National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water reclamation plant

  1. North City Water Reclamation Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prevedouros, Panos D.

    -Site Cogeneration Methane Power Plant Methane piped in from: Miramar LandfillMiramar Landfill Metropolitan BiosolidsNorth City Water Reclamation Plant Maja Caroee Diana Lee Niko Salvador #12;What is Water% for plant operation 25% sold to local power grid #12;Technical Issues & Innovations COMNET Clean water

  2. Removal of Animal Antibiotics for Potable Water Reclamation: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Rita

    2015-01-01

    to operate its first desalination plant in Carlsbad by 2015.Desalination compared to potable water reuse will require

  3. Re-water: More complicated than just toilet-to-tap, water reclamation helps sustain thirsty cities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info Re-water_more complicated than just toilet-to-tap, water reclamation helps sustain thirsty cities.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 14065 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Re-water..._more complicated than just toilet-to-tap, water reclamation helps sustain thirsty cities.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Fall 2011 tx H2O 25 Story by Leslie Lee Timeline of Droughts in Texas TWDB adopts Water for Texas 2007...

  4. Removal of Animal Antibiotics for Potable Water Reclamation: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Rita

    2015-01-01

    of the Technologies for Water Treatment and Reuse. Ind. Eng.sewage sludge, and surface waters. Chimia. Gobel, A. , C.S.bioreactor treatment. Water Science & Technology. 65(5):

  5. Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Prevent runoff and shrubs, either through directly killing plants or making them more prone to disease. Fertilizer runoff into storm drains pollutes waterways. Maintain plant health and protect water quality by fertilizing

  6. Decentralized Wastewater Treatment for Distributed Water Reclamation and Reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , United States *E-mail: jdrewes@mines.edu Cities worldwide are facing a growing water crisis,2013|doi:10.1021/bk-2013-1123.ch015 In Novel Solutions to Water Pollution; Ahuja, S., et al.; ACS Symposium

  7. Reclamation Rural Water Act 56th Annual NM Water Conf., New Water New Energy: A Conference Linking Desalination and Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Desalination and Renewable Energy 71 Reclamation Rural Water Act: Southwestern Navajo Rural Water Supply Index); the energy and water nexus in Arizona; renewable energy for water transmission; and is now researching new techniques for using renewable energy for desalination in an off grid setting. Kevin Black Sr

  8. Introduction The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    , Australia, the Middle East, Northern Africa, Canada, and Singapore described state-of- the-art projects concerning inland, small-scale, low-cost rural brackish desalination water projects using renewable energy such as solar, wind, geothermal, and waste heat sources. The conference brought together about 150 participants

  9. Southside Water Reclamation Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren) Jump to: navigation, searchSouthport,

  10. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  11. Reclamation of Cleaning Water Using Ultrafiltration and Double Pass Reverse Osmosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuman, T.; Long, G.; Tinter, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the production of electrodeposition primers, water is used as the primary cleaning agent. The dirty water that is generated contains residual contaminants from the primer production equipment, which requires that the water be disposed of as a...

  12. Safety problems of water-development works designed for land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shchedrin, V. N.; Kosichenko, Yu. M.

    2011-11-15

    A safety declaration is a fundamental document assuring the safety of water-development works, their correspondence to safety criteria, the design, and active technical regulations and rules.

  13. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho; Chambers, Valerie; Venkatesh, Varsha; Karnik, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees - a readily available, inexpensive, biodegradable, and disposable material - can remove bacteria from water by simple pressure-driven filtration. Approximately 3 cm3 of sapwood can filter water at the rate of several liters per day, sufficient to meet the clean drinking water needs of one person. The results demonstrate the potential of plant xylem to address the need for pathogen-free drinking water in developing countries and resource-limited settings.

  14. Water Filtration Using Plant Xylem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutilier, Michael Stephen Ha

    Effective point-of-use devices for providing safe drinking water are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of waterborne disease. Here we show that plant xylem from the sapwood of coniferous trees – a readily available, ...

  15. Modeling water use at thermoelectric power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutberg, Michael J. (Michael Jacob)

    2012-01-01

    The withdrawal and consumption of water at thermoelectric power plants affects regional ecology and supply security of both water and electricity. The existing field data on US power plant water use, however, is of limited ...

  16. Water produced at the University of Iowa Water treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neiman, Maurine

    Water produced at the University of Iowa Water treatment plant meets or surpasses all federal and state drinking-water standards at this time. For information about the University of Iowa water supply, call us at 319-335-5168 Water Source The University of Iowa Water Plants' primary source of water

  17. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  18. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  19. Better Plants Water Pilot- Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is expanding the Better Buildings Challenge to help partners demonstrate successful approaches to saving water and decrease their utility bills. The commercial and industrial sectors account for more than 25 percent of the withdrawals from public water supplies and many organizations in these sectors may have savings opportunities of 20 to 40%. The efficient use of water resources results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. Additionally, because energy is required to transport and treat water, saving water also saves energy. Through this pilot, DOE will work with a small, diverse group of Better Buildings Challenge Partners to expand their resource management strategies to include water in addition to energy, set water savings goals, track progress and showcase solutions.

  20. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  1. The Water Circuit of the Plants - Do Plants have Hearts ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Kundt; Eva Gruber

    2006-03-17

    There is a correspondence between the circulation of blood in all higher animals and the circulation of sap in all higher plants - up to heights h of 140 m - through the xylem and phloem vessels. Plants suck in water from the soil, osmotically through the roothair zone, and subsequently lift it osmotically again, and by capillary suction (via their buds, leaves, and fruits) into their crowns. In between happens a reverse osmosis - the endodermis jump - realized by two layers of subcellular mechanical pumps in the endodermis walls which are powered by ATP, or in addition by two analogous layers of such pumps in the exodermis. The thus established root pressure helps forcing the absorbed ground water upward, through the whole plant, and often out again, in the form of guttation, or exudation.

  2. Technical Note/ Impact of Coastal Land Reclamation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    of fresh ground water resource because the reclaimed land can be an additional aquifer and rain rechargeTechnical Note/ Impact of Coastal Land Reclamation on Ground Water Level and the Sea Water a significant effect on local ground water systems. Steady-state analytic solutions based on Dupuit and Ghyben

  3. NRES 725 PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY Reading List Water Balance of Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    1 NRES 725 ­ PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY Fall 2008 Reading List ­ Water Balance of Plants I) Water Balance of Plants A) Water potential B) Soil, plant, air continuum C) Physiological control 1) Roots-256 *Steudle (01) Ann Rev Plant Phy Mol Biol 52:847-875 Kirkham (05) pp 207-216 Kramer & Boyer (95) pp 115

  4. Oceanographic Considerations for Desalination Plants in Southern California Coastal Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Scott A; Wasyl, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    water for the desalination plant will be seawater drawn fromand concentrated seawater from the desalination plant. Theseconcentrated seawater dilution for the ocean desalination

  5. Foliar water uptake: a common water acquisition strategy for plants of the redwood forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limm, Emily Burns; Simonin, Kevin A.; Bothman, Aron G.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2009-01-01

    at -20°C until leaf water extraction and stable hydrogenEhleringer JR (2006) Water extraction times for plant andthe extraction line, we extracted one known standard water

  6. Geothermal Power Plants — Meeting Water Quality and Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. geothermal power plants can easily meet federal, state, and local water quality and conservation standards.

  7. Waste water treatment cuts plant's pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-09

    New waste water treatment facilities at the U.S. Oil and Refining Co. refinery, Tacoma, Wash., have allowed that plant to exceed NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) standards for effluent discharge. This comes in an area where maintaining water quality is a sensitive public issue. The waste treatment system at the 25,000 b/d refinery enables it to discharge negligible quantities of waterborne pollutants, according to Envirex Inc. Envirex designed and built the activated sludge waste treatment system at the refinery (Fig. 1). The system utilizes large rotating vertical discs for aeration of the waste water. These discs churn air into the waste water. They also keep the solidsladen water moving in an orbital path in a specially constructed treatment basin. The rotating discs and flowing water facilitate formation of large floc particles which are conducive to solids capture. A higher concentration of mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) is therefore possible, enhancing the efficient removal of waste materials from the water.

  8. The Sacramento Area Water Forum: A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connick, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    quality, reservoir operations, ground water, water reclamation, water needs of jurisdictions outside the Sacramento area, and water management

  9. Managing water temperatures below hydroelectric facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.L.; Vermeyen, T.B.; O`Haver, G.G.

    1995-05-01

    Due to drought-related water temperature problems in the Bureau of Reclamation`s California Central Valley Project in the early 1990`s, engineers were forced to bypass water from the plants during critical periods. This was done at considerable cost in the form of lost revenue. As a result, an alternative method of lowering water temperature was developed and it has successfully lowered water temperatures downstream from hydroelectric facilities by using flexible rubber curtains. This innovative technology is aiding the survival of endangered fish populations. This article outlines the efforts and discusses the implementation of this method at several hydroelectric facilities in the area.

  10. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  11. Onset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: Scaling soil water dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    have been proposed and used [Li et al., 1999; Vrugt et al., 2001]. Usually, water extraction by rootsOnset of water stress, hysteresis in plant conductance, and hydraulic lift: Scaling soil water] Estimation of water uptake by plants and subsequent water stress are complicated by the need to resolve

  12. Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Outdoor Water Use Conservation through Native Plants Shapiro, Chan, Carson, Tayag Outdoor Water Use, the front lawn is one of the greatest consumers of outdoor water use. Because of population growth, water is becoming scarcer every year and thus it is important to find ways to change our water consumption so

  13. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    plant responses to water stress, plant chemical composition,Phreatophytes (Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1423).T. E. Dawson. 2006. Depth of water acquisition by invading

  14. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  15. Water balance report for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The Y-12 Plant, which occupies approximately 800 acres, was built by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Recently, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, who manages the Y-12 Plant, has been concerned with the effects of water consumption and losses at the plant facility, and the ability of ground water beneath the site to act as a source of water seepage into East Fork Poplar Creek or as a source of water infiltration into subsurface strata. This has prompted the need to perform a water balance study on the facility. Data regarding all uses of municipal water and sources of discharge from the plant were recorded and then water balance calculations were performed using a computer model developed in a multi-dimensional electronic spreadsheet. This report describes the results of this research and includes the flow data collected during the study.

  16. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  17. Development of a Heavy Water Detritiation Plant for PIK Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekseev, I.A.; Bondarenko, S.D.; Fedorchenko, O.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Vasyanina, T.V.; Arkhipov, E.A.; Uborsky, V.V

    2005-07-15

    The research reactor PIK should be supplied with a Detritiation Plant (DP) to remove tritium from heavy water in order to reduce operator radiation dose and tritium emissions. The original design of the reactor PIK Detritiation Plant was completed several years ago. A number of investigations have been made to obtain data for the DP design. Nowadays the design of the DP is being revised on a basis of our investigations. The Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process will be used at the Detritiation Plant instead of Vapor Phase Catalytic Exchange. The experimental industrial plant for hydrogen isotope separation on the basis of the CECE process is under operation in Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. The plant was updated to provide a means for heavy water detritiation. Very high detritiation factors have been achieved in the plant. The use of the CECE process will allow the development of a more compact and less expensive detritiation plant for heavy water reactor PIK.

  18. Water resource management planning guide for Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, J.E.; Stephenson, D.E.; Steele, J.L. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.); Gordon, D.E. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Plant)

    1988-10-01

    The Water Resource Management Planning Guide provides an outline for the development of a Savannah River Plant Water Resource Management Plan (WRMP) to protect, manage, and monitor the site's water resources. The management plan is based on three principle elements: (1) protection of the water quality, (2) management of the water quantity, and (3) monitoring of the water quality and quantity. The plan will assure that changes in water quality and quantity are identified and that corrective action is implemented as needed. In addition, water management activities within and between Savannah River Plant (SRP) organizations and departments will be coordinated to ensure the proper management of water resources. This document is intended as a guide to suggest goals and objectives that will provide a basis for the development of a water resource plan for SRP. Planning should be flexible rather than rigid, and the plan outlines in this document was prepared to be modified or updated as conditions necessitate. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of the ethanol production processes are designed by determining water consumption, reuse and recycle1 Optimization of Water Consumption in Second Generation Bioethanol Plants Mariano Martína of Tuzla, 75000 Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract In this work we address the water consumption

  20. Optimization of Energy and Water Consumption in Cornbased Ethanol Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and waste water discharge. We consider the corn-based ethanol plant reported in Karuppiah et al. (2008 industrial operation and waste water is no longer discharged. Keywords: Energy, Biofuels, Alternative fuels, including the treatment and recycling of waste water (Petrakis, 2008) as shown later in this paper. The task

  1. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Waste Water Treatment Plant [The Inhabited Landscape: An Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Architects, Centerbrook

    1988-01-01

    Spring Harbor Laboratory Waste Water Treatment Plant JuryThe Cold Spring Harbor Waste Water Treatment Plant makes aA Cold Spring Harbor Waste Water Treatment Plant Photograph

  2. The Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on the Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

  3. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  4. Water Conservation with Urban Landscape Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hip, B. W.; Giordano, C.; Simpson, B.

    1983-01-01

    shrubs and of the ones compared, Texas barberry appeared to have the most promise for use in water conserving landscapes....

  5. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort to identify and catalog those plants that are using reclaimed water for cooling.

  6. Water Pinch Success Story at Solutia's Krummrich Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumana, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    A site-wide water conservation and wastewater minimization study complementing the previous energy study was undertaken by a consulting engineering company specializing in Pinch Analysis for Solutia’s W.G. Krummrich plant in Sauget, Illinois...

  7. Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae Breakout Session 2-A: The Future of Algae-Based Biofuels...

  8. ENERGY AND WATER OPTIMIZATION IN BIOFUEL PLANTS Ignacio E. Grossmann*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 ENERGY AND WATER OPTIMIZATION IN BIOFUEL PLANTS Ignacio E. Grossmann* , Mariano Martín Center, PA 15213, USA Abstract In this paper we address the topic of energy and water optimization, we propose a strategy based on mathematical programming techniques to model and optimize

  9. Case history advanced coatings for water treatment plant components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, L.D.; Kumar, A.

    2008-12-15

    Components of water treatment plants (WTPs) are susceptible to corrosion from constant immersion in water. A case history of corrosion and proximity to chlorine problems and their treatment at an Army WTP is presented. Solutions included using high micro-silica restoration mortar and advanced coal tar epoxy coatings.

  10. Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department of groundwater regime, in tum causing similar problems. This paper represents the first attempt to address the impact ofreclamation on groundwater regimes. It will be demonstrated that large-scale of reclamation

  11. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  12. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type consisted of geographical areas where specific conditions can generate demand vulnerabilities. These conditions include high projected future water consumption by thermoelectric power plants, high projected future water consumption by all users, high rates of water withdrawal per square mile (mi{sup 2}), high projected population increases, and areas projected to be in a water crisis or conflict by 2025. The second type of demand indicator was plant specific. These indicators were developed for each plant and include annual water consumption and withdrawal rates and intensities, net annual power generation, and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The supply indictors, which are also area based, include areas with low precipitation, high temperatures, low streamflow, and drought. The indicator data, which were in various formats (e.g., maps, tables, raw numbers) were converted to a GIS format and stored, along with the individual plant data from the CPPDB, in a single GIS database. The GIS database allowed the indicator data and plant data to be analyzed and visualized in any combination. To determine the extent to which a plant would be considered 'vulnerable' to a given demand or supply concern (i.e., that the plant's operations could be affected by water shortages represented by a potential demand or supply indicator), criteria were developed to categorize vulnerability according to one of three types: major, moderate, or not vulnerable. Plants with at least two major demand indicator values and/or at least four moderate demand indicator values were considered vulnerable to demand concerns. By using this approach, 144 plants were identified as being subject to demand concerns only. Plants with at least one major supply indicator value and/or at least two moderate supply indicator values were considered vulnerable to supply concerns. By using this approach, 64 plants were identified as being subject to supply concerns only. In addition, 139 plants were identified as subject to both demand and supply concerns. Therefore, a total of 347 plants were considere

  13. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    how the down-hole CO 2 plumes may evolve over time (geomodeling with TOUGH2), what engineering and other resources would be required to develop a water extraction and...

  14. Plant-Water Relations in Seasonally Dry Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Gregory Rubin

    2012-01-01

    treatment. Figure 3. Leaf water potential measured over timeecosystems, including soil water use generally between 20 cmboth deep roots and deep water use by plants have also been

  15. Discharge waters from a power plant as an influent of phytoplankton in adjacent estuarine waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Clyde B

    1977-01-01

    DISCHARGE WATERS FROM A POWER PLANT AS AN 1NFLUENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN ADJACENT ESTUARINE WATERS A Thesis 'by CLYDE B. STRONG, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Su'bject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences DISCHARGE WATERS FROM A POWER PLANT AS AN INFLUEN'I' OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN ADJACENT ESTUARINE WATERS A Thesis by CLYDE B. STRONG, JR. Approved as to sty...

  16. Water Pollution Control Plant Solar Site Evaluation: San José

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report describes the findings of a solar site evaluation conducted at the San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (Site) in the City of San Jose, California (City). This evaluation was conducted as part of a larger study to assess solar potential at multiple public facilities within the City.

  17. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  18. Reclamation Project Act of 1939 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergy MarketingNewOpen EnergyReclamation Project Act of

  19. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash...

  20. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gasfly ash A...

  1. Plant Responses of Drip Irrigated Trees to Climate and Water Stress 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Punthakey, J. F.; McFarland, M. J.; Rodrigue, P. B.; Worthington, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Past irrigation research has shown that peach (prunus persica) trees vary in their field response to water stress, and the degree of stress is a function of the plants' environment. Water deficits reduce plant growth and ...

  2. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  3. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air is heated prior to entering the diffusion tower. Further analytical analysis is required to predict the thermal and mass transport with the air heating configuration.

  4. Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, CA: Understanding the Influence of Climate and Depth to Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pataki, Diane E

    2008-01-01

    J.R. Ehleringer. 2006. Water extraction times for plant andstems were sampled for water extraction and stable isotopeCA). Following the water extraction, roots were removed from

  5. Automated Storage Reclamation Using Temporal Importance Annotations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehani, Ashish

    Automated Storage Reclamation Using Temporal Importance Annotations Surendar Chandra, Ashish.edu Abstract This work focuses on scenarios that require the storage of large amounts of data. Such sys- tems require the ability to either continuously increase the storage space or reclaim space by deleting

  6. A Water Conservation Scenario for the Residential and Industrial Sectors in California: Potential Saveings of Water and Related Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, P.

    2010-01-01

    flow data for municipal waste water treatment facilities inBulletin 68-73: Inventory of Waste Water Productionand Waste Water Reclamation in California, 1973. Sacramento,

  7. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  9. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  10. Strawberry Nursery Plant Propagation in Relation to Soil Phosphorus and Water Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hong; Li, Tingxian; Gordon, Robert J.; Asiedu, Samuel K.

