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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

2

Review of Wildfire Effects on Chemical Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

The Cerro Grande Fire of May 2000 burned almost 43,000 acres of forested land within the Pajarito Plateau watershed in northern New Mexico. Runoff events after the fire were monitored and sampled by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Changes in the composition of runoff water were noted when compared to runoff water composition of the previous 20 years. In order to understand the chemical water quality changes noted in runoff water after the Cerro Grande Fire, a summary of the reported effects of fire on runoff water chemistry and on soils that contribute to runoff water chemistry was compiled. The focus of this report is chemical water quality, so it does not address changes in sediment transport or water quantity associated with fires. Within the general inorganic parameters, increases of dissolved calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium and pH in runoff water have been observed as a result of fire. However, the dissolved sodium, carbon, and sulfate have been observed to increase and decrease as a result of fire. Metals have been much less studied, but manganese, copper, zinc, and cesium-137 have been observed to increase as a result of fire.

Kelly Bitner; Bruce Gallaher; Ken Mullen

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Impervious Areas: Examining the Undermining Effects on Surface Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study explored the relationship between increased proportions of imperviousness in a watershed on surface water quality and examined the effectiveness of using remote sensing to systematically and accurately determine impervious surfaces. A supervised maximum likelihood algorithm was used to classify the 2008 high resolution National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery into six classifications. A stratified random sampling scheme was conducted to complete an accuracy assessment of the classification. The overall accuracy was 85%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.80. Additionally, field sampling and chemical analysis techniques were used to examine the relationship between impervious surfaces and water quality in a rainfall simulation parking lot study. Results indicated that day since last rain event had the most significant effect on surface water quality. Furthermore, concrete produced higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), potassium and calcium in runoff concentrations than did asphalt. Finally, a pollutant loading application model was used to estimate pollutant loadings for three watersheds using two scenarios. Results indicated that national data may overestimate annual pollutant loads by approximately 700%. This study employed original techniques and methodology to combine the extraction of impervious surfaces, utilization of local rainfall runoff data and hydrological modeling to increase planners' and scientists' awareness of using local data and remote sensing data to employ predictive hydrological modeling.

Young, De'Etra Jenra

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Integrated modelling of risk and uncertainty underlying the cost and effectiveness of water quality measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an overview of the most important sources of uncertainty when analysing the least cost way to improve water quality. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of water quality measures is surrounded by environmental, economic ... Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, Integrated modelling, Risk, Uncertainty, Water quality

Roy Brouwer; Chris De Blois

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

current Delta water Plant and Intake Location System Size (future water quality conditions at different Delta intakesusing the intake with the better water quality between Old

Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Haunschild, Kristine; Lund, Jay R.; Fleenor, William E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Effects of the Water Quality Maintained by Ozonation Enhanced Ecosystem in the Landscape of Reclaimed Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the landscape of reclaimed water always broke out water bloom because of containing high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The TP and TN of the landscape decreased to 0.04mg/L and 2.27mg/L respectively with recycling ozonation at the end of ... Keywords: ozonation, algae, nutrient removal, ecosystem, landscape of reclaimed water

Yu Demiao; Ma Jun; Bai Yu; Gan Yiping

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Use of Models to Reduce Uncertainty and Improve Ecological Effectiveness of Water Quality Trading Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through a United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS) Conservation Innovation Grant, collaborators working on the development of the interstate Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program (www.epri.com/ohiorivertrading) have conducted a robust analysis to evaluate possible approaches for using water quality models for crediting nutrient load reductions from agricultural best management practices (BMPs). A credit estimation method that ensures reliable and...

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Water Quality Criteria Development for Iron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current national water quality criterion for iron — a criterion continuous concentration of 1 mg Fe/L — was derived 25 years ago. Such ambient water quality criteria are typically derived from toxicity tests in which the reagent grade chemical is dissolved in clean laboratory water. However, due to the complexity of iron speciation in freshwater, adverse effects of iron precipitates on habitat quality, and access of organisms to food, standard toxicity assays may not adequately assess the...

2004-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

9

Effects of Biochar Recycling on Switchgrass Growth and Soil and Water Quality in Bioenergy Production Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intensive biomass production in emerging bioenergy systems could increase nonpoint-source sediment and nutrient losses and impair surface and groundwater quality. Recycling biochar, a charcoal byproduct from pyrolysis of biomass, provides potential sources of mineral nutrients and organic carbon for sustaining biomass productivity and preserving soil and water. Yet, research is needed to verify that recycling of pyrolysis biochars will enhance crop growth and soil and environmental quality similar to black carbon or biochar derived from burning of biomass in tropical or Terra Preta soils. The experimental design of this study consisted of 3 replications and four biochar rates (0, 4, 16, and 64 Mg ha-1) incorporated in both a sandy loam and clay soil with and without fertilizer sources of N, P, and K. The sandy loam and clay soils were studied in separate experiments within a set of 24 box lysimeters seeded with switchgrass. Simulated rain was applied at 50 percent and 100 percent establishment of switchgrass for each soil type. Runoff and leachate were collected and analyzed for total and dissolved N, P, K and organic C. After the second rain event, each soil type and the accumulated switchgrass was sampled and analyzed. In the Boonville soil, biochar applied at 64 Mg ha-1 decreased switchgrass emergence from 42 percent to 14 percent when compared to soil alone. In the Burleson soil, 64 Mg ha-1 biochar had no effect (P > 0.05) on biomass production or leaf area index (LAI). Fertilizer N, P, and K had no effect (P > 0.05) on switchgrass emergence for either soil, but did increase (P biochar increased (P biochar receiving supplemental N, P, and K fertilizer also resulted in greater runoff concentrations of DRP. Emergence tests under increased heat showed electrical conductivities of soil-water solutions to be as high as 600 microS cm-1, even after biochar was washed with acetone and water to remove residual oils and tars and soluble salts. Increasing biochar rates decreased soil bulk density and increased pH and SOC in the 0- to 5-cm depth of soil. As a result of high nutrient recovery during pyrolysis (58 percent of total N, 86 percent of total P and 101 percent of total K), high rates of biochar applied at 64 Mg ha-1 increased mass losses of TN, TP, and TK from both soils. Yet, the mass balance of nutrients showed a surplus of N, P, and K at 64 Mg ha-1 biochar, which suggests some nutrient inputs are not plant available and remain in soil. Careful management of biochar, especially at high rates with these high nutrient contents, is critical when trying to improve soil fertility while protecting water quality.  

Husmoen, Derek Howard

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas) Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of...

11

Brookhaven's Drinking-Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality The Lab's finished drinking water is produced with pride by the staff of BNL's Water Treatment Facility Home Groundwater Consumer Confidence Reports Water Treatment Process Resources Tap Water Recommendations Water Cooler Cleaning Additional Resources Brookhaven Lab Drinking Water Brookhaven produces its own drinking water for all employees, facility-users, guests, residents, and visitors on site at its Water Treatment Facility (WTF). BNL's drinking water is pumped from groundwater by five active wells and processed at the WTF which can handle up to 6 million gallons per day. The "finished" water is sent to the Lab's two storage towers and then distributed around the site via 45 miles of pipeline. To ensure that Brookhaven's water meets all applicable local, state, and

12

Identification of tire leachate toxicants and a risk assessment of water quality effects using tire reefs in canals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cover is important to aquatic habitat and fisheries often try to improve habitats by addition of natural and artificial material to improve cover diversity and complexity. Habitat-improvement programs range from submerging used Christmas trees to more complex programs. Used automobile tires have been employed in the large scale construction of reefs and fish attractors in marine environments and to a lesser extent in freshwater and have been recognized as a durable, inexpensive and long-lasting material benefiting fishery communities. Recent studies by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have quantified the importance of tire reefs to enhancing freshwater canal fisheries in the southwestern United States. These studies have demonstrated that fishes and aquatic macroinvertebrates are attracted to these structures, increasing species diversity, densities and biomass where reefs are placed in canals. However, the use of tire reefs in aquatic environments which have relatively small volumes compared to marine or reservoir environments has raised water quality concerns. Effects of tires on water quality have not typically been studied in the past because of the obvious presence of fishes and other aquatic organisms that make use of tire reefs; the implication being that tires are inert and non-toxic. Little information on effects of tires on water quality is in the literature. Stone demonstrated that tire exposure had no detrimental effects on two species of marine fish while results of Kellough's freshwater tests were inconclusive, but suggested that some factor in tire leachate was toxic to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Nozaka et al. found no harmful substances leached from tire material soaked in fresh water. Because there are few data on toxicity associated with tires, this became the focus of our study. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures developed by the EPA were used to evaluate water quality impacted by tires. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Nelson, S.M.; Mueller, G. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)); Hemphill, D.C. (Lower Colorado Regional Office, Boulder City, NV (United States))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Influence of Water Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...BP. Boffardi, Corrosion Inhibitors in the Water Treatment Industry, Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection, Vol 13A, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2003, p 891â??906...

14

Water Quality (Louisiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Quality (Louisiana) Water Quality (Louisiana) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General PublicConsumer Industrial Installer...

15

Water Quality Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Quality Act (Montana) Water Quality Act (Montana) Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility StateProvincial Govt Industrial...

16

Comment on “Modeling Miscanthus in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Simulate Its Water Quality Effects As a Bioenergy Crop”  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors comment on several mistakes made in a journal paper "Modeling Miscanthus in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Simulate Its Water Quality Effects As a Bioenergy Crop" published on Environmental Scienece & Technology, based on field measurements from Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems, and published literature. Our comment has led to the development of another version of SWAT to include better process based description of radiation use efficiency and root-shoot growth.

Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Arnold, J. G.; Sammons, N. B.; Manowitz, David H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Williams, J.R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The effects of an intermittent piped water network and storage practices on household water quality in Tamale, Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals include a target to halve the number of people without access to "improved" water sources, which include piped water supply. However, an "improved" source of water does not ...

Vacs Renwick, Deborah Alexandra

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A Total Energy & Water Quality Management System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report develops a generic model for an energy and water quality management system for the water community, and defines standard specifications for software applications required to minimize energy costs within the constraints of water quality and operation goals.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Trading pollution for water quality : assessing the effects of market-based instruments in three basins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since its passage in 1972, the majority of pollution reduction under the federal Clean Water Act has resulted from technology-based limits imposed on point source dischargers. However, most U.S. water bodies are unmonitored ...

Wallace, Katherine Hay

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Comparison of Effect of Filter Demineralizer and Deep Bed Demineralizer Condensate Polishing on Water Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There have been several boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel cladding corrosion failures; in almost all cases, water chemistry was identified as a contributing factor. All corrosion-related fuel failures occurred exclusively at BWRs with condensate filter demineralizers for condensate polishing. This report investigates the way in which plant-specific condensate polishing system configuration and operating differences can affect feedwater and reactor water chemistry and impact the corrosion resistance ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrated Water Quality Program Impact Report was produced and distributed at the National Integrated Water Management, Irrigation Management, and Water Quality Education for Agricultural Producers. Programs under Management on Livestock and Poultry Farms. · The Water Quality Education for Agricultural Producers Program

22

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Water Quality (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(Oklahoma) Water Quality (Oklahoma) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor General PublicConsumer Industrial InstallerContractor Institutional...

24

Water Quality Standards Implementation (Oklahoma) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Implementation (Oklahoma) Water Quality Standards Implementation (Oklahoma) Eligibility Agricultural Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial InstallerContractor Investor-Owned...

25

Remote Sensing for Water Quality Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote Sensing for Water Quality Applications #12;Objective Give a brief update on GEO Inland and Nearshore Coastal Water Quality Remote Sensing Workshop (GEO Work Task WA-06-01)) Held in Geneva and Nearshore Coastal Water Quality Remote Sensing Workshop (GEO Work Task WA-06-01)) Organizing committee

26

General Water Quality (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Water Quality (Oklahoma) General Water Quality (Oklahoma) General Water Quality (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Environmental Quality The purpose of this water quality rule is to protect, maintain and improve

27

Polyacrylamide and water quality effects on infiltration in sandy loam soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in San Joaquin Valley sandy loam soils. Paper #012259. 2001Effects on Infiltration in Sandy Loam Soils Husein A. Ajwa*irrigation in some sandy loam soils in California.

Ajwa, Husein A; Trout, T J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas) Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting

29

Water Quality Standards (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Iowa) Water Quality Standards (Iowa) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial InstallerContractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local...

30

Water Quality Control (Texas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Control (Texas) Water Quality Control (Texas) Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility StateProvincial Govt Industrial Construction...

31

Amending constructed roadside and urban soils with large volume-based compost applications: effects on water quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mineral nutrients imported in composted dairy manure (CDM) and municipal biosolid (CMB) amendments for highway-rights-of-way and urban landscapes can pose a threat to surface water quality. Treatments were developed to evaluate recommendations for amending roadside and urban soils with compost at large volumebased rates. Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) recommendations were evaluated in 2002 and 2003. Municipal recommendations were evaluated in 2004. Treatments were imposed on 4 by 1.5-m field plots on a constructed soil with an 8.5% slope. Three TxDOT compost application methods were tested; incorporation at 25% by volume (CMT), topdressing over vegetation (GUC), and topdressing a 5-cm compost woodchip mix over bare soil (ECC). In 2003, a 12.5% CMT treatment was substituted for the GUC, and two contrasting composts were compared. In 2002, soil test phosphorus (STP) concentrations (mg kg-1) were 291, 360, 410, and 1921 mg kg-1 in the 0 to 5-cm layer of a course textured CMT, fine textured CMT, GUC, and ECC treatments, respectively using CDM. In 2003, STP concentrations were 264, 439, 496,623, 1115, and 2203 mg kg-1, in the 0 to 5-cm layer after incorporation of CDM and CMB at the 12.5 and 25% volume-based rates, and topdressing the 5-cm CDM- or CMB-woodchip mix over bare soil, respectively. In 2004, contrasting CMB products, relatively low or high in total phosphorus (TP) were incorporated into the soil at 12.5 and 25% by volume, or imported in transplanted sod at the 25% by volume rate. The STP concentrations were 87, 147, 180, 301, 322, and 544 mg kg-1, respective to the previously defined treatments. Runoff water from 14, 10, and 8 natural rain events was used to characterize nutrient and sediment transport in 2002, 2003, and 2004, respectively. Concentration of TDP in runoff water was highly variable for roadside treatments across rain events. Mass losses of TDP were similar after CDM or CMB were incorporated into the soil at 12.5 and 25% by volume. Compost incorporation was the most effective method for limiting TP loss in runoff. Roadway and urban soils are expected to contribute greater TP losses as P concentration increases in soils.

Hansen, Nels Edward

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

State Water Quality (Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Quality (Virginia) Quality (Virginia) State Water Quality (Virginia) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Virginia Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Virginia Department of Environmental Quality It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Virginia to: (1) protect existing high quality state waters and restore the quality of all other state waters to permit all reasonable public uses and support the propagation and growth of all aquatic life which might reasonably be expected to inhabit them; (2) safeguard the clean waters of the Commonwealth from pollution; (3) prevent

33

Water Quality Standards (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standards (Ohio) Standards (Ohio) Water Quality Standards (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Retail Supplier Institutional Fuel Distributor Nonprofit Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the minimum water quality requirements for all surface waters of the state. Water quality standards contain two distinct elements: designated uses; and

34

north central texas water quality Through the Water Quality Education and Planning for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

north central texas water quality Through the Water Quality Education and Planning for North Central Texas project, the Texas Water Resources Institute and Texas AgriLife Extension Service are collabo- rating with Tarrant Regional Water District (TRWD), Texas A&M Spatial Sciences Laboratory

Wilkins, Neal

35

Water Quality Criteria for Intrastate, Interstate, and Coastal Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Quality Criteria for Intrastate, Interstate, and Coastal Quality Criteria for Intrastate, Interstate, and Coastal Water (Mississippi) Water Quality Criteria for Intrastate, Interstate, and Coastal Water (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations

36

Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Quality Standards (Kansas) Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General PublicConsumer...

37

Colorado Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Quality Control Act Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Reference Material: Colorado Water Quality Control Act edit Details Activities (0) Areas...

38

Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

39

Design and installation of continuous flow and water quality monitoring stations to improve water quality forecasting in the lower San Joaquin River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improve water quality forecasting in the lower San Joaquinimprove water quality forecasting in the lower San Joaquinan important real-time forecasting station for water quality

Quinn, Nigel W.T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater  

SciTech Connect

One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197...

42

Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) Georgia Water Quality Control Act (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Georgia Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Georgia Department of Natural Resources The Georgia Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) is a set of environmental regulations and permitting requirements that comply with the federal Clean Water Act. The Georgia Water Quality Control Act is enforced by the Georgia

43

State water-quality standards summary: South Dakota. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a summary of water-quality standards for South Dakota. Included is information on use classification, water bodies, and other pertinent data.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Washington 401 Water Quality Certification JARPA Process | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Washington 401 Water Quality Certification JARPA Process Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Washington 401 Water Quality...

45

Effects of in-situ oil-shale retorting on water quality near Rock Springs, Wyoming, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

Experimental in-situ retorting techniques (methods of extracting shale oil without mining) were used from 1969 to 1979 by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) at a test area near Rock Springs in southwestern Wyoming. The retorting experiments at site 9 have produced elevated concentrations of some contaminants in the ground water. During 1988 and 1989, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, conducted a site characterization study to evaluate the chemical contamination of ground water at the site. Water samples from 34 wells were analyzed; more than 70 identifiable organic compounds were detected using a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analytical methods. This report provides information that can be used to evaluate possible remedial action for the site. Remediation techniques that may be applicable include those techniques based on removing the contaminants from the aquifer and those based on immobilizing the contaminants. Before a technique is selected, the risks associated with the remedial action (including the no-action alternative) need to be assessed, and the criteria to be used for decisions regarding aquifer restoration need to be defined. 31 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Plafcan, M.; Lowham, H.W.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Water Quality Regulations (Rhode Island) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regulations (Rhode Island) Water Quality Regulations (Rhode Island) Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public...

47

Local Water Quality Districts (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Local Water Quality Districts (Montana) Local Water Quality Districts (Montana) Local Water Quality Districts (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Institutional Multi-Family Residential Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Montana Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Montana Department of Environmental Quality This statute provides for the creation of local water quality districts to prevent and mitigate ground and surface water contamination. Each local

48

Water Quality Trading Program (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trading Program (Ohio) Trading Program (Ohio) Water Quality Trading Program (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility Industrial Construction Rural Electric Cooperative Retail Supplier Fuel Distributor Nonprofit Transportation Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Program Info State Ohio Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Water quality trading is a tool for achieving water quality improvements. Under the right circumstances, trading has the potential to yield both environmental and economic benefits, while promoting increased interaction among watershed stakeholders. The water quality trading program is a voluntary program that allows a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit holder

49

Requirements Governing Water Quality Standards (West Virginia) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Requirements Governing Water Quality Standards (West Virginia) Requirements Governing Water Quality Standards (West Virginia) Requirements Governing Water Quality Standards (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting This rule establishes the requirements governing the discharge or deposit of sewage, industrial wastes and other wastes into waters and establishes water quality standards.

