect distillation and multi-stage flash evaporation.

  12. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Main Report and Appendix A: Evaluates water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects.

  13. Energeticals power plant engineering | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    generation in the field of solid Biomass, deep and shallow geothermal energy and water power. References: energeticals power plant engineering1 This article is a stub....

  14. Proceedings of the international water conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on water treatment methods for power plants. Topics considered at the conference included the counter-current regeneration system at the Avon Lake Station, dissolved hydrogen monitors for pressurized water reactors, vanadium removal from oil-fired powered plant waste waters, EPRI guidelines of fossil plant water chemistry, ash transport systems, a waste water treatment system for a coal-fired generation station, an inorganic cation exchange for the purification of nuclear waste streams, water chemistry studies using an online ion chromatographic analyzer, dissolved oxygen control, a liquid waste treatment system, and water treatment facilities for cogeneration plants.

  15. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Flapper, Joris; Ke, Jing; Kramer, Klaas; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  16. S. 276: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, February 2, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This bill amends the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage. State use of funds is addressed.

  17. Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill, 1996. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, June 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    The report addresses H.R. 1905 a bill making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1996. The bill supplies funds for water resources development programs and related activities of the Dept. of Army, Civil Functions - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program, the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Reclamation, and for certain Department of Energy`s energy research activities. The report includes comments on various programs.

  18. Energy and Water Development Appropriation Bill, 1995. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, June 23, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The report addresses H.R. 4506 a bill making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995. The bill supplies funds for water resources development programs and related activities of the Dept. of Army, Civil Functions - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program, the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Reclamation, and for certain Department of Energy`s energy research activities. The report includes comments on various programs.

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  20. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  1. Using multispectral videography to distinguish the pattern of zonation and plant species composition in brackish water marshes of the Rio Grande Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, F.W.; Lonard, R.I.; Everitt, J.H. [Univ. of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Cyclical flooding of the Rio Grande and movement of floodwater into distributary channels formerly constituted significant freshwater input into the marshes of the Rio Grande Delta, but dams and flood control projects have eliminated this source of freshwater. The marshes are now dependent on rainfall alone for freshwater input and may be experiencing significant change in species of vegetation, abundance and patterns of distribution. Unfortunately, little is known of the ecology of these marshes. As a first step in providing needed information, multispectral videography was used to distinguish species composition and patterns of zonation in a brackish water marsh at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron County, Texas. The line intercept method of vegetation analysis provided ground truth and quantified species distribution and abundance. The vegetation of a typical brackish water marsh is organized into three zones along an elevation gradient. At the lowest elevations there is a distinct zone dominated by maritime saltwort, Batis maritime. At the lowest elevations in this zone where rainwater remains the longest, stands of California bulrush, Scirpus californicus, occur. An intermediate zone supports shoregrass, Monanthochloe littoralis, as the dominant species. A third (highest) zone is dominated by Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae. The upper margin of this zone grades gradually into a shrub-grassland community that occurs on lomas (clay dunes). Each of the zones is distinguished by a distinctive signature in the multispectral videography. The Batis maritime community has a bright pink to red image response. Monanthochloe littoralis has a dark brown color and Spartina spartinae has a light gray to pinkish-tan color. Brackish water marshes may be distinguished from saltwater marshes by the relative positions of the Monanthochloe littoralis and Spartina spartinae communities, but additional data are needed before this possibility is confirmed.

  2. Water Impacts of the Electricity Sector (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation discusses the water impacts of the electricity sector. Nationally, the electricity sector is a major end-user of water. Water issues affect power plants throughout the nation.

  3. water-management | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. Water Withdrawal Coal Fired Units - County Level U.S Water Consumption Coal Fired Units ... Thermoelectric power plant water consumption is slated to increase from 3 percent (1995 ...

  4. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  5. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  6. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  7. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Brizzee, Julie; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  8. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  9. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants: Main Report and Appendix A Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: ...

  10. Economic assessment of the impact on coal production due to enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Cost report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-12

    The report summarizes the efforts made in the cost analysis portion of the 'Economic Assessment of the Impact on Coal Production Due to Enforcement of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977. The objective of the cost analysis portion of the study was to supplement the study's examination of the benefits of SMCRA with an analysis of the costs of SMCRA as based on industry experience and data. The analysis involved the development and field test of a methodology for constructing estimates of the costs of complying with regulations at individual surface coal mines.

  11. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the Culebra dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site: Second interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVenue, A.M.; Haug, A.; Kelley, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    This hydrogeologic modeling study has been performed as part of the regional hydrologic characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site in southeastern New Mexico. The study resulted in an estimation of the transmissivity distrubution, hydraulic potentials, flow field, and fluid densities in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The three-dimensional finite-difference code SWIFT-II was employed for the numerical modeling, using variable-fluid-density and a single-porosity formulation. The modeled area includes and extends beyond the WIPP controlled zone (Zone 3). The work performed consisted of modeling the hydrogeology of the Culebra using two approaches: (1) steady-state modeling to develop the best estimate of the undisturbed head distribution, i.e., of the situation before sinking if the WIPP shafts, which began in 1981; and (2) superimposed transient modeling of local hydrologic responses to excavation of the three WIPP shafts at the center of the WIPP site, as well as to various well tests. Boundary conditions (prescribed constant fluid pressures and densities) were estimated using hydraulic-head and fluid-density data obtained from about 40 wells at and near the WIPP site. The transient modeling used the calculated steady-state freshwater heads as initial conditions. 107 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  13. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  14. YEAR","UTILITY_ID","UTILITY_NAME","PLANT_ID","PLANT_NAME","SCHEDULE...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hunter",9,"Line 17",0,"Coolants and Water (Nuclear Plants Only) (519)" ... City of",6558,"DG Hunter",9,"Line 23",0,"Water for Power (536)" 2001,298,"Alexandria City ...

  15. A thick homogeneous vegetated cover design proves cost - and schedule-effective for the reclamation of uranium mills sites near Spokane, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blacklaw, J.; Robertson, G.; Stoffel, D.; Ahmad, J.; Fordham, E.