    2009-01-01

    and water management in strawberry. Abstract. Annual meetingN and P uptake by strawberry plants grown with composedProgram, North American Strawberry Growers Association and

  11. Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinchman, R.; Mollock, G. N.; Negri, M. C.; Settle, T.

    1998-01-29

    In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted in pea gravel. The produced water is drawn into the plant through its roots, evapotranspirates and deposits a salt residue on the plant leaves. The plant leaves are then harvested and used by a local rancher as cattle feed. The produced water is tested to assure it contains nothing harmful to cattle. In 1996, the Company set up another trough to compare evaporation rates using plants versus using an open container without plants. Data taken during all four seasons (water flow rate, temperature, pH, and conductivity) have shown that using plants to evapotranspirate produced water is safe, more cost effective than traditional methods and is environmentally sound.

  12. Georgia-Pacific Palatka Plant Uses Thermal Pinch Analysis and Evaluates Water Reduction in Plant-Wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    This OIT BestPractices Case Study describes the methods and results used in a plant-wide assessment at a Georgia-Pacific paper mill in Palatka, FL. Assessment personnel recommended several projects, which, if implemented, have the potential to save the plant more than 729,000 MMBtu per year and $2.9 million per year. In addition, the plant could reduce water use by 2,100 gallons per minute.

  13. 100 kW CC-OTEC Plant and Deep Ocean water Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    100 kW CC-OTEC Plant and Deep Ocean water Applications in Kumejima, Okinawa, Japan Katsuya Furugen in Kumejima (Okinawa) Okinawa Prefectural Deep Sea Water Research Center, since 2000 OTEC Demonstration. / 1st Power Generation Test Succeeded Surface Water: 23.5 oC, 330t/h Deep Water: 9.3 oC, 250t/h Power

  14. Thermal Neutron Computed Tomography of Soil Water and Plant Roots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leanne G. Tumlinson; Hungyuan Liu; Wendy K. Silk; Jan W. Hopmans

    2007-01-01

    and L.A.G. Aylmore. 1986. Water extraction by a single plantgrowth, water uptake, and nutrient extraction (Asseng et

  15. Model-Free Based Water Level Control for Hydroelectric Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model-Free Based Water Level Control for Hydroelectric Power Plants Cédric JOIN Gérard ROBERT for hydroelectric run-of-the river power plants. To modulate power generation, a level trajectory is planned, the set-point is followed even in severe operating conditions. Keywords: Hydroelectric power plants

  16. ISO 14000: Impact on mining and reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, K.E. [Lloyd, Gosselink, Fowler, Blevins & Mathews, Austin, TX (United States); Tipton, S.G. [North American Coal Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Environmental regulation and compliance in the mining and reclamation industry is in a position to take advantage of the ISO 14000 standards being developed by the International Organization for Standardization. The purpose of this paper is to provide environmental managers in the mining and reclamation industry with a basic understanding of the ISO 14000 environmental standards which have traditionally been implemented by conventional manufacturing industries. The paper covers the history of the ISO, its acceptance by industry generally, the ISO 14000 standards being utilized currently and those which are proposed for the future, the benefits associated with implementation and compliance with the standards, and a discussion of ISO 14000 standards` applicability in the mining and reclamation industry. There are seven areas which constitute the ISO 14000 set of standards: (1) Environmental Management Systems; (2) Environmental Auditing; (3) Environmental Labeling; (4) Environmental Performance Evaluation; (5) Life Cycle Assessment; (6) Terms and Definitions; and (7) Environmental Aspects in Product Standards. A commitment to regulatory compliance and sound environmental practices along with ISO certification can potentially provide greater access to capital because lenders will view an environmentally healthy organization as a better risk, it can provide defenses against products liability or personal injury lawsuits, and protect against criminal liability. Implementation of ISO standards can help avoid risks associated with business practices, ensure early detection of potential regulatory violations, and hence ensure company profitability by avoiding discovery of a violation by state and/or federal agencies. It can demonstrate a sincere commitment to regulatory compliance which may in turn provide reduced oversight by state and federal regulatory agencies.

  17. Dynamics of particle clouds in ambient currents with application to open-water sediment disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gensheimer, Robert James, III

    2010-01-01

    Open-water sediment disposal is used in many applications around the world, including land reclamation, dredging, and contaminated sediment isolation. Timely examples include the land reclamation campaign currently underway ...

  18. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazara; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila M. Diwekara

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  19. Optimization under Uncertainty for Water Consumption in a Pulverized Coal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juan M. Salazar; Stephen E. Zitney; Urmila Diwekar

    2009-01-01

    Pulverized coal (PC) power plants are widely recognized as major water consumers whose operability has started to be affected by drought conditions across some regions of the country. Water availability will further restrict the retrofitting of existing PC plants with water-expensive carbon capture technologies. Therefore, national efforts to reduce water withdrawal and consumption have been intensified. Water consumption in PC plants is strongly associated to losses from the cooling water cycle, particularly water evaporation from cooling towers. Accurate estimation of these water losses requires realistic cooling tower models, as well as the inclusion of uncertainties arising from atmospheric conditions. In this work, the cooling tower for a supercritical PC power plant was modeled as a humidification operation and used for optimization under uncertainty. Characterization of the uncertainty (air temperature and humidity) was based on available weather data. Process characteristics including boiler conditions, reactant ratios, and pressure ratios in turbines were calculated to obtain the minimum water consumption under the above mentioned uncertainties. In this study, the calculated conditions predicted up to 12% in reduction in the average water consumption for a 548 MW supercritical PC power plant simulated using Aspen Plus. Optimization under uncertainty for these large-scale PC plants cannot be solved with conventional stochastic programming algorithms because of the computational expenses involved. In this work, we discuss the use of a novel better optimization of nonlinear uncertain systems (BONUS) algorithm which dramatically decreases the computational requirements of the stochastic optimization.

  20. Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-05-01

    Report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Report contains results from utility scale analysis and site visits, as well as facility scale screening and site visits.

  1. Evaluating Energy and Water Saving Opportunities in SAGD Oil Sands Plants via Process Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Evaluating Energy and Water Saving Opportunities in SAGD Oil Sands Plants via Process Integration Alberta, Canada are produced as a mix of hydrocarbons (bitumen), clay, sand and water. The resource barrel of bitumen produced which presents water/energy tradeoffs in the design and operation

  2. Advanced Power Plant Modeling with Applications to an Advanced Boiling Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    Advanced Power Plant Modeling with Applications to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and a Heat and an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The continuity wave equa- tions for single and two-phase flow advanced method, are shown. These both are applied to a simplified model of the Advanced Boil- ing Water

  3. Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant K.D. Rausch. There are few data on the effect of composition of the parent process streams, light steep water (LSW) and light value of CGF and CGM. CGF and CGM are formed from two process streams, light steep water (LSW) and light

  4. Environmental regulation of carbon isotope composition and crassulacean acid metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    gradient Á Tissue acidity Á Yucatan Introduction Crassulacean acid metabolism (metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

  5. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  6. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  7. Aalborg Universitet Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Aalborg Universitet Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil &, B. (2013). Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas.aau.dk on: juli 07, 2015 #12;Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

  8. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and desalination. Some of the direct approaches, such as dry air cooling, desalination, and recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, are costly and are deployed primarily in countries with severe water shortages, such as China, Australia, and South Africa. Table 1 shows drivers and approaches for reducing freshwater consumption in several countries outside the United States. Indirect approaches reduce water consumption while meeting other objectives, such as improving plant efficiency. Plants with higher efficiencies use less energy to produce electricity, and because the greater the energy production, the greater the cooling water needs, increased efficiency will help reduce water consumption. Approaches for improving efficiency (and for indirectly reducing water consumption) include increasing the operating steam parameters (temperature and pressure); using more efficient coal-fired technologies such as cogeneration, IGCC, and direct firing of gas turbines with coal; replacing or retrofitting existing inefficient plants to make them more efficient; installing high-performance monitoring and process controls; and coal drying. The motivations for increasing power plant efficiency outside the United States (and indirectly reducing water consumption) include the following: (1) countries that agreed to reduce carbon emissions (by ratifying the Kyoto protocol) find that one of the most effective ways to do so is to improve plant efficiency; (2) countries that import fuel (e.g., Japan) need highly efficient plants to compensate for higher coal costs; (3) countries with particularly large and growing energy demands, such as China and India, need large, efficient plants; (4) countries with large supplies of low-rank coals, such as Germany, need efficient processes to use such low-energy coals. Some countries have policies that encourage or mandate reduced water consumption - either directly or indirectly. For example, the European Union encourages increased efficiency through its cogeneration directive, which requires member states to assess their

  9. ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" ,"Plant","Primary Energy Source","Operating Company","Net Summer Capacity (MW)" 1,"Grand Coulee","Hydroelectric","U S Bureau of Reclamation",7079 2,"Palo...

  10. New coal plant technologies will demand more water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.; Shuster, E.; McNemar, A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Murphy, J.

    2008-04-15

    Population shifts, growing electricity demand, and greater competition for water resources have heightened interest in the link between energy and water. The US Energy Information Administration projects a 22% increase in US installed generating capacity by 2030. Of the 259 GE of new capacity expected to have come on-line by then, more than 192 GW will be thermoelectric and thus require some water for cooling. Our challenge will become balancing people's needs for power and for water. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  11. Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

    Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

  12. Computers and Chemical Engineering 26 (2002) 5979 Energy efficient water utilization systems in process plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savelski, Mariano J.

    2002-01-01

    a primary concern in most industrial sites. Wastewater treatment has al- ways focused on end deliver wastewater, which may contain several contaminants. Therefore, wastewater treatment constitutes. Keywords: Water utilization networks; Process plants; Energy minimization; Wastewater minimization

  13. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emergi

  14. The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, Gary Edward

    1976-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  15. Effect of transpiration rate on internal plant resistance to water flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hailey, James Lester

    1971-01-01

    transpiration rate, and the other plants were used for leaf water potential measurements ~ 15 G I 0 3 0 OOOOPOG 0 O0 0 I I Jl & I 4I I I r I I i 01 I IJI I C D ~E o D LI 1 ~ 0 m A. Plant compartment 6 ~ Root compartment CD Cooling coil... transpiration causes a cooling effect on the plant leaves ~ The stem diameter remained relatively...

  16. Green Roof Water Harvesting and Recycling Effects on Soil and Water Chemistry and Plant Physiology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laminack, Kirk Dickison

    2014-04-17

    pressures put on fresh water supplies in urban ecosystems. Alternative irrigation sources can include grey water, sewage effluent (black water) and harvested rainwater which can be a) water captured from an impervious roof and b) stormwater captured from...

  17. In situ soil reclamation by air stripping and sludge uptake 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carden?osa-Mendoza, Mauricio

    1989-01-01

    IN SITU SOIL RECLAMATION BY AIR STRIPPING AND SLUDGE UPTAKE A Thesis by MAURICIO CARDENOSA-MENDOZA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject: Civil Engineering IN SITU SOIL RECLAMATION BY AIR STRIPPING AND SLUDGE UPTAKE A Thesis by MAURICIO CARDENOSA-MENDOZA Approved as to style and content by: Robin . Autenrieth (Chair of comittee) James S. Bonner...

  18. AN UNRECOGNIZED ANCIENT LINEAGE OF GREEN PLANTS PERSISTS IN DEEP MARINE WATERS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN UNRECOGNIZED ANCIENT LINEAGE OF GREEN PLANTS PERSISTS IN DEEP MARINE WATERS1 Frederick W persist in deep waters, where grazing pressure and competition for space are reduced. Their distinctnessRNA gene and two chloroplast genes (atpB and rbcL) are in agree- ment with a deep-branching Palmophyllales

  19. Iowa Water and Wastewater Operators Seek SEP Certification in...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Representatives from the Des Moines Metropolitan WRA and Des Moines Water Works sign the SEP agreement. The Des Moines Metropolitan Wastewater Reclamation Authority (WRA) and Des...

  20. Interactive effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, drought and high temperature on plant water use efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore C. Hsiao

    1998-08-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) by plants is a key determinant of productivity and survival of plants under water limiting or drought conditions. The aim of this project was to develop a mechanistic basis for predicting WUE without the prohibitive task of studying every plant species under a range of environmental conditions.

  1. Predictive Modeling of Large-Scale Commercial Water Desalination Plants: Data-Based Neural Network and Model-Based Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Predictive Modeling of Large-Scale Commercial Water Desalination Plants: Data-Based Neural Network for developing predictive models for large-scale commercial water desalination plants by (1) a data (MSF) and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants in the world. Our resulting neural network

  2. Foliar water uptake: a common water acquisition strategy for plants of the redwood forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limm, Emily Burns; Simonin, Kevin A.; Bothman, Aron G.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2009-01-01

    LB (1995) Foliar uptake of water by wet leaves of Sloaneaand the resultant ?lm of water they deposit on foliage slownot greatly increase soil water availability and may provide

  3. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  4. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project Near Surface Test Facility 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the development of the reclamation project for the Hanford Site Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF), its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation project is to return disturbed sites as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native species. Gable Mountain is dominated by two plant communities: a big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) -- Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa sandbergii) community and a stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida) -- Sandberg's bluegrass community. Disassembly of the site installations began on March 15, 1988, and the site was returned to original contours by December 12, 1988. Two separate revegetation methods were employed at the NSTF to meet differing site constraints. Vegetative cover and density in the revegetation plots were assessed in April 1989 and again in June 1989 and 1990. It is extremely unlikely that the sand pit, borrow pit, box cuts, generator pad area, or ventilation fan area will reach the reclamation objectives set for these areas within the next 50 years without further intervention. These areas currently support few living plants. Vegetation on revegetated native soils appears to be growing as expected. Vegetation growth on the main waterline is well below the objective. To date, no shrubs have grown on the area, growth of native grasses is well below the objective, and much of the area has been covered with the pit run material, which may not support adequate growth. Without further treatments, the areas without the pit run material will likely revert to a nearly pure cheatgrass condition. 44 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWR) (NUREG-1123) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog and Examiners' Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Examinations (NUREG-1121) will cover those topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55. The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at boiling water reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring personnel and public health and safety. The BWR K/A Catalog is organized into five major sections: Plant-wide Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. The BWR Catalog represents a modification of the form and content of the K/A Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Pressurized Water Reactors (NUREG-1122). First, categories of knowledge and ability statements have been redefined. Second, the scope of the definition of emergency and abnormal plant evolutions has been revised in line with a symptom-based approach. Third, K/As related to the operational applications of theory have been incorporated into the delineations for both plant systems and emergency and abnormal plant evolutions, while K/As pertaining to theory fundamental to plant operation have been delineated in a separate theory section. Finally, the components section has been revised.

  6. Seismic re-evaluation of piping systems of heavy water plant, Kota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, R; Soni, R S; Venkat-Raj, V

    2002-01-01

    Heavy Water Plant, Kota is the first indigenous heavy water plant built in India. The plant started operation in the year 1985 and it is approaching the completion of its originally stipulated design life. In view of the excellent record of plant operation for the past so many years, it has been planned to carry out various exercises for the life extension of the plant. In the first stage, evaluation of operation stresses was carried out for the process critical piping layouts and equipment, which are connected with 25 process critical nozzle locations, identified based on past history of the plant performance. Fatigue life evaluation has been carried out to fmd out the Cumulative Usage Factor, which helps in arriving at a decision regarding the life extension of the plant. The results of these exercises have been already reported separately vide BARC/200I /E/O04. In the second stage, seismic reevaluation of the plant has been carried out to assess its ability to maintain its integ:rity in case of a seismic e...

  7. Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavaleta, Erika

    that global warming may increase aridity in water- limited ecosystems by accelerating evapotranspiration. We University, Stanford, CA, and approved June 16, 2003 (received for review April 7, 2003) Models predict for the unexpected rise in soil moisture. Our findings illustrate the potential for organism­environment interactions

  8. Evaluation of Impacts on Energy and Plant Profitability of Responses to Water Curtailment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferland, K.

    2015-01-01

    Curtailment on Energy Use and Plant Net Profitability June 4, 2015 Industrial Energy Technology Conference Kathey Ferland Texas Industries of the Future The University of Texas at Austin Peter Phelps Phelps Engineering ESL-IE-15-06-24 Proceedings... of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Topics • Background • Water/energy Nexus in Process Industries • Reference Plant and Methodology • Curtailment Scenarios • Modeling Results • Conclusions • Next Steps...

  9. El Paso landscape perspective: Researchers study water conservation, plant-tolerance, and water reuse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    and demand side), reclaimed water, and desalination. It has been one of the key factors in bringing our aquifer back to a sustainable level and making sure there is an ample water supply for the next ?? years before considering the importation of water...

  10. Water Savings in Food Processing Plants - Potentials and Case Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trueblood, A; Ritchie, M.; Chow, S.; Ganji, A.

    2015-01-01

    ESL-IE-15-06-25 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Case Study – Winery, Central Coast, CA June 2015 IETC 2015 • Implemented one water conservation project: • Optimized... Conservation in the Industrial Sector – Potentials and Case Studies Alexander J. Trueblood, P.E. BASE Energy, Inc. San Francisco, CA Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA June 2015 June 2015 IETC 2015 ESL-IE-15-06-25 Proceedings of the Thrity...