50

Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

Allen, R.D.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

An empirical study on sea water quality prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies the problem of predicting future values for a number of water quality variables, based on measurements from under-water sensors. It performs both exploratory and automatic analysis of the collected data with a variety of linear and ... Keywords: Prediction, Regression, Sensor network, Time series, Water quality

Evaggelos V. Hatzikos; Grigorios Tsoumakas; George Tzanis; Nick Bassiliades; Ioannis Vlahavas

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Chapter 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This administrative regulation establishes procedures to protect the surface waters of the Commonwealth, and thus protect water resources. It states the designated uses of surface water and...

53

Multiprobe Water Quality Data from the Tracy Fish Collection...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Format txt(csv) License Spatial data were collected with a multi-parameter water quality sonde installed in a perforated pipe located behind the trash rack and...

54

2012 BNL Water Quality Consumer Confidence Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

because it comes from one of the two drinking- water wells that produces water naturally low in iron water is produced with pride by the staff of BNL's Water Treatment Facility (WTF) of the Energy & Utilities Division. Producing BNL's finished water are five water- treatment engineers, each having NYSDOH

Ohta, Shigemi

55

Water Quality Control Act (Tennessee) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Water Quality Control Act (Tennessee) Water Quality Control Act (Tennessee) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Tennessee Department Of Environment and Conservation The Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) establishes the water pollution

56

publication 426-042 Urban Water-Quality Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of water plants. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Lifepublication 426-042 Urban Water-Quality Management Winterizing the Water Garden Lynnette Swanson Traci Gilland, Extension Agent, Portsmouth Water gardens require maintenance throughout the year

Liskiewicz, Maciej

57

Solving Water Quality Problems in the Home  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If your drinking water comes from a private water well, there are certain procedures you can follow to make sure the water is safe. This publication explains how to get your water tested and, if treatment is necessary, to select the correct treatment equipment. Tables display common water problems and the equipment used to treat them.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

Water quality in vicinity of Fenton Hill Site, 1974  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The water quality at nine surface water stations, eight ground water stations, and the drilling operations at the Fenton Hill Site have been studied as a measure of the environmental impact of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory geothermal experimental studies in the Jemez Mountains. Surface water quality in the Jemez River drainage area is affected by the quality of the inflow from thermal and mineral springs. Ground water discharges from the Cenozoic Volcanics are similar in chemical quality. Water in the main zone of saturation penetrated by test hole GT-2 is highly mineralized, whereas water in the lower section of the hole, which is in granite, contains a higher concentration of uranium. (auth)

Purtymun, W.D.; Adams, W.H.; Owens, J.W.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Clustering analysis of water quality for canals in bangkok, thailand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two clustering techniques of water quality for canals in Bangkok were compared: K-means and Fuzzy c-means. The result illustrated that K-means has a better performance. As a result, K-means cluster was used to classify 24 canals of 344 records of surface ... Keywords: K-means clustering, surface water quality, watershed management

Sirilak Areerachakul; Siripun Sanguansintukul

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Water quality and business aspects of sachet-vended water in Tamale, Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The tests included the membrane filtration (MF) test using ...

Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Water quality and business aspects of sachet-vended water in Tamale, Ghana.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Microbial water quality analyses were conducted on 15 samples of factory-produced sachet water and 15 samples of hand-tied sachet water, sold in Tamale, Ghana. The… (more)

Okioga, Teshamulwa (Teshamulwa Irene)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Effect of enzyme application in temper water on wheat milling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of enzyme in temper water on wheat milling performance and flour quality was studied. Five independent variables, enzyme concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature,… (more)

Yoo, Juhyun

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Recreational Lake and Water Quality Districts (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recreational Lake and Water Quality Districts (Iowa) Recreational Lake and Water Quality Districts (Iowa) Recreational Lake and Water Quality Districts (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Iowa Program Type Environmental Regulations Territory contiguous to a recreational lake may be incorporated into a

64

Chapter 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky) 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky) Chapter 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department for Environmental Protection This administrative regulation establishes procedures to protect the

65

Impact of alfalfa on soil and water quality  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.

Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.

1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

66

Surface Water Quality Standards (New Jersey) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Surface Water Quality Standards (New Jersey) Surface Water Quality Standards (New Jersey) Surface Water Quality Standards (New Jersey) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State New Jersey Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Bureau of Water Quality Standards and Assessment These standards establish the designated uses and antidegradation

67

Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database | Data.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database Ocean Data Tools Technical Guide Map Gallery Regional Planning Feedback Ocean You are here Data.gov » Communities » Ocean » Data Chesapeake Bay Program Water Quality Database Dataset Summary Description The Chesapeake Information Management System (CIMS), designed in 1996, is an integrated, accessible information management system for the Chesapeake Bay Region. CIMS is an organized, distributed library of information and software tools designed to increase basin-wide public access to Chesapeake Bay information. The information delivered by CIMS includes technical and public information, educational material, environmental indicators, policy documents, and scientific data. Through the use of relational databases, web-based programming, and web-based GIS a large number of Internet resources have been established. These resources include multiple distributed on-line databases, on-demand graphing and mapping of environmental data, and geographic searching tools for environmental information. Baseline monitoring data, summarized data and environmental indicators that document ecosystem status and trends, confirm linkages between water quality, habitat quality and abundance, and the distribution and integrity of biological populations are also available. One of the major features of the CIMS network is the Chesapeake Bay Program's Data Hub, providing users access to a suite of long- term water quality and living resources databases. Chesapeake Bay mainstem and tidal tributary water quality, benthic macroinvertebrates, toxics, plankton, and fluorescence data can be obtained for a network of over 800 monitoring stations.

68

Water quality in vicinity of Fenton Hill Site, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water quality at 9 surface water stations, 14 ground water stations, and drilling and testing operations at the Fenton Hill Site has been studied as a measure of the environmental impact on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's geothermal site in the Jemez Mountains. Slight variations in the chemical quality of the water at individual stations were observed during the year. Predominant ions and total dissolved solids in the surface and ground water declined slightly in comparison to previous data. These variations in quality are not considered significant considering seasonal and annual stream flow variations. Surface water discharge records from three U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations on the Rio Guadalupe and Jemez River were analyzed to provide background data for the impact study. Direct correlations were determined between mean annual discharge at each of two stations in the upper reach of the drainage and at the station in the lower reach.

Purtymun, W.D.; Adams, W.H.; Stoker, A.K.; West, F.G.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Water Quality Program, Volume 1 (Alabama) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program, Volume 1 (Alabama) Program, Volume 1 (Alabama) Water Quality Program, Volume 1 (Alabama) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Alabama Program Type Environmental Regulations This volume of the water quality program mainly deals with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System" or "(NPDES)" means the national program for issuing, modifying, revoking and reissuing, terminating, monitoring and enforcing permits for the discharge of pollutants into waters of the state. An industrial user, whether or not the user is subject to other categorical

70

Utah Division of Water Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Quality Water Quality Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Utah Division of Water Quality Name Utah Division of Water Quality Address 195 North 1950 West Place Salt Lake City, Utah Phone number 801.536.4400 Website http://www.waterquality.utah.g Coordinates 40.7733661°, -111.9472798° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.7733661,"lon":-111.9472798,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

71

25September 2011 Water Quality Education for Hood County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

25September 2011 2010 Water Quality Education for Hood County, Texas Federal Initiative Accomplishments Lead Agency Texas AgriLife Extension Service Partners Texas AgriLife Research; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Brazos River Authority; Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Federal Funding USDA

72

Safe river water: A ubiquitous and collaborative water quality monitoring solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water quality is vital to human life and economy. However, one sixth of the world's population suffers from lack of safe drinking and domestic water. Aiming to improve the capability of predicting and responding to river pollution disasters, this project ...

Bin Hu; Bo Hu; JiZheng Wan; Huilan Nie; Chongzhi Zhai

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Water Quality Modeling in Kranji Catchment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the process and results of applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to characterize bacterial fate and transport in the Kranji Catchment of Singapore. The goal of this process is to predict ...

Granger, Erika C

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Surface Water Quality Standards (Nebraska) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nebraska) Nebraska) Surface Water Quality Standards (Nebraska) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Environmental Quality These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality,

76

Quality and Membrane Treatability of the Lake Houston Water Supply  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently, sections of Harris and Montgomery counties located North and Northeast of Houston use groundwater almost exclusively. These areas have witnessed substantial population growth and associated increases in water demand. In 1999 approximately 60% of potable water in Houston and its adjoining communities was produced from surface water. The remaining approximately 40% was derived from groundwater. However, the "Subsidence District" which is the authority responsible for granting groundwater permits has mandated that groundwater use needs to be decreased to 20% within the next few years so as to limit subsidence. Pipelines are not available to distribute purified water from the existing surface water treatment plants located in the South and East of Houston to the Northern areas that actually require additional water. Because Lake Houston is located in the geographical area of interest and is a surface water source, the City of Houston is interested in developing it for its future water needs. Additionally, a favorable hydraulic gradient exists from the Lake to the proposed service areas in Harris and Montgomery counties. Federal regulations such as the Stage II of the Disinfectant/Disinfection By-Products Rule (1) and the Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (2) are expected to be promulgated in the near future. These rules are anticipated to introduce more stringent maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for total trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), possibly introduce new MCLs for individual species of THMs and HAAs, reduce turbidity levels, and enhance inactivation/removal requirements for Cryptosporidium. (Cryptosporidium was the causative protozoan for the more than 400,000 cases of acute gastrointestinal disease in Milwaukee, WI in March 1993.) The treatment processes in the City of Houston's existing water purification plants are not expected to be sufficient in meeting these anticipated regulations. Therefore, both regulatory requirements and engineering considerations point towards Lake Houston as an attractive surface water source for the next water purification plant to supply potable water to the City and its adjoining communities. However, water quality in Lake Houston can be characterized as being poor with high concentrations of turbidity, color, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen, etc. (3). Pressure-driven membrane processes can be employed as effective barriers against a wide range of contaminants including particles, turbidity, protozoan cysts and oocysts, bacteria, viruses, color, organic carbon, disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors, and dissolved metals. Additionally, microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) pretreatment may be necessary to reduce fouling rates and increase chemical cleaning intervals during surface water nanofiltration (NF) (4). Therefore, an integrated membrane system employing MF or UF pretreatment to NF is expected to be an important treatment candidate for Lake Houston water. Nanofiltration (NF) membranes typically operate at pressures less than 100 psi and are capable of high rejections of natural organic matter (NOM) and precursors to disinfection by-products (DBP) including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) (5-8), many of which are suspected carcinogens, mutagens, or teratogens.

Chellam, Shankar; Sharma, Ramesh; Shetty, Grishma; Wei, Ying

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

USGS Study: Water Quality A Potential Concern in Private Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

USGS Study: Water Quality A Potential Concern in Private Wells More than 20 percent of private domestic wells sampled nationwide contain at least one contaminant at levels of potential health concern's population, use private wells, which are not regulated by the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. USGS

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

78

Water Quality Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Quality Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) Quality Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) Water Quality Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Program Info State Alabama Program Type Environmental Regulations This volume of the water quality program mainly deals with Technical Standards, Corrective Action Requirements and Financial Responsibility for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks. This chapter is promulgated to establish construction, installation, performance, and operating standards for underground storage tanks. Any owner or operator of an underground storage tank system for which a notification has not been provided to the Department as of April 5, 1989, must within 30 days of that

79

Water Quality Act (New Mexico) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Act (New Mexico) Act (New Mexico) Water Quality Act (New Mexico) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State New Mexico Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider New Mexico Environment Department This act establishes the Water Quality Control Commission and states the

80

High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality Characterization Using Rapidly Deployable Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS RD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality1594. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Qualityobserving spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties

Thomas C. Harmon; Richard F. Ambrose; Robert M. Gilbert; Jason C. Fisher; Michael Stealey; William J. Kaiser

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

SD-GIS-based temporal-spatial simulation of water quality in sudden water pollution accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

System dynamics (SD) is well suited for studying dynamic nonlinear complex systems. In this paper, SD is applied to a rapid-onset water pollution accident using a 1-D water quality model and a conceptual GIS-SD framework is constructed to simulate the ... Keywords: System dynamics, Temporal-spatial simulation, Water pollution accidents

Bo Zhang; Yu Qin; Mingxiang Huang; Qiang Sun; Shun Li; Liqiang Wang; Chaohui Yu

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill. Progress report 1981 and 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of a continuing program of environmental studies, water quality data have been collected from established surface and ground water stations and from ponds and pond discharges at Fenton Hill Site located in the Jemez Mountains. Most of these stations were established in 1973, and water quality data have been collected since that time. There have been slight variations in the chemical quality of water from the surface and ground water locations; however, these variations are within normal seasonal fluctuations. The discharge from ponds at Fenton Hill infiltrates into canyon alluvium within 400 m of the site. Monitoring surface and spring discharge downgradient from the ponds failed to detect any effects resulting from water released from the ponds. Total dissolved solids and calcium have increased in water from well FH-1, which furnishes the water supply for the site. This increase is caused by the decreasing water level in the well resulting in yield from beds with a slightly different quality than has been found in previous years.

Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Becker, N.M.; Adams, W.H.; Maes, M.N.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interests is implemented, water quality compliance withfor computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation andof SEBAL for western US water rights regulation and

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Geysers-Calistoga KGRA geothermal environmental overview: water quality  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Important water-related issues of concern are identified and the available information regarding potential impacts on the quantity and quality of water in an area is assessed. The results of a study and a two-day workshop that included representatives of developers and of concerned local, state, and federal agencies are presented. An inventory of existing data is included in an appendix. (MHR)

Moore, S.F.; Pimentel, K.D.; Krone, R.B.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

86

The Impact of Water Quality on Southern California Beach Recreation: A Finite Mixture Model Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

estimate the e?ect of coastal water quality on beach choiceDemand Studies, 1968-1988; Water Resources Research, March,Measuring the bene?ts of water quality improvements in a

Hilger, James; Hanemann, W. Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Water Quality Hydrology of Lands Receiving Farm Animal Wastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant pollution potential from cattle manure has developed as a result of the cattle feeding industry progressing to large, high density feeding operations. Two major potential sources of pollution from beef feedlots is storm runoff and solid waste (manure). The objectives of this research were to determine the characteristics of storm runoff from a beef feedlot, to determine the nitrogen transformations and ammonia volatilization from soils receiving large manure applications, to determine the chemical quality of surface runoff and groundwater from plots receiving large manure applications, to evaluate techniques of deep plowing large amounts of manure into the soil, and to determine the crop quality and yields on field plots receiving large manure application rates. Feedlot runoff was found to carry large amounts of chemical elements. The concentrations of chemical elements did not vary with size and intensity of rainstorm as much as by differences in topography of the watersheds. More ammonia was volatilized from limed soil columns than unlimed but an unexplained decrease in total nitrogen of 10 to 20 percent occurred in the unlimed and limed soil columns, respectively. A 30-in. moldboard plowing 30 to 36-in. deep can safely turn under up to 900 tons/acre of manure and not create a major surface water pollution problem. An increase of chemical elements in the groundwater occurred during the first year and then were reduced to initial values during the second year. No N03 pollution of groundwater occurred. Crops can be effectively grown on land receiving up to 900 tons/acre of manure. Peak yields will not be obtained the first year after plowing the 900 tons under, but yields will increase the second and third years.

Reddell, R. D.; Wise, G. G.; Peters, R. E.; Lyerly, P. J.

1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

GRR/Section 14-UT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-UT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-UT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-UT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14-UT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Triggers None specified Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires a Water Quality Certification for any federal license or permit that is issued to construct or operate a facility, which may result in any fill or discharge into the navigable waters of the United States. The Utah Division of Water Quality oversees the 401 Water Quality Certification process in the state of Utah. The director of the Utah Division of Water Quality ("director") handles

89

Soil and water quality implications of production of herbaceous and woody energy crops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field-scale studies in three physiographic regions of the Tennessee Valley in the Southeastern US are being used to address the environmental effects of producing biomass energy crops on former agricultural lands. Comparison of erosion, surface water quality and quantity, and subsurface movement of water and nutrients from woody crops, switchgrass and agricultural crops began with crop establishment in 1994. Nutrient cycling, soil physical changes, and productivity of the different crops are also being monitored at the three sites.

Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lindberg, J.E. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, TN (United States); Green, T.H. [Alabama A and M Univ., Normal, AL (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science] [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Water Quality Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 13, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Alabama Applies to States or Provinces Alabama Name Water Quality Program, Volume 2 (Alabama) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas, Coal with CCS, Energy Storage, Geothermal Electric, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Natural Gas, Nuclear, Tidal Energy Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Program Administrator Alabama Department of Environmental Management Primary Website http://www.adem.state.al.us/alEnviroRegLaws/files/Division6Vol2.pdf Summary This volume of the water quality program mainly deals with Technical

91

Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Application of partial mutual information variable selection to ANN forecasting of water quality in water distribution systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent trends in the management of water supply have increased the need for modelling techniques that can provide reliable, efficient, and accurate representation of the complex, non-linear dynamics of water quality within water distribution systems. ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Chlorine disinfection, Chlorine residual forecasting, Input variable selection, Partial mutual information, Water quality modelling

Robert J. May; Graeme C. Dandy; Holger R. Maier; John B. Nixon

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

Zhihua Hu; Lois Wright Morton; Robert L. Mahler

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to advance the concept of real-time water quality management in the San Joaquin Basin by developing an application to drainage of seasonal wetlands in the Grassland Water District. Real-time water quality management is defined as the coordination of reservoir releases, return flows and river diversions to improve water quality conditions in the San Joaquin River and ensure compliance with State water quality objectives. Real-time water quality management is achieved through information exchange and cooperation between shakeholders who contribute or withdraw flow and salt load to or from the San Joaquin River. This project complements a larger scale project that was undertaken by members of the Water Quality Subcommittee of the San Joaquin River Management Program (SJRMP) and which produced forecasts of flow, salt load and San Joaquin River assimilative capacity between 1999 and 2003. These forecasts can help those entities exporting salt load to the River to develop salt load targets as a mechanism for improving compliance with salinity objectives. The mass balance model developed by this project is the decision support tool that helps to establish these salt load targets. A second important outcome of this project was the development and application of a methodology for assessing potential impacts of real-time wetland salinity management. Drawdown schedules are typically tied to weather conditions and are optimized in traditional practices to maximize food sources for over-wintering wildfowl as well as providing a biological control (through germination temperature) of undesirable weeds that compete with the more proteinaceous moist soil plants such as swamp timothy, watergrass and smartweed. This methodology combines high resolution remote sensing, ground-truthing vegetation surveys using established survey protocols and soil salinity mapping using rapid, automated electromagnetic sensor technology. This survey methodology could be complemented with biological surveys of bird use and invertebrates to produce a robust long-term monitoring strategy for habitat health and sustainability.

Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josphine R.; Taylor, Christophe M.; Marciochi, Don; Lower, Scott; Woodruff, Veronica; Wright, Diane; Poole, Tim

2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

95

Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality  

SciTech Connect

From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Optimal Operation of Large Agricultural Watersheds with Water Quality Restraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved technology is needed for use in properly managing large agricultural watersheds. Proper watershed management means selecting land uses that are appropriate for each subarea, using erosion control measures where necessary, and applying fertilizers at rates that maximize agricultural production without polluting the environment. Watershed runoff and industrial and municipal effluents pollute streams and reservoirs. Point source pollution (industries and municipalities) can be monitored. Nonpoint-source pollution (watersheds) is widely dispersed and not easily measured. Mathematical models are needed to predict nonpoint-source pollution as affected by watershed characteristics, land use, conservation practices, chemical fertilizers, and climatic variables. Routing models are needed to determine the quality of water as it flows from nonpoint sources through streams and valleys to rivers and large reservoirs. Models are also needed to determine optimal strategies for planning land use, conservation practices, and fertilizer application to maximize agricultural production subject to water quality constraints. Three of the most important agricultural pollutants are suspended sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen. Robinson [1971] pointed out that sediment is the greatest pollutant of water in terms of volume. Sediment also transports other pollutants, like phosphorus and nitrogen. These two elements are principally involved in lake eutrophication. Frequently algae blooms develop in nutrient-laden water and cause it to have an off-taste and an unpleasant odor. The odor of decaying plants becomes offensive; fish are killed because of reduced dissolved oxygen in the water, and recreation is deterred. The objective of this research was to develop models for use in managing large agricultural watersheds to obtain maximum agricultural production and to maintain water quality standards. The models were designed to: 1. Simulate daily runoff, and sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen yields from small watersheds (areas land owners and operators) for planning land use, fertilizer application, and conservation practices on subwatersheds. 4. Determine the optimal strategy for each subwatershed to maximize agricultural production for the entire watershed subject to water quality constraints. Generally, water-quality models are developed by adding chemical modeling components to existing runoff and sediment models because runoff and sediment provide transportation for chemicals. Several conceptual models for predicting chemical yields from small watersheds have been presented [Crawford and Donigian, 1973; Donigian and Crawford, 1976; Frere, et al., 1975; Hagin and Amberger, 1974; Kling, 1974; Johnson and Straub, 1971]. However, these models are not applicable to large watersheds because they have no routing mechanism. For this reason, runoff, sediment, and nutrient models were refined and developed here for application to large watersheds. Probably, the most widely used and accepted model for predicting runoff volume is the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number system [U.S. Soil Conservation Service, 1972]. The SCS model was modified by adding a soil-moisture-index accounting procedure [Williams and Laseur, 1976]. The modified water yield model is considerably more accurate than the original SCS model. On a watershed near Riesel, Texas, the modified model explained 95% of the variation in monthly runoff as compared with 65% for the original model. The water-yield model was refined here by replacing the climatic index (lake evaporation) with daily consumptive water use for individual crops.

Williams, J. R.; Hann, R. W.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Nuclear quantum effects in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, a path integral Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water is performed. It is found that the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects systematically improves the agreement of first principles simulations of liquid water with experiment. In addition, the proton momentum distribution is computed utilizing a recently developed open path integral molecular dynamics methodology. It is shown that these results are in good agreement with neutron Compton scattering data for liquid water and ice.

Joseph A. Morrone; Roberto Car

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

98

Understanding the role of trading in water quality management : based on U.S. experience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research demonstrates an overview of the performance of water quality trading programs currently implemented within the U.S. The role of trading in water quality management is identified through systematical comparisons ...

Pharino, Chanathip

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

GRR/Section 14-CO-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4-CO-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 4-CO-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-CO-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14CODSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Regulations & Policies 5 CCR 1002-82 Colorado Water Quality Control Act Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14CODSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires a Water Quality

100

GRR/Section 14-TX-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4-TX-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 4-TX-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-TX-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14TXDSection401WaterQualityCertification (2).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Railroad Commission of Texas Regulations & Policies 16 TAC 3.93 - RRC Water Quality Certification 16 TAC 3.30 - MOU between the RRC and the TCEQ Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14TXDSection401WaterQualityCertification (2).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires a Water Quality

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101

Use of compost filter bermsfor sediment trapping: primary focus on water quality and structural stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Runoff from road construction and maintenance sites is responsible for erosion and deposition of sediments in the receiving water bodies. In addition to soil particles from erosion, runoff also transports other pollutants such as rubber, toxic metals, automobile fluids, car exhausts (which settle with the rain), pesticides, fertilizers, and other debris. Compost has been used effectively as a valuable soil amendment to aid plant growth. Berms (mounds) of compost placed at the top or bottom of steep slopes can be used to slow the velocity of water and provide additional protection for receiving waters. However, a downside of the application of composted organic material is the potential degradation of runoff water quality. Overloading with nitrogen and phosphorus causes eutrophication, which reduces the suitability of waterways for beneficial uses. A field testing of the berms coupled with a laboratory analysis of the testing water will provide a basis for the impact of the compost berms on the runoff water quality. The study of the impact of compost on the runoff water quality was investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of berms made from various materials such as dairy manure compost, yard waste compost and composted bio-solids mixed with wood chips in a ratio of 50:50 on the runoff water quality, as well as, the sediment removal efficiencies. Field tests were performed on the berms to simulate conventional rainfall runoff and the tested water was collected as time-weighted samples and analyzed in the laboratory. Several variables were investigated during this study. Results of this investigation demonstrated that the effectiveness of this application was hampered by the structural instability of the berm. A 100% failure rate was observed in the berms tested. Optimum performance was observed in yard waste compost berms, which introduced the least amount of contaminants into the water. However, some masking effect could be present due to berm failures. In fact, the actual sediment removal by the berms could not be determined. The study of compost filter berms showed some evidence of the existence of first flush effect.

Raut Desai, Aditya Babu

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

GRR/Section 14-AK-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-AK-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-AK-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-AK-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14AKDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation United States Environmental Protection Agency U S Army Corps of Engineers Regulations & Policies Alaska Water Quality Standards Alaska Statutes Alaska Administrative Code Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14AKDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf 14AKDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

103

Biofuels and water quality: challenges and opportunities for simulation modeling  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of the various impacts of biofuel feedstock production on hydrology and water quality is complex. Mathematical models can be used to efficiently evaluate various what if scenarios related to biofeedstock production and their impacts on hydrology and water quality at various spatial and temporal scales. Currently available models, although having the potential to serve such purposes, have many limitations. In this paper, we review the strengths and weaknesses of such models in light of short- and long term biofeedstock production scenarios. The representation of processes in the currently available models and how these processes need to be modified to fully evaluate various complex biofeedstock production scenarios are discussed. Similarly, issues related to availability of data that are needed to parameterize and evaluate these models are presented. We have presented a vision for the development of decision support tools and ecosystem services that can be used to make watershed management decisions to minimize any potentially adverse environmental impacts while meeting biofeedstock demands. We also discuss a case study of biofeedstock impact simulation in relation to watershed management policy implications for various state and federal agencies in the USA.

Engel, Bernard A. [Purdue University; Chaubey, Indrajeet [Purdue University; Thomas, Mark [Purdue University; Saraswat, Dharmendra [University of Arkansas; Murphy, Patrick [Purdue University; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

GRR/Section 14-CA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-CA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-CA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-CA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14CADSection401WaterQualityCertification (1).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies California State Water Resources Control Board Regulations & Policies Section 401 Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act Code of Regulations Title 23, Section 3855 et. seq. Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14CADSection401WaterQualityCertification (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

105

GRR/Section 14-OR-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-OR-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-OR-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-OR-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14ORDSection410WaterQualityCertification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Oregon Department of Environmental Quality U S Army Corps of Engineers Regulations & Policies OAR 340-048: Certification of Compliance with Water Quality Requirements Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14ORDSection410WaterQualityCertification.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

106

GRR/Section 14-ID-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-ID-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-ID-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-ID-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14IDDSection401WaterQualityCertificationProcess.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Idaho Department of Environmental Quality United States Environmental Protection Agency U S Army Corps of Engineers Regulations & Policies Idaho Environmental Protection and Health Act Idaho Administrative Procedure Act Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14IDDSection401WaterQualityCertificationProcess.pdf 14IDDSection401WaterQualityCertificationProcess.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

107

Comprehensive Assessment of Water Quality Eutrophication in Scenic Water Bodies by the Combination of Fuzzy Cluster and Grey Cluster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water quality eutrophication has become a worldwide environmental problem in recent years, and assessment and classification of scenic water bodies will help for prevention and remediation of water eutrophication. The study presents the application of ... Keywords: Comprehensive assessment, Scenic water bodies, Fuzzy Ccuster, Grey cluster

Qi Wang; Guangming Li; Jingcheng Xu

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: Final 2008 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ISEMP program monitors the status and trend of water quality elements that may affect restoration project effectiveness in the Entiat subbasin. As part of this effort, the PNW Research Station (PNW) measures, analyzes and interprets temporal trends in natural stream water pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity and temperature. The Entiat River is currently on the Clean Water Act 303(d) list for pH exceedence, and there is insufficient information to determine the spatial and temporal extent or potential causes of this exceedence. In the spring 2008, PNW redeployed data-logging, multiparameter probes at four locations in the Entiat subbasin to measure water quality parameters, focusing on pH. This resumed previous data collection that was interrupted by river ice in early December 2007. Instruments were again removed from the river in early December 2008. This annual report covers the period from December 2007 through December 2008. The highest pH values occurred during the low-flow period from midsummer through the following midspring then dropped sharply during the annual snowmelt runoff period from late spring through early summer. Water temperature began rapidly increasing during the receding limb of the annual snowmelt hydrograph. Highest mean monthly temperatures occurred in July and August, while instantaneous maxima occurred during the period July-September. Dissolved oxygen reached its lowest levels during the period of highest water temperature in July-September. Specific conductivity remained very low at all sites throughout the year.

Woodsmith, Richard; Bookter, Andy [PNW Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Wenatchee, WA

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

109

GRR/Section 14-UT-e - Ground Water Quality Protection Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-UT-e - Ground Water Quality Protection Permit GRR/Section 14-UT-e - Ground Water Quality Protection Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-UT-e - Ground Water Quality Protection Permit 14UTEGroundWaterQualityProtectionPermit.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Utah Department of Environmental Quality Regulations & Policies UAC R317-6 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14UTEGroundWaterQualityProtectionPermit.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative The Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) regulates discharges

110

GRR/Section 14-MT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-MT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-MT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-MT-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14MTD401WaterQualityCertification (2).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Montana Department of Environmental Quality Regulations & Policies Federal Clean Water Act (33 USC § 1251 et seq.) Montana Codes Annotated 75-5-401 Aministrative Rules of Montana Chapter 30 Administrative Rules of Montana 17.30.101 through 109 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14MTD401WaterQualityCertification (2).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

111

GRR/Section 14-NV-d - 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-NV-d - 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-NV-d - 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-NV-d - 401 Water Quality Certification 14NVDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Regulations & Policies Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1341) Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14NVDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1341) requires activities in

112

GRR/Section 14-NV-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-NV-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-NV-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-NV-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14NVDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Nevada Division of Environmental Protection Regulations & Policies Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1341) Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14NVDSection401WaterQualityCertification.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Flowchart Narrative Section 401 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1341) requires activities in

113

GRR/Section 14-HI-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

HI-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification HI-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-HI-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14HID - Section401WaterQualityCertification (1).pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Hawaii Department of Health Clean Water Branch United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulations & Policies Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251) Section 401 Hawaii Administrative Rules Title 11, Chapter 54 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14HID - Section401WaterQualityCertification (1).pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

114

Water Quality Changes Related to CUB Bulk Placement at the Rostraver...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Drive, Homestead, PA 15120-5005 KEYWORDS: Coal Utilization By-products, Scatterscores, water quality ABSTRACT A structural fill at the Rostraver Airport was constructed of Low...

115

GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 Authorization) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 Authorization) 06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Montana Department of Natural Resources & Conservation Montana Department of Environmental Quality Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Regulations & Policies MCA 75-5-318 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

116

GRR/Section 14-WA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRR/Section 14-WA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification GRR/Section 14-WA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-WA-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification 14-WA-d - 401 Water Quality Certification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies U S Army Corps of Engineers Washington State Department of Ecology Regulations & Policies Revised Statute of Washington Chapter 90.48 Washington Administrative Code Chapter 173-201A Washington Administrative Code 173-225-030 Triggers None specified Developers requiring a Section 404 Dredge and Fill Permit from the U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) are required to obtain a Section 401 Water Quality Certification from the state of Washington. The Washington State

117

CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of growth of each system. Sediment samples after the first and third years of operation indicated that copper was being bound in the sediments very rapidly after entering the treatment system. The design of the system encourages low redox and sulfide production in the sediments. The objective is to stabilize metals, including mercury, as sulfide compounds in the sediments. Costs for maintenance and operation of the systems are minimal, consisting primarily of ensuring that the pipes are not clogged and that water is flowing through the system. The treatment cost per thousand gallons is many times less than conventional wastewater treatment facilities. Life expectancy and function of the biological system is based on the life of the engineering aspects and not the wetland ecology.

Nelson, E.

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

118

On Managing Texas Rural Water Supply Systems: A Socioeconomic Analysis and Quality Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Objectives The study reported here is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of nonprofit, rural water supply corporations or water systems (hereafter referred to as RWSs) in Texas from a sociological perspective. Specifically, the study has attempted to: 1. Provide an overview of the organizational structure and functioning of RWSs, identifying their existing as well as emerging needs, problems, and suggested solutions. It explores socioeconomic characteristics and patterns of RWSs in Texas. It outlines a history of state and federal regulations and practices through which these systems are structured and actually function. 2. Evaluate the quality and effectiveness of the management of selected RWSs located in different geographical regions of Texas. The evaluation of effectiveness of systems is accomplished through a systematic set of procedures and techniques. These procedures are tested for reliability and validity through empirical data. In addition, the differential levels of program effectiveness of RWSs are elaborated upon by correlating them with relevant socioeconomic variables. 3. Indicate policy and research implications of data for dealing with the future of rural water systems. Expected Contributions The rural populations in the U.S. started experiencing steady increases during the 1970s and early 1980s (Goodwin et al., 1984). Although the rural population growth at the national level showed a few differential trends during mid to late 1980s (Figures 3 and 4 in Appendix A), the state of Texas registered a population influx in many nonmetropolitan areas during the last decade (U.S.D.A., 1990: 11). Overall, a significant portion of Texas' population still resides in rural areas (Texas Department of Water Resources, 1984: 7). However, it appears that a larger number of studies have focused on water-management related problems and issues for urban areas than those for rural communities in Texas (e.g., Knudson, 1986; Meier and Thorton, 1973; Murdock et al., 1988; Texas Department of Water Resources, 1985; Texas Water Development Board, 1990;1 and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1989). While rural water problems have been examined carefully in several parts of the country, we could not find a single study in Texas systematically examining water-related needs and issues confronting rural communities. The need to study rural water supply has become even more important now because of the challenge faced by small community systems in complying with the provisions of the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These small systems, with their limited customer and revenue bases, will face formidable expense in installing new water treatment methods (Jensen, 1990; Long and Stukenberg, 1987: 38; Texas Water Development Board, 1990: 14). The present study is a timely probe into the phenomena of rural water supply. The study is aimed at developing and using a methodology to evaluate the program effectiveness of RWSs. In recent years, interest has mounted for employing the research techniques of social sciences in efforts to assess the effectiveness of public programs. The 1970s and 1980s, decades of rapid-paced growth of RWSs in Texas and elsewhere, were marked by the proliferation of public expenditures. The study uses a set of indicators to identify effectiveness and efficiency of rural water projects. Such measures for analysis and appraisal of these projects may contribute to more informed and intelligent planning for the future. The study is also expected to provide a critical probe and insight into an evaluation methodology that may be used in future studies investigating public programs. To this end, the research reported here is exploratory in nature and may set grounds for more critical studies in the area. The study, for example, develops a baseline against which to measure future changes and trend in rural water supplies in Texas as well as in other parts of the country. Organization of the Report The remaining three-section organ

Singh, R.N.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Silvicultural Activities in Relation to Water Quality in Texas: An Assesment of Potential Problems and Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern forests are expected to supply a large portion of the Nation's future timber requirement. Projected demands on southern forests continue to exceed allowable cut. As an outgrowth of this demand, intensive management of pine forests enabled the South to produce 45 percent of the Nation's timber harvest in 1970 (USDA, Forest Service, 1973). The Southern Forest Resource Analysis Committee (1969) stated that, if projected timber needs of the year 2000 are to be met, at least ten million acres of bare or poorly stocked land must be planted with pine by 1985 and another twenty million acres converted from low-grade hardwoods to pine. The challenge facing forestry in the South is how to meet this increased demand and maintain an acceptable forest environment in the face of increased taxes, rising labor and equipment costs and predicted petroleum shortages. Undisturbed forests are generally recognized as primary sources of high quality water. Although the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law No. 92-500) make pollution from forest practices increasingly more important, the effects of these practices on water quality are not known for East Texas. The quality of streamflow from forested watersheds fluctuates constantly in response to natural stress, and can be influenced greatly by man's activities. Forest management practices can potentially influence the following water quality parameters: (1) sediment, (2) nutrients, (3) temperature, (4) dissolved oxygen/organic matter, and (5) introduced chemicals. It must be realized from the onset that sediment due to geologic erosion is a natural component of fresh water streams and that high concentrations may have occurred naturally for short periods due to perturbations in the ecosystem such as wildfires. Sediment is not necessarily a pollutant and only becomes one when it can be demonstrated that it is exceeding natural levels and is interfering with the beneficial use of water. A certain amount of sediment and nutrients are needed in Gulf Bays and Estuaries to maintain their productivity (Mathewson and Minter, 1976; Diener, 1964; Ketchum, 1967). Texas does not have a stream water quality standard for sediment and due to the complexities involved will probably not develop one. Thus, sediment as used in this report, becomes important: (1) as a carrier of plant nutrients and forest chemicals, and (2) in that practices which reduce sediment loss will usually reduce nutrient, organic matter and introduced chemical losses and prevent water temperature increases, as well. This report is the result of an interagency contract between Texas Department of Water Resources, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and Texas Water Resources Institute to: (1) develop an overview of commercial forests and forestry operations in Texas, (2) identify, describe and characterize control strategies for nonpoint sources of pollution from silvicultural activities, and (3) develop and demonstrate a methodology for selecting control strategies in given problem situations. The following topics are covered: (1) an overview of forestry in East Texas, (2) silvicultural practices and nonpoint sources of pollution, (3) control strategies, (4) methodology for the selection of control strategies, (5) institutional aspects of controlling silvicultural nonpoint source pollution, (6) ongoing research and research needs, and (7) hydrology of East Texas. It is important to recognize that this report does not specify that nonpoint pollution from forestlands in East Texas is a problem. Likewise, the report does not set pollution control goals or criteria that should be met by a control plan, since this is the responsibility of the State. In areas where a potential nonpoint pollution problem exists; the suggested control strategies should be useful in selecting control measures that are appropriate to the special conditions imposed by differences in climate, soil, topography, and forest practice.