    1997-08-01

    The Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has licensed two medium sized uranium mills with tailings impoundments covering 28 and 40 hectares (70 and 100 acres), respectively, The uranium mill licensees have submitted closure and reclamation plans to the state, and site-specific conditions have determined the closure design features, Conventional uranium mill cover designs usually incorporate an overall cap of one to three meters, which includes a low-permeability clay barrier layer. A technical evaluation of several uranium mill facilities that used this design was published in the fall of 1994 and reported that unexpected vegetation root damage had occurred in the low-permeability clay (or bentonite amended) barrier layers. The technical report suggested that the low-permeability design feature at some sites could be compromised within a very short time and the regulatory goal of 1,000 years performance might not be achieved. In October 1994, WDOH sponsored a technical forum meeting to consider design alternatives to address these reliability concerns. Representatives from the federal government, nuclear industry, licensees, engineering firms, and state regulatory agencies attended the workshop. Risk factors considered in the evaluation of the uranium mill reclamation plans include: (1) radon gas emanation through the cover (the air pathway), and (2) migration of hazardous and/or radioactive constituents (the groundwater pathway). Additional design considerations include site structural stability, longevity of 1,000 years, and no active (ongoing) maintenance. 9 refs.

  16. wave energy plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  17. Types of Hydropower Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants Types of Hydropower Plants There are three types of hydropower facilities: impoundment, diversion, and pumped storage. Some hydropower plants use dams and some do not. The images below show both types of hydropower plants. Many dams were built for other purposes and hydropower was added later. In the United States, there are about 80,000 dams of which only 2,400 produce power. The other dams are for recreation, stock/farm ponds, flood control, water supply, and irrigation. Hydropower

  18. Making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, August 4, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The report addresses H.R. 4506 a bill making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995. The bill supplies funds for water resources development programs and related activities of the Dept. of Army, Civil Functions - U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program, the Department of Interior`s Bureau of Reclamation, and for certain Department of Energy`s energy research activities. The report includes comments on various programs.

  19. Desalting and water treatment membrane manual: A guide to membranes for municipal water treatment. Water treatment technology program report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman-Wilbert, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation prepared this manual to provide an overview of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis processes as they are used for water treatment. Membrane composition, the chemical processes, and the physical processes involved with each membrane type are described and compared. Because care and maintenance of water treatment membranes are vital to their performance and life expectancy, pretreatment, cleaning, and storage requirements are discussed in some detail. Options for concentrate disposal, also a problematic feature of membrane processes, are discussed. The culmination of this wealth of knowledge is an extensive comparison of water treatment membranes commercially available at this time. The tables cover physical characteristics, performance data, and operational tolerances.

  20. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  1. Bagdad Plant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bagdad Plant 585 Silicon Drive Leechburg, P A 15656 * ATI Allegheny "'I Ludlum e-mail: Raymond.Polinski@ATImetals.com Mr. James Raba U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy ...

  2. S. 3168: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, August 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Acid Mine Drainage Abatement Act of 192[close quotes]. The purpose of this bill is to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. The proposed amendments are listed.

  3. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graziano, D. J.; Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2015-09-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2014. It is the sixth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013), and a report released June 2014 examined water year 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014).

  4. Better Plants Look Ahead Webinar: Presentation Slides | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    hosted by Better Plants on Jan. 22, 2015. The webinar covered accomplishments to date and detailed new initiatives to save partners energy and water. Better Plants 2015 Look Ahead ...

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory Steam Plant Project Reports and...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Impact of New CHP Plant vs Local Boilers.docx Comparison of CO2 Emissions and Water Consumption.docx History of Alternatives and Decisions.docx LANL STEAM PLANT REPORT ...

  6. Surface coal mining in Alaska: an investigation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 in relation to Alaskan conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report was written in response to a mandate in section 708 of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 which required the study of surface coal mining conditions in the State of Alaska, in order to determine which, if any, of the provisions of the Act should be modified with respect to surface coal mining operations in Alaska. The report discusses both surface mining and the surface effects of underground mining. The report examines not only the impact of mining at the site of operations but also the effects that extend beyond the mine itself, including effects on social institutions, the economy, the physical well-being of people, and the use of land. The report considers Alaska conditions primarily from the perspective of a potential increase in coal development, not of mining limited to meeting local needs of energy.

  7. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Figures 2-6 and 2- 7 show the 2006 KGS data in terms of what ... to be 19 determined with a site-specific literature search. ... available for the user to enter data, especially if ...

  8. Better Plants Look Ahead Webinar: Text Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Better Plants Program hosted a webinar on January 22, 2015 to review accomplishments to date and detail new initiatives to save partners energy and water. Question and answer session is included. Download presentation slides.

  9. Manufacturers in U.S. Energy Department’s Better Plants Program Save More Than $2 Billion in Energy Costs; Program Expands to Help America’s Water Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Better Buildings, Better Plants Program manufacturers rack up an estimated $2.4 billion in cumulative energy cost savings over the last five years.

  10. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  11. 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns Print Monday, 08 April 2013 00:00 Plants transport water through elongated cells called...

  12. H. R. 3052: This Act may be cited as the Coal Field Water Protection and Replacement Act, introduced in the US House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, July 25, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This bill would amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to provide for the protection of water resources during coal mining operations. Sections of the bill describe probable hydrologic consequences; surface and ground water monitoring plan; performance bonds; protection of water resources for permit approval; effect of underground coal mining operations; inspection and monitoring; penalty for failure of representative of Secretary or state regulatory authority to carry out certain duties; release of performance bond; water rights and replacement; regulations; and state programs.

  13. Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Prescott Airport Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Prescott Airport Solar Plant Sector Solar...

  14. Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Deming Solar Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Deming Solar Plant Sector Solar Facility Type Photovoltaic...

  15. Solana Generating Plant Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solana Generating Plant Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Solana Generating Plant Solar Power Plant Facility Solana Generating Plant Sector Solar Facility Type...

  16. Acid mine drainage: Common law, SMCRA, and the Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henrich, C.

    1995-12-31

    Acid mine drainage is a major problem related to coal mining which, if unabated, can severely damage the aquatic environment. Damage resulting from acid mine drainage was first addressed by common law and riparian principles. As societal laws changed, common law principles alone could not effectively control this problem. Preventing and controlling pollution including acid mine drainage are important goals of the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). This article examines how common law, SMCRA, and the CWA address the acid mine drainage issue independently, and how improvements in the control of acid mine drainage can be achieved.

  17. Efficiency combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

  18. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  19. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface ...