  11. Water use in the development and operation of geothermal power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Sullivan, J. L.; Wang, M. Q. (Energy Systems); ( EVS)

    2010-09-17

    Geothermal energy is increasingly recognized for its potential to reduce carbon emissions and U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Energy and environmental analyses are critical to developing a robust set of geothermal energy technologies. This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies. The results of the life cycle analysis are summarized in a companion report, Life Cycle Analysis Results of Geothermal Systems in Comparison to Other Power Systems. This report is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to inform power plant design and operations. Chapter 2 summarizes the geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study, which include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists but water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 3 describes the methods and approach to this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS plant, a 50-MW EGS plant, a 10-MW binary plant, and a 50-MW flash plant. The two EGS scenarios include hydraulic stimulation activities within the construction stage of the life cycle and assume binary power generation during operations. The EGS and binary scenarios are assumed to be air-cooled power plants, whereas the flash plant is assumed to rely on evaporative cooling. The well field and power plant design for the scenario were based on simulations using DOE's Geothermal Economic Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). Chapter 4 presents the water requirements for the power plant life cycle for the scenarios evaluated. Geology, reservoir characteristics, and local climate have various effects on elements such as drilling rate, the number of production wells, and production flow rates. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, plant operations is where the vast majority of water consumption occurs. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or non-geothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. For the EGS scenarios, plant operations consume between 0.29 and 0.72 gal/kWh. The binary plant experiences similar operational consumption, at 0.27 gal/kWh. Far less water, just 0.01 gal/kWh, is consumed during operations of the flash plant because geofluid is used for cooling and is not replaced. While the makeup water requirements are far less for a hydrothermal flash plant, the long-term sustainability of the reservoir is less certain due to estimated evaporative losses of 14.5-33% of produced geofluid at operating flash plants. For the hydrothermal flash scenario, the average loss of geofluid due to evaporation, drift, and blowdown is 2.7 gal/kWh. The construction stage requires considerably less water: 0.001 gal/kWh for both the binary and flash plant scenarios and 0.01 gal/kWh for the EGS scenarios. The additional water requirements for the EGS scenarios are caused by a combination of factors, including lower flow rates per well, which increases the total number of wells needed per plant, the assumed well depths, and the hydraulic stimulation required to engineer the reservoir. Water quality results are presented in Chapter 5. The chemical composition of geofluid has important implications for plant operations and the potential environmental impacts of geothermal energy production. An extensive dataset containing more than 53,000 geothermal geochemical data points was compiled and analyzed for general trends and statistics for typical geofluids. Geofluid composition was found to vary significantly both among and within geothermal fields. Seven main chemical constituents were found to

  12. 22 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. LIST O F WATER PLANTS POR CARP PONDS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .-Narrow-leaved Oat-tail. Very common. Less common,but found in this District and notably in a pond near the foot22 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. LIST O F WATER PLANTS POR CARP PONDS. B y LESTER. Rudolph Hessel, Superintendent of the Carp Ponds. The names given in that list where obsolete are placed

  13. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the basis of the oceanic food web the surface, corals and other deepwater OIL AND HUMAN USE Wellhead CORALS · Coral surveys · Tissue collections · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment sampling AQUATIC VEGETATION

  14. EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K– and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

  15. LETTER The incidence and implications of clouds for cloud forest plant water relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Greg

    functioning by 1) altering leaf energy balance and suppressing plant transpiration, 2) adding water into leaves. Clouds alter microclimate by changing energy balance and thus reducing vapour pressure deficit.4% of the world's tropical forest area (Scatena et al. 2010). Unfortunately, TMCF is extremely vulnerable

  16. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Boiling water reactors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Boiling-Water Reactors (BWRs) (NUREG-1123, Revision 1) provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators (ROs) and senior reactor operators (SROs). The examinations developed using the BWR Catalog along with the Operator Licensing Examiner Standards (NUREG-1021) and the Examiner`s Handbook for Developing Operator Licensing Written Examinations (NUREG/BR-0122), will cover the topics listed under Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 (10 CFR 55). The BWR Catalog contains approximately 7,000 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for ROs and SROs at BWRs. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Organization of the Catalog, Generic Knowledge and Ability Statements, Plant Systems grouped by Safety Functions, Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions, Components, and Theory. Revision 1 to the BWR Catalog represents a modification in form and content of the original catalog. The K/As were linked to their applicable 10 CFR 55 item numbers. SRO level K/As were identified by 10 CFR 55.43 item numbers. The plant-wide generic and system generic K/As were combined in one section with approximately one hundred new K/As. Component Cooling Water and Instrument Air Systems were added to the Systems Section. Finally, High Containment Hydrogen Concentration and Plant Fire On Site evolutions added to the Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions section.

  17. Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Africa, New Zealand (but not designed for nutrient removal). 9 Typical Electro-Mechanical Treatment Plant 10 Aeration Basins with Air Blowers Sludge Settling Tanks -100,000 0...

  18. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  19. Removal of Animal Antibiotics for Potable Water Reclamation: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Treatment Primary treatment of wastewater usually involveswastewater. Removals of antibiotics in primary treatmentprimary clarifier effluents were taken from the Amherst, NY wastewater treatment

  20. Removal of Animal Antibiotics for Potable Water Reclamation: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Rita

    2015-01-01

    cattle (Colorado State University, 2004). This difference will affect the type of animal antibiotics found in the environment.

  1. Removal of Animal Antibiotics for Potable Water Reclamation: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in effluent matrices: A survey of transformation and removal during wastewater treatment and implications for wastewater management.

  2. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1990-01-01

    TOWER PERFORMANCE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, CHEMICAL PLANTS, AND POWER PLANTS ALL HAVE A RESOURCE QUIETLY AWAITING EXPLOITATION - COLD WATER!! ROBERT BURGER President Burger and Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Cooling towers, because... of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system. While engineers are pretty...

  3. Chemical characteristics of waters in Karst Formations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevenell, L.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1994-11-01

    Several waste disposal sites are located adjacent to or on a karst aquifer composed of the Cambrian Maynardville Limestone (Cmn) and the Cambrian Copper Ridge Dolomite (Ccr) at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. Highly variable chemical characteristics (i.e., hardness) can indicate that the portion of the aquifer tapped by a particular well is subject to a significant quick-flow component where recharge to the system is rapid and water levels and water quality change rapidly in response to precipitation events. Water zones in wells at the Y-12 Plant that exhibit quick-flow behavior (i.e., high hydraulic conductivity) are identified based on their geochemical characteristics and variability in geochemical parameters, and observations made during drilling of the wells. The chemical data used in this study consist of between one and 20 chemical analyses for each of 102 wells and multipart monitoring zones. Of these 102 water zones, 10 were consistently undersaturated with respect to calcite suggesting active dissolution. Repeat sampling of water zones shows that both supersaturation and undersaturation with respect to dolomite occurs in 46 water zones. Twelve of the zones had partial pressure of CO{sub 2} near atmospheric values suggesting limited interaction between recharge waters and the gases and solids in the vadose zone and aquifer, and hence, relatively short residence times. The preliminary data suggest that the Cmn is composed of a complicated network of interconnected, perhaps anastomosing, cavities. The degree of interconnection between the identified cavities is yet to be determined, although it is expected that there is a significant vertical and lateral interconnection between the cavities located at shallow depths in the Cnm throughout Bear Creek Valley and the Y-12 Plant area.

  4. A quantitative application of the thermoelectric method for measuring water uptake by cotton plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naghshineh-Pour, Bahman

    1965-01-01

    they measured sap veloc- ties in intact plants with a minimum of injury (8). Dixon (9) measured flow rates in a branch of a young ash tree by using a thermocouple arrangement for detecting heat f'low. His results indicated mass flow in the stem both upward... oxy- gen and carbon dioxide levels within the soil could be detected. The thermoelectric method is based on the assumption that since Personal Communication. most of the water absorbed by plants is transpired, the rate of sap flow in the stem is a...

  5. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

  6. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  7. Chemical reclamation of scrap rubber. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, G.C.; Chan, S.M.; Culberson, O.L.; Perona, J.J.; Larsen, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolysis of the rubber, and pyrolysis data obtained in a bench-scale flow apparatus. An economic assessment of the plant was made in terms of late 1979 dollars, for ranges in scrap tire costs and prices for the principal products: carbon black and the fuel gases and oil. Profitability at these 1979 costs and prices is somewhat modest by chemical processing industry standards for new processes, but any increases in energy and carbon black prices would cause favorable changes in this assessment.

  8. Replacement of outboard main steam isolation valves in a boiling water reactor plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlereth, J.R.; Pennington, D.

    1996-12-01

    Most Boiling Water Reactor plants utilize wye pattern globe valves for main steam isolation valves for both inboard and outboard isolation. These valves have required a high degree of maintenance attention in order to pass the plant local leakage rate testing (LLRT) requirements at each outage. Northern States Power made a decision in 1993 to replace the outboard valves at it`s Monticello plant with double disc gate valves. The replacement of the outboard valves was completed during the fall outage in 1994. During the spring outage in April of 1996 the first LLRT testing was performed with excellent results. This presentation will address the decision process, time requirements and planning necessary to accomplish the task as well as the performance results and cost effectiveness of replacing these components.

  9. Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System Providing Water Resiliency in a typical Chemical Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    System Providing Water Resiliency in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology Johnson Controls, Building Efficiency thomas.p.carter@jci.com ESL-IE-14...-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 2Johnson Controls is a globally diversified company in the building and automotive industries Automotive ExperienceBuilding Efficiency Power Solutions...

  10. Applying DDC and VFD to Central Chilled Water Plants for Profits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utesch, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    chiller consists of a 4000 KW, 4160 V, 5000 HP, DDC controlled variable frequency power controller serving a 5000 HP, 1200 RPM synchronous motor. The motor is connected to an existing centrifugal chiller compressor through a 3.27/l speed increasing... the Fall of 1973 and has continuously operated since that time. The original plant produced steam for heating and for chilled water generation via condensing turbine type centrifugal chiller drives. Its original service area was 1.4 million square feet...

  11. Storm water runoff for the Y-12 Plant and selected parking lots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of storm water runoff from the Y-12 Plant and selected employee vehicle parking lots to various industry data is provided in this document. This work is an outgrowth of and part of the continuing Non-Point Source Pollution Elimination Project that was initiated in the late 1980s. This project seeks to identify area pollution sources and remediate these areas through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process as managed by the Environmental Restoration Organization staff. This work is also driven by the Clean Water Act Section 402(p) which, in part, deals with establishing a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for storm water discharges. Storm water data from events occurring in 1988 through 1991 were analyzed in two reports: Feasibility Study for the Best Management Practices to Control Area Source Pollution Derived from Parking Lots at the DOE Y-12 Plant, September 1992, and Feasibility Study of Best Management Practices for Non-Point Source Pollution Control at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, February 1993. These data consisted of analysis of outfalls discharging to upper East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the confines of the Y-12 Plant (see Appendixes D and E). These reports identified the major characteristics of concern as copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate (as nitrogen), zinc, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, and aluminum. Specific sources of these contaminants were not identifiable because flows upstream of outfalls were not sampled. In general, many of these contaminants were a concern in many outfalls. Therefore, separate sampling exercises were executed to assist in identifying (or eliminating) specific suspected sources as areas of concern.

  12. Investigating the fate of saxitoxins in biologically active water treatment plant filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayal, N.; Newcombe, G.; Ho, L. [South Australian Water Corp., Salisbury, SA (Australia). Australian Water Quality Centre

    2008-12-15

    The saxitoxins are potent neurotoxins, which can be produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. This study assessed the fate of five saxitoxins variants through biologically active laboratory filters containing media sourced from the filters beds of two water treatment plants (WTPs). Decreases in the concentration of the less toxic variants coincided with increases in the concentrations of the more toxic variants through the filters containing anthracite sourced from two different WTPs. No changes in toxin concentrations were evident through parallel filters containing sand. The results strongly suggest that organisms within the biofilm of the anthracite filters possessed the ability to biotransform the saxitoxins variants, which has important implications for drinking water treatment, particularly since this has the potential to increase the toxicity of the filtered water.

  13. The reclamation of swamp lands in North Carolina/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March, George Miles

    THE RECLAMATION OP SWAMP LANDS IN NORTH CAROLINA. * A THESIS BY GEORGE M. MARCH. SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE FACULTY OP THE UNIVERSITY OP KANSAS AS ONE OP THE REQUIREMENTS POR THE PROFESSIONAL DEGREE OP CIVIL ENGINEER. MARCH 1st.,1915... (> & — — TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page* 1 Title* 2 Table of Contents. 3 Index of Maps and Drawings. 4 Introduction. 6 Geographical Conditions. @ North Carolina Drainage Law. 11 Preliminary Survey. 12 Surveying Problems. 22 Engineering Problems. 31...

  14. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  15. WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona U.S. GEOLOGICAL OF RECLAMATION #12;WHEN THE BLUE-GREEN WATERS TURN RED Historical Flooding in Havasu Creek, Arizona By THEODORE S

  16. Study of Pu consumption in Advanced Light Water Reactors. Evaluation of GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-13

    Timely disposal of the weapons plutonium is of paramount importance to permanently safeguarding this material. GE`s 1300 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) has been designed to utilize fill] core loading of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Because of its large core size, a single ABWR reactor is capable of disposing 100 metric tons of plutonium within 15 years of project inception in the spiking mode. The same amount of material could be disposed of in 25 years after the start of the project as spent fuel, again using a single reactor, while operating at 75 percent capacity factor. In either case, the design permits reuse of the stored spent fuel assemblies for electrical energy generation for the remaining life of the plant for another 40 years. Up to 40 percent of the initial plutonium can also be completely destroyed using ABWRS, without reprocessing, either by utilizing six ABWRs over 25 years or by expanding the disposition time to 60 years, the design life of the plants and using two ABWRS. More complete destruction would require the development and testing of a plutonium-base fuel with a non-fertile matrix for an ABWR or use of an Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). The ABWR, in addition, is fully capable of meeting the tritium target production goals with already developed target technology.

  17. Title 43 CFR 429 Use of Bureau of Reclamation Land, Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR 429 Use of Bureau of Reclamation Land, Facilities, and...

  18. A thermal method for measuring the rate of water movement in plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloodworth, Morris Elkins

    1958-01-01

    L?BP A 8 V a L ?BPA8B8 op A THERMAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Vao Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial... ??BLA? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ?B?8?8?A B? ??A8? o? ????A???????????? ?? ??? ?????????^pP ??^i?? ?????????????????????????? ?? p? ??B?8???8? ??? ???A???8?A?AoB? ? ? ? ? ?? ?? ^8?A ???o?oAo8? ? ????A ???o?B??8?A?? ?B?A?B? ? ? o A...

  19. The ecological evaluation of surface water outfalls at a manufacturing plant in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harman, C.R.; Gilchrist, W.

    1995-12-31

    Historic metal machining operations at a manufacturing plant in northern New Jersey had resulted in the contamination of three surface water outfalls leading from the plant to a second-order stream used for trout fishing. The outfalls were fed by a combination of non-contact cooling water, stormwater runoff and groundwater infiltration. The outfalls ranged in length from 180 meters to 600 meters. All three of the outfalls pass through forested wetland areas and contained emergent wetland pockets. The ecological evaluation consisted of the collection of sediment samples to evaluate the extent of chemical contamination and the evaluation of the biological integrity of a portion of the surface water outfalls. Additionally, an ecological characterization of the surrounding habitat was prepared. Sediment sampling indicated elevated concentrations of antimony, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc. Nickel concentrations were the most significant, with concentrations ranging up to 9,850 mg/kg. PCB concentrations ranged between 0.45 mg/kg and 6.4 mg/kg. Elevated concentrations of metals and PCBs were detected to a sediment depth of 45 centimeters. To evaluate the potential for biological impacts from the metals in the sediments, a modified Rapid Bioassessment Protocol 1 evaluation was conducted on the macroinvertebrate population. The results of the evaluation indicated a very sparse macroinvertebrate community. Those organisms that were identified were typical of highly contaminated surface water system. The surrounding wetland systems appeared to be unaffected by the outfall contamination. Based on the results of the first phase of the ecological evaluation, a program of additional sediment sampling and further biological evaluation was prepared.

  20. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apfelbaum, Steven; Duvall, Kenneth; Nelson, Theresa; Mensing, Douglas; Bengtson, Harlan; Eppich, John; Penhallegon, Clayton; Thompson, Ry

    2013-09-30

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive ancillary socio-economic, ecosystem, and water treatment/polishing benefits when used to complement water resources at thermoelectric power plants. Through the Phase II pilot study segment of the contract, the project team partnered with Progress Energy Florida (now Duke Energy Florida) to quantify the wetland water cooling benefits at their Hines Energy Complex in Bartow, Florida. The project was designed to test the wetland’s ability to cool and cleanse power plant cooling pond water while providing wildlife habitat and water harvesting benefits. Data collected during the monitoring period was used to calibrate a STELLA model developed for the site. It was also used to inform management recommendations for the demonstration site, and to provide guidance on the use of cooling wetlands for other power plants around the country. As a part of the pilot study, Duke Energy is scaling up the demonstration project to a larger, commercial scale wetland instrumented with monitoring equipment. Construction is expected to be finalized in early 2014.

  1. Metrics (and Methodologies) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, T. P.

    2014-01-01

    ) for Evaluating Energy and Water Impacts of Alternative Process Cooling Systems in a Typical Chemical Plant Presentation to the: May 21, 2014 Thomas P. Carter, P.E. Sr. Program Manager, Heat Rejection Technology Johnson Controls, Building Efficiency thomas... less water consumption? 2. How can you financially evaluate the alternatives? ESL-IE-14-05-19 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 When evaluating the total economic impact of water...

  2. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

    2012-04-30

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 â?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

  3. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    Results are presented from a 5-year study to develop aquatic methods which beneficially use condenser cooling water from electric generating power plants. A method is proposed which uses a system for aquatic farming. Livestock waste is used to fertilize planktonic algae production and filter-feeding fish are used to biologically harvest the algae, condenser cooling water (simulated) is used to add waste heat to the system, and emergent aquatic plants are used in a flow through series as a bio-filter to improve the water quality and produce an acceptable discharge. Two modes of operation were tested; one uses untreated swine manure as the source of aquatic fertilizer and the other uses anaerobic digester waste as a means of pretreating the manure to produce an organic fertilizer. A set of operating conditions (temperature, retention time, fish stocking rate, fertilizer rates, land and water requirements, suggested fish and plant species, and facility design) were developed from these results. The integrated system allows continual use of power plant condenser cooling water from plants in the southeastern United States.

  4. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  5. Study of Pu consumption in advanced light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants - compilation of Phase 1B task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-15

    This report contains an extensive evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants prepared for United State Department of Energy. The general areas covered in this report are: core and system performance; fuel cycle; infrastructure and deployment; and safety and environmental approval.