Blackburn, W. H.; Hickman, C. A.; deSteiguer, J. E.; Jackson, B. D.; Blume, T. A.; DeHaven, M. G.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

GRR/Section 14-ID-f - 401 NPDES Water Quality Certification | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ID-f - 401 NPDES Water Quality Certification ID-f - 401 NPDES Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-ID-f - 401 NPDES Water Quality Certification 14IDFSection401NPDESWaterQualityCertification.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies Idaho Department of Environmental Quality United States Environmental Protection Agency U S Army Corps of Engineers Regulations & Policies Idaho Environmental Protection and Health Act Idaho Administrative Procedure Act Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14IDFSection401NPDESWaterQualityCertification.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range. Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

122

Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Ground-water monitoring near the Raft River site was initiated in 1974 by the IDWR. This effort consisted of semiannual chemical sampling of 22 irrigation wells near the Raft River geothermal development area. This program yielded useful baseline chemical data; however, several problems were inherent. For example, access to water pumped from the wells is limited to the irrigation season (April through September). All the wells

123

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Impacts of Shale Gas Wastewater Disposal on Water Quality in Western Pennsylvania Nathaniel R compositions of the effluents reflect the composition of Marcellus Shale produced waters. The discharge to concentrations in Marcellus Shale produced waters. Nonetheless, 226 Ra levels in stream sediments (544-8759 Bq

Jackson, Robert B.

124

Remote sensing of the water quality of shallow lakes: A mixture modelling approach to quantifying phytoplankton in water characterized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Remote sensing of the water quality of shallow lakes: A mixture modelling approach to quantifying Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Tihany, POB 35, H-8237, Hungary Remote sensing has significantly over recent years, the application of satellite remote sensing to lake water is constrained

Tyler, Andrew N.

125

Effects of amylose and amylopectin on quality of rice noodles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of amylose content, amylose solubility, and amylopectin structure of rice flour on quality of rice noodles were determined. Milled rice was ground into flour. Noodles were prepared by mixing 100 g flour, 80 g water and 1 g salt. The mixture was heated in a microwave oven for 75 sec, extruded using a pasta maker, and dried at 60?C using a 2-step procedure: 100% RH (2 hr) and 30% RH (2 hr). Cooking, texture, and physico-chemical characteristics of dough and noodles were determined. More amylose in flour contributed to better texture of noodles, i.e., greater firmness and less stickiness. Texture of noodles prepared from flour with 25-30% amylose was substantially improved compared to flour with less than 25% amylose. Rice flour containing amylopectin with more long chains with degree of polymerization (DP) of 70-156, improved the quality of noodles. In contrast, flour containing more intermediate chains, DP 26-69, impaired noodle quality. The starch in dough was partially modified during processing. Correlation coefficients of noodle texture with pasting properties were lower for flour compared to dough. Hence, dough pasting properties could better predict noodle quality. Heating and extrusion processes caused rice starch to partially gelatinize. The crystalline structure of amylopectin was partly disrupted and some amylose leached from the granule. The noodle drying process enhanced the mobility of amylopectin chains. Amylose and long amylopectin chains probably associated and provided a gel network that strengthened the structure of the noodles. Intermediate amylopectin chains, in contrast, inhibited these associations. Short amylopectin chains, DP 5-25, did not affect the properties of noodles. These chains were probably too short to enhance or inhibit formation of the gel network. Amylose solubility in excess water at 120?C did not correlate with the noodle quality. Rice flours with amylose content between 25-30% are recommended for preparing rice noodles. Using flours with amylose contents less than 25% yielded unacceptable noodle textures, i.e., too sticky, while using flours with amylose contents more than 30% yielded noodles with poor appearance and high dry matter loss.

Chinnapha, Naliwan, Dd 1976-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Effect of Coke Particle Size on Sinter Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The effect of different Coke particle size on sinter quality has been investigated. Eight different coke particle sizes were chosen and sinter ...

127

A Microbial and Chemical Water Quality Study of Sixteen Individual Wells in Rural Southern Cochise County, Arizona .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is part of a larger water quality study for Arizona (Marrero-Ortiz et al., 2009) and looks more closely at 22 water samples from… (more)

Wright, Debra Lee

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: Final Annual Report to BPA and NOAA Fisheries, 2008.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Project (ISEMP) program monitors the status and trend of water quality elements that may affect restoration project effectiveness in the Entiat subbasin. As part of this effort, the PNW Research Station (PNW) measures, analyzes and interprets temporal trends in natural stream water pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and temperature. The Entiat River is currently on the Clean Water Act 303(d) list for pH exceedence, and there is insufficient information to determine the spatial and temporal extent or potential causes of this exceedence. In the late spring 2007, PNW deployed data-logging, multiparameter probes at four locations in the Entiat subbasin to measure water quality parameters, focusing on pH. Data collection was seasonally interrupted by river ice in early December. Daily average pH did not exceed the water quality standard of 8.5 at any of the measurements sites. However, instantaneous values did exceed this standard near the mouth of the Entiat River during late summer-fall period. This suggested that in the lowest portion of the river peaks in pH may be occurring because of photosynthesis caused by high rates of periphyton productivity in response to increased sunlight, temperature, and possible nutrient enrichment. Conversely, dissolved oxygen reached annual low levels during this same late summer-fall period, in part because of increased water temperatures and increased biochemical oxygen demand.

Woodsmith, Richard; Bookter, Andy

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia  

SciTech Connect

To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Microsoft Word - S05072_WaterQualityComplStrategy.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Analysis of Uranium Trends in Ground Water, August 2007. Several possible causes were cited for the discrepancy between expected and...

131

GRR/Section 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRRSection 6-MT-f - Short-term Water Quality Standard for Turbidity (318 Authorization) < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home...

132

GRR/Section 14-MT-d - 401 Water Quality Certification | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon GRRSection 14-MT-d - 401 Water Quality Certification < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY...

133

GRR/Section 14-ID-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GRRSection 14-ID-d - Section 401 Water Quality Certification Process < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of...

134

News and Update: Sensors Continually Monitor Water and Air Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Initial Microstructural Analysis of A36 Steel from WTC Building 7 by J.R. Barnett, R.R. ... a system of sensors developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Sandia ... The system is designed to continually monitor water or air, in- situ, so sample ... to develop a program to train water utilities to assess system vulnerabilities.

135

Decontaminate Effect of Paddy Field on Waste Water from Fish Pond under Different Residence Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastewater from aquiculture contains usefu1 nutrients for plant, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Drainage of the wastewater resulted in eutrophication of water body. The nutrients in wastewater from fish pond was assimilated and utilized by paddy field. ... Keywords: Decontaminate effect, Fishpond, Paddy field, Water cycle, Water quality

Shun-Yao Jiang, Jian-Qiang Zhu, Gu Li, Qi-Xia Wu, Yuan Zhou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, November 1993--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Studies Team (EST) of ESH-20 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. Reports by Bennett (1994) and Cross (1994) discuss previous EST aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands those findings. EST collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon from November 1993 through October 1994. The two upstream stations are located below outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. Some water quality parameters are different at the first three stations from those expected of natural streams in the area, indicating degraded water quality due to effluent discharges. The aquatic habitat at the upper stations has also been degraded by sedimentation and channelization. The macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and unstable communities. In contrast, the two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. The two lower stations have increased macroinvertebrate diversity and stable communities, further indications of downstream water quality improvement.

Cross, S.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

5 Development of the Water Quality Index (WQI) to Assess  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. For instance, sites designated by the IJC within Areas of Concern (AOC) (International Joint Commission 2003 though most of the Georgian Bay wetlands were very good quality, AOC sites (Collingwood (CO Georgian Bay wetlands in the good categories (solid bars), the index was able to identify the AOCs

McMaster University

139

Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

140

Surface Water Quality Standards (New Jersey) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Chapter 10 Water Quality Standards (Kentucky) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

142

Fuzzy expert system for the detection of episodes of poor water quality through continuous measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to prevent and reduce water pollution, promote a sustainable use, protect the environment and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems, this article deals with the application of advanced mathematical techniques designed to aid in the management ... Keywords: Automated measurement networks, Fuzzy inference system, Fuzzy logic, Guadiana river, Water quality system

Cecilio Angulo; Joan Cabestany; Pablo Rodríguez; Montserrat Batlle; Antonio González; Sergio de Campos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Engineering quality control of solar-powered intelligent water-saving irrigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development tendency of the agricultural irrigation technology is Automatic water-saving irrigation, powered by solar energy and achieved control purposes by moisture content monitoring techniques and the variable irrigation technology. In this paper, ... Keywords: intelligent, quality control, solar power, water-saving irrigation

Liu Xiaochu; Wu Hualong; Ling Jingpeng; Tao Jianhua; Yao Li

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Considerations in the Design of Treatment Best Management Practices (BMPs) to Improve Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This document has been reviewed in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency=s peer and administrative review policies and approved for publiction. Mention of trade names, commercial products, or design procedures does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. ii Foreword The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is charged by Congress with protecting the Nation’s land, air, and water resources. Under a mandate of national environmental laws, the Agency strives to formulate and implement actions leading to a compatible balance between human activities and the ability of natural systems to support and nurture life. To meet this mandate, EPA’s research program is providing data and technical support for solving environmental problems today and building a science knowledge base necessary to manage our ecological resources wisely, understand how pollutants affect our health, and prevent or reduce environmental risks in the future. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is the Agency’s center for investigation of technological and management approaches for preventing and reducing risks from pollution that threaten human health and the environment. The focus of the Laboratory’s research program is on methods and their cost-effectiveness for prevention and control of pollution to air, land, water, and subsurface resources; protection of water quality in public water systems; remediation of contaminated sites, sediments and ground water; prevention and control of indoor air pollution; and restoration of ecosystems. NRMRL collaborates with both public and private sector partners to foster technologies that reduce the cost of compliance and to anticipate emerging problems. NRMRL’s research provides solutions to environmental problems by: developing and promoting technologies that protect and improve the environment; advancing

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Scoping Document: Water Quality Control Policy on the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 INTRODUCTION Background Annually, thermal electric power plants take in billions of gallons 8 One measure of the plant thermal efficiency used by the power industry is the Net Plant Heat Rate for Power Plant Cooling. March 2008 ii LIST OF PREPARERS The following staff of the State Water Resources

146

University of Rhode Island 2011 Water Quality Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chlorination and adjust pH. The wells and associated pump stations pump treated water into the distribution or domestic wastewater discharges, oil and gas production, mining, or farming. PESTICIDES & HERBICIDES - which, and septic systems. RADIOACTIVE - which can be nat- urally occurring or the result of oil and gas production

Rhode Island, University of

147

CE479D WATER QUALITY LABORATORY SPRING 2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a number of specified parameters. The first eight laboratory exercises are designed to train students: The ANGEL course management system will be used to communicate with students, to post lecture material for the different water sources tested. A complete analysis of all the data is required to fully evaluate

Burgos, William

148

DOEs Response to Energy Water Availability & Quality Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Re-circ (Wet Tower) 1.2 1.1 Once- Through 46.2 0.1 Re-circ (Wet Tower) 1.5 1.5 Nuclear Fossil Consumption represents evaporation through heat loss Source: EPRI Water &...

149

Program on Technology Innovation: Ohio River Water Quality Trading Pilot Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitrogen discharges to surface waters from power plants are increasing as technologies such as selective catalytic reduction units, electrostatic precipitators, and flue gas desulfurization systems are installed to comply with more stringent air emission requirements. The nitrogen generated by these processes is being transferred to surface water discharges. Concurrently, water quality impairments by nitrogen, new instream nutrient criteria, and anticipated effluent limitations on total nitrogen discharg...

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

150

Influence of chemical characterization of oil shale solids on understanding water quality impacts  

SciTech Connect

Synfuels technologies will yield products and effluents that are a function of the raw material being processed and the process variables. Chemical and mineralogic characterization of solids generated in synfuels production provide valuable insight into health and environmental impacts associated with synfuels processing (coal liquefaction or gasification and shale oil extraction). This report deals with considerations relating to leachate generation from solid wastes, but the suggested research approach is applicable to understanding the nature and extent of all effluents from synfuels operations. Solid characterization studies of one raw shale core and two spent shale cores from Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.'s Logan Wash site are described. These data are used to determine the effect of processing on the shale solids and also to evaluate a variety of water quality issues associated with in situ processing. The importance of solid characterization studies in developing an understanding of effluent composition and behavior and subsequently defining environmental impacts is described.

Peterson, E.J.; Wagner, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Program on Technology Innovation: Water Quality Trading Program for Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic releases of nitrogen have greatly increased environmental fluxes of biologically available nitrogen and contributed to serious ecological problems, such as algal blooms that cause waters to become severely depleted of oxygen. Power plant sources of nitrogen include NOx air emissions, the ammonia required for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) systems that are used for NOx reduction, and the ammonia used for SOx control and ash pond condition...

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

Review: The impact of agricultural activities on water quality: A case for collaborative catchment-scale management using integrated wireless sensor networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The challenge of improving water quality is a growing global concern, typified by the European Commission Water Framework Directive and the United States Clean Water Act. The main drivers of poor water quality are economics, poor water management, agricultural ... Keywords: Agricultural activities, Catchment, Collaborative, Water quality monitoring and management, Wireless sensor networks

Huma Zia, Nick R. Harris, Geoff V. Merrett, Mark Rivers, Neil Coles

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

SciTech Connect

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

154

A water quality assessment of the import of turfgrass sod grown with composted dairy manure into a suburban watershed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have caused water quality concerns in many rural watersheds, sometimes forcing the State of Texas to conduct Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assessments of stream nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). One suggested Best Management Practice (BMP) is the export of phosphorus (P) through turfgrass sod produced with composted dairy manure from an impaired rural watershed to an urban watershed. The manure-grown sod releases P slowly and would not require additional P fertilizer for up to 20 years in the receiving watershed. This would eliminate P application to the sod and improve the water quality of urban streams. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model a typical suburban watershed that would receive the transplanted sod. The objective of the modeling was to determine the water quality changes due to the import of sod transplanted from turf fields and grown with composted dairy manure. The SWAT model was calibrated to simulate historical flow and sediment and nutrient loading to Mary's Creek. The total P stream loading to Mary's Creek was lower when manure-grown sod was imported instead of commercial sod grown with inorganic fertilizers. Yet, flow, sediment yield, and total N yield increased equally for both cases at the watershed outlet. The SWAT simulations indicate that a turfgrass BMP can be used effectively to import manure P into an urban watershed and reduce in-stream P levels when compared to sod grown with inorganic fertilizers.

Richards, Chad Edward

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Defect detection effectiveness and product quality in global software development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global software development (GSD) has become a common practice in the software development industry. The main challenge organizations have to overcome is to minimize the effect of organizational diversity on the effectiveness of their GSD collaboration. ... Keywords: defect density, defect detection effectiveness, global software development, software quality

Tihana Galinac Grbac; Darko Huljeni?

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effect of water dissolution on oil viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water dissolution in crude oil becomes significant at temperatures > 150 C, and 250 C, water solubilities in heavy crudes are [approx]40 mol%. Dissolved water acts as a low-viscosity solvent that reduces oil-phase viscosity. This phenomenon has been considered in thermal recovery simulations but has never been substantiated. In this work, the effect of water on viscosity was measured for four crude samples with gravities ranging from 0.97 to 1.03 g/cm[sup 3]. At the highest experimental temperature of 286 C, viscosities of water-saturated samples were about one-half those of water-free counterparts. The viscosity reduction, although quite significant, was not as pronounced as the drop estimated by viscosity mixing rules used for hydrocarbon systems. While a log mixing rule or a one-quarter power mixing rule overestimated viscosity effects, a mole-fraction-weighted average of oil and water viscosities matched the experimental data. A possible explanation for failure of the log mixing rule is that the water dissolved in the oil exists not as monomers but as hydrogen-bonded clusters. The authors find good agreement with experiment when the mole fraction of water clusters, calculated from a statistical mechanics based theory is used in the log mixing rule.

Giandt, C.A. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Chapman, W.G. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has provided technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including over 50 WASCBs, several thousand feet of terraces, numerous spring developments, fencing, 7 implemented CREP contracts, and the development of 8 additional CREP projects slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY '05. Within the past contract year in Sherman County, 589.4 acres of CREP have been enrolled protecting 30.8 miles of riparian habitat. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in keeping up with the demand for conservation projects within Sherman County.

Faucera, Jason (Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, Sherman County, OR)

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon : Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has provided technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including over 50 WASCBs, several thousand feet of terraces, numerous spring developments, fencing, 5 implemented CREP contracts, and the development of 12 additional CREP projects slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY06. Within the past contract year in Sherman County, 355.4 acres of CREP have been enrolled protecting 19.3 miles of riparian habitat. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in keeping up with the demand for conservation projects within Sherman County.

Faucera, Jason (Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, Sherman County, OR)

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2002-2003 Annual Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was designed to provide project coordination and technical assistance to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality enhancement and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Enhancement Reserve Program (CREP) and other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Three of those four streams and one other major Sherman County stream are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Temperature in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has resulted in providing technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including over 50 WASCBs, several thousand feet of terraces, two implemented CREP contracts, and the development of 3 additional CREP projects slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY '04. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in reducing the backlog of conservation projects within Sherman County, while adhering to the objectives set forth for this grant.