  20. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  1. Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and third international conference on the abatement of acidic drainage. Volume 4: Abandoned mine lands and topical issues -- SP 06D-94

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Volume 4 of these proceedings is divided into the following sections: Subsidence--Reclamation, characterization (6 papers); Subsidence--Structural response (7); Abandoned mine land studies (6); Mine Hydrology--Topical issues (4); Mine waste--Topical issues (6); Policy issues (6); Miscellaneous poster session (14); and Abstracts (17). 53 papers dealing with or applicable to coal mining have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  3. Report on the emergency response to the event on May 14, 1997, at the plutonuim reclamation facility, Hanford Site, Richland,Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoop, D.S.

    1997-08-20

    On the evening of May 14,1997, a chemical explosion Occurred at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) in the 200 West Area(200-W) of the Hanford Site. The event warranted the declaration of an Alert emergency, activation of the Hanford Emergency Response Organization (BRO), and notification of offsite agencies. As a result of the emergency declaration, a subsequent evaluation was conducted to assess: 9 the performance of the emergency response organization o the occupational health response related to emergency activities o event notifications to offsite and environmental agencies. Additionally, the evaluation was designed to: 9 document the chronology of emergency and occupational health responses and environmental notifications connected with the explosion at the facility 0 assess the adequacy of the Hanford Site emergency preparedness activities; response readiness; and emergency management actions, occupational health, and environmental actions 0 provide an analysis of the causes of the deficiencies and weaknesses in the preparedness and response system that have been identified in the evaluation of the response a assign organizational responsibility to correct deficiencies and weaknesses a improve future performance 0 adjust elements of emergency implementing procedures and emergency preparedness activities.

  4. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  5. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessments on surface-water in northeastern Wyoming using HEC-1; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.J.; Eastwood, D.C.; Anderson, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 requires that areas in which multiple mines will affect one watershed be analyzed and the cumulative impacts of all mining on the watershed be assessed. The purpose of the subject study was to conduct a cumulative hydrologic impact assessment (CHIA) for surface-water on a watershed in northeastern Wyoming that is currently being impacted by three mines. An assessment of the mining impact`s affect on the total discharge of the watershed is required to determine whether or not material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur as a result of surface mining and reclamation. The surface-water model HEC-1 was used to model four separate rainfall-runoff events that occurred in the study basin over three years (1978-1980). Although these storms were used to represent pre-mining conditions, they occurred during the early stages of mining and the models were adjusted accordingly. The events were selected for completeness of record and antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Models were calibrated to the study events and model inputs were altered to reflect post-mining conditions. The same events were then analyzed with the new model inputs. The results were compared with the pre-mining calibration. Peak flow, total discharge and timing of flows were compared for pre-mining and post-mining models. Data were turned over to the State of Wyoming for assessment of whether material damage to downstream water rights is likely to occur.

  6. Wave-operated power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghesquiere, H.

    1980-08-12

    This wave-operated power plant comprises a perforated caisson breakwater in which propellers, or turbines, are mounted in the perforations or openings and drives hydraulic pumps connected thereto, which in turn drives a hydraulic motor coupled to an electric generator. One-way flap valves are mounted in the openings. Some of said flap valves allow the rushing waves to enter the caisson, while the other flap valves allow the water to flow out of the caisson.

  7. How a Geothermal Power Plant Works (Simple) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Geothermal Power Plant Works (Simple) How a Geothermal Power Plant Works (Simple) Most power plants-whether fueled by coal, gas, nuclear power, or geothermal energy-have one feature in common: they convert heat to electricity. Heat from the Earth, or geothermal - Geo (Earth) + thermal (heat) - energy is accessed by drilling water or steam wells in a process similar to drilling for oil. Geothermal power plants have much in common with traditional power-generating stations. They use many of the

  8. Development of the Chinshan plant analyzer and its assessment with plant data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shihjen Wang; Chunsheng Chien ); Jungyuh Jang ); Shawcuang Lee )

    1993-06-01

    To apply fast and accurate simulation techniques to Taiwanese nuclear power plants, plant analyzer technology was transferred to Taiwan from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) through a cooperative program. The Chinshan plant analyzer is developed on the AD100 peripheral processor systems, based on the BNL boiling water reactor plant analyzer. The BNL plant analyzer was first converted from MPS10 programming for AD10 to ADSIM programming for AD100. It was then modified for the Taiwan Power Company's Chinshan power station. The simulation speed of the Chinshan plant analyzer is eight times faster than real time. A load rejection transient performed at 100% of full power during startup tests was simulated with the Chinshan plant analyzer, and the results were benchmarked against test data. The comparison shows good agreement between calculated results and test data.

  9. Running dry at the power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, B.

    2007-07-01

    In the future, competition for water will require electricity generators in the United States to address conservation of fresh water. There are a number of avenues to consider. One is to use dry-cooling and dry-scrubbing technologies. Another is to find innovative ways to recycle water within the power plant itself. A third is to find and use alternative sources of water, including wastewater supplies from municipalities, agricultural runoff, blackish groundwater, or seawater. Dry technologies are usually more capital intensive and typically exact a penalty in terms of plant performance, which in turn raises the cost of power generation. On the other hand, if the cost of water increases in response to greater demand, the cost differences between dry and wet technologies will be reduced. EPRI has a substantial R & D programme evaluating new water-conserving power plant technologies, improving dry and hybrid cooling technologies, reducing water losses in cooling towers, using degraded water sources and developing resource assessment and management decision support tools. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security HomeTag:Water Security Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) ...

  11. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  12. Plant-based Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant-based Materials Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation teams with consumer goods and ... announced a research program with the Plant PET Technology Collaborative (PTC) to ...

  13. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  14. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  15. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  16. Water Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  17. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  18. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

  19. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

  20. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  1. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  2. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  3. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  4. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdalla H. Ali; Raj Kamarthi; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified the integration of the water produced in the F-T synthesis section with the gasification section as an area of potential synergy. By utilizing the F-T water in the petroleum coke slurry for the gasifier, the EECP can eliminate a potential waste stream and reduce capital costs. There is a low technical risk for this synergy, however, the economic risk, particularly in regards to the water, can be high. The economic costs include the costs

  5. Individual Permit for Storm Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laws » Individual Permit Individual Permit The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Canada del Buey Gage station in Mortandad Canyon Pajarito Canyon Sandia Canyon Willows planted for bank stabilization in Pueblo Canyon Willows planted for bank stabilization in Pueblo Canyon What's New Documents submitted to EPRR in

  6. Sandia Energy - Decision Support for Integrated Energy-Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    freshwater withdrawals thus competing with irrigated agriculture as the leading user of water. Proposed power plants must often target waterways and aquifers prone to overdraft...