  6. LWR (Light Water Reactor) power plant simulations using the AD10 and AD100 systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Chien, C.J.; Jang, J.Y.; Lin, H.C.; Mallen, A.N.; Wang, S.J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan); Tawian Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan))

    1989-01-01

    Boiling (BWR) and Pressurized (PWR) Water Reactor Power Plants are being simulated at BNL with the AD10 and AD100 Peripheral Processor Systems. The AD10 system has been used for BWR simulations since 1984 for safety analyses, emergency training and optimization studies. BWR simulation capabilities have been implemented recently on the AD100 system and PWR simulation capabilities are currently being developed under the auspices of international cooperation. Modeling and simulation methods are presented with emphasis on the simulation of the Nuclear Steam Supply System. Results are presented for BWR simulation and performance characteristics are compared of the AD10 and AD100 systems. It will be shown that the AD100 simulates two times faster than two AD10 processors operating in parallel and that the computing capacity of one AD100 (with FMU processor) is twice as large as that of two AD10 processors. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Diel patterns of water potential components for the crassulacean acid metabolism plant Opuntia ficus-indica when well-watered or droughted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, G.; Ortega, J.K.E.; Nerd, A.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Under well-watered conditions, chlorenchyma acidity in cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased substantially at night, fully accounting for the 0.26-megapascal nocturnal increase in osmotic pressure in the outer 2 millimeters. Osmotic pressure in the inner part of the chlorenchyma and in the water-storage parenchyma did not change significantly over 24-hour periods. Three months of drought decreased nocturnal acid accumulation by 73% and essentially abolished transpiration; also, 27% of the chlorenchyma water and 61% of the parenchyma water was lost during such drought, but the average tissue osmotic pressure was little affected. Turgor pressure was maintained in the chlorenchyma after 3 months of drought, although it decreased sevenfold in the water-storage parenchyma compared with the well-watered condition. Moreover, the nocturnal increases in turgor pressure of about 0.08 megapascal in the outer part of the chlorenchyma was also unchanged by such drought. The water potential magnitudes favored water movement from the parenchyma to the chlorenchyma at the end of the night and in the reverse direction during the late afternoon. Experiments with tritiated water support this pattern of water movement, which is also in agreement with predictions based on electric-circuit analog models for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

  8. Thermal reclamation of used blast grit. Technology spotlight report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    Naval shipyards and other domestic port facilities generate thousands of tons of used blast grit annually. There are also thousands of steel bridges in the United States on a repaint schedule that requires grit blasting for surface preparation. All the used grit, along with the paint residue it contains, is currently disposed of in landfills. Cleaning and recycling used blast grit is an attractive alternative. Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed a fluidized-bed sand calciner that is well suited for cleaning and recycling used blast grit. Essentially, IGT researchers applied a transfer/adaptation of fluidized-bed calcination originally developed for the reclamation of foundry sand. The calciner has a patented sloped-grid design that enhances the combustion of paint residues and promotes the isolation of reusable material.

  9. Plant Water Use and Growth in Response to Soil Salinity in Irrigated Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runkle, Benjamin Reade

    2009-01-01

    of variations in leaf water potential and stomatalresponse to low leaf water potentials .4. quantum yield isfeedback mechanisms. Water Resources Research, 44(4). Ben-

  10. EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

  11. Accident source terms for Light-Water Nuclear Power Plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soffer, L.; Burson, S.B.; Ferrell, C.M.; Lee, R.Y.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1995-02-01

    In 1962 tile US Atomic Energy Commission published TID-14844, ``Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactors`` which specified a release of fission products from the core to the reactor containment for a postulated accident involving ``substantial meltdown of the core``. This ``source term``, tile basis for tile NRC`s Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4, has been used to determine compliance with tile NRC`s reactor site criteria, 10 CFR Part 100, and to evaluate other important plant performance requirements. During the past 30 years substantial additional information on fission product releases has been developed based on significant severe accident research. This document utilizes this research by providing more realistic estimates of the ``source term`` release into containment, in terms of timing, nuclide types, quantities and chemical form, given a severe core-melt accident. This revised ``source term`` is to be applied to the design of future light water reactors (LWRs). Current LWR licensees may voluntarily propose applications based upon it.

  12. 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

  13. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  14. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

  15. Irrigation of deciduous orchards and vineyards influenced by plant-soil-water relationships in individual situations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coats, W J

    2014-01-01

    surface irrigation, the labor of applying the water and thecost of the water — may be one of the important items in thewhether there is a supply of water for irrigation. “A grower

  16. Strawberry Nursery Plant Propagation in Relation to Soil Phosphorus and Water Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hong; Li, Tingxian; Gordon, Robert J.; Asiedu, Samuel K.

    2009-01-01

    and variability of soil pH, water, magnesium and Diaprepesdesign for light and water management in strawberry.P concentrations vary with soil water content (SWC) and pH

  17. Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

  18. Environmental Evaluation for Installation of Solar Arrays at San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this technical memorandum (TM) is to review the options to develop a potential solar array development (Project) within or adjacent to western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) habitat in the buffer lands that surround the San José/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant (WPCP) and to determine if there is a ground-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV) configuration that would enable a workable co-existence between the burrowing owl habitat and the PV arrays.

  19. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica/silicate are two common potential cycle-limiting minerals for using impaired waters. For produced waters, barium sulfate and calcium sulfate are two additional potential cycle-limiting minerals. For reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents, calcium phosphate scaling can be an issue, especially in the co-presence of high silica. Computational assessment, using a vast amount of Nalco's field data from coal fired power plants, showed that the limited use and reuse of impaired waters is due to the formation of deposit caused by the presence of iron, high hardness, high silica and high alkalinity in the water. Appropriate and cost-effective inhibitors were identified and developed - LL99B0 for calcite and gypsum inhibition and TX-15060 for silica inhibition. Nalco's existing dispersants HSP-1 and HSP-2 has excellent efficacy for dispersing Fe and Mn. ED and EDI were bench-scale tested by the CRADA partner Argonne National Laboratory for hardness, alkalinity and silica removal from synthetic make-up water and then cycled cooling water. Both systems showed low power consumption and 98-99% salt removal, however, the EDI system required 25-30% less power for silica removal. For Phase 2, the EDI system's performance was optimized and the length of time between clean-in-place (CIP) increased by varying the wafer composition and membrane configuration. The enhanced EDI system could remove 88% of the hardness and 99% of the alkalinity with a processing flux of 19.2 gal/hr/m{sup 2} and a power consumption of 0.54 kWh/100 gal water. Bench tests to screen alternative silica/silicate scale inhibitor chemistries have begun. The silica/silicate control approaches using chemical inhibitors include inhibition of silicic acid polymerization and dispersion of silica/silicate crystals. Tests were conducted with an initial silica concentration of 290-300 mg/L as SiO{sub 2} at pH 7 and room temperature. A proprietary new chemistry was found to be promising, compared with a current commercial product commonly used for silica/silicate control. Additional pilot cooling tower testing confirmed

  20. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

  1. Removal of Herbicide Residua and Nitrates from Agricultural Waters by Aquatic Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayer, David E; Rejmankova, Eliska

    1990-01-01

    filficufoides (a), and Lemna minor (b). I I z» 0.20 "'CJaquaticum) and floating (Lemna minor, AzalIa fificuloides)The floating plants, Lemna minor and AzalIa fillicu 10ides,

  2. Plant Water Use and Growth in Response to Soil Salinity in Irrigated Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runkle, Benjamin Reade

    2009-01-01

    tolerance in plants. Crop Science, 45(2): 437. Cox, P. ,for crop tolerance. Crop Science, 45(1): 209. Steppuhn, H. ,in agricultural crops. Crop Science, 45(1): 221. Tolson,

  3. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  5. Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas 2007; accepted 8 April 2007 Metals in coastal groundwater and marine sediment are affected by land reclamation. Abstract The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were

  6. Effect of pH, phosphorus, and water-extractable zinc of soil on plant growth and zinc absorption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimian, Najafali

    1970-01-01

    " between soil pH and response of sweet corn to Zn ap- plication or its recovery in an extractable form after crop- ping. The pH range in this experiment was 4. 0 to 8. 3 with 6l@ of soils being between 7. 0 and 8. 0 and 14/ above 8. 0. Nore recently... in the laboratory analyses where de- ionized water was used. ~ l38 cm~ Mylar film window \\ \\ /p // l / // // \\ E O O CU / / / / &5. Gem& Fig. 1-Acrylic plastic box used in the flax experiment. 21 The flax plants were grown in 2000 g of Houston...

  7. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  8. Knowledge and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Pressurized water reactors. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This document provides the basis for the development of content-valid licensing examinations for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The examinations developed using the PWR catalog will cover those topics listed under Title 10, (ode of Federal Regulations Part 55. The PWR catalog contains approximately 5100 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for reactor operators and senior reactor operators. The catalog is organized into six major sections: Catalog Organization; Generic Knowledge and Abilities; Plant Systems; Emergency and Abnormal Plant Evolutions; Components and Theory.

  9. GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY, STOICHIOMETRY, AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS OF PLANTS AND PORE-WATER IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    , University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont, USA 05405 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont, USA 05405 3 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont, USA 05405 4 Department of Plant and Soil Science, University

  10. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  11. Assessment of sludge management options in a waste water treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jong hyun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is part of a larger project which began in response to a request by the Spanish water agengy, Cadagua, for advice on life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental impacts of Cadagua operated wastewater treatment ...

  12. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 - Employers TakeVoteWater EfficiencyWaterDepartment

  13. Emergency Water Assistance During Drought: Federal Non-Agricultural Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    of Agriculture's RUS provides grants and loans for rural water systems in communities with less than 10.3 billion in loans and $370 million in grants are available for rural community water and waste systems and Water Assistance Grants program $3 million for California's rural communities. Bureau of Reclamation

  14. Colorado Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water are two examples. Colorado State Legislature and Department of Natural Resources requested our of Reclamation asked us to help stage a workshop on produced waters those waters resulting from the extraction contaminants (OWCs) which result from pharaceuticals and personal care products. DeJong's fellowship work

  15. Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 (Japan)] [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 (Japan); Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan)] [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K{sub d}s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K{sub d}s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K{sub d}s and it was used for the column testing to obtain breakthrough curves under various conditions of pH and brine concentration. The breakthrough point had a dependency on pH and the brine concentration. We found that when the pH was higher or the brine concentration was lower, the longer it took to reach the breakthrough point. The inhibition of strontium adsorption by alkali earth metals would be diminished for conditions of higher pH and lower brine concentration. (authors)

  16. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    by Aerobic Treatment. Journal (Water Pollution ControlWastewater Treatment Plants. Journal (Water Pollution

  17. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 222 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the reclamation and recycling of used lubricating oils. Topics include specific program descriptions, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil performance. Appropriate regulations, standards, and clean-up efforts at sites contaminated by waste oils or waste oil refineries are included. (Contains a minimum of 228 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings Brett G. Purdy,1,2 S. Ellen Macdonald,1 and Victor J. Lieffers1 Abstract Reclaimed landscapes after oil sands found on the predisturbance land- scape can be established on all reclaimed landscapes after oil sands

  20. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Station shutdowns Cogeneration Plant Active Figure 16:Daily average of cogeneration and net plant load Figure A-7:

  1. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  2. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  3. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

  4. Water Use in the Development and Operation of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 - Employers TakeVoteWater EfficiencyWaterDepartment of

  5. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReport FY2014 - Employers TakeVoteWater EfficiencyWaterDepartment of2

  6. Low Delta-T Syndrome Diagnosis and Correction for Chilled Water Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almeida, Agnes

    2014-12-15

    the outside air wet bulb temperature is above 55?F, otherwise maintain a 60?F condenser supply temperature. The reset schedule proposed for the chilled water supply temperature is 37?F from March through September and 42?F from October through December...

  7. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

  8. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  9. The culture of some marine fishes in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a power plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luebke, Richard William

    1973-01-01

    / l 0 O I- ILI CIS CII CIS O Ill IL CL O C I- III O O Ict C3 U. IL O 1 its origin. A 75 hp pump (Worthington Corporation) supplied the pond water. This water entered the intake end of each pond through a inventories and final... Cd (~dd) N39AXO 03A10SSIO ( Ol & I&/ccl(cldI AIIAILDOONOO (Od 38lllIIN3dN3d. 27 ONI AlINI1VS JJI O ICI oJ IIJ ID IU CJ UI o I?: OI 9 OI ) CI IK IJJ III 0 I CJ 0 CL VJ IIJ O. III CJJ I 0 't5 ~ td 0 0 g 0 ld W e 40 oo 0 0 E...

  10. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Field Device Wiring Method Decision Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dicus, Scott C.

    2011-12-16

    protocols for field device communication exist, though the water/wastewater industry has only seen wide adoption of a few protocols including: Foundation Fieldbus H1, Profibus DP, Profibus PA, DeviceNet, Modbus, Hart, OPC, and Ethernet. These protocols..., field device networks are much more complex than a hardwired wiring method. During their infancy, field device networks were “comprised of specialized data links using various physical layer strategies, proprietary protocols, and varying degrees of conformity...

  11. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950Department ofIntroductionDepartmentWasteWater

  12. GrayQbTM Single-Faced Version 2 (SF2) Hanford Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) deployment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, J. R.; Immel, D. M.; Serrato, M. G.; Dalmaso, M. J.; Shull, D. J.

    2015-11-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in partnership with CH2M Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) deployed the GrayQbTM SF2 radiation imaging device at the Hanford Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) to assist in the radiological characterization of the canyon. The deployment goal was to locate radiological contamination hot spots in the PRF canyon, where pencil tanks were removed and decontamination/debris removal operations are on-going, to support the CHPRC facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) effort. The PRF canyon D&D effort supports completion of the CHPRC Plutonium Finishing Plant Decommissioning Project. The GrayQbTM SF2 (Single Faced Version 2) is a non-destructive examination device developed by SRNL to generate radiation contour maps showing source locations and relative radiological levels present in the area under examination. The Hanford PRF GrayQbTM Deployment was sponsored by CH2M Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) through the DOE Richland Operations Office, Inter-Entity Work Order (IEWO), DOE-RL IEWO- M0SR900210.

  13. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  14. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  15. An Estimate of the Cost of Electricity from Light Water Reactors and Fossil Plants with Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, A J

    2009-08-21

    As envisioned in this report, LIFE technology lends itself to large, centralized, baseload (or 'always on') electrical generation. Should LIFE plants be built, they will have to compete in the electricity market with other generation technologies. We consider the economics of technologies with similar operating characteristics: significant economies of scale, limited capacity for turndown, zero dependence on intermittent resources and ability to meet environmental constraints. The five generation technologies examined here are: (1) Light Water Reactors (LWR); (2) Coal; (3) Coal with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS); (4) Natural Gas; and (5) Natural Gas with Carbon Capture and Sequestration. We use MIT's cost estimation methodology (Du and Parsons, 2009) to determine the cost of electricity at which each of these technologies is viable.

  16. Site Suitability Assessment for Irrigating Urban Landscapes with Water of Elevated Salinity in the Southwest. Consolidated Final Report. Part 1. Water Quality and Plant Tolerance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyamoto, S.

    With increasing population and the demand for potable water, water with elevated salinity and reclaimed water are now commonly used for irrigating urban landscape in many communities in the arid Southwest. It not only saves potable water, but also...

  17. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  18. Gansu Zhongyuan Water Conservancy and Hydro Power Plant Development Co Ltd

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlexStock| Open Energy Information Water

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    1 Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios: Importation, Reclamation, and Desalination Erin and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University #12;Life Cycle Assessment · Described by International · Data analyzed and categorized · Find impacts on planet and humans #12;Life Cycle Assessment Extraction

  20. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because of several hazardous waste super ten years have included (but are not limited to): erosion, non-point pollution, reclamation of strip levels if water becomes a major issue in cities and rural areas. Past droughts and the possible lowering

  1. Scientific soundness and socio-economic realities in reclamation for habitat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trimble, K.D.

    1997-12-31

    Reclamation projects must balance data requirements for scientifically-sound design with uncertainty and socio-economic constraints. Whether designing for physical stability, cultural benefits or ecological enhancements, the reclamation project can work with or fight natural processes (physical, chemical, biological). Projects which anticipate and design to fit natural processes have greater chances of success with lower short and long-term cost, and with achievement of a greater range of social objectives. However, the cost of anticipating natural processes (succession, geomorphic patterns, etc.) increases the budget allocation at the design stage in order to save on construction and maintenance. In southern Ontario, once design teams recognize that designing for an {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} natural condition is not feasible, they too often revert to conventional, single-objective approaches which compromise design integrity and social benefits. Case studies are reviewed with analysis of alternative approaches that seek to balance ranges of achievable objectives with cost allocation and scientific soundness.

  2. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    17 harvest was 19 rainfall contributed 5.6" water. Harvest.harvest 29 Aug~st, when plants began to flower, approximately 15 irrigation water

  3. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-10-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to S0{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The final goal of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be used as a satisfactory growing medium in slurry pond reclamation. The chemical analyses of the 8 starting solids (5 FBC wastes, 2 Css samples, and 1 agricultural limestone sample) were completed.

  4. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.

    1991-12-31

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

  5. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Waste oil reclamation. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning methods and equipment for reclamation and recycling of waste oils. Citations discuss recovery, disposal, and reuse of lubricating oils. Topics include economic analysis, programs assessment, re-refining techniques, chemical component analysis, and reclaimed oil evaluation. Regulations and standards for waste oil treatment and waste oil refineries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Water temperature and acidity regime shape dominance and beta-diversity patterns in the plant communities of springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweiger, Andreas H.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2014-01-01

    related to spring types? Fresh- water Science, 31, 481–498.Beierkuhnlein — Acidity, water temperature and oligarchySpring fen vegetation and water chemistry in the Western

  9. Environmental regulation of carbon isotope composition and crassulacean acid metabolism in three plant communities along a water availability gradient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    communities along a water availability gradient M. Fernandawith decreasing water availability. Overall, variation inrelated to water and light availability and CAM appeared to

  10. D D E E S S E E R R T T S S O O U U T T H H W W E E S S T T

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water projects. Western's transmission system carries electricity from 57 power plants. These power plants are operated by agencies such as the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S....

  11. DESERT SOUTHWEST REGION FY15 TEN-YEAR APPROPRIATED CAPITAL PROGRAM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water projects. Western's transmission system carries electricity from 57 power plants. These power plants are operated by agencies such as the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S....

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  13. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the a

  14. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-based procedure for field activities: results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron; LeBlanc, Katya

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) along with partners from the nuclear industry have been investigating the design requirements for computer-based work instructions (including operations procedures, work orders, maintenance procedures, etc.) to increase efficiency, safety, and cost competitiveness of existing light water reactors.

  15. Evaluation of options for reclamation of the Salton Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1998-11-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy, was asked last May by the Congressional Salton Sea Task Force to provide technical support for the remediation of the ecological problems in the Salton Sea. The results of their work in evaluating various concepts for addressing high salinity and variable water levels of the Sea relate to H.R. 3267 is presented. The results are preliminary and in some cases qualitative, but they can be used to help guide decision-makers in their deliberations. Ultimately, selecting the best solution for reclaiming the Salton Sea will have to integrate performance, economic, ecological, and institutional factors into the decision.

  16. In-situ biological reclamation of contaminated ground water. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fant, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Four triaxial permeability devices were designed and constructed for use in the Environmental Engineering Department at the Georgia Institute of Technology. These devices were used to determine how time and changing permeants affected a soil sample's hydraulic conductivity. Also the attenuation of the priority pollutant, 2,4-dichlorophenol, was studied. Two areas were looked at concerning attenuation, microbial degradation and adsorption. Microbes were grown in the laboratory and then placed into the soil samples. A permeant containing the pollutant, an oxidant, and nutrients was then passed through the soil sample with the microbes. The effects on the effluent concentration were then studied. Two breakthrough curves and two isotherm tests were run in an attempt to distinguish between microbial decay and adsorptive attenuation. Results of the attenuation studies unfortunately were inconclusive, but valuable knowledge was gained on the operation of and experimental procedures with the triaxial permeability devices.