Faucera, Jason (Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, Sherman County, OR)

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2005-2006 Annual Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has provided technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including 119 WASCBs, 74,591 feet of terraces, 3 spring developments, 24,839 feet of riparian or pasture cross fencing, 1,072 acres of direct seed trials, 14 landowners implementing 34 CREP contracts, and the development of 5 additional CREP contracts slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY07. Within the past contract year in Sherman County, 1898.3 acres of CREP have been enrolled protecting approximately 52 miles of riparian or intermittent stream channel habitat. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in keeping up with the demand for conservation projects within Sherman County.

Faucera, Jason (Sherman County Soil and Water Conservation District, Sherman County, OR)

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Advanced, Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectric Turbines for the Restoration of Fish and Water Quality  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the world?s electrical energy. The contribution of hydroelectric generation has declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, ?environmentally friendly? turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been he AHTS program are described.

Brookshier, P.A.; Cada, G.F.; Flynn, J.V.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sale, M.J.; Sommers, G.L.

1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

162

Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill: Progress report, 1983 and 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface and groundwater stations at and in the vicinity of Fenton Hill (Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Demonstration Site) located in the Jemez Mountains. This is part of a continued program of environmental studies. There has been a slight variation in chemical quality of water from the surface and groundwater stations; however, these variations are within normal seasonal fluctuations. Water supply at the site is pumped from the aquifer in the Abiquiu Tuff. Cumulative production from 1976 through 1984 has been 41.5 x 10/sup 6/ gal. The water level in the supply well declined from 365 ft in 1976 to 379 ft in 1984.

Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Becker, N.M.; Williams, M.C.; Maes, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Guidance for Implementing U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys 2001 Methylmercury Water Quality Criterion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adoption of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Methylmercury Water Quality Criterion in 2001 raised many issues for permitting agencies and for individual discharges. Among the issues was how to translate from a tissue-based criterion to a water-column-based criteria for methylmercury. Adoption of a methylmercury standard requires translation to other forms of mercury if, for instance, permits continue to be written in terms of total recoverable mercury. This report covers a number of issues ...

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

164

Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Coutant, Charles C [ORNL

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Geological Survey #12;Front Cover: Aerial view of the lower Wood River Valley showing the Wood River Wetland.S. Geological Survey, January 2003. #12;Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood­5004 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;U.S. Department of the Interior KEN

166

The Role of Isotopes in Monitoring Water Quality Impacts Associated with Shale Gas Drilling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Role of Isotopes in Monitoring Water Quality Impacts Associated with Shale Gas Drilling Methane, including shale gas drilling. Monitoring techniques exist for detecting methane and, in some cases detail within the context of shale gas drilling activities in New York, as well as their uses

Wang, Z. Jane

167

Water Quality: 2007 Data, BPA-51; Preliminary Report, January 26, 2009.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Print Out No.1 presents a listing of the initial data. The variables included were: SITE, REP, NH4, NO2{_}3, SRP, TDP, TN, TP, and JULIAN , representing site code, replication number, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and Julian date, respectively. All values for nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon variables are recorded as {micro}g/L. The 2007 water quality data received by SCS required considerable manipulation and data management prior to analysis. If it is anticipated that water quality data received by SCS in the future will be of the same format, the time to carry out the necessary reformatting of the data should be taken into consideration. The levels of SRP from water quality data of previous years were often below detection limits. The data from 2007 showed elevated levels for this and other responses. This pattern was seemingly unrelated to nutrient addition treatments, however, as they appeared consistently across the study area. The river fertilization program was begun in 2005. Because the procedures for detection of nutrients and metals are quite sensitive, SCS recommends that any future water quality samples taken on, or close to, the dates of fertilizer application be carried out with the utmost care to avoid contamination issues. Doing so will ensure consistency and reliability in the resulting data.

Holderman, Charles

2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

168

Understanding the Effects of Compression and Constraint on Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding the Effects of Compression and Constraint on Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Membranes Title Understanding the Effects of Compression and Constraint on Water Uptake of...

169

Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1985 and 1986: Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface and groundwater stations at and in the vicinity of Fenton Hill (Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Demonstration Site) located in the Jemez Mountains. This is part of a continuing program of environmental studies. Data on chemical quality of water were determined for samples collected from 13 surface water and 19 groundwater stations in 1985 and 1986. There were slight variations in the chemical quality of the ground and surface water in 1985 and 1986 as compared with previous analyses; however, these variations are within normal seasonal fluctuations. Chemical uptake in soil, roots, and foliage is monitored in the canyon, which receives intermittent effluent release of water from tests in the geothermal circulation loop and occasional fluids from drilling operations. The chemical concentrations found in soil, roots, and vegetation as the result of effluent release have shown a decrease in concentration down-canyon and also have decreased in concentration with time since the larger releases that took place in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 18 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Williams, M.C.; Maes, M.N.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Drinking water quality standards and standard tests: Worldwide. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the laws, regulations, standards, and testing methods for drinking water from domestic and international sources. Citations discuss quality standardization and control. Topics include safety codes for drinking water systems and installations, contaminated water and toxicity analyses, biological and chemical standards, diseases derived from drinking water, plastic materials for water packaging, and natural mineral drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Informa(on and Resources Water Quality and Mi/ga/on: Bifenthrin and Fipronil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

strategy, Pesticides fluxes, Surface water, Vineyard Introduction The intensive use of pesticides for crop on the mobilisation of pesticides and total fluxes in surface water. Moreover, the effect of the sampling strategy ranged from 1.0 to 60 g. Effect of sampling strategy on the estimation of pesticides fluxes in the river

Hammock, Bruce D.

172

Education Program for Improved Water Quality in Copano Bay Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Copano Bay watershed covers approximately 1.4 million acres encompassing portions of Karnes, Bee, Goliad, Refugio, San Patricio and Aransas counties. Copano Bay and its main tributaries, the Mission and Aransas rivers, were placed on the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) 303(d) list in 1998 due to levels of bacteria that exceed water quality standards established to protect oyster waters use. A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program was initiated in September 2003 to identify and assess sources of these bacteria. The Center for Research in Water Resources at the University of Texas at Austin (UT CRWR) was funded by TCEQ to conduct computer-based modeling to determine the bacterial loading and reductions necessary to attain water quality standards. Subsequently Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMU-CC) conducted bacterial source tracking (BST) with funding from Texas General Land Office (TGLO) and the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program (CBBEP) to determine actual sources of bacteria. Due to the findings of the initial efforts of the TMDL and concerns voiced by stakeholders in the watershed, Texas AgriLife Extension Service was awarded a Clean Water Act § 319(h) Nonpoint Source Grant from the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The overall goal of this project was to improve water quality in Copano Bay and its tributaries by increasing awareness of water quality issues throughout the watershed. This increased awareness was to be accomplished by providing education and demonstrations for land and livestock owners in the watershed on best management practices (BMPs) to decrease or prevent bacteria from entering waterways. Through creation of a project website, 52 educational programs, and nine one-on-one consultations over the span of the project, we have reached 5,408 residents in and around the Copano Bay watershed. Additionally, through this project all data collected for the initial TMDL efforts was re-evaluated and findings were presented in the “Task 2 Report.” Project members developed a curriculum for horse owners, “A Guide to Good Horsekeeping” that addressed BMPs specific to horse operations. Land and livestock owners who had already implemented BMPs or were interested in implementing BMPs were given a participation certificate.

Berthold, A.; Moench, E.; Wagner, K.; Paschal, J.

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

173

Analysis of the impact of energy crops on water quality. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report consists of two separate papers. The first, ``The potential use of agricultural simulation models in predicting the fate of nitrogen and pesticides applied to switchgrass and poplars,`` describes three models (CREAMS, GLEAMS, and EPIC) for the evaluation of the relationships which determine water quality in the agroecosystem. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the utility of these models in evaluating the potential impact of alternative crop management practices. The second paper, ``Energy crops as part of a sustainable landscape,`` discusses concepts of landscape management and the linkage among agricultural practices and environmental quality.

Hatfield, J.L.; Gale, W.J.

1993-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

174

Synthesis of gold nano-particles in a microfluidic platform for water quality monitoring applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for in-situ synthesis of gold nano-particles was developed. The long term goal is to develop a portable hand-held diagnostic platform for monitoring water quality (e.g., detecting metal ion pollutants). The LOC consists of micro-chambers housing different reagents and samples that feed to a common reaction chamber. The reaction products are delivered to several waste chambers in a pre-defined sequence to enable reagents/ samples to flow into and out of the reaction chamber. Passive flow actuation is obtained by capillary driven flow (wicking) and dissolvable microstructures called ‘salt pillars’. The LOC does not require any external power source for actuation and the passive microvalves enable flow actuation at predefined intervals. The LOC and the dissolvable microstructures are fabricated using a combination of photolithography and soft lithography techniques. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the variation in the valve actuation time with respect to valve position and geometric parameters. Subsequently, analytical models were developed using one dimensional linear diffusion theory. The analytical models were in good agreement with the experimental data. The microvalves were developed using various salts: polyethylene glycol, sodium chloride and sodium acetate. Synthesized in-situ in our experiments, gold nano-particles exhibit specific colorimetric and optical properties due to the surface plasmon resonance effect. These stabilized mono-disperse gold nano-particles can be coated with bio-molecular recognition motifs on their surfaces. A colorimetric peptide assay was thus developed using the intrinsic property of noble metal nano-particles. The LOC device was further developed on a paper microfluidics platform. This platform was tested successfully for synthesis of gold nano-particles using a peptide assay and using passive salt-bridge microvalves. This study proves the feasibility of a LOC device that utilizes peptide assay for synthesis of gold nano-particles in-situ. It could be highly significant in a simple portable water quality monitoring platform.

Datta, Sayak

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON CORROSION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table of Contents Abstract...................................................................................................................................................... 4 THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON CORROSION IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS.................................................................................................................................................. 5

F. Cantor; Jae K. Park, Ph.D.; Prasit Vaiyavatjamai

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Barriers and Solutions for Farmer Participation in the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of a multiyear collaborative effort, American Farmland Trust (AFT) convened six listening sessions with approximately 150 agricultural producers (farmers) in the Ohio River Basin (ORB) to determine their readiness to sell nutrient credits in a regional water quality trading (WQT) market. In a WQT market, municipal wastewater treatment plants, industrial manufacturing plants, and electric power companies can purchase nutrient credits to meet their regulatory requirements. They pay farmers to imple...

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Impact of Key Electric Power Industry Regulatory Issues on Opportunities in Water Quality Trading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on EPRI water quality trading (WQT) research on nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus), this technical update explores potential application of WQT for other electric power generation waste streams and pollutants in addition to considering the potential impact of existing regulatory issues on the trading for nutrient credits.  For each of the opportunities identified, a discussion of potential issues associated with that application is discussed.  This document also identifies ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

178

Effect of Watering and Non-Watering Cooling Rates on the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Watering and Non-Watering Cooling Rates on the Mechanical Properties of an Aluminum Smelter's Potshell · Energy Reduction Technology for  ...

179

File:06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 25 KB, MIME type: application/pdf) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 12:14, 1 October 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 12:14, 1 October 2012 1,275 × 1,650 (25 KB) Dklein2012 (Talk | contribs) You cannot overwrite this file. Edit this file using an external application (See the setup instructions for more information) File usage The following page links to this file:

180

File:Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Quality Control Act.pdf Water Quality Control Act.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 413 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 69 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 14:23, 14 March 2013 Thumbnail for version as of 14:23, 14 March 2013 1,275 × 1,650, 69 pages (413 KB) Alevine (Talk | contribs)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Quality control of chemical and isotopic analyses of geothermal water samples  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical and isotopic analyses of geothermal water samples must meet certain levels of accuracy and reliability to be useful for identifying geochemical processes in hydrothermal systems. Quality control is largely a concern for the analytical laboratory, but the geochemist or reservoir engineer using the chemical data must also be concerned with analytical quality. To test accuracy and reliability of analyses available from laboratories, splits of seven water samples were sent to four stable-isotope laboratories, and splits of five water samples were sent to four chemical laboratories. The analyses of each sample were compared among laboratories, and the differences in analyses were evaluated using criteria developed for this comparison. Isotopic compositions were considered reliable if they deviated from mean values by less than 2{per_thousand}, for hydrogen and by less than 0.15{per_thousand}, for oxygen. Concentrations of each chemical component were considered reliable if they differed from mean values by less than 10%. Chemical analyses were examined for internal consistency by calculating the error in ionic charge balance and the error between ionic charge and electrical conductivity. To be considered internally consistent, chemical analyses must have less than 5% error in charge balance and less than 10% error in conductivity balance. Three isotope laboratories gave consistent compositions of all samples. No chemical laboratory gave consistent analyses of all samples. Recommendations are made that provide the user of isotopic and chemical data with the ability to better evaluate the quality of analyses.

Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Okanogan Subbasin Water Quality and Quantity Report for Anadromous Fish in 2006.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fish need water of sufficient quality and quantity in order to survive and reproduce. The list of primary water quality indicators appropriate for monitoring of anadromous fish, as identified by the Upper Columbia Monitoring Strategy, includes: discharge, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus and ammonia. The Colville Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department began evaluating these water quality indicators in 2005 and this report represents data collected from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006. We collected empirical status and trend data from various sources to evaluate each water quality indicator along the main stem Okanogan and Similkameen Rivers along with several tributary streams. Each water quality indicator was evaluated based upon potential impacts to salmonid survival or productivity. Specific conductance levels and all nutrient indicators remained at levels acceptable for growth, survival, and reproduction of salmon and steelhead. These indicators were also considered of marginal value for monitoring environmental conditions related to salmonids within the Okanogan subbasin. However, discharge, temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and pH in that order represent the water quality indicators that are most useful for monitoring watershed health and habitat changes and will help to evaluate threats or changes related to salmon and steelhead restoration and recovery. On the Okanogan River minimum flows have decreased over the last 12 years at a rate of -28.3CFS/year as measured near the town of Malott, WA. This trend is not beneficial for salmonid production and efforts to reverse this trend should be strongly encouraged. Turbidity levels in Bonaparte and Omak Creek were a concern because they had the highest monthly average readings. Major upland disturbance in the Bonaparte Creek watershed has occurred for decades and agricultural practices within the riparian areas along this creek have lead to major channel incision and bank instability. High sediment loads continue to threaten Omak and Bonaparte sub-watersheds. Major rehabilitation efforts are needed within these sub-watersheds to improve salmonid habitats. We found that for the past 12 years dissolved oxygen levels have been on a slightly downward trend during summer/fall Chinook egg incubation. Dissolved oxygen readings in early October, for summer/fall Chinook and from June through early July for summer steelhead can occasionally drop to the range from 8 to 10 mg/L and therefore warrant continued monitoring. Levels of pH represent an indicator that has little monitoring value throughout most of the subbasin. The Similkameen River drainage showed dramatic annual changes in the mean pH values and a declining trend for pH thus warranting continued monitoring. Average daily temperatures, in 2006, exceeded 25 C for eight days in July in the Okanogan River at Malott. Due to increased warm water temperatures, delays in migration have increased at a rate of 1.82 days per year over the last 10 years. Increases in water temperature can be linked to many anthropogenic activities. Increasing water temperatures within the Okanogan River watershed represent the single most limiting factor facing salmonids in main-stem habitats.

Colville Tribes, Department of Fish & Wildlife

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Determining an optimal sampling frequency for measuring bulk temporal changes in ground-water quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process, statistical methods are used to determine an optimal sampling and analysis plan. When the DQO decision rule for instituting remedial actions is based on a critical change in water quality, the monitoring program design must ensure that this change can be detected and measured with a specified confidence. Usually the focus is on the change at a single monitoring location and the process is limited to addressing the uncertainty inherent in the analytical methods and the variability at that location. However, new strategies that permit ranking the waste sites and prioritizing remedial activities require the means for assessing overall changes for small regions over time, where both spatial and temporal variability exist and where the uncertainty associated with these variations far exceeds measurement error. Two new methods for assessing these overall changes have been developed and are demonstrated by application to a waste disposal site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These methods incorporate historical data where available and allow the user to either test the statistical significance of a linear trend or of an annual change compared to a baseline year for a group of water quality wells.

Moline, G.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Systems modelling for effective mine water management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns about the difficulties in securing water have led the Australian coal mining industry to seek innovative ways to improve its water management and to adopt novel strategies that will lead to less water being used and more water being reused. ... Keywords: Mining, Sustainable development, Systems model, Water balance, Water resources management

Claire M. Côte; Chris J. Moran; Christopher J. Hedemann; Christian Koch

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effect of irrigation water salinity and sodicity and water table position on water table chemistry beneath Atriplex lentiformis and Hordeum marinum  

SciTech Connect

Coal bed methane (CBM) extraction in Montana and Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) produces large quantities of modestly saline-sodic water. This study assessed effects of irrigation water quality and water table position on water chemistry of closed columns, simulating a perched or a shallow water table. The experiment assessed the potential salt loading in areas where shallow or perched water tables prevent leaching or where artificial drainage is not possible. Water tables were established in sand filled PVC columns at 0.38, 0.76, and1.14 m below the surface, after which columns were planted to one of three species, two halophytic Atriplex spp. and Hordeum marinum Huds. (maritime barley), a glycophyte. As results for the two Atriplex ssp. did not differ much, only results from Atriplex lentiformis (Torn) S. Wats. (big saltbush) and H. marinum are presented. Irrigation water representing one of two irrigation sources was used: Powder River (PR) (electrolytic conductivity (EC) = 0.19 Sm{sup -1}, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) = 3.5) or CBM water (EC = 0.35 Sm-1, SAR = 10.5). Continuous irrigation with CBM and PR water led to salt loading over time, the extent being proportional to the salinity and sodicity of applied water. Water in columns planted to A. lentiformis with water tables maintained at 0.38 m depth had greater EC and SAR values than those with 0.76 and 1.14 m water table positions. Elevated EC and SAR values most likely reflect the shallow rooted nature of A. lentiformis, which resulted in enhanced ET with the water table close to the soil surface.

Browning, L.S.; Bauder, J.W.; Phelps, S.D. [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

Verma, A.K.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

188

Effects of space velocity on quality and quantity of gas from oil shale retorting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of gas injection rate, water injection rate, and retort pressure on offgas quality and quantity were studied using a small laboratory retort. There are interactions between these variables and oxygen injection and oil shale grade which affect total energy recovery, oil recovery, and energy content of the offgas. Prediction equations were developed describing the effects of these interactions. The study shows that with a low gas injection rate of 0.5 scfm/ft/sup 2/ at 100 psig with a water injection rate of 0.0201 lb/ft/sup 2/-min 50 percent of the potential oil recovery can be obtained together with 250 Btu/ft/sup 3/ gas.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.; Burwell, E.L.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Analysis of a flow metering device for low-quality steam-water flows. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to investigate the potential of the meter configuration consisting of a sharp-edged contraction section followed by an extended length of constant area duct and finally a diffuser section for pressure recovery. This and two other configurations were tested. These configurations and the reasons underlying their selection are described and discussed. It is concluded that Murdock's correlation for steam/water flow through orifices and sudden contraction sections at low qualities is invalid and the metering scheme based on it is inoperative. (MHR)

Crowe, C.T.