  7. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A Feasibility...

  8. Evaluating the economic effectiveness of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korik, L.; Yeaple, D.: Hajosy, M.

    1996-08-01

    Economic considerations constitute the major factor in the decision to build a cogeneration plant and to its eventual design - topics which have been the focus of many studies and papers. These economic concerns continue when the plant is built and on-line, thus plant operation must be geared to provide the customers` demand in the most economically effective manner possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of and high degree of interaction between the disparate components of a cogeneration plant oftentimes, make it difficult to conceptualize the plant configuration required to maximize plant economic performance for a given demand, Indeed, actions taken to increase the thermal performance of individual plant components can actually decrease the overall economic effectiveness of the plant as a whole in the context of converting fuels to sendouts. What is needed, then, is a way to meld the performance of individual plant components into a total plant performance index that accurately measures the economic effectiveness of the plant. This paper details such a method developed by the Cogeneration Management Company to accomplish the performance evaluation of its Medical Area Total Energy Plant which supplies electricity, steam, and chilled water to the Longwood. Medical Area in Boston, This method - which is easily adapted to a variety of cogeneration designs - addresses the aforementioned complexities in the assessing of a cogeneration plant`s effectiveness and results in simple-to-understand plant performance quantifications which have proved to be of great utility in ensuring the economically sound operation of MATEP.

  9. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant AFFIDAVIT FOR SURVIVING RELATIVE STATE ) ) ss: COUNTY OF ) That I, , am the...

  11. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srienc, Friedrich; Somers, David A.; Hahn, J. J.; Eschenlauer, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  13. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  14. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2014-02-26

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  15. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Isolation Pilot Plant | June 2007 Salt Disposal Investigations Waste Isolation Pilot Plant | June 2007 Salt Disposal Investigations The mission of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site is to provide permanent, underground disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes (wastes that also have hazardous chemical components). TRU waste consists of clothing, tools, and debris left from the research and production of nuclear weapons. TRU waste is

  16. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  17. Microsoft Word - WIPP Water Line _2_ _2_ _2_

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announces the Transfer of the WIPP Water Line to the City of Carlsbad CARLSBAD, N.M., June ... the DOE-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) water line to the city of Carlsbad. ...

  18. Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site Workers Demolish Coal-fired Steam Plant at EM's Portsmouth Site September 18, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis A high-pressure water ...

  19. Amend Section 402 of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 643, March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Jed D. Christensen of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Department of the Interior, was the principal witness at a hearing on S. 643, which amends the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. The amendment would allow states to set aside as much as 10% from the reclamation trust fund to apply to abandoned sites. Senators speaking in favor of the bill reported problems with obtaining home loans and insurance due to subsidence from abandoned sites. Christensen supported the bill in principle, but noted possible problems with handling interest and the actual transfer of the money. He also noted a possible breakdown in regulation with the current wording of the bill. Additional material submitted for the record from representatives and officials of the State of Wyoming follows the text of S. 643 and the testimony of the five witnesses.

  20. Landscaping Water Conservation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Links Landscaping - H2ouse.org USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map References Knopf, J. (2005). WaterWise Landscaping with Trees, Shrubs, and Vines.Boulder, CO: Chamisa Books. Knopf, J. ...

  1. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  2. Some ocean engineering considerations in the design of OTEC plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiness, T.

    1982-08-01

    An alternate energy resource using the temperature differences between warm surface waters and cool bottom waters of the world's oceans, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) utilizes the solar energy potential of nearequatorial water masses and can be applied to generate electrical energy as a baseload augmentation of landside power plants or to process energy-intensive products at sea. Designs of OTEC plants include concepts of floating barge or shipshape structures with large (up to 100-foot diameter, 3,000 feet in length) pipes used to intake cool bottom waters and platforms located in 300-foot water depths similar to oil drilling rigs, also with a pipe to ingest cool waters, but in this case the pipe is laid on continental shelf areas in 25/sup 0/-30/sup 0/ slopes attaining a length of several miles. The ocean engineering design considerations, problem areas, and proposed solutions to data regarding various OTEC plant concepts are the topic of this presentation.

  3. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  4. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  5. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into ...

  6. Water Summit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the ...

  7. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  8. Cogeneration of water and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sephton, H.H.; Frank, K.F.

    1997-09-01

    Need of pure water in areas of limited supply has driven the development of technologies to permit recycling of available water and to generate new water supplies by purifying saline resources. These technologies include sedimentation, filtration, softening, ion exchange, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis and distillation. Some of these developments serve needs of the power industry, others evolved due to the synergistic relationship between generating water and power. Large plant seawater desalination depend on this synergism for best economy, especially in Southern California and the Middle East. Applying new processes promise to drive down the cost of desalinated water, based on recently improved thermal efficiencies and on capital cost reductions. Cogeneration with these processes provides new mutual benefits for power and water technologies.

  9. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  10. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants | National Nuclear Security Administra...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and works in an office building. U.S. naval nuclear propulsion plants use a pressurized-water reactor design that has two basic systems: the primary system and the secondary...

  11. DOE/EA-1927, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Shawnee Fossil Plant uses water from the Ohio River for once-through cooling. With the thermoelectric category included, about 0.1 percent of ...

  12. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach; Jennifer M. , Zieler; Helge , Jin; RongGuan , Keith; Kevin , Copenhaver; Gregory P. , Preuss; Daphne

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  13. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  14. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  15. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  16. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer M.; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Preuss, Daphne

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  17. T Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T Plant About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact ... and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage ...

  18. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2, 2015 A rabbit on LANL land. A rabbit on Los Alamos National Laboratory land. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We sample many plants and animals, including wild and domestic crops, game animals, fish, and food products from

  19. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  20. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal ... Electric & Power Co" "2 Plants 4 Reactors","3,501","26,572",100.0 "Note: ...

  1. Better Plants Pre-In-Plant Training Webinars

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A listing of Better Plants pre-In-Plant Training webinars on reducing energy in a variety of systems.