  17. Idaho IC Title 42, Irrigation and Drainage - Water Rights and Reclamation |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFB Agro|How to

  18. WATER ACCOUNTING AND ALLOCATION IN RIVERWARE Edie Zagona, Director, CADSWES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER ACCOUNTING AND ALLOCATION IN RIVERWARE Edie Zagona, Director, CADSWES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, zagona@colorado.edu; Ed Kandl, Hydrologist, Water Operations Group, Bureau of Reclamation, Albuquerque, NM, ekandl@usbr.gov; John Carron, Senior Water Resources Engineer, AMEC Earth and Environmental

  19. Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, R.

    1991-01-01

    Cooling towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration...

  20. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapters 2-13, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume I, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  1. NRC review of Electric Power Research Institute`s advanced light water reactor utility requirements document. Passive plant designs, chapter 1, project number 669

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is preparing a compendium of technical requirements, referred to as the {open_quotes}Advanced Light Water Reactor [ALWR] Utility Requirements Document{close_quotes}, that is acceptable to the design of an ALWR power plant. When completed, this document is intended to be a comprehensive statement of utility requirements for the design, construction, and performance of an ALWR power plant for the 1990s and beyond. The Requirements Document consists of three volumes. Volume 1, {open_quotes}ALWR Policy and Summary of Top-Tier Requirements{close_quotes}, is a management-level synopsis of the Requirements Document, including the design objectives and philosophy, the overall physical configuration and features of a future nuclear plant design, and the steps necessary to take the proposed ALWR design criteria beyond the conceptual design state to a completed, functioning power plant. Volume II consists of 13 chapters and contains utility design requirements for an evolutionary nuclear power plant [approximately 1350 megawatts-electric (MWe)]. Volume III contains utility design requirements for nuclear plants for which passive features will be used in their designs (approximately 600 MWe). In April 1992, the staff of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, issued Volume 1 and Volume 2 (Parts 1 and 2) of its safety evaluation report (SER) to document the results of its review of Volumes 1 and 2 of the Requirements Document. Volume 1, {open_quotes}NRC Review of Electric Power Research Institute`s Advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document - Program Summary{close_quotes}, provided a discussion of the overall purpose and scope of the Requirements Document, the background of the staff`s review, the review approach used by the staff, and a summary of the policy and technical issues raised by the staff during its review.

  2. Optimization of biological recycling of plant nutrients in livestock waste by utilizing waste heat from cooling water. Final report May 75-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, J.J.; Behrends, L.L.; Burch, D.W.; Kingsley, J.B.; Waddell, E.L. Jr

    1982-05-01

    The report summarizes a 5-year study of the beneficial uses of waste heat from condenser cooling water from steam-electric generating plants. The major effort addressed the recovery of plant nutrients in swine manure by aquatic farming of selected fish and Chinese waterchestnuts. Another effort included biogas production from swine manure in an anaerobic digester and the use of the digester waste to fertilize the aquatic farming system. Optimum recovery of plant nutrients resulted from operation of an integrated fish and waterchestnut system. Flowing water systems were 30-50% more productive than static systems. Annual fish yields of 5000-7000 lb/acre are projected for a properly stocked system over a 150-180 day growing period. Similarly, waterchestnut yields of nearly 17.8 tons/acre and dry hay yields of 6.7 tons/acre from sand-bed filters would be expected when fed wastewater from the fish system. The quality of the water leaving the sand beds would meet tertiary wastewater treatment standards during the growing season. An estimated 2000-head swine facility with a $400,000 investment would annually produce a 20% rate of return, save 360,000 bbl of oil through waste heat utilization, and produce biogas equivalent to 3000 bbl of oil.

  3. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because-point pollution reclamation of strip mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic be held at acceptable levels if water becomes a major issue in cities and rural areas. Past droughts

  4. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pollution is also of major interest. Because of several hazardous waste super-fund sites, hazardous waste (but are not limited to): erosion, non-point pollution reclamation of strip mine areas, hazardous waste and economic costs may no longer be held at acceptable levels if water becomes a major issue in cities

  5. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major interest. Because-point pollution reclamation of strip mine areas, hazardous waste disposal acid precipitation, anthropogenic costs may no longer be held at acceptable levels if water becomes a major issue in cities and rural

  6. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pollution is also of major interest. Because of several hazardous waste super-fund sites, hazardous waste (but are not limited to): erosion, non-point pollution reclamation of strip mine areas, hazardous waste costs may no longer be held at acceptable levels if water becomes a major issue in cities and rural

  7. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the experimental releases, and Western operating practices. Experimental releases in some water years resulted in financial benefits to Western while others resulted in financial costs. During the study period, the total financial costs of all experimental releases were $11.9 million.

  8. Phoenix Water ServicesPhoenix Water Services We need more power!We need more power!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    Phoenix Water ServicesPhoenix Water Services We need more power!We need more power! #12;Stolen from Acre Foot of WaterkWh per Acre Foot of Water EPRI (2000), Water Desal Task Force (2003) #12;PhoenixPhoenix TreatmentWater Treatment PlantPlant #12;Phoenix New Water PlantPhoenix New Water Plant Power Requirement

  9. NRES 725 PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY Spring 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    1 NRES 725 ­ PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY Spring 2006 Reading List ­ Water Balance of Plants I) Water Balance of Plants A) Water potential B) Soil, plant, air continuum C) Physiological control 1 Kramer & Boyer (95) pp 16-41 & 42-83 Kramer & Boyer (95) pp 201-256 *Steudle (01) Ann Rev Plant Phy Mol

  10. On-Demand Node Reclamation and Replacement for Guaranteed Area Coverage in Long-lived Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wensheng

    applica- tion in long-term tasks such as structural health monitoring for bridges and tunnels, border and efficient way to guarantee long-term energy supply has persisted as a big challenge. Recently, Tong et alOn-Demand Node Reclamation and Replacement for Guaranteed Area Coverage in Long-lived Sensor

  11. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  12. Onondaga County Department of Water Environment Protection: Process Optimization Saves Energy at Metropolitan Syracuse Wastewater Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Onondaga County, New York, is saving nearly 3 million kWh and 270 million Btu annually at a wastewater treatment plant after replacing inefficient motors and upgrading pumps.

  13. Increasing Thermoelectric Generation Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Consumption by Plant Type 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Coal Gas Comb. Cycle Nuclear Plant Type Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Water Consumption by Plant Type Water

  14. A TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT WATER POLICY BOUNDARY AT U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-13

    In 1988, groundwater contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) and technetium-99 (Tc-99) was identified in samples collected from residential water wells withdrawing groundwater from the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) north of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) facility. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provided temporary drinking water supplies to approximately 100 potentially affected residents by initially supplying bottled water, water tanks, and water-treatment systems, and then by extending municipal water lines, all at no cost, to those persons whose wells could be affected by contaminated groundwater. The Water Policy boundary was established in 1993. In the Policy, DOE agreed to pay the reasonable monthly cost of water for homes and businesses and, in exchange, many of the land owners signed license agreements committing to cease using the groundwater via rural water wells. In 2012, DOE requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), managing contractor of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), provide an independent assessment of the quality and quantity of the existing groundwater monitoring data and determine if there is sufficient information to support a modification to the boundary of the current Water Policy. As a result of the assessment, ORAU concludes that sufficient groundwater monitoring data exists to determine that a shrinkage and/or shift of the plume(s) responsible for the initial development of this policy has occurred. Specifically, there is compelling evidence that the TCE plume is undergoing shrinkage due to natural attenuation and associated degradation. The plume shrinkage (and migration) has also been augmented in local areas where large volumes of groundwater were recovered by pump-and treat remedial systems along the eastern and western boundaries of the Northwest Plume, and in other areas where pump-and-treat systems have been deployed by DOE to remove source contaminants. The available evidence supports adjusting the western and northwestern Water Policy boundary. Based on the historical and modeled hydrogeological data reflecting past flow and plume attenuation, along with associated plume migration toward the northeast, the establishment of a new boundary along the westernmost margin of the earliest indication of the TCE plume is proposed and justified on hydrogeological grounds. Approximately 30% of the original area would remain within the adjusted Water Policy area west and northwest of the PGDP facility. This modification would release about 70% of the area, although individual properties would overlap the new boundary.

  15. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A.; Figueroa, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  16. Analysis of the toxicity in Rocky Flats Plant surface water through a correlation between the whole effluent toxicity test and the Microtox assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S.M.; Wolaver, H.A. ); Figueroa, L.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Results were correlated from the Microtox assay and the whole effluent acute toxicity test for effluents from the (1) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and (2) terminal ponds located at the Rocky Flats Plant. Literature reviews indicate that Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox assay) may be used as screening test for the reaction of Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas to toxins present in effluents. This study indicates that the Microtox is less sensitive to toxins present in the WWTP effluent than other test organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). Toxicity appears to be from unionized ammonia. Ten months of data reveal that the surface water effluents which leave Rocky Flats boundaries are non-toxic when judged by all three test organisms.

  17. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  18. Study of Pu consumption in light water reactors: Evaluation of GE advanced boiling water reactor plants, compilation of Phase 1C task reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-15

    This report summarizes the evaluations conducted during Phase 1C of the Pu Disposition Study have provided further results which reinforce the conclusions reached during Phase 1A & 1B: These conclusions clearly establish the benefits of the fission option and the use of the ABWR as a reliable, proven, well-defined and cost-effective means available to disposition the weapons Pu. This project could be implemented in the near-term at a cost and on a schedule being validated by reactor plants currently under construction in Japan and by cost and schedule history and validated plans for MOX plants in Europe. Evaluations conducted during this phase have established that (1) the MOX fuel is licensable based on existing criteria for new fuel with limited lead fuel rod testing, (2) that the applicable requirements for transport, handling and repository storage can be met, and (3) that all the applicable safeguards criteria can be met.

  19. Plant, Cell and Environment {^992) 15, 401-409 Water balance in the arborescent palm, Sabal palmetto.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holbrook, N. Michele

    moisture near saturation), water was withdrawn from the stem during periods of high transpiration from the soil and from stem and root tissue. The relative contributions from each reservoir (and hence as a water reservoir that allowed this species to extend its reproductive period (Morse 1990

  20. Changes in the resistance to water movement through the soil/plant pathway in salinized sunflower (Helianthus giganteus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balint, Donna Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    . This was accompanied by an increase in stomatal resistance to water vapor. These results suggest that moderate increases in salt level markedly affect the water relations of sunflower. The ability of calcium to ameliorate the effect of salinity stress on sunflowers...

  1. DEPARTMENT OF LAND RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    of invasive plant species, soil nutrient management, bioremediation, land reclamation ecology of natural systems, chemical fate and transport, water quality, crop

  2. The impact of fuel cladding failure events on occupational radiation exposures at nuclear power plants: Case study, PWR (pressurized-water reactor) during an outage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, M.P.; Martin, G.F.; Kenoyer, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This report is the second in a series of case studies designed to evaluate the magnitude of increase in occupational radiation exposures at commercial US nuclear power plants resulting from small incidents or abnormal events. The event evaluated is fuel cladding failure, which can result in elevated primary coolant activity and increased radiation exposure rates within a plant. For this case study, radiation measurements were made at a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) during a maintenance and refueling outage. The PWR had been operating for 22 months with fuel cladding failure characterized as 105 pin-hole leakers, the equivalent of 0.21% failed fuel. Gamma spectroscopy measurements, radiation exposure rate determinations, thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) assessments, and air sample analyses were made in the plant's radwaste, pipe penetration, and containment buildings. Based on the data collected, evaluations indicate that the relative contributions of activation products and fission products to the total exposure rates were constant over the duration of the outage. This constancy is due to the significant contribution from the longer-lived isotopes of cesium (a fission product) and cobalt (an activation product). For this reason, fuel cladding failure events remain as significant to occupational radiation exposure during an outage as during routine operations. As documented in the previous case study (NUREG/CR-4485 Vol. 1), fuel cladding failure events increased radiation exposure rates an estimated 540% at some locations of the plant during routine operations. Consequently, such events can result in significantly greater radiation exposure rates in many areas of the plant during the maintenance and refueling outages than would have been present under normal fuel conditions.

  3. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the experimental releases, and Western operating practices. Experimental releases in some water years resulted in financial benefits to Western whileothers resulted in financial costs. During the study period, the total financial costs of all experimental releases were more than $23 million.

  4. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area Lakeview Geothermal Area Raft River Geothermal Area Cove Fort Power Plant Roosevelt Power Plant Borax Lake

  5. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  6. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Flapper, Joris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and water usage in individual dairy plants, augment benchmarking activities in the market places, and facilitate implementation of efficiency measures and strategies to save energy and water usage in the dairy industry. Industrial adoption of this emerging tool and technology in the market is expected to benefit dairy plants, which are important customers of California utilities. Further demonstration of this benchmarking tool is recommended, for facilitating its commercialization and expansion in functions of the tool. Wider use of this BEST-Dairy tool and its continuous expansion (in functionality) will help to reduce the actual consumption of energy and water in the dairy industry sector. The outcomes comply very well with the goals set by the AB 1250 for PIER program.

  7. The effects of a steam-electric generating plant on suitability of adjacent estuarine waters for growth of phytoplankton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelsey, John Allen

    1974-01-01

    by fluoromet- rically measuring the growth of Skeletonema costatum and naturally occurring mixed phytoplankton populations in an artificial seawater medium (NH-15), filter sterilized sample water and a 1:1 mixture of the NH-15 and sterile sample medium... AND METHODS 14 Hydrological Method . Sampling and Sample Treatment Glassware Preparation Method Standing Crop Measurement Method Primary Production Rate Measurement Method Medium Suitability Assay Method 14 14 15 16 17 19 RESULTS. 24 Hydrological...

  8. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit (DPU) was developed and deployed for operation in the Powder River Basin. First year operatio

  9. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  10. Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    A central chilled water / hot water system provides cooling / heating energy from central utility plants to multiple customers (buildings) through campus distribution loops. To effectively transport the chilled water and hot water to the buildings...

  11. Integrated Policy and Planning for Water and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ....................................................................... 24 II.1.3. Water Consumption by Hydroelectric Power Plants................................ 25 II.1

  12. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    2006. Water and Wastewater Energy Best Practice Guidebook.Water and Wastewater Energy Best Practice Guidebook. 2006.Water and Wastewater: Energy Best Practice Guidebook. 2006.

  13. California’s Water Footprint: recent trends and framework for a sustainable transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fulton, Julian

    2015-01-01

    combined-cycle natural gas power plants, wind turbines, andNatural gas direct use water consumption Power plant thermalgas electricity generation water consumption Power plant

  14. As the demand for power increases in populated areas, so will the demand for water. Current power plant technology relies heavily on the Rankine cycle in coal, nuclear and even solar thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    plant technology relies heavily on the Rankine cycle in coal, nuclear and even solar thermal powerAs the demand for power increases in populated areas, so will the demand for water. Current power the cooling power from radiation were developed and run. The results showed a cooling power of 35 W/m2

  15. Computerized Waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    supply diversions, several hydroelectric plants and numerous environ- mental instream flow requirements. Each of these active permits is included in the datasets. Besides the commission using the WAM/WRAP modeling system in water rights permiting... actions be consistent with relevant regional plans. River authorities, water districts and other water management organizations are beginning to use the WRAP model in operational planning studies to optimize operations of their facilities...

  16. The Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Pollutant Removal and Formation in Aquatic Environment: From Stormwater to Drinking Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Meng-Horng

    2012-01-01

    HOPs pollution event happened in the water treatment plant,HOPs pollution event happened in the water treatment plant,

  17. Seasonal variations in plant nitrogen relations and photosynthesis along a grassland to shrubland gradient in Owens Valley, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goedhart, C. M.; Pataki, D. E.; Billings, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    Ehleringer JR (2006) Water extraction times for plant andvacutainers, frozen until water extraction, and analyzed for

  18. WASHINGTON TECHNICAL INSTITUTE WASHINGTON, D. C. 20008 WRRC REPORT NO. 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    was added to alum sludge from Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant. Aluminum was recovered and used for phosphorus removal from the primary effluent from Blue Plains Wastewater Treatment Plant. Alum sludge RECLAMATION M. L. GOLDMAN F. WATSON WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER #12;FEASIBILITY OF ALUM SLUDGE RECLAMATION

  19. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is...

  20. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  1. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear plants use steam turbines, and cooling water asmajority is used for steam-driven turbines, which generatedelectricity using steam engines, gas turbines, or Stirling

  2. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    benchmarking scores for water and energy use, as well asAgricultural / Water Energy-Use Energy Efficiency group ofof Benchmarking and Energy/Water Savings Tool (BEST) for

  3. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    benchmarking scores for water and energy use, as well asAgricultural / Water Energy-Use Energy Efficiency group ofof Benchmarking and Energy/Water Savings Tool (BEST) for

  4. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    ICF Consulting. 2008. Water and Energy: Leveraging VoluntaryPrograms to Save Both Water and Energy. Prepared for theEffective Savings of Water and Energy). Funded by the U.S.

  5. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    they could trim costs by saving energy and water. Journalfor annual energy savings, energy costs savings, waterReport for DOE-Sponsored Energy Savings Assessment Conducted

  6. Designing Water Smart Landscapes Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designing Water Smart Landscapes Activity Objective: Create a water smart home landscape. Materials://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/plantanswers/publications/publications.html Draw the plants, using tracing paper. Citizenship Activity Develop a water smart plan for a non

  7. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Industrial Technologies Program. Motor Challenge: Project Fact Sheet: New Water Booster Pump System Reduces Energy

  8. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water year 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2012-07-16

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year 2011. It is the third report in a series examining financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), and a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases, the GTMax model was also used to gain insights into the interplay among ROD operating criteria, exceptions that were made to criteria to accommodate the experimental releases, and Western operating practices. Experimental releases conducted in water year 2011 resulted only in financial costs; the total cost of all experimental releases was about $622,000.

  9. Landscape Design & Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    drainage lines to allow water to filter into surrounding soils. Install gravel sumps or other percolationLandscape Design & Water Quality Landscape Design & Water Quality Create a landscape design that reduces pesticide and fertilizer runoff and conserves water. Good plant choices, proper site preparation

  10. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: neutron flux, cur- rent noise, vibration diagnostics, localization algorithm LOCALIZATION OF A VIBRATING CONTROL ROD PIN IN PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS USING. The possibility of the localization of a vibrating control rod pin in a pressurized water reactor control assembly

  11. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    plants Total Electricity Fuel Range Range Range USA IAC (study f) USA energy growth rate only based on electricitythe total electricity use for processing milk in the USA

  12. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    plants Total Electricity Fuel Range Range Range USA IAC (study f) USA energy growth rate only based on electricitythe total electricity use for processing milk in the USA

  13. Energy and water development appropriations for 1999: Part 3. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, On Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    These are the hearings before the subcommittee on energy and water development of the committed on appropriations, House of Representatives. The topics include the Bureau of Reclamation, testimony of the Secretary of the Interior, Appalachian Regional Commission, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. The discussion is related to the funding of activities in these areas.