1979-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

190

A framework for estimating pollutant export coefficients from long-term in-stream water quality monitoring data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling techniques for estimating pollutant loadings to water bodies range from simple export coefficient and regression models to more complex mechanistic models. All export coefficient models and many complex mechanistic models rely on pollutant export ... Keywords: BOD, CODMn, NO3-N, PO4-P, Point and non-point source pollutant loadings, Pollutant export coefficients, Water quality

S. Shrestha; F. Kazama; L. T. H. Newham

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The effect of enzymes and starch damage on wheat flour tortilla quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specific enzymes have been used to improve flour quality for bread but enzyme action in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Two different wheat flours were prepared into tortillas using laboratory-scale, commercial equipment with fixed processing parameters. Dough and tortilla properties were evaluated using subjective and objective methods. Tortillas were stored in plastic bags at 22�°C for evaluation. The effects of nine enzymes (amyloglucosidase 1, amyloglucosidase 2, bacterial 1, bacterial 2, fungal, maltogenic 1, maltogenic 2, malted barley and xylanase) on quality of wheat flour tortillas were evaluated. Dough absorption was adjusted to attain uniform dough for tortillas. Enzyme addition to tortilla flour did not significantly affect tortilla weight, moisture and pH. Bacterial 2 amylase extended shelf stability while maltogenic 1 and xylanase exhibited smaller improvements in shelf stability and other tortilla properties. Addition of 0.05 activity unit bacterial 2 amylase improved tortilla diameter and improved tortilla shelf life from 12 to 28 days. Maltogenic 1 at 280 ppm improved tortilla diameter, opacity and shelf life. Addition of 100 ppm of xylanase effectively improved tortilla diameter and shelf life. Bacterial 1 amylase at 60 ppm improved tortilla diameter but did not improve shelf stability. Amyloglucosidase 2, maltogenic 2 and malted barley amylase did not improve tortilla quality at any of the evaluated levels. Amyloglucosidase 1 and fungal amylase reduced overall tortilla quality at all the evaluated levels. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is correlated with the damaged starch present in the flour. Damage was induced by grinding the samples for 0, 1, 4 and 8 hr to determine the effects of starch damage on tortilla quality. Processing increased starch damage of control tortilla flour from 5.4% to 12.6%. Damage starch increased dough water absorption, toughness and press rating and reduced diameter and opacity of tortillas. Damage starch improved tortilla rollability at higher levels but did not improve tortilla properties in combination with bacterial 2 amylase. Overall tortilla quality was not improved due to additional starch damage. Improved tortilla quality using bacterial 2 amylase at very low levels could be commercialized.

Arora, Sapna

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit (DPU) was developed and deployed for operation in the Powder River Basin. First year operatio

James Bauder

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Grain sorghum stillage recycling: effect on ethanol yield and stillage quality  

SciTech Connect

Stillage obtained from ethanol production of grain sorghum was separated into two fractions: thin stillage and wet solids. A portion of the thin stillage was recycled as cooking water in subsequent fermentation runs using both bench- and full-scale ethanol production plants. When thin stillage replaced 50-75% of the cooking water, large increases occurred in solids content, COD, and EC of the resulting thin stillage. It was found that while the volume of thin stillage requiring treatment or disposal was reduced, there was little reduction in the total pollutant load. Stillage recycling had little effect on the quality of the stillage wet solids fraction. At the high levels of stillage recycle used, ethanol yield was reduced after three to five runs of consecutive recycling.

Egg, R.P.; Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 6: oil-shale development in the Piceance Creek Basin and potential water-quality changes  

SciTech Connect

This report brackets the stream quality changes due to pre-mining pumping activites required to prepare oil shale lease Tracts C-a and C-b for modified in situ retorting. The fluxes in groundwater discharged to the surface were identified for Tract C-b in a modeling effort by another laboratory. Assumed fluxes were used for Tract C-a. The quality of the groundwater aquifers of the Piceance Basin is assumed to be that reported in the literature. The changes are bracketed in this study by assuming all premining pumping is discharged to the surface stream. In one case, the pumped water is assumed to be of a quality like that of the upper aquifer with a relatively high quality. In the second case, the pumped water is assumed to come from the lower aquifer. Complete mixing and conservation of pollutants was assumed at sample points at the White River and at Lees Ferry of the Colorado River. A discussion of possible secondary effects of oil shale and coal mining is presented. In addition, a discussion of the uncertainties associated with the assumptions used in this study and alternative uses for the water to prevent stream contamination by oil shale development is provided.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Improving Data Quality Through Effective Use of Data Semantics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data quality issues have taken on increasing importance in recent years. In our research, we have discovered that many “data quality” problems are actually “data misinterpretation” problems – that is, problems with data ...

Madnick, Stuart E.

197

Utilization of the upper Houston Ship Channel by fish and macroinvertebrates with respect to water quality trends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nektonic utilization of the upper Houston Ship Channel (HSC) was assessed through characterization of species composition, abundance and community structure of finfish and macroinvertebrate populations. Impact of basic water quality trends on utilization was evaluated. seine, gillnet and revolving screen collections from two deep-water and six shoreline sampling stations in upper HSC stream segments 1006 (downstream) and 1007 (upstream) during May 1988 through July 1989 yielded 33,042 nektonic organisms comprising 84 taxa. Spatial and temporal trends in catch statistics, species diversity, and hydrological variables were assessed for each sampling gear type. Seasonal composition by dominant taxa was determined and effect of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen on catch statistics examined. Mean surface (shoreline) water temperature and dissolved oxygen levels were similar between segments and followed expected seasonal trends. Mean bottom dissolved oxygen levels in segment 1007 during May through September were consistently 1 to 1.5 mg/l lower than segment 1006 and exhibited hypoxic conditions. Significantly greater catch and biomass were observed in segment 1007 as compared to those of segment 1006. Species diversity and number of taxa were comparable between segments. Distinct reductions in catch, number of taxa and species diversity characterized winter seine collections in segment 1006. Surface water temperatures appeared to exert the greatest hydrological influence on shoreline catch statistics. Revolving screen catches were greatest in Segment 1007 during November through March when bottom dissolved oxygen levels peaked and water temperatures ebbed. Significantly reduced catches in segment 1007 during May through October coincided with highest water temperatures and near-anoxic dissolved oxygen levels. By contrast, catch statistics from segment 1006 were highest during summer and early fall when mean bottom temperature and dissolved oxygen levels were highest and lowest, respectively. Cumulative number of taxa was highest in both segments during winter. HSC segment 1006 maintains healthy shoreline and bottom nekton communities year-round. Low dissolved oxygen in bottom waters restrict nekton utilization of segment 1007 during summer. Richness and abundance in segment 1007 during winter equaled or exceeded that of segment 1006.

Seiler, Richard Dale

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use, Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use, Production and Poverty in the Yellow River Basin Speaker(s): Jinixia Wang Date: May 22, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The purpose of this presentation is to better understand water management reform in China's rural communities, focusing on the effect of incentives to water managers on the nation's water resources and the welfare of the rural population. Based on a survey study in the Yellow River Basin, our findings show that Water User Associations and contracting have begun to systematically replace traditional forms of collective management. The analysis demonstrates, however, that it is not a nominal implementation of the reform that matters, but rather it is a creation of new management

199

ANOMALOUS EFFECTS OF WATER IN FIREFIGHTING ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... As shown in Figures 1 - 3 for benzene, xylene, and water, the boiling point of any liquid or mixture of liquids is that temperature at which the vapor ...

2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

200

The Effect of Circulating Coal Slurry Water Hardness on Coal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to investigate the effect of gypsum on flotation and coal slurry settling during coal slurry recirculation, the water hardness and proton conductivity of coal ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Effect of Water on Natural Gas Desulfurization by Adsorption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... The Effect of Water on Natural Gas Desulfurization by Adsorption by Ambalavanan Jayaraman, Gokhan Alptekin, Margarita Dubovik, Robert ...

202

Use of environmental sensors and sensor networks to develop water and salinity budgets for seasonal wetland real-time water quality management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Management of river salt loads in a complex and highly regulated river basin such as the San Joaquin River Basin of California presents significant challenges for current Information Technology. Computer-based numerical models are used as a means of ... Keywords: Environmental decision support, Forecasting, Salt management, Sensor networks, Sensors, Water quality

Nigel W. T. Quinn; Ricardo Ortega; Patrick J. A. Rahilly; Caleb W. Royer

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Proceedings: Effects of Coal Quality on Power Plants: Fifth International Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal quality has wide-ranging effects on handling, capacity, heat rate, availability, and maintenance of power plant equipment. EPRI's fifth international conference on coal quality featured discussions on corrosion, air toxics, heat rate, and a special session on software tools to support coal quality investigations. Such information can help utilities select coals that will enhance operations and overall generation costs.

1997-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

204

Air quality effects of alternative fuels. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To support the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program, a comparison of potential air quality effects of alternative transportation fuels is being performed. This report presents the results of Phase 1 of this program, focusing on reformulated gasoline (RFG), methanol blended with 15 percent gasoline (M85), and compressed natural gas (CNG). The fuels are compared in terms of effects on simulated future concentrations of ozone and mobile source air toxics in a photochemical grid model. The fuel comparisons were carried out for the future year 2020 and assumed complete replacement of gasoline in the projected light-duty gasoline fleet by each of the candidate fuels. The model simulations were carried out for the areas surrounding Los Angeles and Baltimore/DC, and other (non-mobile) sources of atmospheric emissions were projected according to published estimates of economic and population growth, and planned emission control measures specific to each modeling domain. The future-year results are compared to a future-year run with all gasoline vehicle emissions removed. The results of the comparison indicate that the use of M85 is likely to produce similar ozone and air toxics levels as those projected from the use of RFG. Substitution of CNG is projected to produce significantly lower levels of ozone and the mobile source air toxics than those projected for RFG or M85. The relative benefits of CNG substitution are consistent in both modeling domains. The projection methodologies used for the comparison are subject to a large uncertainty, and modeled concentration distributions depend on meteorological conditions. The quantitative comparison of fuel effects is thus likely to be sensitive to alternative assumptions. The consistency of the results for two very different modeling domains, using very different base assumptions, lends credibility to the qualitative differentiation among these fuels. 32 refs., 42 figs., 47 tabs.

Guthrie, P.; Ligocki, M.; Looker, R.; Cohen, J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs.

Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)] [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Nichols, A.D. [Versar, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)] [Versar, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Health and water quality monitoring of Pure Home Water's ceramic filter dissemination in the northern region of Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pure Home Water (PHW) is a social enterprise that promotes and disseminates household drinking water technologies in the Northern Region of Ghana. Currently their main product is a pot-shaped Potters for Peace-type ceramic ...

Johnson, Sophie M. (Sophie Marie)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Design and evaluation of a two-phase turbine for low quality steam--water mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new two-phase turbine was designed and built for testing in the laboratory, using a low quality steam-water mixture as a working fluid. The measured performance compares well with performance predictions of a numerical model of the expander. Details of the selection of the type of expander are given. The design of an experimental expander for use in a clean two-phase flow laboratory experiment and the development of a numerical model for performance analysis and extrapolations are described. Experiments including static cascade performance with two-phase fluid, disk friction and windage measurements, and two-phase performance measurements of the experimental expander are reported. Comparisons of the numerical model and experimental results, and the prediction of the performance of an advanced design, indicating how performance improvements can be achieved, are also included. An engine efficiency of 23 percent for a single-nozzle test was measured. Full admission performance, based upon the numerical model and achievable nozzle thrust coefficients indicate that an engine efficiency of between 38 and 48 percent can be realized with present technology. If maximum liquid removal loss is assumed, this performance range is predicted to be 38 to 41 percent. Droplet size reduction and the development and implementation of enhanced two-phase flow analysis techniques should make it possible to achieve the research goal of 70 percent engine efficiency.

Comfort, W.J. III

1977-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

The Use of Advanced Hydroelectric Turbines to Improve Water Quality and Fish Populations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, ?environmentally friendly? turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been developed in the initial phases of the AHTS program are described.

Brookshier, P.A.; Cada, G.F.; Flynn, J.V.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sale, M.J.; Sommers, G.L.

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management  

SciTech Connect

Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

210

The effect of information on product quality: Evidence from restaurant hygiene grade cards. The Quarterly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study examines the effect of an increase in product quality information to consumers on firms’ choices of product quality. In 1998, Los Angeles County introduced hygiene quality grade cards to be displayed in restaurant windows. We show that the grade cards cause (i) restaurant health inspection scores to increase, (ii) consumer demand to become sensitive to changes in restaurants ’ hygiene quality, and (iii) the number of foodborne illness hospitalizations to decrease. We also provide evidence that this improvement in health outcomes is not fully explained by consumers substituting from poor hygiene restaurants to good hygiene restaurants. These results imply the grade cards cause restaurants to make hygiene quality improvements.

Ginger Zhe Jin; Phillip Leslie

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

DOEs Response to Energy Water Availability & Quality Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 rd Annual West Virginia Water Conference Emerging Water Issues...Science and Solutions Roanoke, WV October 28-29, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 3 rd Annual WV Water Conference Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers 3 rd Annual WV Water Conference Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water 3 rd Annual WV Water Conference Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Ref.: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998 "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000," USGS Circular 1268, March 2004

212

Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge  

SciTech Connect

The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

2005-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

213

Offshore Tower Shading Effects on In-Water Optical Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field campaign was performed to estimate the shading effect induced on in-water irradiance and radiance measurements taken in the immediate vicinity of the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT), located in the northern Adriatic Sea, which is ...

Giuseppe Zibordi; John Piero Doyle; Stanford B. Hooker

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effects of water chemistry on NF/RO membrane structure and performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dioxane…. ……………… 3.4. Water chemistry: Concentration, pH,4.3.1. Effect of water chemistry on membrane water4.3.2. Effect of water chemistry on EG rejection…………………. …..

Mo, Yibing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

A reaction-based river/stream water quality model Part I: Model development and numerical schemes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the conceptual and mathematical development of a numerical model of sediment and reactive chemical transport in river/streams. The distribution of mobile suspended sediments and immobile bed sediments is controlled by hydrologic transport as well as erosion and deposition processes. The fate and transport of water quality constituents involving a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by a system of reaction equations for immobile constituents and advective-dispersive-reactive transport equations for constituents. To circumvent stiffness associated with equilibrium reactions, matrix decomposition is performed via Gauss-Jordan column reduction. After matrix decomposition, the system of water quality constituent reactive transport equations is transformed into a set of thermodynamic equations representing equilibrium reactions and a set of transport equations involving no equilibrium reactions. The decoupling of equilibrium and kinetic reactions enables robust numerical integration of the partial differential equations for non-equilibrium-variables. Solving non-equilibrium-variable transport equations instead of individual water quality constituent transport equations also reduces the number of PDEs. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the mixed differential and algebraic equations. Two verification examples are compared with analytical solutions to demonstrate the correctness of the code and to illustrate the importance of employing application-dependent numerical methods to solve specific problems.

Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Gour-Tsyh, Yeh [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

April Hill

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model was developed for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very-important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

DOEs Response to Energy Water Availability & Quality Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Plant Water Management Power Plant Water Management R&D Program - Responding to Emerging Issues 8 th Electric Utilities Environmental Conference Tucson, AZ January 24-26, 2005 Jeff Hoffmann, Tom Feeley and Barbara Carney US Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory EUEC 2005 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water EUEC 2005 Water and Electricity Are Inextricably Linked * Each kilowatt-hour of electricity requires on average about 25 gallons of water to produce. * Therefore, we may use almost 3 times as much water turning on lights and running appliances as we do taking showers and watering lawns. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Home Electricity Use Home Water Use Residential Freshwater Use (Gallons/person/day)

219

Ceramic filter manufacturing in Northern Ghana : water storage and quality control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2009, Pure Home Water (PHW), a Ghana based non-profit organization working to provide affordable and safe drinking water to people in the Northern Region of Ghana, began the construction of a ceramic pot filter (CPF) ...

Kleiman, Shanti Lisa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Land Use and Water Quality on California's Central Coast: Nutrient Levels in Coastal Waterways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pollution originating from urban and agricul- tural landrefers to pollution that occurs when water runs over land or

Los Huertos, Marc; Gentry, Lowell; Shennan, Carol

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Understanding submarine groundwater discharge and its influence on coastal water quality along the California Coast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oral presentations made to Stinson Beach County Water District (SBCWD), audience of approximately 10 members of the public and board

Boehm, Alexandria B; Paytan, Adina

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A search for the Mpemba effect: When hot water freezes faster then cold water James D. Brownridge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

..." and "...Preheating the melt produces no certain effect upon it ..."6 In other words, if a specimen of water voltage produced the when latent heat of freezing is released. (A) Glass tube and water, (B) 500k, (CA search for the Mpemba effect: When hot water freezes faster then cold water James D. Brownridge

Suzuki, Masatsugu

223

Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

Smith, John G [ORNL; Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Loar, James M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Environmental Management (2008) 41:367–377 DOI 10.1007/s00267-007-9033-y Headwater Influences on Downstream Water Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract We investigated the influence of riparian and whole watershed land use as a function of stream size on surface water chemistry and assessed regional variation in these relationships. Sixty-eight watersheds in four level III U.S. EPA ecoregions in eastern Kansas were selected as study sites. Riparian land cover and watershed land use were quantified for the entire watershed, and by Strahler order. Multiple regression analyses using riparian land cover classifications as independent variables explained among-site variation in water chemistry parameters, particularly total nitrogen (41%), nitrate (61%), and total phosphorus (63%) concentrations. Whole watershed land use explained slightly less variance, but riparian and whole watershed land use were so tightly correlated that it was difficult to separate their effects. Water chemistry parameters sampled in downstream reaches were most closely correlated with riparian land cover adjacent to the smallest (first-order) streams of watersheds or land use in the entire watershed, with riparian zones immediately upstream of sampling sites offering less explanatory power as stream size increased. Interestingly, headwater effects were evident even at times when these small streams were unlikely to be flowing. Relationships were similar among ecoregions, indicating that land use characteristics were most responsible for water quality variation among watersheds. These findings suggest that nonpoint pollution control

Walter K. Dodds; Æ Robert; M. Oakes; Ó Springer; W. K. Dodds; R. M. Oakes; R. M. Oakes

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Forest Fire Effects on Air Quality in Ontario: Evaluation of Several Recent Examples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several events were studied to examine the sources of smoke and pollutants that may affect air quality in Ontario as well as the transport mechanisms that result in effects on ground-level air quality. The selected events were strongly suspected of being ...