  2. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    was necessary to confine the analysis to a smaller geographic area, yet still represent the diversity of tribes and context within which tribal water issues arise. The state of California provides this opportunity. California has 106 federally recognized tribes. California is diverse in its geography, environment, demographics, and economic bases; California tribes demonstrate similar diversity. Additionally, no central repository of national or state tribal water issues exists and information must be aggregated, in general, tribe by tribe. This presents research challenges and, for this report, these were overcome by developing a method to essentially ''sub-sample'' the 106 federally recognized tribes in the state, while making every effort to maintain a sub-sample that broadly represents all of the 106 tribes. n an effort to develop an equitable and appropriate method with which to identify this set of representative tribes, multiple entities were contacted for guidance. Consultation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Indian Health Services (IHS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) and Tribal Environmental Directors, provided key information and recommendations to guide the research process. It is hoped that an appropriate representation of the diversity of tribes across the state has been achieved; this includes an adequate representation of similarities and differences between Californian tribes on key water research issues (and the same between regions). This research occurred over a limited time period (i.e., three months) and given a general concern that this may not be sufficient, any information and conclusions in this report should be viewed with this in mind. Finally, it is hoped that this research allows for an (enhanced) informed capacity to better propose further dialog between tribes and LLNL to continue to exchange water research perspectives and define potential research

  3. H. R. 4053: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to provide for the remining of certain abandoned coal mine lands. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, Second Session, February 21, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The bill would amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to provide for the remining of certain abandoned coal mine lands. The bill describes definitions; state remining insurance programs; state self-sustaining remining insurance fund; penalties and enforcement; special rules applicable to remining operations; and abandoned coal refuse and disposal piles.

  4. NEMS Modeling of Coal Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels Market Module Model inputs for coal plants 3 * Existing coal plants - plant specific ... FF - Cost to convert to natural gas-fired steam plant - Cost to implement heat ...

  5. Federal Energy Management Program technical assistance case study: Water conservation at the Denver Federal Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national effort, Executive Order 12902 and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 mandated water conservation in all Federal facilities. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) was tasked with leading the effort providing the technical assistance needed to identify ways to comply with the order. To apply highly efficient water use technologies in the Federal sector, FEMP formed a partnership with DOE`s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); the General Services Administration (GSA); the Bureau of Reclamation; the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Denver Water, the local utility; and several manufacturers. The objectives of the partnership were: to improve energy and water efficiency in the Federal sector; to deploy US manufactured water technologies in the Federal sector; to reduce life-cycle cost and improve reliability of Federal installations; to establish a showcase site demonstrating technologies and operating practices of water conservation; to demonstrate effective government and industry partnerships. FEMP chose the 14-story Building 67 at the Denver Federal Center for the site of the water conservation project.

  6. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  7. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  8. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  9. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  10. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory Steam Plant Project Reports and Analysis |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Reports and Analysis 2.10_SMSI_LANL Steam Plant Analysis_Concepts_120313.pptx 2.10_SMSI-SteamPlant_100%Report_011714_Rev1.pdf Analysis of Alternatives LANL Utilities Division.pdf CHP vs DB Analysis.docx Comparison of Air Quality Permitting Impact of New CHP Plant vs Local Boilers.docx Comparison of CO2 Emissions and Water Consumption.docx History of Alternatives and Decisions.docx LANL STEAM PLANT REPORT FINAL 9-29 -Bechtel.pdf Parsons AOA

  12. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  13. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle (HTGR-SC) unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor (LWR) experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor (GCR) stations.

  14. Better Buildings, Better Plants:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings, Better Plants: AMO Technical Assistance Overview Andre de Fontaine This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | Advanced Manufacturing Office Better Buildings, Better Plants Overview  Better Buildings, Better Plants is a national, voluntary industrial energy efficiency leadership initiative.  It is a key component of the President's Better Buildings Initiative, which seeks to improve the energy efficiency of

  15. SC Johnson Waxdale Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 6.4 MW CHP application at SC Johnson Waxdale Plant in Racine, Wisconsin.

  16. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  17. concentrating solar power plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  18. Solar Energy Water Desalination in the United States and Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luft, W.

    1981-04-01

    Five solar energy water desalination systems are described. The systems will each deliver 6000 m3/day of desalted water from either seawater or brackish water. After the system definition study is completed in August 1981, two systems will be selected for pilot plant construction. The pilot plants will have capacities in the range of 1 00 to 400 m3/day.

  19. Performance analysis of an OTEC plant and a desalination plant using an integrated hybrid cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, Haruo; Miyara, Akio; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Nakaoka, Tsutomu

    1996-05-01

    A performance analysis of an OTEC plant using an integrated hybrid cycle (I-H OTEC Cycle) has been conducted. The I-H OTEC cycle is a combination of a closed-cycle OTEC plant and a spray flash desalination plant. In an I-H OTEC cycle, warm sea water evaporates the liquid ammonia in the OTEC evaporator, then enters the flash chamber and evaporates itself. The evaporated steam enters the desalination condenser and is condensed by the cold sea water passed through the OTEC condenser. The optimization of the I-H OTEC cycle is analyzed by the method of steepest descent. The total heat transfer area of heat exchangers per net power is used as an objective function. Numerical results are reported for a 10 MW I-H OTEC cycle with plate-type heat exchangers and ammonia as working fluid. The results are compared with those of a joint hybrid OTEC cycle (J-H OTEC Cycle).

  20. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

  1. Recommenedation 229: Recommendation on the Preferred Alternative for the Proposed Plan for Water Treatment at Outfall 200 at Y-12 National Security Complex.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ORSSAB provides a recommendation on the preferred alternative for a water treatment plant at Y-12 National Security Complex.

  2. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  3. Plant pathogen resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  4. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  5. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  6. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Better Plants Program Partners

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE recognizes the following companies for their commitment to reducing the energy intensity of their U.S. manufacturing operations by 25% or more within 10 years. These Better Plants Program Partners set ambitious goals, establish energy management plans, and report progress annually to DOE. Click on the arrows below to view Better Plants Program Partner profiles and learn more about their commitment.

  9. H. R. 5162: a bill making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1987, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, July 15, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The bill assigns monetary levels to appropriations for energy and water development projects for fiscal year 1987. Title I deals with the civilian activities of the Corps of Engineers concerning rivers and harbors, flood control, beach erosion, and related purposes. Title II covers the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation, and Title III covers activities of DOE. Separate sections of Title III deal with energy supply, research, and development and with power marketing administrations. Title IV addresses independent agencies, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The final Title covers general provisions and exclusions from funding.