  14. Walk-through survey report: Control technology for metal reclamation industries at East Penn Manufacturing Company Inc. , Lyon Station, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, R.M.

    1994-08-12

    A walk through survey was conducted at the East Penn Manufacturing Company (SIC-3341), Lyon Station, Pennsylvania to identify and evaluate potentially effective controls and work practices in the lead (7439921) reclamation industry. The facility was a secondary lead smelter which operated 7 days a week, and recycled about 20,000 batteries a day, primarily automobile batteries. The company employed automation, local exhaust ventilation, partial enclosures, and enclosed ventilation systems in the reverberatory furnace operations, blast furnace operations, and casting and refinery area to reduce employee exposure to lead. The arsenic (7440382) personal exposure time weighted averages ranged from 0.10 to 1.14 microg/cubic m in the industrial battery breaking area and ranged from nondetected to 6.16 microg/cubic m in the alloying/pots area.

  15. Purchase and Installation of a Geothermal Power Plant to Generate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchase and Installation of a Geothermal Power Plant to Generate Electricity Using Geothermal Water Resources Purchase and Installation of a Geothermal Power Plant to Generate...

  16. Old-field plant succession on the Pajarito Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxx, T.; Mullen, M.; Salisbury, M.; Tierney, G.

    1997-10-01

    Eight fallow historic fields of the ponderosa pine and pinon-juniper cover types were surveyed to determine species composition and distribution. The purpose of the study was to understand plant succession on old fields as related to mechanically manipulated sites such as material disposal areas (MDAs). Additionally, the authors wanted a listing of species on disturbed lands of the Pajarito Plateau to aide in the reclamation planning of MDAs using native species. They also wanted to determine if any species could be used as an indicator of disturbance. The eight historic fields were all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, and had been abandoned in 1943. Two sites were within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory and were studied both in 1982 and 1993. The study provides a description of each of the field sites, historic information about the homesteads from patent applications, a photographic record of some of the sites, and a listing of species found within each field. The study showed that there were 78 different plant species found on disturbed sites. Of these 78 species, 23 were found to be dominant on one or more of the MDAs or old fields. Although, the disturbance history of each site is imperfectly known, the study does provide an indication of successional processes within disturbed sites of the Pajarito Plateau. Additionally, it provides a listing of species that will invade disturbed sites, species that may be used in site reclamation.

  17. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    55 Figure 7 Primary energy use per kg of raw milk (ERM) of15 Table 5 Average primary energy breakdown for cheese53 Table 21 Primary energy breakdown for milk powder plants

  18. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    SEC Electricity Fuel Total Primary Sources Fluid milk IAC (electricity and 1.0 for fuel). Fluid-milk processing plantsfluid- milk product plants Total a) Low High Electricity a) Fuel

  19. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    SEC Electricity Fuel Total Primary Sources Fluid milk IAC (electricity and 1.0 for fuel). Fluid-milk processing plantsfluid- milk product plants Total a) Low High Electricity a) Fuel

  20. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY CE212 Spring 2006 Environmental Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermanowicz, Slawomir W.

    Engin TD430 .W375 2005. Reference Readings: Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Water and wastewater treatment, and water reclamation: separation and transformation technologies (sedimentation, membrane processes, oxidation, biodegradation, activated sludge, biofilm reactors, biological treatment

  1. Innovative Water Reuse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaber, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    . Introduction 2. Water conservation indoors 1. Retrofit practices 2. Cooling towers 3. Education 3. Water conservation outdoors 1. Landscape practices 2. Irrigation 3. Rainwater harvesting 4.Greywater 4. Stormwater management 1.Rain... ? Plant selection ? Irrigation practices What Can We Do? (cont?d) ? Water Conservation ? New buildings ? Greywater reuse ? Efficient water towers ? A/C Condensate reuse Bathroom ? Faucet Aerators ? Aerators mix air and water together...

  2. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    target for best practice and energy efficiency improvementtarget for best practice and energy efficiency improvementMANUAL FOR BEST-DAIRY: BENCHMARKING AND ENERGY/WATER-SAVING

  3. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    31, 2010. ) U.S. DOE Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (3, 2010. ) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, ElectricEPRI. 1997. Quality Energy Efficiency Retrofits for Water

  4. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    a calculator developed for unit conversions that are desireduse of energy and water unit conversion. The BEST-Dairy toolwe have developed a "Unit Conversion Calculator" for your

  5. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    a calculator developed for unit conversions that are desireduse of energy and water unit conversion. The BEST-Dairy toolwe have developed a "Unit Conversion Calculator" for your

  6. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  7. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Moya Melody, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Valley Water District Energy Management Program. Available2005. Navigating Energy Management: A Roadmap for Business.Characteristics and Energy Management Opportunities. Burton

  8. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool: Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tengfang

    2013-01-01

    they could trim costs by saving energy and water. Journalfor annual energy savings, energy costs savings, wateron quantified savings potential and energy efficiency

  9. Propagation of Ornamental Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1955-01-01

    '~ihtenecl with a fine mist spray of water, since an important factor in rooting cuttings is to keep the cuttings moist. There are many advantages in the use of mist by the home gardener. A cutting continues to lose water by transpiration after... it is removed from the parent plant. It is impossible for the cuttings to take up sufficient water to replace that lost by rapid transpiration until new roots are formed. The mist system prevents ex- cessive loss of water by the cutting. Maintain- ing...

  10. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  11. Preliminary results of calculations for heavy-water nuclear-power-plant reactors employing {sup 235}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 232}Th as a fuel and meeting requirements of a nonproliferation of nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ioffe, B. L.; Kochurov, B. P. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    A physical design is developed for a gas-cooled heavy-water nuclear reactor intended for a project of a nuclear power plant. As a fuel, the reactor would employ thorium with a small admixture of enriched uranium that contains not more than 20% of {sup 235}U. It operates in the open-cycle mode involving {sup 233}U production from thorium and its subsequent burnup. The reactor meets the conditions of a nonproliferation of nuclear weapons: the content of fissionable isotopes in uranium at all stages of the process, including the final one, is below the threshold for constructing an atomic bomb, the amount of product plutonium being extremely small.

  12. Reduced pressure and temperature reclamation of water using the GE Integrated Water-waste Management System for potential space flight application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Hasan Imtiaz

    1989-01-01

    hardware and verify the results previously reported by GE, the following series of tests were performed: 1) Disassemble, clean, and reassemble the system. 2) Determine the condensation rate as a function of temperature of the evaporator and the condenser... derivative (PID) feedback control sensor. The cooling system devised has a capacity of 1465 W and is controlled by an on/otf temperature sensor operating through a time delay relay. B. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The system characterization procedure consisted...

  13. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  14. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    C. ; Application of the LCA methodology to water managementtreatment plant. 10th SETAC LCA Case Studies Symposium.systems by using EIO-LCA-based multiobjective optimization.

  15. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam...

  16. The effects of variable operation on RO plant performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Christopher Michael, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Optimizations of reverse osmosis (RO) plants typically consider steady state operation of the plant. RO plants are subject to transient factors that may make it beneficial to produce more water at one time than at another. ...

  17. Exergetic, thermal, and externalities analyses of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, M.B.; Curtiss, P.; Blanton, P.H.; McBrayer, T.B.

    2006-02-15

    A thermodynamic study of an 88.4 MW cogeneration plant located in the United States is presented in this paper. The feedstock for this actual plant is culm, the waste left from anthracite coal mining. Before combustion in circulating fluidized bed boilers, the usable carbon within the culm is separated from the indigenous rock. The rock and ash waste from the combustion process fill adjacent land previously scared by strip mining. Trees and grass are planted in these areas as part of a land reclamation program. Analyses based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics using actual operating data are first presented to acquaint the reader with the plant's components and operation. Using emission and other relevant environmental data from the plant, all externalities study is outlined that estimates the plant's effect on the local population. The results show that the plant's cycle performs with a coefficient of utilization of 29% and all approximate exergetic efficiency of 34.5%. In order to increase these values, recommended improvements to the plant are noted. In addition, the externality costs associated with the estimated SO{sub 2} and NOx discharge from the culm fed plant are lower (85-95%) than those associated with a similarly sized coal fed plant. The plant's cycle efficiencies are lower than those associated with more modern technologies; such as all integrated gas turbine combined cycle. However, given the abundant, inexpensive supply of feedstock located adjacent to the plant and the environmental benefit of removing culm banks, the plant's existing operation is unique from an economical and environmental viewpoint.

  18. The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to conserve water, drought-proof operating plants and control costs, the critical relationship of water and energy is clearly exposed. Five years of effort has transpired into countless studies, more than 100 projects and a clear...

  19. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 9A. Subcontract information. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; water supply and civil engineering subcontracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Volume 9A considers subcontract work done at the site involving hydrogeological studies with respect to water supply and geotechnical work with respect to the building foundations necessary based on boreholes drilled and the lithology of the area. (LTN)

  20. Public resource allocation for programs aimed at managing woody plants on the Edwards Plateau: water yield, wildlife habitat, and carbon sequestration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Amber Marie

    2006-08-16

    The Edwards Plateau is the drainage area for the Edwards Aquifer, which provides water to over 2.2 million people. The plateau also provides other ecosystem services, such as wildlife habitat and the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide...

  1. Common Aquatic Plants -- Identification, Control. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klussmann, Wallace G. (Wallace Glenn); Lowman, Fred G.

    1964-01-01

    root. Duckweed float freely and are moved by wind current. Often they can be removed mechanically by net or similar device when plants are crowded against the shore by a strong wind. Use Chemical Control No.8. FLOATING PLANTS WATER STAR GRASS.... The genus Potamogeton J commonly called pond weeds, includes many species common to Texas waters. Group characteristics include alternate leaves with flowers and fruits in spikes or heads. Many have two kinds of leaves: (1) floating and firm textured and (2...

  2. Cooling Water System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01

    During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

  3. Do Plants Sweat? Core Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Bruce

    in the bright sun and others are grouped together and are regularly sprinkled with water. You begin to wonder plant distribution where you see this principle in action? -Can you predict the effect of seasons data/graph] Three plants are grown in the same greenhouse with the same air temperature, amount

  4. Water Impacts of the Electricity Sector (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation discusses the water impacts of the electricity sector. Nationally, the electricity sector is a major end-user of water. Water issues affect power plants throughout the nation.

  5. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Main Report and Appendix A: Evaluates water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects.

  6. Freeing up Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Freeing up Water Story by Kathy Wythe Freeing up Water Brush control efforts yield water tx H2O | pg. 15 For 10 years during the 1990s drought, H. R.Wardlaw, a West Texas rancher, watchedand waited. He watched as the Middle Concho River and Rocky... and Water Conservation Board and designed to increase water yield by removing or controlling water-con- suming plants such as mesquite, cedar and saltcedar. In 2004, just as he finished excavating cedar, aerially spraying mesquite and hand spraying...

  7. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  8. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  9. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  10. ADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, John E.

    ADVANCED POWER PLANT MODELING WITH APPLICATIONS TO THE ADVANCED BOILING WATER REACTOR AND THE HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor - General Description . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1 Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ii #12;4. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4

  11. Physical Plant Power Plant - 32 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Historically, a fixed cooling concept is used in the design of evaporative heat rejection systems for process and power plants. In the fixed cooling mode, a plant is designed for maximum output at the design summer wet bulb temperature...

  12. Energy & Water:Energy & Water: A Growing and IncreasinglyA Growing and Increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    #12;20 Treatment TechnologiesTreatment Technologies #12;21 21 #12;22 Skinner PlantSkinner Plant Solar1 Energy & Water:Energy & Water: A Growing and IncreasinglyA Growing and Increasingly Important of Southern California First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability #12;2 "Water is for life, power

  13. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  14. Enforcement-driven financing of water quality in California: The case of supplemental environmental projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Press, Daniel; Holloran, Pete; Petersen, Brian

    2010-01-01

    water treatment plants, on-site sewage facilities, Edwards Aquifer protection, stormwater, and sludge

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

    2012-09-14

    The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

  16. Amer J of Potato Res (2006) 83:249-257 249 Furrow vs Hill Planting of Sprinkler-Irrigated Russet Burbank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    -row water-harvesting effect for furrow planting compared with hill planting. The furrow-plant- ing method December 2005. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: furrow sowing, inter-row water harvesting, soil water content, water Surface water runoff from the hill, where potatoes are planted, to the furrow may exacerbate potato

  17. H. R. 5373: An Act making appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, August 3, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, 1993[close quotes]. The purpose of this Act is to make appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1993, and for other purposes. Title I presents provisions for the Department of Defense--Civil Department of the Army; Title II for the Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Title III for the Department of Energy; and Title V for General Provisions.

  18. Analysis of Desalination Processes for Treatment of Produced Water for Re-use as Irrigation Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradt, Laura

    2012-04-20

    options in desalination plants include chemical, physical, and biological methods to create water for consumption and use. This research project defines the contaminants found in produced water and develops two oilfield water hypothetical cases. A...

  19. Using multispectral videography to distinguish the pattern of zonation and plant species composition in brackish water marshes of the Rio Grande Delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, F.W.; Lonard, R.I.; Everitt, J.H. [Univ. of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Cyclical flooding of the Rio Grande and movement of floodwater into distributary channels formerly constituted significant freshwater input into the marshes of the Rio Grande Delta, but dams and flood control projects have eliminated this source of freshwater. The marshes are now dependent on rainfall alone for freshwater input and may be experiencing significant change in species of vegetation, abundance and patterns of distribution. Unfortunately, little is known of the ecology of these marshes. As a first step in providing needed information, multispectral videography was used to distinguish species composition and patterns of zonation in a brackish water marsh at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge, Cameron County, Texas. The line intercept method of vegetation analysis provided ground truth and quantified species distribution and abundance. The vegetation of a typical brackish water marsh is organized into three zones along an elevation gradient. At the lowest elevations there is a distinct zone dominated by maritime saltwort, Batis maritime. At the lowest elevations in this zone where rainwater remains the longest, stands of California bulrush, Scirpus californicus, occur. An intermediate zone supports shoregrass, Monanthochloe littoralis, as the dominant species. A third (highest) zone is dominated by Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae. The upper margin of this zone grades gradually into a shrub-grassland community that occurs on lomas (clay dunes). Each of the zones is distinguished by a distinctive signature in the multispectral videography. The Batis maritime community has a bright pink to red image response. Monanthochloe littoralis has a dark brown color and Spartina spartinae has a light gray to pinkish-tan color. Brackish water marshes may be distinguished from saltwater marshes by the relative positions of the Monanthochloe littoralis and Spartina spartinae communities, but additional data are needed before this possibility is confirmed.

  20. The growth and survival of brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) in ponds receiving heated bay water from an electric power plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Robert Andrew

    1973-01-01

    ) J IU CA IS UI SI CA CS I S ! 0 l2 IS 18 20 SURFACE BOTTOM P. M. R 2 4 0 I R 8 ~ 22 JULY A U G. SEI'T. TIME (NEEEG) FIGURE 5. ? Hydrological data for pond 8. Ao ED I 2 So Uf 2' SURFACE SDEEDII 20 PUIAP OFF Z J 10 UI 10... HEATED BAY WATER PROM AN ELECTRIC POWER PLAI JT A Thesis by ROBERT ANDREW GOULD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Deoartment) (Member) (Member) IMay 19 73 436659 ABSTRACT Yh G* th dS ' l fB Sh' P(P t* ) d...

  1. Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source waters to feed desalination plants: the location of the plant in relation to water sources available, the deliv- ery destination of the treated water, the quality of the source water, the pretreatment options available, and the ecological

  2. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  3. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Brizzee, Julie; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  4. Wastewater Reclamation/Wetlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickey, D.

    2011-01-01

    ? diameter pipeline ? Cement-mortar lined steel with polyurethane coating ? Pipe protection is galvanic anode cathodic system ? Joints have full circumferential internal welds Conveyance Pipeline ? 43.5 miles long ? Travels north through Kaufman...

  5. Propagation of Ornamental Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1955-01-01

    . Whenever possible, sow the seed of most After the seed have germinated, place th~ Texas ornamentals in flats or pots than container where the seedlings will get an abw directly in the open ground. dance of light. If kept in a shady location, leg...!! weak plants will result. Be sure there are cracks or holes in the bot- tom of the flat or that the hole in the bottom - Water from below whenever the soil becomP of the flower pot is kept open to allow excess water to pass quickly out of the soil...

  6. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsinger, Nichola

    2013-01-01

    sludge from the water stream following the bioreactor with the supernatant being the effluent from the wastewater treatment plant .

  7. Article accepted for publication in: Land and Water Magazine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that flow to a waste water treatment plant. During large storm events, when the capacity of the treatment

  8. Clemson University Water System Clemson, SC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier to furnish us with most Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hartwell Lake Reservoir1 Clemson University Water System Clemson, SC 2002 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  9. Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    requirements during 2002. Since we are only a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water's Grove Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC 2002 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  10. Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    2000. Since we are only a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water System is supplied by Duke Water Systems, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draw its water from the U1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 2000 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  11. Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    1999. Since we are only a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water System is supplied by Duke Water Systems, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draw its water from the U1 Outdoor Laboratory Water System Clemson, SC 1999 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  12. Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    requirements during 2001. Since we are only a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water is supplied by Duke Water Systems, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U.S. Army Corps1 Fant's Grove Water System Clemson, SC 2001 Annual Water-Quality Report Clemson University

  13. Commission of the European Communities PHOTOSYNTHETIC WATER OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junge, Wolfgang

    Commission of the European Communities energy PHOTOSYNTHETIC WATER OXIDATION BY GREEN PLANTS Communities energy PHOTOSYNTHETIC WATER OXIDATION BY GREEN PLANTS: ON THE ROLE OF PROTONS W. JUNGE, V. FÖRSTER is technically perhaps the most chal lenging performance of green plant photosynthesis. The plant uses

  14. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  15. Water, water everywhere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    1 Water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink? An Inquiry-based unit investigating the journey of your drinking water from source to tap of drinking water will contain different contaminants, based on surrounding land uses (guided inquiry activity

  16. Water Resources Forests & Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Forests & Water More than half of the nation's freshwater supply originates on forestland. Healthy and sustainable forests can help ensure a continuous supply of clean and abundant water. Not only does forestland provide the cleanest water of any land use, it also helps absorb rainfall

  17. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given pr

  18. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graziano, D. J.; Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.

    2015-09-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2014. It is the sixth report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined water years 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011), a report released in August 2011 examined water years 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011), a report released June 2012 examined water year 2011 (Poch et al. 2012), a report released April 2013 examined water year 2012 (Poch et al. 2013), and a report released June 2014 examined water year 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014).

  19. Physical Plant Power Plant - 43 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    with higher efficiency / R&D Climate friendly Power Plants Build coal fired Power Plants with CCS-technology 4 B a c k u p va W GGEHEN ESL-IC-08-10-27 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany..., October 20-22, 2008 RWE Energy / Energieeffizienz bei Immobilien / U. K?nig / ICEBO '08 SEITE 9 Electricity Production: All Energy Sources have to be included! Lignite Power Plant (BoA) produces 8,8 TWh = appr. 12% of the annual demand for electricity...

  20. On the contribution of leaf surface wetness, leaf size and leaf longevity to variation in leaf water and carbon balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonin, Kevin Allen

    2009-01-01

    Bible K. (1999) The canopy water relations of old-growthof dew influences shoot water potential and root growth inimproves woody plant water status most during drought.

  1. Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maalouf, Sami

    2014-01-01

    of potable water via desalination, seawater has transformedLower Energy Seawater Desalination, The Affordablefor a Large-Scale Seawater Desalination Plant with a Reverse

  2. 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns 3D Visualization of Water Transport in Ferns Print Monday, 08 April 2013 00:00 Plants transport water through elongated cells called...

  3. Regular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junge, Wolfgang

    II of cyanobacteria and plants incorporates the catalytic centre of water oxidation. PoweredRegular paper Search for intermediates of photosynthetic water oxidation Juergen Clausen & Wolfgang Key words: intermediate, photosynthesis, Photosystem II, S-state, water oxidation Abstract Photosystem

  4. Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    1993-01-01

    This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

  5. Quenching China's Thirst for Renewable Power: Water Implications of China's Renewable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2014-01-01

    tower plant in China. ” Renewable and Sustainable Energyby plant in Guangxi. ” Renewable and Sustainable EnergyChina’s Thirst for Renewable Power: Water Implications of

  6. Better Plants Look Ahead Webinar: Text Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Better Plants Program hosted a webinar on January 22, 2015 to review accomplishments to date and detail new initiatives to save partners energy and water. Question and answer session is included. Download presentation slides.

  7. Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier University Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006 Clemson, SC 2004 Annual Water-Quality Report

  8. Fant's Grove Water System System No, SC390112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier University Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Fant's Grove Water System System No, SC390112 Clemson, SC 2004 Annual Water-Quality Report

  9. Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier University Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006 Clemson, SC 2005 Annual Water-Quality Report

  10. Fant's Grove Water System System No, SC390112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier University Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Fant's Grove Water System System No, SC390112 Clemson, SC 2003 Annual Water-Quality Report

  11. Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier University Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006 Clemson, SC 2008 Annual Water-Quality Report

  12. Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    a distribution system, we do not actually filter or treat our water and therefore depend on our water supplier University Water System is supplied by ARJWS, Hartwell Lake Filter Plant which draws its water from the U1 Clemson University Water System System No, SC3910006 Clemson, SC 2003 Annual Water-Quality Report

  13. Energy Consumption and Conservation Potential at a Georgia Textile Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurta, M. E.; Brown, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    is air-conditioned, the plant is an intensive user of electricity, fossil fuel, and water. Following completion of the energy analysis, recommendations to conserve energy and water resources were developed. Potential energy savings of approximately thirty...

  14. Mapping Geothermal Heat Flow and Existing Plants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new clean, renewable geothermal plants in the near future. EGS works by injecting cold water deep into the Earth's crust. This water flows through fissures and cracks in the...

  15. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant Number 01HQGR0113 Fiscal Year March 1, 2001 through February 28, 2002 Prepared by Arizona Water Wastewater Treatment Plant (RRWTP). Recovered water is used for landscape irrigation. RRWTP effluent above to evapotranspiration. Effluent from Pima County's Ina Road Wastewater Treatment Plant is also discharged into the Santa

  16. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are the most important yet least monitored part of a municipal activated sludge sewage treatment plant hybridization (a.k.a. FISH) - to track activated sludge microorganisms in municipal sewage treatment plants District Research Category: Water Quality Focus Category: Water Quality, Treatment, Nutrients Descriptors

  17. Stochastic Dynamics of Plant-Water Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    of standard approximations employed in analysis of stochastic processes (e.g., small noise perturbations). Ex what is known at the smaller scales. The theme of this review purposely resembles a centuries

  18. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer4Study of the Use of

  19. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer4Study of the Use

  20. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids.

  1. Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koptur, Suzanne

    appeared at this time. Both of these groups of plants had life cycles, involving two generations. One of the year these mosses will produce tiny sporophytes. Prior to this generation, the tiny plants producedPrimitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS These are the plants that were present soon after

  2. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  3. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  4. Efficiency combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

  5. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  6. TECHNICAL ARTICLES PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brix, Hans

    organic matter, which subsequently provides the energy source for heterotrophs (animals, bacteria, allowing solids to settle out of the water column. Plants assimilate nutrients, but as the plants senesce, some nutrients are released back into the water. A portion of the nutrients is retained

  7. Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development Di Zhao a , Hong T S · An optimized extraction method for As speciation in plants based on three differ- ent plants and four different methods was developed. · The optimized method was based on ethanol/water extraction and used 50% less

  8. Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scown, Corinne Donahue

    2010-01-01

    Coal Mining Water Use Calculations Activity Surface MiningSurface Mining Underground Mining Beneficiation Other Plant Operations L Water Consumed / MJ Coal

  9. Trends in Surface Water Quality at the University of Florida, Gainesville.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    that include municipal waste water treatment plants, industrial discharge, urban stormwater drains and water. The NPDES required that the University of Florida implement a stormwater management program (Lindhoss

  10. Investigating Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity...

  11. The polluted surface water exerts an influence on underground water and its environmental effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, H.

    1995-12-31

    The relationship between the polluted surface water flowing through urban areas and adjacent ground water resources in the southeast of China was systematically studied. The polluted surface water contained elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the sediment. When this water was directly used in irrigation or as fertilizer, the harmful components and heavy metals were transported from water to soil and were adsorbed by soil and plants. The health of local people who drank the ground water was threatened.

  12. Water Requirements for Future Energy production in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    fraction water of Since solar power plants the electricalPower Plant Type Nuclear Oil Nuclear Coal Geothermal Nuclear Oil Oil Combined Cycle Nuclear Oil Nuclear Oil Coal Combined Cycle Solar

  13. Physiological applications for determining water use efficiency among cotton genotypes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, Joshua Brian

    2009-05-15

    Drought stress can substantially alter plant metabolism by decreasing plant growth and photosynthesis. The lack of rapid and reliable screening criteria and measurement techniques for determining water use efficiency (WUE) ...

  14. Literature review: Phytoaccumulation of chromium, uranium, and plutonium in plant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossner, L.R.; Loeppert, R.H.; Newton, R.J.; Szaniszlo, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    Phytoremediation is an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the cleanup of contaminated soils, which combines the disciplines of plant physiology, soil chemistry, and soil microbiology. Metal hyperaccumulator plants are attracting increasing attention because of their potential application in decontamination of metal-polluted soils. Traditional engineering technologies may be too expensive for the remediation of most sites. Removal of metals from these soils using accumulator plants is the goal of phytoremediation. The emphasis of this review has been placed on chromium (Cr), plutonium (Pu), and uranium (U). With the exception of Cr, these metals and their decay products exhibit two problems, specifically, radiation dose hazards and their chemical toxicity. The radiation hazard introduces the need for special precautions in reclamation beyond that associated with non-radioactive metals. The uptake of beneficial metals by plants occurs predominantly by way of channels, pores, and transporters in the root plasma membrane. Plants characteristically exhibit a remarkable capacity to absorb what they need and exclude what they don`t need. But most vascular plants absorb toxic and heavy metals through their roots to some extent, though to varying degrees, from negligible to substantial. Sometimes absorption occurs because of the chemical similarity between beneficial and toxic metals. Some plants utilize exclusion mechanisms, where there is a reduced uptake by the roots or a restricted transport of the metal from root to shoot. At the other extreme, hyperaccumulator plants absorb and concentrate metals in both roots and shoots. Some plant species endemic to metalliferous soils accumulate metals in percent concentrations in the leaf dry matter.

  15. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  16. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was fed cyanide laden wastewater and produced treated water with no measurable cyanide. The results from to test a pilot-scale plant for treatment of cyanide contaminated water. During the first yearWater Resources Center Annual Technical Report FY 1998 Introduction Research Program Basic Project

  17. Plant Operational Status - Pantex Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen Generation | Center for GasPhysics Physics PrintPicturePlant

  18. The Use of a Woody Plant Nursery in Herbicide Research. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bovey, R.W.; Meyer, R.E.; Morton, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    involving soils, plants, and water. There are, however, several problems associated with operating a nursery. First, it is expensive to maintain, requiring much labor and specialized machinery. The nursery requires constant care because young plants... environments of West Texas. Most areas needing water are flood-irrigated. The irrigation equipment consists of 8-inch and 5-inch diameter aluminum pipe. An 8-inch diameter pipe is connected to a 6-inch diameter water well pipe and is laid on the concrete...

  19. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBNL collected water and waste water tariffs in Californiastate. Current water and waste water tariffs for these areaswas based on water and waste water tariffs in California

  20. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Saturday 25 May Given Rowell CBW Converse HSRF > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning

  1. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation R&D Roadmap for...

  2. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A Feasibility...

  3. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants: Main Report and Appendix A Hydroelectric Webinar...

  4. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy efficiency+ power plant...

  5. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  6. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  7. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  8. Soil and Vegetation Management: Keys to Water Conservation on Rangeland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuster, Joseph L.

    2001-01-11

    The amount of water that soaks into the soil largely determines plant productivity. We can manage and conserve water where and when it falls, and by controlling the kind of vegetation we can make the fullest use of rain ...

  9. Tour of Entergy's Nuclear Power Plant in River Bend Owner: Entergy Gulf States Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    : Boiling Water Reactor Reactor Manufacturer: General Electric Turbine Generator Manufacturer: General a nuclear power plant. Plant was Entergy, a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) type. Built in the 80's, it has from the reactor is stored under water. An alternative storage is the dry cask storage which

  10. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2014-02-26

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  11. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  12. Youth Water Camp: Ward County 4-H program educates students about water conservation, quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Youth water camp.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5692 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Youth water camp.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O | pg. 24... A plant chemist directs Water Camp youth in basic water analysis at a local power plant during a tour. Story by Danielle Supercinski Ward County 4-H program educates students about water conservation, quality In January 1991, a committee...

  13. Evaluating the economic effectiveness of a cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korik, L.; Yeaple, D.: Hajosy, M.

    1996-08-01

    Economic considerations constitute the major factor in the decision to build a cogeneration plant and to its eventual design - topics which have been the focus of many studies and papers. These economic concerns continue when the plant is built and on-line, thus plant operation must be geared to provide the customers` demand in the most economically effective manner possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of and high degree of interaction between the disparate components of a cogeneration plant oftentimes, make it difficult to conceptualize the plant configuration required to maximize plant economic performance for a given demand, Indeed, actions taken to increase the thermal performance of individual plant components can actually decrease the overall economic effectiveness of the plant as a whole in the context of converting fuels to sendouts. What is needed, then, is a way to meld the performance of individual plant components into a total plant performance index that accurately measures the economic effectiveness of the plant. This paper details such a method developed by the Cogeneration Management Company to accomplish the performance evaluation of its Medical Area Total Energy Plant which supplies electricity, steam, and chilled water to the Longwood. Medical Area in Boston, This method - which is easily adapted to a variety of cogeneration designs - addresses the aforementioned complexities in the assessing of a cogeneration plant`s effectiveness and results in simple-to-understand plant performance quantifications which have proved to be of great utility in ensuring the economically sound operation of MATEP.

  14. University of Nevada, Reno Plant Community Invasibility in Riparian Landscapes: Role of Disturbance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weisberg, Peter J.

    , diversions, and inter-basin water transfers alter disturbance regimes (flood frequency, magnitude, timingUniversity of Nevada, Reno Plant Community Invasibility in Riparian Landscapes: Role of Disturbance GRACE MORTENSON entitled Plant Community Invasibility in Riparian Landscapes: Role of Disturbance

  15. Response of chickpea cultivars and pea to irrigation and planting rates. Grant Jackson and John Miller, Western Triangle Ag. Research Center, Conrad, MT 59425;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    irrigation water demand conflicts between the two crops. In addition, little or no planting or harvest irrigation water data are summarized in Table 1. Pre-plant and post-harvest soil water was determined, and after harvest, each plot was sampled to determine soil water content. Soil water use (in inches

  16. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  17. Abstract--A study was conducted on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada to determine adaptable plant species, methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plotswerepreparedwithvariousseedbed/ water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and straw mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three

  18. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of microscopic plants and animals. Far beneath the surface, corals and other deepwater communities might also be a ected. OIL AND HUMAN AND SEDIMENTS · Water quality surveys · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment

  19. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  20. EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdalla H. Ali; Raj Kamarthi; John H. Anderson; Earl R. Berry; Charles H. Schrader; Lalit S. Shah

    2003-04-16

    The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified the integration of the water produced in the F-T synthesis section with the gasification section as an area of potential synergy. By utilizing the F-T water in the petroleum coke slurry for the gasifier, the EECP can eliminate a potential waste stream and reduce capital costs. There is a low technical risk for this synergy, however, the economic risk, particularly in regards to the water, can be high. The economic costs include the costs of treating the water to meet the locally applicable environmental standards. This option may require expensive chemicals and treatment facilities. EECP Phase II included tests conducted to confirm the viability of integrating F-T water in the slurry feed for the gasifier. Testing conducted at ChevronTexaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) included preparing slurries made using petroleum coke with F-T water collected at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The work included bench scale tests to determine the slurry ability of the petroleum coke and F-T water. The results of the tests show that F-T water does not adversely affect slurries for the gasifier. There are a few cases where in fact the addition of F-T water caused favorable changes in viscosity of the slurries. This RD&T task was executed in Phase II and results are reported herein.

  1. Home Consumer Perceptions about Landscape Water Conservation and Relationships with Historical Usage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milberger, Whitney F.

    2010-07-14

    Water is considered to be one of the most limited and precious resources on Earth. Due to this scarcity, water conservation has become essential in order to preserve water resources. Landscape plant material brings quality to urban and suburban...

  2. Application of Matrix Completion on Water Treatment Data Sofia Savvaki

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsakalides, Panagiotis

    Application of Matrix Completion on Water Treatment Data Sofia Savvaki savvaki@csd.uoc.gr Grigorios) have rev- olutionized water management in urban areas. Nevertheless, literature reports minor progress in introducing CPS-based systems at industrial water treatment plants, responsible for water purification

  3. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    three different activated sludges. These included activated sludge from a range of plant sizes which had at the two municipal wastewater treatment plants examined. The seasonal trends were correlated to commonWater Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1998 Introduction Research Program

  4. Water in the Soil http://www.alison-burke.com/jpgs-large/lifesciences/soil_waterflow.jpg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Recap Recap Recap #12;Water in the Soil http://www.alison-burke.com/jpgs-large/lifesciences/soil_waterflow.jpg Soil water potential More negative #12;Less water requires more force As the soil water content decreases, plants need to excerpt more pressure to take water Photosynthesis and Water A decreases

  5. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  6. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN); Hahn, J. J. (New Brighton, MN); Eschenlauer, Arthur C. (Circle Pines, MN)

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  7. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  8. Study of Multi-Scale Plant-Groundwater Interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gou, Si

    2014-05-30

    surface area: leaf area without cavitation in roots The model calculates water potential and water content changes in both soil and plant media simultaneously. Water flow may be into or out of vegetation depending on the direction of water potential.... Previous studies have also revealed that roots are more vulnerable to cavitation than stems and shoots, making them the weakest links in the GSPAC [Jackson et al., 2000; Saliendra et al., 1995; Sperry and Saliendra, 1994]. The loss of hydraulic...

  9. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01

    range specialist, The Texas A&M University System . 2 DIAGNOSING POISONOOS PLANT PROBLEMS Accurate diagnosis of poisonous plant problems can be extremely difficult. Many cases of livestock poisoning by plants have been improperly diagnosed... Agricultural Extension Service ~-P~,IJ& H~iN!/ P~,IJ&--------------- poisonous Plant ___ Management_ ..... Texas Agricultural Extension Service. The Texas A&M University System. College Station, Texas POISONO(]S PLANT MANAGEMENT Allan McGinty* Poisonous...

  10. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  11. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Plants | National Nuclear Security Administra...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and works in an office building. U.S. naval nuclear propulsion plants use a pressurized-water reactor design that has two basic systems: the primary system and the secondary...

  12. Urban Reclamation in São Paulo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskinazi, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The urbanized terrain of São Paulo is characterized by wasteful landscapes on peripheral areas of the metropolitan agglomeration, and decaying landscapes of waste in the core of the city. If on the one hand, the increasingly ...

  13. Provide Assistance to Improve Water Quality in Hood County 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce; Mechell, Justin; Clayton, Brent; Gerlich, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    water for industrial use, including cooling water for a natural gas?fired steam electric power plant and the Comanche Peak nuclear power plant. It is also a recreation haven for local water enthusiasts. Declining water quality in Lake Granbury has...-7442-9-486 INTRODUCTION The overall goal for this project was to provide a mechanism to educate local stakeholders about water quality issues that affect Lake Granbury. This project provided an assessment of existing and potential water quality threats related to on...

  14. The Binary Cooling Tower Process: An Energy Conserving Water Reuse Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lancaster, R. L.; Sanderson, W. G.; Cooke, R. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    cooling water loop. No eva9O"a "'fred througn the medium to the cooHng loop. evaporates cooling water can be held to a selected quality. Evaporatton waste water which in tum cools the plant cooling water. Waste occurs in the BCT cooling loop onty.... tion occurs in the plant coo~ng water loop, therefore. the plant water used tlr productive waste heat rejectk>n is recirculated and concentrated to 12C.OOO mglliter TOS. The extensive re use of water in the BCT substantialty reduces blowdown. Figure...