  10. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  11. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that

  12. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    -Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  13. THE SCIOTO ORDNANCE PLANT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... EMERGENCY WATER TANK AND WATER RESERVOIR-located east side ... F. F. DeRoche a. Production Planning 1diss Henri Barnhart b. ... serious administrative problems as well as cause further ...

  14. Biogas, once flared, fuels cogen plant serving two hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.K.; McRae, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article reports that digester gas from a wastewater treatment plant meets up to 40% of the fuel needs of this cogenerator. Steam is exported for heating the treatment plant`s digesters and for ice production by a second steam host. The Carson Ice-Gen Project promises to enhance the reliability of electric service to the Sacramento Regional Waste water Treatment Plant (SRWTP), to prevent effluent discharges to nearby water ways during power disruptions, and to reduce air emissions associated with flaring of digester gas. The project comprises a 95-MW combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant and a 300-ton/day ice-production plant. The powerplant features twin LM 6000 gas turbines (GTs). One, used as a 53-MW base-load unit, is paired with a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) feeding an extraction/condensing steam turbine/generator (STG). The other GT is used as a 42-MW, simple-cycle peaking unit. Primary fuel is natural gas, which is supplemented by digester gas that is currently being flared at the wastewater treatment plant. Export steam extracted from the STG is used to heat the digesters and to drive ammonia compressors at the ice plant. Steam is also used on-site to chill water in absorption chillers that cool the GT inlet air for power augmentation.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pantex Plant U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant Photo of Pantex laundry supervisor A Pantex laundry supervisor discusses the benefits of ozone water treatment systems with NORESCO field staff. Overview The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, will save approximately $10.4 million in energy-related costs over the next 18 years, thanks to a DOE Central Region Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) delivery order. The Pantex Plant Super ESPC

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Pantex Plant U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant Photo of Pantex laundry supervisor A Pantex laundry supervisor discusses the benefits of ozone water treatment systems with NORESCO field staff. Overview The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, will save approximately $10.4 million in energy-related costs over the next 18 years, thanks to a DOE Central Region Super Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) delivery order. The Pantex Plant Super

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Static Water Level Data ...

  18. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter N.; Casagranda, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  19. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant name..."8,291",62.4,"NextEra Energy Point Beach LLC" "2 Plants 3 Reactors","1,584","13,281",100.0

  20. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurements of leaf biochemistry and physiology, biomass inventory, tree allometry, ... cycle; eddy-covariance analysis; plant physiology; carbon sequestration; drought; water ...

  1. San Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Thanks to San Diego's ambitious solar energy program, the Otay Water Treatment Plant may soon be able to do that with net zero electricity consumption.

  2. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Average water consumers can save thousands of gallons of water per year by being aware of ... program on the water distribution systems to include water saving replacement parts. ...

  3. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel

  4. Desalination Plant Optimization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-10-01

    MSF21 and VTE21 perform design and costing calculations for multistage flash evaporator (MSF) and multieffect vertical tube evaporator (VTE) desalination plants. An optimization capability is available, if desired. The MSF plant consists of a recovery section, reject section, brine heater, and associated buildings and equipment. Operating costs and direct and indirect capital costs for plant, buildings, site, and intakes are calculated. Computations are based on the first and last stages of each section and amore » typical middle recovery stage. As a result, the program runs rapidly but does not give stage by stage parameters. The VTE plant consists of vertical tube effects, multistage flash preheater, condenser, and brine heater and associated buildings and equipment. Design computations are done for each vertical tube effect, but preheater computations are based on the first and last stages and a typical middle stage.« less

  5. B Plant facility description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalk, S.E.

    1996-10-04

    Buildings 225B, 272B, 282B, 282BA, and 294B were removed from the B Plant facility description. Minor corrections were made for tank sizes and hazardous and toxic inventories.

  6. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  7. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Intertek APTECH has organized the cycling cost data in consultation with NREL and WECC by the following eight generator plant types: 1. Small coal-fired sub-critical steam (35-299 ...

  8. Special Better Plants Training Opportunities | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Assistance Better Plants Special Better Plants Training Opportunities Special Better Plants Training Opportunities Better Plants process heating training at an ...

  9. Plant Phenotype Characterization System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Phenotype Characterization System Plant Phenotype Characterization System New X-Ray Technology Accelerates Plant Research The ability to analyze plant root structure and...

  10. Better Plants Overview SGH | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Better Plants Overview SGH 151007.pdf (315.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Better Plants Two-Page Overview Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013 Better Plants Progress ...

  11. Washington Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  12. Vermont Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  13. Quiz: Know Your Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Think you know where coal, solar and other power plants are located around the country? Test your knowledge with our power plants quiz!

  14. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  15. Georgia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  16. California Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  17. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State ...

  18. Ohio Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  19. Virginia Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  20. Minnesota Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  1. Alabama Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  2. Wisconsin Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  3. Texas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  4. Tennessee Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  5. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  6. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net ...

  7. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  8. Florida Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear ...

  9. Maryland Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net generation (percent)","Owner" "Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant ...

  10. Gasification Plant Databases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant Databases Welcome to the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory's Gasification Plant Databases Within these databases you will find current publicly available information on proposed projects and projects undergoing construction and initial operation within the United States and worldwide. Currently operating projects are excluded. The data have been compiled here to keep the public informed of the technologies and investments in major industrial coal

  11. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  12. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  13. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  14. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  15. MHWMF Part I Permit Modifications

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ......... 24 III. Surface Water Monitoring Program ......Reclamation Program, the Solid Waste Management Program, and the Water Protection Program. ...

  16. US China CERC Energy and Water - Funding Opportunity Announcement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy US China CERC Energy and Water - Funding Opportunity Announcement US China CERC Energy and Water - Funding Opportunity Announcement The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is soliciting applications for the formation of a Consortium to pursue five identified R&D topics at the nexus of energy and water (see Funding Opportunity Announcement PDF at the bottom of the page). These topics are: Water use reduction at thermoelectric plants; Treatment and management of

  17. & Immobilization Plant Project

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmental Management United States Department of Energy Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development Committee on Appropriations United States House of Representatives | Department of Energy Energy and Water Development Committee on Appropriations United States House of Representatives Written Statement of Mark Whitney Acting Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management United States Department of Energy Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development Committee on

  18. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  19. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Salmon, Mississippi, Site, Water Sampling Location Map .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data ...

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........1 Water Sampling Locations at the Rulison, .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  3. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... In the U.S. around 40% of all freshwater withdrawals are for thermoelectric application (GAO, 2009). For conventional power plants, water is used in the steam turbine, for removing ...