  15. #~i;:~~.:(' . AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    -4 EFFECTS OF WATER CHEMISTRY ON SUBMERSED AQUATIC PLANTS: A SYNTHESIS by R. Michael Smart Environmental. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City. State, and ZIP Code) 3909 Halls Ferry Road IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable) US Army Corps of Engineers Be. ADDRESS (City, Stitte

  16. ADAPTIVE MODEL BASED CONTROL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    that obliged the water boards to increase the energy-efficiency of wastewater treatment plants with at least 2ADAPTIVE MODEL BASED CONTROL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS Arie de Niet1 , Maartje van de Vrugt2.j.boucherie@utwente.nl Abstract In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge

  17. Creating Wildlife Habitat with Native Florida Freshwater Wetland Plants1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    and absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas associated with global warming. Wetland plants improve water quality by remov- ing fertilizers such as nitrogen and phosphorus and, by doing so, help control algal in Florida and spread extensively into natural areas. Non-native plants that spread into natural areas

  18. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District: Third Research Category: Water Quality Focus Category: Toxic Substances, Groundwater, Treatment and Pesticides in Soils, Sludges, DNAPLs and Bulk With Na/NH3 at Ambient Temperature, Mississippi Water Resources creasote wood treatment plants and nitrated organic residues from munitions

  19. Reactivity of Charcoal-Derived Water Soluble Biomarkers in River Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Matthew 1985-

    2011-04-25

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the residence time of water-soluble levoglucosan and free lignin-derived phenols, from two different plant charcoals. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) was extracted from honey mesquite and cordgrass charcoal...

  20. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies are used for agriculture, natural resources, salt water intrusion protection, drinking water, industry

  1. Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Crop Science Option The challenge for crop scientists is to implement crop and soil management systems, weed science, and entomology. Graduates find careers in farming and ranching; as crop productionDepartment of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology Unique, hands-on study programs for students

  2. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  3. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  4. Geothermal Demonstration Plant

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    configuration by the preparation of process flow diagrams for the initial plant operating condition and the 1-2 mid-range plant operating condition. have been revised and expanded...

  5. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  6. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  7. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  8. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, RongGuan (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  9. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  10. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01

    LBL-8596 itr-t C,d.. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS jmethods of isolating the hydrocarbon-like material from I.privatelyownedrights. HYDROCARBONS AND ENERGY FROM PLANTS

  11. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. [Constellation Energy Group, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, Ontario, NY (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  12. Magnetic Detection of Microstructure Change in Power Plant Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yardley, Victoria Anne

    2003-07-12

    energy by a system of turbines and a generator. Figure 2.1 shows the route followed by the steam and water. Water is pumped into the boiler and converted to steam, then superheated. It is injected through nozzles onto the blades of the high pressure (HP... . – 2 – Chapter 2 Microstructural Evolution in Power Plant Steels 2.1 Power plant operation In power plant, heat energy from fuel combustion or nuclear fission is used to produce jets of steam. The kinetic energy of the steam is converted to electrical...

  13. Plant evolution The Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Plant evolution The Evolution of Plants by Kathy J. Willis and Jenny C. McElwain. Oxford University Press, 2002. $40.00/£22.99 pbk (378 pages) ISBN 0 19 850065 3 Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution is observed for treatments of evolution and development. Titles of major monographs on the subject imply

  14. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  15. NUCLEAR PLANT AND CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: software require- ments, safety analysis, formal for the digital protection systems of a nuclear power plant. When spec- ifying requirements for software and CRSA processes are described using shutdown system 2 of the Wolsong nuclear power plants as the digital

  16. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    important fuel for power plants generating electricity. Inelectric power-generating plants in the United Statesthermal electricity-generating plants are moving from once-

  17. Tree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    generation mechanisms. Prior to harvest, K soil- water concentrations were relatively uniform with depthTree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on Nutrient Dynamics and Solute to determine how trees affect the behavior of these nutrients in soil water, both during growth and after

  18. Biosolids and Plants Sally Brown, Ph.D, Associate Professor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    causing organisms When water enters a wastewater treatment facility, it contains a variety of organisms the wastewater treatment plants in King County is released into Puget Sound. In Washington, DC, water from one of the primary concerns with the safety of land application of biosolids has been how

  19. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brush, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    significant source of water and energy use in a dairy plant.reduce the amount of water and energy used. Using reuse oruse copious quantities of water and energy in the cleaning

  20. WELDON SPRING EPA Region 7 10/13/2011 QUARRY/PLANT/ PITTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , cleaning up radioactive soil from Army Reserve properties, dismantling the chemical plant structures structures were dismantled and placed in temporary storage. Two water treatment plants were built to manage the treatment and discharge of stormwater and impounded surface water. Quarry Bulk Waste: In 1990, the DOE chose

  1. PowerProjections2003(avgusing5-03water,BrokerPrices)(amended...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    jections2003(avgusing5-03water,BrokerPrices)(amended).xls SLIP Energy WY Gross Gen from Hydro LP Dolores Gen. Total SLIP Gross Gen Avg. Plant Use SLIP Net Gen @ Plant Losses SLIP...

  2. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  3. Simulation Modeling of Plants and Plant Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Simulation Modeling of Plants and Plant Ecosystems Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz Reference Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz: Simulation Modeling of Plants and Plant Ecosystems. Communications of the ACM vol. 43 no. 7, pp The modeling of plants and plant ecosystems has the captivating appeal of reproducing the visual beauty

  4. Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence arbuscular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Seven years of carbon dioxide enrichment, nitrogen fertilization and plant diversity influence by examining the joint effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment, nitrogen (N) fertilization and plant. Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) influences plant water relations and often pref- erentially

  5. Biofuels from Sorghum: Plant-based Sesquiterpene Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Chromatin will engineer sweet sorghum—a plant that naturally produces large quantities of sugar and requires little water—to accumulate the fuel precursor farnesene, a molecule that can be blended into diesel fuel. Chromatin’s proprietary technology enables the introduction of a completely novel biosynthetic process into the plant to produce farnesene, enabling sorghum to accumulate up to 20% of its weight as fuel. Chromatin will also introduce a trait to improve biomass yields in sorghum. The farnesene will accumulate in the sorghum plants—similar to the way in which it currently stores sugar—and can be extracted and converted into a type of diesel fuel using low-cost, conventional methods. Sorghum can be easily grown and harvested in many climates with low input of water or fertilizer, and is already planted on an agricultural scale. The technology will be demonstrated in a model plant, guayule, before being used in sorghum.

  6. Costlier, scarcer supplies dictate making thermal plants less thirsty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, J.R. [Limno-Tech Inc. (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The Energy Information Administration estimates that US thermoelectric generating capacity will grow from 709 GW in 2005 to 862 GW in 2030 to help meet annual demand of 2%. The makeup and cooling water needed by plants generating that increased capacity certainly won't be available from withdrawal sources, so plant developers and owners will have to apply water saving technologies plantwide. As is usually the case, conservation saves money as well as the environment. A brief economic analysis of some solutions to the water problem is included. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and quality issues of water harvesting, development of alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and non to the public water distribution systems. The islands experience challenges in collecting and disposing in water quality degradation, plant nutrient management in aquaponic systems, anthropogenic impacts

  8. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of natural potable water for residents in these islands where cisterns are required by law. Seawater desalination plants supply the water distribution networks that are restricted to certain areas in the islands due to the hilly terrain. Dependence on rainfall and the expensive desalinated water makes Virgin

  9. Energy and Water Scarcity: Impacts on Infrastructure, Growth and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    Techno-economic Evaluation Of A Solar Powered Water Desalination Plant. In L. Rizzuti et al. (edsEnergy and Water Scarcity: Impacts on Infrastructure, Growth and Economic Development in Arizona Demand AZ 2030 * Phoenix 2005; **Tucson 2005; 150=smart growth +66% +53% +45% From 2006 base #12;Water

  10. Informa(on and Resources Herbicides and Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    How do herbicides get into surface water? · Washed off soil, hard surfaces, or treated plants by rain conditions determine the availability of water to help herbicides move · Runoff is likely with rainInforma(on and Resources Herbicides and Water Quality What is an herbicide

  11. PLANT DISEASES IN SOUTH CAROLINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    INDEX OF PLANT DISEASES IN SOUTH CAROLINA James H. Blake, Ed.D. Director, Home & Garden Information to compile a list of plant diseases occurring on cultivated and native plants in South Carolina. The data or conclusive list of the diseases of plants in South Carolina. New plants as well as new plant pathogens

  12. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that the Limerick plant could withdraw a larger volume of river water. The report also included a description of several other proposed facilities that were planning to use mine pool water. In early 2006, NETL directed Argonne to revisit the sites that had previously been using mine pool water and update the information offered in the previous report. This report describes the status of mine pool water use as of summer 2006. Information was collected by telephone interviews, electronic mail, literature review, and site visits.

  13. San Diego Solar Panels Generate Clean Electricity Along with Clean Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Thanks to San Diego's ambitious solar energy program, the Otay Water Treatment Plant may soon be able to do that with net zero electricity consumption.

  14. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B. (Athens, GA); McKinney, Elizabeth (Athens, GA); Kim, Tehryung (Taejeon, KR)

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  15. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  16. Grabbing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  17. National Smart Water Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water crossing the US-Mexico border; and decreased eutrophication (excessive plant growth and decay) in the Gulf of Mexico to name a few. The National Smart Water Grid{trademark} will pay for itself in a single major flood event.

  18. SC Johnson Waxdale Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on a 6.4 MW CHP application at SC Johnson Waxdale Plant in Racine, Wisconsin.

  19. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  20. Benefits of evaporating FGD purge water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, W.A. [HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2008-03-15

    In the US and the European Union, scrubbers are installed on all new coal-fired power plants because their technology is considered the best available for removing SO{sub 2}. A zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system is the best technology for treating wet scrubber wastewate. With the future promising stricter limits on power plants' water use, ZLD systems that concentrate scrubber purge streams are sure to become as common as ZLD cooling tower blowdonw systems. 7 figs.

  1. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  2. Spatial association between the locations of roots and water flow paths in highly structured soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardiner, Nathan Thomas

    2005-02-17

    relative to the location of water flow paths is important in understanding how plants obtain nutrients and water for growth, and it would also be of considerable importance in phytoremediation research and research into the prevention of groundwater...

  3. Process Integration Study of a Food Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, P.; Tripathi, P.

    1991-01-01

    installation. Potential process modification option is also presented which reduces the amount of heat being released to the room from hot tanks and thus provides the plant with a more comfortable working environment. INTRODUCTION An analysis is performed... of the payback periods for suggested retrofit schemes. PROCESS DESCRIPTION Cereal meal at 70?F is mixed and cooked with hot water and steam in the wet mixer. The product is then passed through cooker. The large amount of moisture contained in the product...

  4. Growing plants on atoll soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the year. Except on the driest of atolls, air temperature and humidity range only within limits set by the surrounding sea. There are no cold seasons, no frosts, no cold soils, no dry winds, and no periodic plagues of insects or diseases moving from miles away. Problems of soil drainage or salinity are few and easily recognized. Nor are there problems with acid soils, soil crusting, or erosion that challenge cultivators in many other areas. On the contrary, some of the black soils at the center of wide islands rank with the best soils of Russia and the American Midwest, except for their shortage of potassium and the uncertainties of rainfall. Some of these atoll soils contain more total nitrogen than many of the world's most productive agricultural soils and, in some, the total phosphorus content is so high as to be almost unbelievable--two to five tons of the element per acre. Certainly, problems exist in growing plants on atolls. There are also some special concerns not encountered in other environments, such as the wind and salt spray near shore. The two major physical limitations, however, are inadequate rainfall in some years and in many places, and soil fertility limitations. The alkaline or ''limy'' make-up of atoll soils means that a few plant nutrients, especially iron, limit growth of many introduced plants, and this is difficult to correct. As elsewhere in the world, many--but not all--atoll soils lack enough nitrogen and/or phosphorus for high yield, and all lack sufficient potassium. There is no practical way of overcoming drought except by use of tolerant plants such as coconut (ni) and Pandanus (bob), plus collection and careful use of whatever water is available. There are opportunities to overcome nutritional limitations mentioned above, first, by intensive use of all organic debris and household wastes in small gardens and, second, by use of commercial fertilizers. Imported fertilizers are expensive, certainly, but much less so on a family basis than the equivalent costs of imported food.

  5. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  6. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: moderator temper ature coefficient, reactivity co reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed of Reactor Physics SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden GABOR PÓR Budapest University of Technology and Economics H

  9. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: moderator temper- ature coefficient, reactivity co reactor Unit 4 of the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (Sweden) during fuel cycle 16 is analyzed of Reactor Physics SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden GABOR PÓR Budapest University of Technology and Economics H

  10. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  11. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    in order to reduce the water and energy wasted in hot waterhot water) and 17% if hot water energy is included. The datafrom the delivered hot water energy of 66% to provide the

  12. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Because the hydrogen peroxide oxidation technique underestimated the amount of pyrite in the CSS-2 samples, the amount of FBC waste or sized Ag LS used in each mixture with CSS-2 were less than necessary to satisfy the stoichiometric amount of acid that could be generated by complete oxidation of the pyrite in the CSS samples. However, the leaching experiments demonstrated that FBC waste is as effective as Ag LS in neutralizing the generated acid, and that the leachate pH would be approximately the same as that from Ag LS/CSS mixtures. In fact, the calcium hydroxide from the original hydrated FBC waste was converted to calcium carbonate in a short period of time, as indicated by chemical and mineralogical data. If the laboratory leaching experiments had continued for a long enough term, the alkaline materials present either in the unleached CSS-2, or added to the FBC wastes would have been consumed before all the pyrite had been oxidized, because of the deficiency of FBC waste in the mixtures. There is some concern, because of the concentrations of sodium and chloride in the initial leachates, over the toxicity of the leachates to plants. Although both these solutes were flushed quickly from the laboratory and outdoor weathering solids, this might not be the case in a coal slurry pond. Therefore, salt-tolerant plants might have to be selected for revegetation of the amended coal slurry solids.

  13. Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    Modeling plant growth and development Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz Department of Computer Science plant models or "virtual plants" are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form

  14. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... are partnering with federal and state agencies and universities to develop new programs or market existing ones. In North Central Texas, the city of McKin- ney and Texas AgriLife Research and Exten- sion Urban Solutions Center at Dallas recently began...

  15. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    study, which was calculated at 400 per acre-foot of water. Conveyance of treated wastewater from the treatment plant to the point of use is a potentially important cost. Both...

  16. Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ID-11263 January 2006 Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants U.S. Department of...

  17. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Photosynthesis: Plants Making Fuel...

  18. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  19. An Archaeological Survey for the Dogwood Springs Water Supply Corporation Water System Improvements Project in Anderson County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-29

    An archaeological survey of a well and plant site in central Anderson County, Texas was performed on November 4, 2007 by Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) for the Dogwood Springs Water Supply Corporation (WSC) under Antiquities Permit 4709...

  20. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  1. Can New Nuclear Power Plants be Project Financed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Simon

    plant & desalination plant 2007 2.8 Calyon, Citigroup, SMBC Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, International Power, Marubeni Sakhalin II, Russia Liquefied natural gas & oil development 2008 5.3 Japan Bank for International Cooperation... lenders. This third party would therefore need to be highly creditworthy, or receive guarantees from export credit agencies or similar state- backed entities. 3 http://www.horizonnuclearpower.com/ EPRG...

  2. Adaptive Optimization of Central Chiller Plant Equipment Sequencing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    the optimal sequence of central refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in an industrial plant. The control algorithm adapts the optimal equipaent sequence to reflect changes in the plant's cooling load and outside air... primary pumps totaling 625 horsepower and two chilled water booster pumps totaling 200 horsepower. Heat rejected by the chillers' vapor-compression cycles is rejected to the atmosphere by five cooling towers totaling 4,335 tons of refrigeration...

  3. Plant Phenotype Characterization System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Phenotype Characterization System Plant Phenotype Characterization System New X-Ray Technology Accelerates Plant Research The ability to analyze plant root structure and...

  4. Water Stress Inhibits Hydraulic Conductance and Leaf Growth in Rice Seedlings but Not the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumann, Peter M.

    Water Stress Inhibits Hydraulic Conductance and Leaf Growth in Rice Seedlings but Not the Transport of Water via Mercury-Sensitive Water Channels in the Root1 Zhongjin Lu and Peter M. Neumann* Plant of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel The mechanisms by which moderate water stress (adding poly- ethylene glycol

  5. A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Newmark, Robin; Heath, Garvin; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    This report provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. The presented water factors may be useful in modeling and policy analyses where reliable power plant level data are not available.

  6. A Surface Water Protection Assessment Tool that uses Digital Elevation Models1 Darwin L. Sorensen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarboton, David

    . A first approximation estimate of pollutant concentration reaching the drinking water treatment plant of surface water supplies to pollution from current and future activities in the watershed. Surface water of pollution under various storm intensities can be analyzed. The influences of shallow ground water quality (e

  7. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

  8. Water Resources Advisory Panel Updates By Rachael Herpel,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of this project. UNL's Suat Irmak described how the Bowen ratio energy balance system (BREBS) is being used-by-side with same plant variety, same soil type, same irrigation system and irrigation management, same planting feet to be taller than the Phragmites being studied. Water quality monitoring equipment was also

  9. Biofuel impacts on water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  10. One of the most pervasive human impacts to salt marshes around the world is the introduction of nonnative species. Plant introductions to salt marsh systems have

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    . The aboveground structure shades the substrate, reducing photosynthesis of benthic microalgae and restricts water plant biomass and peat production, influence sediment chemistry and metabolism. In addition, belowground plant biomass can preempt substantial amounts of belowground habitat, directly reducing benthic

  11. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Five fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes, one agricultural limestone (Ag LS), and two coal slurry solids (CSS) samples were characterized chemically and mineralogically. Mixtures of the materials (FBC waste or Ag LS and CSS) were prepared and subjected to leaching with deionized water in laboratory experiments and with meteoric water in outdoor weathering experiments. The major cations in the leachates were calcium and sodium, with minor concentrations of magnesium and potassium. The major anions were chloride and sulfate, with minor amounts of fluoride and bicarbonate. The major minerals in the unleached FBC wastes were calcium oxide and calcium sulfate (anhydrite). The calcium oxide was hydrated upon wetting to calcium hydroxide, which was converted to calcium carbonate (calcite) upon exposure to atmospheric carbon dioxide, or carbon dioxide from the neutralization reaction of acid with calcite. The calcium hydroxide controlled the pH of leachates in the early leaching period, whereas calcite controlled the pH in the later leaching period. The alkaline calcium species in the FBC wastes effectively neutralized the acid generated by pyrite oxidation. In extracts generated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), selenium was found to be above the US EPA primary drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) in extracts from each of the FBC wastes and CSS samples. Mercury was above its MCL in the extract of FBC-2. The other six constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ag) were below their corresponding MCLS. Hence, these FBC wastes would not be classified as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  12. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  13. Enabling better water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    CASE STUDY Enabling better water management Seasonal Streamflow Forecast Service influencing water decisions Water management decisions made with confidence Using the Bureau's streamflow forecasting, ACTEW Water confidently removed temporary water restrictions after the millennium drought. Millennium drought

  14. Iowa Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  15. Illinois Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  16. Arkansas Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear net...

  17. Nebraska Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State nuclear...

  18. Washington Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...

  19. Mississippi Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...

  20. Connecticut Nuclear Profile - Power Plants

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut nuclear power plants, summer capacity and net generation, 2010" "Plant nametotal reactors","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Share of State...