  4. The Greenhouse’s Effect: NETL and Phipps Join Forces to Study Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Phipps and NETL recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding for collaborative research involving water-management systems installed at Phipps. NETL researchers have now begun collecting and analyzing water, sediment, and plant samples to determine the effectiveness of Phipps’ water-treatment systems over time. These researchers will apply what they learn to NETL’s larger investigation into greenhouse gas storage, emissions controls, and reduction of water use in power plants.

  5. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  6. Repressor-mediated tissue-specific gene expression in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B.; Balish, Rebecca S.; Tehryung, Kim; McKinney, Elizabeth C.

    2009-02-17

    Plant tissue specific gene expression by way of repressor-operator complexes, has enabled outcomes including, without limitation, male sterility and engineered plants having root-specific gene expression of relevant proteins to clean environmental pollutants from soil and water. A mercury hyperaccumulation strategy requires that mercuric ion reductase coding sequence is strongly expressed. The actin promoter vector, A2pot, engineered to contain bacterial lac operator sequences, directed strong expression in all plant vegetative organs and tissues. In contrast, the expression from the A2pot construct was restricted primarily to root tissues when a modified bacterial repressor (LacIn) was coexpressed from the light-regulated rubisco small subunit promoter in above-ground tissues. Also provided are analogous repressor operator complexes for selective expression in other plant tissues, for example, to produce male sterile plants.

  7. 384 Power plant waste water sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerty, K.J.; Knotek, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the 384 Power House Sampling and Analysis Plan. The Plan describes sampling methods, locations, frequency, analytes, and stream descriptions. The effluent streams from 384, were characterized in 1989, in support of the Stream Specific Report (WHC-EP-0342, Addendum 1).

  8. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS).

  9. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  10. On the utilization of coking plant surface runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evzel'man, I.B.; Kagasov, V.M.; Maiskii, S.V.; Pimenov, I.V.; Rod'kin, S.P.; Ushakov, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Surface runoff from the industrial sites of coking plants in the East and Center of the USSR is usually diverted into a storm sewer in a mixture with the conditionally pure water. General data on the contamination of this mixture (industrial stormwater) and the snow cover at a number of coking plants in this region are tabulated. Our data on the quality of industrial stormwater show that schemes for utilization of surface runoff must include pretreatment to remove suspended matter and oils. For example, the oil concentration in melt water is 2-10 times greater than the concentration in industrial phenol-containing effluent (2). When the biochemical facilities receive surface runoff containing up to 40 g/l suspended solids, which occurs in periods of snowmelt, without treatment to remove these solids, there are difficulties with the discharge of tar from the secondary sedimenters of the biochemical treatment plant. An analysis of the literature materials (3-9) showed that the maximum allowable concentration of suspended solids in make-up water for the closed-cycle heat exchange water cooling system should apparently not exceed 25 mg/l. The level of this parameter in the make-up water of these systems at coke plants requires correction.

  11. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  12. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  13. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    The list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of September 1, 1982. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses.

  14. Pantex Plant | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pantex Plant Pantex Plant Pantex Plant | September 2010 Aerial View Pantex Plant | September 2010 Aerial View The primary mission of the Pantex Plant is the assembly, disassembly, testing, and evaluation of nuclear weapons in support of the NNSA stockpile stewardship program. Pantex also performs research and development in conventional high explosives and serves as an interim storage site for plutonium pits removed from dismantled weapons. Enforcement April 8, 2015 Enforcement Letter, Packaging

  15. Report of ground water monitoring for expansion of the golf course, Salt Lake City, Utah, vitro processing site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    To determine the potential impacts of the proposed golf course expansion on the south side of the Vitro site, ground water data from the UMTRA Vitro processing site were evaluated in response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Office request. Golf in the Round, Inc., has proposed an expansion of the present driving range to include a 9-hole golf course on the UMTRA Vitro processing site, which is owned by the Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF). An expanded golf course would increase irrigation and increase the amount of water that could infiltrate the soil, recharging the unconfined aquifer. Increased water levels in the aquifer could alter the ground water flow regime; contaminants in the shallow ground water could then migrate off the site or discharge to surface water in the area. Dewatering of the unconfined aquifer on CVWRF property could also impact site contaminant migration; a significant amount of ground water extraction at CVWRF could reduce the amount of contaminant migration off the site. Since 1978, data have been collected at the site to determine the distribution of tailings materials (removed from the site from 1985 to 1987) and to characterize the presence and migration of contaminants in sediments, soils, surface water, and ground water at the former Vitro processing site. Available data suggest that irrigating an expanded golf course may cause contamination to spread more rapidly within the unconfined aquifer. The public is not at risk from current Vitro processing site activities, nor is risk expected due to golf course expansion. However, ecological risk could increase with increased surface water contamination and the development of ground water seeps.

  16. Waste water filtration enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    Removal of submicron particles from process solutions and waste water is now economically achievable using a new Tyvek{reg sign} media in conventional filtration equipment. This new product greatly enhances filtration and allows use of the much improved filter aids and polymers which were recently developed. It has reduced operating costs and ensures a clean effluent discharge to the environment. This significant technical development is especially important to those who discharge to a small stream with low 7Q10 flow and must soon routinely pass the Toxicity tests that are being required by many States for NPDES permit renewal. The Savannah River Plant produces special nuclear materials for the US Government. Aluminum forming and metal finishing operations in M-Area, that manufacture fuel and target assemblies for the nuclear reactors, discharge to a waste water treatment facility using BAT hydroxide precipitation and filtration. The new Tyvek{reg sign} media and filter aids have achieved 55% less solids in the filtrate discharged to Tims Branch Creek, 15% less hazardous waste (dry filter cake), 150%-370% more filtration capacity, 74% lower materials purchase cost, 10% lower total M-Area manufacturing cost, and have improved safety. Performance with the improved polymers is now being evaluated.

  17. U Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Projects & Facilities U Plant About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental Restoration

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4-3542 Site Sustainability Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Fiscal Year 2015 Narrative November 2014 Office of Site Operations Carlsbad Field Office U.S. Department of Energy Approved By: //signature on file// 12/30/14 Jose R. Franco, Date Manager, Carlsbad Field Office Site Sustainability Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Fiscal Year 2015 Narrative DOE/WIPP-14-3542 Page 2 of 48 TABLE OF CONTENTS I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 TABLE 1. DOE Goal Summary Table 6 II. PERFORMANCE REVIEW AND PLAN NARRATIVE

  19. B Plant - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant About Us About Hanford Cleanup Hanford History Hanford Site Wide Programs Contact Us 100 Area 118-K-1 Burial Ground 200 Area 222-S Laboratory 242-A Evaporator 300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 Area/Fast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim Storage Area Canyon Facilities Cold Test Facility D and DR Reactors Effluent Treatment Facility Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility F Reactor H Reactor

  20. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, Edward W.; Benemann, John R.; Weissman, Joseph C.; Tillett, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

  1. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  2. A systematic approach for water recycle system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.W.; Dave, B.B.

    1995-12-01

    Water reuse is becoming a critical technology for industrial plants to remain competitive as environmental regulations become more stringent and as municipal water demands increase. The basic challenge of water reuse is to meet the water quality requirements of both the plant effluent and the in-plant processes in an economical fashion. The complex nature of water reuse problems demands a systematic approach for achieving solutions. Such an approach has been developed which integrates the plant audit, numerical process simulation, and pilot-scale experiments to optimize reuse system designs in the sense of both technical and economic merits. Two case studies are presented which illustrate some of the capabilities of this highly flexible approach to water reuse. The case of an oil refinery demonstrates the utility of process modelling prior to pilot-level testing, which is then used to determine system operating parameters and costs. The role of numerical process simulation in predicting process water chemistry and overall economics is emphasized in the case of a copper smelting plant.

  3. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  4. Fossil plant self assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozgo, R.H.; Maguire, B.A.

    1996-07-01

    The increasingly competitive environment of the electric utility business is focusing utilities attention on reducing the cost of electricity generation. By using benchmark indicators, gains are being sought in plant material condition with corresponding improvements in operating efficiency and capacity factor as well as reductions in Operating and Maintenance (O&M) costs. In designing a process for improvement, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) plant managers were asked to review and approve objectives and criteria for Fossil Plant Operations. The program methods included optimizing work processes (including material condition, maintenance programs, work control systems, and personnel performance); team building techniques to foster personnel buy-in of the process; and long term cultural change to insure an ongoing continuous improvement process with measurable results. The program begins with a self assessment of each plant based upon the approved Objectives and Criteria. The Criteria and Review Approaches (CRAs) are established by senior management and the review team. The criteria cover Management, Operations, Maintenance, and Support Functions including Technical Support, Training and Qualification, Environmental Compliance, Chemistry, and Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The Assessment is followed by a review of corrective action plans and an interim corrective action review. Annual Assessments are planned to ensure continuous improvement. Emphasis is placed on progress made in maintenance at the fossil stations.

  5. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  6. Grace adds hydroprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattah, H.

    1997-01-01

    W.R. Grace`s Davison Refining Catalysts Division will build a 20-million lbs/year hydroprocessing catalysts plant at Lake Charles, LA. The plant, planned for startup in early 1998, is part of the company`s ongoing effort to increase capacity to take advantage of significant growth in the hydroprocessing markets. The move {open_quotes}signifies a major step in our long-term commitment to the market,{close_quotes} says Robert Bullard, v.p./hydroprocessing catalysts. Davison also has an expansion scheduled for startup in February at its hydroprocessing catalysts plant at Curtis Bay, MD that will raise capacity there to 30 million lbs/year. The Lake Charles plant and the expansion total $40 million in investment, Grace says. Catalyst Consultants (Spring House, PA) expects growth of hydroprocessing demand to outstrip capacity, which is projected to grow 2.5%-3.5%/year. Demand is largely being fueled by tough environmental requirements on the sulfur content of gasoline, as well as by increased use of heavy, sour crude oil.

  7. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  8. T Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-27

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  9. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Hugh; Wade, Jeremy

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or "plant") in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10%-30% of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) in five houses near Syracuse, NY, and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  10. Disaggregating Hot Water Use and Predicting Hot Water Waste in Five Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, H.; Wade, J.

    2014-04-01

    While it is important to make the equipment (or 'plant') in a residential hot water system more efficient, the hot water distribution system also affects overall system performance and energy use. Energy wasted in heating water that is not used is estimated to be on the order of 10 to 30 percent of total domestic hot water (DHW) energy use. This field monitoring project installed temperature sensors on the distribution piping (on trunks and near fixtures) and programmed a data logger to collect data at 5 second intervals whenever there was a hot water draw. This data was used to assign hot water draws to specific end uses in the home as well as to determine the portion of each hot water that was deemed useful (i.e., above a temperature threshold at the fixture). Five houses near Syracuse NY were monitored. Overall, the procedures to assign water draws to each end use were able to successfully assign about 50% of the water draws, but these assigned draws accounted for about 95% of the total hot water use in each home. The amount of hot water deemed as useful ranged from low of 75% at one house to a high of 91% in another. At three of the houses, new water heaters and distribution improvements were implemented during the monitoring period and the impact of these improvements on hot water use and delivery efficiency were evaluated.

  11. Follow-Up on the Management of the Plutonium Finishing Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... visiting on cell-phones for several hours. * Crane malfunctions in the Plutonium Reclamation Facility at PFP: The 65-year old crane is a "single point failure" for the preferred ...

  12. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

  13. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy ...

  14. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  15. Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water ...

  16. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law , Christoph K. Thomas

    2011-09-20

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture

  17. Getting Inside Plants | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Inside Plants Getting Inside Plants Seeing Green - This image of a rose leaf was captured with a plant imaging system that is based on the same technology used to conduct PET scans in humans. The ultimate goal of the plant imaging program is to see how plants will respond to rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Getting Inside Plants PET scans have been used for decades to help doctors diagnose disease in people - from cancers to heart problems. Now, the technology is

  18. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  19. Plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    To eliminate the harmful effects of greenhouse gases, especially that of CO2, future coalfired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture. The loss in efficiency for CO2 capture is less in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant compared to other conventional coal combustion processes. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. With this objective in mind, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture has been developed. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of about 96 mol% of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. The clean syngas is sent to a gas turbine (GT) followed by a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. A 5 % ramp increase in the flowrate of coal is introduced to study the system dynamics. To control the conversion of CO at a desired level in the WGS reactors, the steam/CO ratio is manipulated. This strategy is found to be efficient for this operating condition. In the absence of an efficient control strategy in the AGR process, the environmental emissions exceeded the limits by a great extent.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.