Frank Dempsey

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The effect of religious identity on user judgment of website quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper investigates the effect of users' religious identity on their judgments of website quality. Websites related to Islamic and Christian identities were evaluated by Christian and Muslim respondents. Aesthetics, usability, service quality, pleasurable ... Keywords: brand, religion, user experience, user judgment

Ons Al-shamaileh; Alistair Sutcliffe; Antonella De Angeli

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

WATER QUALITY CONTROL POLICY ON THE USE OF COASTAL AND ESTUARINE WATERS FOR POWER PLANT COOLING Draft Final Substitute Environmental Document State Water Resources Control Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State Water Board also contributed to this document’s preparation. The authors also wish to acknowledge previous contributions to this project by Ms. Sheila Vassey (State Water Board), Mr. Adam Laputz (currently

California Environmental; Protection Agency; Ms. Kim Ward; Mr. Michael Gjerde; Mr. Frank Roddy Of The

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Impact of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality: A Premilinary Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that used oil is the main hydrocarbon source to runoff.quality. " Used oil can also be a point source pollutant.to nonpoint source pollution, such as used oil or waste

Nixon, Hillary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality: A Preliminary Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concrete Diesel Oil Engine Wear Source: Local Ordinances: Athat used oil is the main hydrocarbon source to runoff.quality. Used oil can also be a point source pollutant.

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality: A Preliminary Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MTBE Phase-Out (02-32). Sacramento, CA. Caltrans, 2002. “Quality Handbook. ” Sacramento, CA. http://www.dot.ca.gov/Storage Tank Statistics. Sacramento, CA. October 7. http://

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Impacts of motor vehicle operation on water quality - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

preventing water pollution from motor vehicles would be muchgroundwater pollution; motor-vehicle transportation;the environmental costs of motor vehicle transportation in

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Effect of Coke particle size on sinter quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meeting, 2011 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, EMPMD Technical Division Student Poster Contest. Presentation Title, Effect of Coke particle size ...

233

Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the conceptual ground-water flow system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ground-water monitoring near the Raft River site was initiated in 1974 by the IDWR. This effort consisted of semiannual chemical sampling of 22 irrigation wells near the Raft River geothermal development area. This program yielded useful baseline chemical data; however, several problems were inherent. For example, access to water pumped from the wells is limited to the irrigation season (April through September). All the wells are not continuously pumped; thus, some wells that are sampled one season cannot be sampled the next. In addition, information on well construction, completion, and production is often unreliable or not available. These data are to be supplemented by establishing a series of monitor wells in the proposed geothermal withdrawal and injection area. These wells were to be located and designed to provide data necessary for evaluating and predicting the impact of geothermal development on the Shallow Aquifer system.

Allman, D.W.; Tullis, J.A.; Dolenc, M.R.; Thurow, T.L.; Skiba, P.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Effect of makeup water properties on the condenser fouling in power planr cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of fresh water. As available freshwater for use in thermoelectric power production becomes increasingly limited, use of nontraditional water sources is of growing interest. Utilization of nontraditional water, in cooling systems increases the potential for mineral precipitation on heat exchanger surfaces. In that regard, predicting the accelerated rate of scaling and fouling in condenser is crucial to evaluate the condenser performance. To achieve this goal, water chemistry should be incorporated in cooling system modeling and simulation. This paper addresses the effects of various makeup water properties on the cooling system, namely pH and aqueous speciation, both of which are important factors affecting the fouling rate in the main condenser. Detailed modeling of the volatile species desorption (i.e. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}), the formation of scale in the recirculating system, and the relationship between water quality and the corresponding fouling rates is presented.

Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Forward osmosis desalination of brackish groundwater: Meeting water quality requirements for fertigation by integrating nanofiltration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, PO Box 208286, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8286, USA a r The increase in fresh water demand due to rapid population growth and the expanding economies are driving water estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050 [57], the food demand will also inevitably rise further driving

Elimelech, Menachem

236

Effect of weathering on coal characteristics and coke qualities.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effect of weathering on the modification of chemical, petrological and rheological properties of four metallurgical coals in different rank and geology was investigated. And… (more)

Lee, Seung Jae

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Synthesis of high-quality carbon nanotube arrays without the assistance of water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long and high-quality carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been synthesized through a chemical vapor deposition process. The Fe/Al2O3 on silicon was used as the catalyst, ethylene as the carbon source, and a gasmixture of Ar and H2 ...

Yongfeng Luo, Xinjun Wang, Mengdong He, Xi Li, Hong Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

WATER QUALITY CHANGES AS A RESULT OF COALBED METHANE DEVELOPMENT IN A ROCKY MOUNTAIN WATERSHED1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discharge water in associated retention ponds moving from the south to the north. Further, Hulin (2003). LOWESS was used because it is usually superior to the parametric ordinary least squares regression sug

McClain, Michael

240

Automated Quality Control Procedure for the "Water Equivalent of Snow on the Ground" Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) has been measured daily by the United States National Weather Service since 1952, whenever snow depth is 2 in. (5 cm) or greater. These data are used to develop design snow loads for buildings, for hydrological ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Daniel S. Wilks; Megan McKay; Richard P. Cember

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

GRR/Section 14-OR-d - Section 410 Water Quality Certification...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All...

242

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler efficiency and availability. Proper control of boiler blowdown is also important to assure clean boiler surfaces without wasting water, heat, and chemicals. Recovering hot condensate for reuse as boiler feedwater is another means of improving system efficiency. Condensate which is contaminated with corrosion products or process chemicals, however, is ill fit for reuse; and steam which leaks from piping, valves, traps and connections cannot be recovered. Effective chemical treatment, in conjunction with mechanical system improvements, can assure that condensate can be safely returned and valuable energy recovered.

Bloom, D.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

The effects of applied water at various fractions of measured evapotranspiration on water relations and vegetative growth of Thompson Seedless grapevines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on reproductive growth and water productivity of ThompsonPAPER The effects of applied water at various fractionsevapotranspiration on water relations and vegetative growth

Williams, L. E.; Grimes, D. W.; Phene, C. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Impact of “Non-Behavioral Fixed Effects” on Water Use: Weather and Economic Construction Differences on Residential Water Use in Austin, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1995). Residential water use and conservation effectiveness:s guide to water use and conservation. Austin, Texas. Theeffective measures for water conservation. A problem with

Tinker, Audrey; Bame, Sherry; Burt, Richard; Speed, Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

247

A cost-effective, environmentally-responsive ground-water monitoring procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground-water monitoring is the primary method used to protect our ground-water resources. The primary objectives of monitoring programs are to detect, to attribute, and to mitigate any changes in-water quality or quantity. Previous monitoring programs have had numerous problems including the failure to produce usable information and the failure to balance the competing factors of cost-effectiveness and environmental protection. A cost-effective, environmentally-responsive ground-water procedure was designed which consists of eight steps and two feedback loops. The reason for monitoring must first be determined before clear monitoring goals can be set. Characterization of the site allows proper design of the monitoring network. Data is then collected and analyzed creating usable information. Applying this new information to the information expansion loop permits a better understanding of the initial site characterization. Finally evaluating the entire routine to determine the effectiveness of the program allows the optimization loop to modify the system for greater efficiency. The value of this procedure was tested at selected sites in the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas. The mine, which is currently in compliance with state regulations, is not operating an efficient monitoring program. The problems included over-monitoring of metals in and around reclaimed mine blocks, over-monitoring by monitoring wells in the same aquifer, and the failure to attribute changes in a monitoring well near a dewatering well. The feedback loops helped to optimize the entire program by recognizing problems in the stratigraphic column and modifying the monitoring program to lower monitoring costs. Three major benefits are gained by using this procedure: the ground-water monitoring routine can be made more cost-effective, environmental protection will be increased, and environmental liability will be decreased.

Doucette, Richard Charles

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Water quality modelling for small river basins Stefano Marsili-Libelli*, Elisabetta Giusti  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Experiments Design (OED) criteria (Fedorov, 1972; Atkinson and Donev, 1992) based on the Fisher and Donev, 1992; Versyck et al., 1998; Petersen, 2000; Insel et al., 2003; De Pauw, 2005; Checchi from continuous oxygen signals. Water Science and Technology 36, 43e51. Atkinson, A.C., Donev, A

249

A hybrid neural network and ARIMA model for water quality time series prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate predictions of time series data have motivated the researchers to develop innovative models for water resources management. Time series data often contain both linear and nonlinear patterns. Therefore, neither ARIMA nor neural networks can be ... Keywords: ARIMA, Backpropagation, Hybrid model, Neural networks, Time series

Durdu Ömer Faruk

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The Quality of Fog Water Collected for Domestic and Agricultural Use in Chile  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One exciting new application of meteorology is the prospect of using high-elevation fogs as an and land's water resource. This has now become reality in northern Chile where a pilot project has used 50 fog collectors to generate an average of ...

Robert S. Schemenauer; Pilar Cereceda

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT WATER-LITHIUM BROMIDE DOUBLE-EFFECT ABSORPTION COOLING ANALYSIS Gary C . V l i e t , Michael B . Lawson, and Rudolf0 A . Lithgow Center f o r Energy Studies The University of Texas a t Austin December 1980 Final Report f o r Contract: DE AC03-79SF10540 (Mu1 tiple-Effect Absorption Cycle Solar Cooling) with the U.S. Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately

252

Summary report on water quality, sediment and water chemistry data for water and sediment samples collected from source areas to Melton Hill and Watts Bar reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contamination of surface water and sediments in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) system as a result of past and present activities by the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and also activities by non-ORR facilities are being studied by the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). Previous studies have documented the presence of heavy metals, organics, and radionuclides in the sediments of reservoirs in the vicinity. In support of the CR-ERP, during the summer of 1991, TVA collected and evaluated water and sediment samples from swimming areas and municipal water intakes on Watts Bar Reservoir, Melton Hill Reservoir (which is considered part of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir System), and Norris Reservoir, which was considered a source of less-contaminated reference or background data. Results of this study indicated that the levels of contamination in the samples from the Watts Bar and Melton Hill Reservoir sites did not pose a threat to human health. Despite the numerous studies, until the current work documented by this report, relatively few sediment or water samples had been collected by the CR-ERP in the immediate vicinity of contaminant point sources. This work focused on water and sediment samples taken from points immediately downstream from suspected effluent point sources both on and off the ORR. In August and September, 1994, TVA sampled surface water and sediment at twelve locations in Melton Hill and Watts Bar Reservoirs. Eleven of the sampling sites were selected based on existence of pollutant discharge permits, known locations of hazardous waste sites, and knowledge of past practices. The twelfth sample site was selected as a relatively less contaminated reference site for comparison purposes.

Tomaszewski, T.M.; Bruggink, D.J.; Nunn, D.L.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Survey of the Quality ofWater Drawn from Domestic Wells in Nine Midwest States Page 1 of 2 http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/programs/emergenc/WellWater/MidwestWell.htm 10/6/99  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Survey of the Quality ofWater Drawn from Domestic Wells in Nine Midwest States Page 1 of 2 http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/programs/emergenc/WellWater/MidwestWell.htm 10/6/99 Centers for Disease Control from Domestic Wells in Nine Midwest States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center

254

Evaluating the quality and effectiveness of hazardous waste training programs  

SciTech Connect

An installation`s compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations is strongly dependent on the knowledge, skill, and behavior of all individuals involved in the generation and management of hazardous waste. Recognizing this, Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command (HQ/AFMC) determined that an in-depth evaluation of hazardous waste training programs at each AFMC installation was an appropriate element in assessing the overall effectiveness of installation hazardous waste management programs in preventing noncompliant conditions. Consequently, pursuant to its authority under Air Force Instruction (AFI) 32-7042, Solid and Hazardous Waste Compliance (May 12, 1994) to support and maintain hazardous waste training, HQ/AFMC directed Argonne National Laboratory to undertake the Hazardous Waste Training Initiative. This paper summarizes the methodology employed in performing the evaluation and presents the initiative`s salient conclusions.

Kolpa, R.L.; Haffenden, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Control strategies for mitigation of oil-shale-related-water quality concerns  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive study of in situ retorting at the Logan Wash has indicated the importance of developing baseline information including raw shale characterization, the elucidation of mineralogical and chemical controls on trace element mobilities from shales subjected to in situ processing, and the research necessary to identify strategies for control of recognized environmental impacts. It is impossible to assess the magnitude of trace element releases to be expected from a commercial in situ facility once banks of retorts or the entire facility is abandoned and dewatering of the area is concluded. However, laboratory-scale studies can indeed identify the relative environmental acceptability of spent shale materials generated by in situ processing. In this research, an attempt was made to relate mineralogy and leaching behavior of field-generated materials with leachate composition and solution chemical processes. The interaction of these factors will ultimately affect the impact of in situ processing on surface and groundwater quality.

Peterson, E.J.; Wagner, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Effect of water-wall interaction potential on the properties of nanoconfined water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much of the understanding of bulk liquids has progressed through study of the limiting case in which molecules interact via purely repulsive forces, such as a hard-core potential. In the same spirit, we report progress on the understanding of confined water by examining the behavior of water-like molecules interacting with planar walls via purely repulsive forces and compare our results with those obtained for Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions between the molecules and the walls. Specifically, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of 512 water-like molecules which are confined between two smooth planar walls that are separated by 1.1 nm. At this separation, there are either two or three molecular layers of water, depending on density. We study two different forms of repulsive confinements, when the interaction potential between water-wall is (i) $1/r^9$ and (ii) WCA-like repulsive potential. We find that the thermodynamic, dynamic and structural properties of the liquid in purely repulsive confinements qualitatively match those for a system with a pure LJ attraction to the wall. In previous studies that include attractions, freezing into monolayer or trilayer ice was seen for this wall separation. Using the same separation as these previous studies, we find that the crystal state is not stable with $1/r^9$ repulsive walls but is stable with WCA-like repulsive confinement. However, by carefully adjusting the separation of the plates with $1/r^9$ repulsive interactions so that the effective space available to the molecules is the same as that for LJ confinement, we find that the same crystal phases are stable. This result emphasizes the importance of comparing systems only using the same effective confinement, which may differ from the geometric separation of the confining surfaces.

Pradeep Kumar; Francis W. Starr; Sergey V. Buldyrev; H. Eugene Stanley

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

EPA/NMED/LANL 1998 water quality results: Statistical analysis and comparison to regulatory standards  

SciTech Connect

Four governmental agencies conducted a round of groundwater, surface water, and spring water sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1998. Samples were split among the four parties and sent to independent analytical laboratories. Results from three of the agencies were available for this study. Comparisons of analytical results that were paired by location and date were made between the various analytical laboratories. The results for over 50 split samples analyzed for inorganic chemicals, metals, and radionuclides were compared. Statistical analyses included non-parametric (sign test and signed-ranks test) and parametric (paired t-test and linear regression) methods. The data pairs were tested for statistically significant differences, defined by an observed significance level, or p-value, less than 0.05. The main conclusion is that the laboratories' performances are similar across most of the analytes that were measured. In some 95% of the laboratory measurements there was agreement on whether contaminant levels exceeded regulatory limits. The most significant differences in performance were noted for the radioactive suite, particularly for gross alpha particle activity and Sr-90.

B. Gallaher; T. Mercier; P. Black; K. Mullen

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

WATER FOR LIFE Module on Life in the Water and the Water Sanitation Process Created for SPICE GK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

“Water for Life ” module which includes topic areas on bacterial life in the water, water borne pathogens, and water sanitation. Students will be exposed to and learn about the importance of water to life on earth, the concerns with water borne pathogens worldwide, and processes of water sanitation. Lesson 1 “We Need Clean Water”. Students are introduced to terminology and basic facts on water sanitation and water borne pathogens in order to provide a purpose as to why we should study water quality. Lesson 2 “ What is in that water? Bacterial load and Water Quality Experiment. ” In this lesson students conduct an experiment in which they measure the bacterial load (amount of bacteria) in 4 different types of water and examine the effect of UV disinfection on the water samples bacterial populations. Lesson 3 “Water Sanitation Article and Research Essay. ” Students gain background knowledge from reading an article on water sanitation. They will

Program Elisa Livengood; Carmella O’steen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Microbial Quality Analysis of Water Runoff For Biosolid-Applied Fields in Southern Arizona  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

receives fertilizer filled with nitrogen and phosphorous, and the treatment plant has an effective means. The farms in this study use 6% liquefied biosolids applied via disc injection. Tailwater runoff, irrigation

Cushing, Jim. M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Effect of High Efficiency Lighting on Power Quality in Public Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This power quality (PQ) case study investigates the effect of high efficiency lighting on PQ in public buildings. The buildings scheduled for lighting retrofits that were involved in this study include a graduate center, a hospital facility, and a social services building.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

263

Horizon effects with surface waves on moving water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface waves on a stationary flow of water are considered, in a linear model that includes the surface tension of the fluid. The resulting gravity-capillary waves experience a rich array of horizon effects when propagating against the flow. In some cases three horizons (points where the group velocity of the wave reverses) exist for waves with a single laboratory frequency. Some of these effects are familiar in fluid mechanics under the name of wave blocking, but other aspects, in particular waves with negative co-moving frequency and the Hawking effect, were overlooked until surface waves were investigated as examples of analogue gravity [Sch\\"utzhold R and Unruh W G 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 044019]. A comprehensive presentation of the various horizon effects for gravity-capillary waves is given, with emphasis on the deep water/short wavelength case kh>>1 where many analytical results can be derived. A similarity of the state space of the waves to that of a thermodynamic system is pointed out.

Germain Rousseaux; Philippe Maissa; Christian Mathis; Pierre Coullet; Thomas G. Philbin; Ulf Leonhardt

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

Effect of a Radiant Panel Cooling System on Indoor Air Quality of a Conditioned Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the effect of a radiant cooling panel system on an indoor air quality (IAQ) of a conditioned space. In this study, ceiling radiant cooling panel, mechanical ventilation with fan coil unit (FCU) and 100% fresh air are used. Temperature sensors are located at different locations inside the conditioned space in order to sense dry bulb temperatures, relative humidity to compare it with standard ASHRAE comfort values. The present investigation indicates that the radiant cooling system not only improves the indoor air quality but also reduces the building energy consumption in the conditioned space.

Mohamed, E.; Abdalla, K. N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Environmental quality  

SciTech Connect

Major emphasis is placed on man environment interactions and environment management. Topics include: ecology and living resources; the global environment; water and air quality; toxic substances and environmental health; energy; natural resources; NEPA regulations; and land use.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion  

SciTech Connect

The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}, total discharge current of {approx}3 MA, and rise time of the current of {approx}100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect.

Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [High Current Electronic Institute SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Discussion on Cycle Water Injection Effect and Its Influencing Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclic waterflooding is a kind of waterflood technique, which can improve the waterflood efficiency in low-permeability and fracture-porosity reservoir by changing periodically injected water volume. This article gives the principle and the applied conditions ... Keywords: water flooding, principle, the opportunity of water injection, water injection efficiency, water injection period

Shan Wuyi, Zhang Xue

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

E35: The Effect of Water Immersion on Surface Fracture of Kenaf ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water absorption tests were conducted by immersing composite specimens .... of Pt Nanoparticles on ITO Substrate: Morphological Effect on Ammonia Oxidation.

269

An Improved Model for Assessing the Effectiveness of Hydrogen Water Chemistry in Boiling Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For nearly two decades, hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) has been used as a remedial measure to protect boiling water reactor (BWR) structural components against intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In this paper, computer modeling is used to evaluate the effectiveness of HWC for BWRs. The DEMACE computer code, equipped with an updated chemical reaction set, G values, and a Sherwood number, is adopted to predict the chemical species concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) responses to HWC in the primary heat transport circuit of a typical BWR. In addition, plant-specific neutron and gamma dose rate profiles are reported. DEMACE is calibrated against the data of oxygen concentration variation as a function of feedwater hydrogen concentration in the recirculation system of the Chinshan Unit 2 BWR.The determinant result for assessing the effectiveness of HWC is the ECP. For a typical BWR/4-type reactor such as Chinshan Unit 2, it is found that protecting the core channel and the lower plenum outlet is quite difficult even though the feedwater hydrogen concentration is as high as 2 ppm, based on the predicted species concentration and ECP data. However, for regions other than those mentioned earlier, a moderate amount of hydrogen added to the feedwater (0.9 ppm) is enough to achieve the desired protection against IGSCC.

Yeh, T.-K. [National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chu Fang [Taiwan Power Company (China)

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1993, "The Contact Angle  between Water and the Surface of Desorption, and Transport of Water in  Polymer Electrolyte Vaporization?Exchange Model  for Water Sorption and Flux in 

Kienitz, Brian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Slatton, Clint

272

NETL: IEP - Air Quality Research: Health Effects of Coal Plant Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Effects of Coal Plant Emissions Health Effects of Coal Plant Emissions Health Effects of Coal Plant Emissions Map Click on a Project Name to Get More Information Click to read a DOE TechLine [PDF-22KB] describing three new projects that will improve our current understanding of the link between power plant emissions, PM2.5, and human health. The Health Effects component of NETL's Air Quality Research Program is designed to enhance the body of scientific evidence relating stack emissions from coal plants to adverse health effects resulting from human exposures to air pollution. Despite the fact that coal plants emit significant amounts of PM2.5 and mercury to the atmosphere, there is currently a great deal of uncertainty regarding the actual amount of health damage resulting from these emissions. In order to devise cost-effective

273

Platform and Environmental Effects on Above-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side ...

Stanford B. Hooker; André Morel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Effects of Variations in High Molecular Weight Glutenin Allele Composition and Resistant Starch on Wheat Flour Tortilla Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tortilla sales are projected to exceed 9.5 billion by 2014. However, currently no wheat cultivars have been identified that possess the intrinsic quality attributes needed for the production of optimum quality tortillas. Tortillas made with refined wheat flour low in dietary fiber (DF) are popular in the United States due to their sensory properties. This study explored the use of wheat lines (WL) possessing variations in high molecular weight glutenin allele sub-units (HMW-GS) for production of tortillas and also investigated the use of corn based resistant starches (RS), type II (RS2) and wheat based RS type IV (RS4) to increase DF in tortillas. Tortillas were made with 0-15 percent RS and 100 percent whole white wheat (WW). Flour protein profiles, dough, and tortilla properties were evaluated to determine the effects of the allelic variations and RS substitution on tortilla quality. Sensory properties of tortillas with RS were determined. Variations in HMW-GS composition significantly affected the protein quality and tortilla properties. Flour from WL possessing allelic combinations (2*, 17+18, 7, 2+12), (1, 17+18, 5+10), (2*, 17, 2+12) and (1, 2*, 17+18, 2+12) had 12.8-13.3 percent protein. These WL had extensible doughs and produced large diameter tortillas with superior (greater than or equal to 3.0) flexibility after 16 days compared to control. However, WL with (17+18 and 5+10) and (2*, 17+7, 5) produced extensible doughs, large, but less flexible, tortillas compared to control. WL with (2*,17+18,5+10) and (1,2*,7+9,5+10) produced smaller diameter tortillas, but with superior flexibility compared to control. RS2, WW, and cross-linked-pre-gelatinized RS4 (FiberRite) produced hard, less-extensible doughs and thinner tortillas compared to control, due to high water absorption. Cross-linked RS4 (Fibersym) dough and tortillas were comparable to control. 15 percent of RS2 and RS4 increase DF in control to 6 and 14 percent respectively, compare to control (2.8 percent DF). WW tortillas were less acceptable than control in appearance, flavor and texture, while tortillas with 15 percent Fibersym had higher overall acceptability than control. RS2 negatively affected dough machinability and tortilla shelf stability. However, 15 percent RS4 improved the DF in refined flour tortillas to meet FDA's "good source of fiber claim," without negatively affecting dough/tortilla quality.

Jondiko, Tom Odhiambo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Computeer-based decision support tools for evaluation of actions affecting flow and water quality in the San Joaquin Basin  

SciTech Connect

This document is a preliminary effort to draw together some of the important simulation models that are available to Reclamation or that have been developed by Reclamation since 1987. This document has also attempted to lay out a framework by which these models might be used both for the purposes for which they were originally intended and to support the analysis of other issues that relate to the hydrology and to salt and water quality management within the San Joaquin Valley. To be successful as components of a larger Decision Support System the models should to be linked together using custom designed interfaces that permit data sharing between models and that are easy to use. Several initiatives are currently underway within Reclamation to develop GIS - based and graphics - based decision support systems to improve the general level of understanding of the models currently in use, to standardize the methodology used in making planning and operations studies and to permit improved data analysis, interpretation and display. The decision support systems should allow greater participation in the planning process, allow the analysis of innovative actions that are currently difficult to study with present models and should lead to better integrated and more comprehensive plans and policy decisions in future years.

Quinn, N.W.T.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

NMR study of water distribution inside tomato cells: Effects of water stress Maja Musse*, Mireille Cambert, Franois Mariette  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NMR study of water distribution inside tomato cells: Effects of water stress Maja Musse*, Mireille nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Relaxometry. Two kinds of experiment were performed in order to investigate the correlation between multi-exponential NMR relaxation and the subcellular compartments

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Bioenergy Sorghum Yield and Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the prospective crops that may be used to produce biofuels in the future. Therefore, it is of interest to find management practices that improve both the production of biomass yield and quality. This study presents observations of the effects different rates of nitrogen fertilization have on yield, tissue nitrogen content, and tissue quality measures such as ash, lignin, sucrose, xylans, cellulose and starch content, based on three years of field trials from the Brazos Bottom and one year of field trials from near China, Texas. Data for the quality components were obtained using near infrared spectroscopy, with the exception of tissue nitrogen which was determined by using the dry combustion method. This study has showed fertilizer nitrogen had a strong positive correlation with the tissue nitrogen of sorghum biomass. Changes in tissue quality in relationship with fertilizer nitrogen levels and tissue nitrogen concentration were also observed. Ash showed a strong positive and sucrose showed a strong negative correlation to both tissue nitrogen concentration and fertilizer nitrogen application. Similarly to sucrose, starch also decreased with higher nitrogen levels and lignin was found to increase slightly. The concentration of cellulose and xylans were very weakly affected by nitrogen application and nitrogen concentration.

Zilahi-Sebess, Szilvia

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

2012 CERTS R&M Peer Review - Understanding the Effects of Data Quality on Market Functions - Lang Tong  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Data Data Quality and its Effects on Market Functions Lang Tong, Robert J. Thomas, Liyan Jia, and Jinsub Kim School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Cornell University, Ithaca, New York CERTS Review, August 8, 2012 Tong, Thomas, Jia, Kim (Cornell University) Data Quality on Market Functions 8/8/2012 1 / 33 Project Overview Objectives: The main objective of this research is to investigate how data quality affects market functions of current and future grids: develop models and measures of data quality; quantify risks of bad and malicious data; develop techniques to isolate and mitigate effects of bad and malicious data. Tong, Thomas, Jia, Kim (Cornell University) Data Quality on Market Functions 8/8/2012 2 / 33 Project Overview Objectives: The main objective of this research is to investigate how data quality affects market functions of current and future grids: develop models

279

Effect of cropping strategies on the irrigation water productivity of durum wheat Khaledian, MRa, b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate with water deficiency. Author-produced version of the article published in Plant Soil Environ results in significant water savings. The highest irrigation water Author-produced version of the articleEffect of cropping strategies on the irrigation water productivity of durum wheat Khaledian, MRa, b

280

Quality Assurance: Quality Policy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Policy Policy It is the policy of the Department of Energy to establish quality requirements to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the facility or activity and its work. The Department implements this policy through the QA Order and the QA rule directives to ensure quality assurance requirements are clearly specified for the broad spectrum of work performed by DOE and its contractors. Objective The objective of the QA requirements are to establish an effective management system (i.e., quality assurance programs) using the performance requirements coupled technical standards where appropriate that ensure:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on semen quality in dry cleaning workers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of perchloroethylene (PCE) exposure on human semen quality. We compared the semen quality of 34 dry cleaners with that of 48 laundry workers. We examined the relationships of 17 semen parameters to expired air levels of PCE and to an index of exposure based on job tasks in the last three months. The average sperm concentration was over 80 million for both dry cleaners and laundry workers, but approximately one-quarter of each group was oligospermic. The overall percentage of abnormal forms was similar for the two groups; however, sperm of dry cleaners were significantly more likely to be round (t = -3.29, p = 0.002) and less likely to be narrow (t = 2.35, p = 0.02) than the sperm of laundry workers. These effects were dose-related to expired air levels and to the exposure index after controlling for potential confounders (e.g., heat exposure). The average percent motile sperm for both groups was slightly over 60%; however, sperm of dry cleaners tended to swim with greater amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) than those of laundry workers (t = -1.73, p = 0.09), and level of PCE in expired air was a significant predictor of ALH in the multiple regression model (t = 2.00, p = 0.05). In addition, exposure index was a significant negative predictor of the sperm linearity parameter (t = -2.57, p = 0.01). These results suggest that occupational exposures to PCE can have subtle effects on sperm quality. Additional analyses are required to determine whether these effects are associated with changes in fertility.

Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Fenster, L.; Katz, D.F.; Sadler, M.; Lee, J.; Hudes, M.; Rempel, D.M. (Program of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Water and Sustainability (Volume 2): An Assessment of Water Demand, Supply, and Quality in the U.S. -- The Next Half Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fast growing demand for clean, fresh water -- coupled with the need to protect and enhance the environment -- has made many areas of the United States and the rest of the world vulnerable to water shortages for various human uses. As they interact with the electricity industry, these uses encompass agricultural irrigation, thermoelectric generation, municipal water/wastewater treatment and distribution, and industrial processes. The dependency of electricity supply and demand on water availability ca...

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Effect of military training on indicators of soil quality at Fort Benning, Georgia  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of soil disturbance on several key indicators of soil quality at Fort Benning, Georgia. Military activities at Fort Benning that result in soil disturbance include infantry, artillery, wheeled, and tracked vehicle training. Soil samples were collected along a disturbance gradient that included: (1) reference sites, (2) light military use, (3) moderate military use, (4) heavy military use, and (5) remediated sites. With the exception of surface soil bulk density, measured soil properties at reference and light use sites were similar. Relative to reference sites, greater surface soil bulk density, lower soil carbon concentrations, and less carbon and nitrogen in particulate organic matter (POM) were found at moderate use, heavy use, and remediated sites. Studies along a pine forest chronosequence indicated that carbon stocks in POM gradually increased with stand age. An analysis of soil C:N ratios, as well as soil carbon concentrations and stocks, indicated a recovery of soil quality at moderate military use and remediated sites relative to heavy military use sites. Measurements of soil carbon and nitrogen are ecological indicators that can be used by military land managers to identify changes in soil from training activities and to rank training areas on the basis of soil quality.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Ashwood, Tom L [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Effect of operating conditions and membrane quality on the separation performance of composite silicalite-1 membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separation capacity of silicalite-1 membranes for various hydrocarbon mixtures is determined as a function of membrane quality, operating conditions, and orientation of the composite membrane with respect to the feed side. The quality of the membranes is judged on the basis of the n-butane/i-butane permselectivity. Membranes with a different n-butane/i-butane permselectivity showed an identical separation capacity for ethane/methane mixtures, but the quality difference was affecting separation of hydrogen from the butane isomers. The selectivity of the membrane is significantly affected by the operating conditions, such as mixture composition, temperature, and absolute pressure. These effects are shown for ethane/methane, propene/ethene, and n-butane/i-butane mixtures. The selectivity for ethane in ethane/methane mixtures, found when the zeolite layer is facing the feed side, is completely lost when the orientation of the composite membrane is reversed, due to concentration polarization. Depending on the membrane orientation, the major resistance of the composite is in the support layer or in the zeolite layer.

Graaf, J.M. van de; Bijl, E. van der; Stol, A.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulign, J.A. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

The effect of lighting system components on lighting quality, energy use, and life-cycle cost  

SciTech Connect

A computational method was developed to examine the effect of lamp, ballast, and fixture selection on the quality and quantity of illumination, energy consumption, and life-cycle cost of lighting systems. Applying this analysis to lighting layouts using different lamp/ballast/fixture combinations suggested that combinations with higher lumen outputs reduced the uniformity of the illuminance distribution at the workplace but did not reduce visibility levels. The use of higher lumen output lamp/ballast/fixture systems and higher efficiency components tended to reduce life-cycle costs as long as the premium cost of the components was not too high.

Rubinstein, F.; Clark, T.; Siminovitch, M.; Verderber, R.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Scale Analyses, Dexter Water Quality Parameters, and Adult Recoveries: Annual Progress Report, September 30, 1998-September 29, 1999.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report examines the relationship between scale characteristics of returning adults to determine the fork length at which they entered the ocean. These lengths are then related to the length frequencies of fish in the various experimental groups at the time they left the hatchery. This report summarizes the water quality parameters at Dexter Rearing Ponds and presents the complete returns for all experimental groups.

Ewing, R.D.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

2012 CERTS R&M Peer Review - Summary: Understanding the Effects of Data Quality on Market Functions - Lang Tong  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Understanding the Effects of Data Quality on Market Functions Understanding the Effects of Data Quality on Market Functions Project Lead: Lang Tong 1. Project objective The main objective of the proposed research is to investigate how data quality affects market functions of current and future grid. The goals are to (i) develop analytical measures of data quality and quantify risks of bad and malicious data; (ii) develop processing techniques for control center to isolate and mitigate effects of bad and malicious data. 2. Major technical accomplishments that will be completed this year (i) We demonstrate that nonlinear state estimation offers improved robustness on (analog) bad and malicious data. (ii) We show that bad and malicious (digital) data on topology coupled with small amount of bad (analog) meter data can evade bad data detection and causing significant

288

Effective Capacity Analysis of Cognitive Radio Channels for Quality of Service Provisioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, cognitive transmission under quality of service (QoS) constraints is studied. In the cognitive radio channel model, it is assumed that the secondary transmitter sends the data at two different average power levels, depending on the activity of the primary users, which is determined by channel sensing performed by the secondary users. A state-transition model is constructed for this cognitive transmission channel. Statistical limitations on the buffer lengths are imposed to take into account the QoS constraints. The maximum throughput under these statistical QoS constraints is identified by finding the effective capacity of the cognitive radio channel. This analysis is conducted for fixed-power/fixed-rate, fixed-power/variable-rate, and variable-power/variable-rate transmission schemes under different assumptions on the availability of channel side information (CSI) at the transmitter. The impact upon the effective capacity of several system parameters, including channel sensing duration, detect...

Akin, Sami

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Investigation of the effect of welding parameters on weld quality of plasma arc keyhole welding of structural steels  

SciTech Connect

In the present investigation, the individual and interactive effects of the main welding parameters on weld quality of plasma arc keyhole welding of conventional structural steel, high strength microalloyed steel and strong formable microalloyed steel have been examined using welding of butt joints with a square groove in various welding positions, and welding of joint roots with a single-V-groove and the root face in the flat position. The most important welding parameters are welding current, welding speed and welding gases, especially plasma gas flow rate. Welding parameter combinations producing the best quality welds are presented. It is shown that it is possible to achieve defect-free high-quality welds with good strength and toughness properties, but the allowable range of variation of welding parameters, especially for the highest weld quality, is narrow. An argonhydrogen mixture for the plasma gas together with argon as shielding and backing gases give the best results with respect to weld quality.

Martikainen, J.K.; Moisio, T.J.I. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland). Welding Technology Lab.)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Water effects of the use of western coal for electrical production  

SciTech Connect

Water may be a constraint on the expanded development of coal resources in the semi-arid western United States. Water allocation in the West has been determined by the appropriative rights doctrine which allows perpetual use of water sources by those who first claim it for beneficial purposes. This has had the effect of placing a dominative interest in water allocation in one economic sector: agriculture. New water sources are available to coal producers but political and economic problems must be overcome. Water is required by every phase of coal development. Mines use water for dust control and land reclamation. Coal slurry pipelines would use water as a transport medium. Steam electric power plants use water for cooling, cleaning, and in the boiler. Coal gasification plants would use water for cooling, cleaning, and as a material input. In addition to these direct uses of water by coal development, the people who build and operate the development demand water for domestic and recreational purposes. The quantity of water required for a given element of a coal development is site specific and dependent on many factors. The available literature cites a range of estimates of the amount of water required for each type of development. The width of this range seems related to the stage of development of the particular technology. Estimates of water requirements for various schemes to provide an average electrical load of 9 GWe to a load center 1000 miles from western mines are shown in Table 5.

Rogers, E.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Small oil-fired heating equipment: The effects of fuel quality  

SciTech Connect

The physical and chemical characteristics of fuel can affect its flow, atomization, and combustion, all of which help to define the overall performance of a heating system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of some important parameters of fuel quality on the operation of oil-fired residential heating equipment. The primary focus was on evaluating the effects of the fuel`s sulfur content, aromatics content, and viscosity. Since the characteristics of heating fuel are generally defined in terms of standards (such as ASTM, or state and local fuel-quality requirements), the adequacy and limitations of such specifications also are discussed. Liquid fuels are complex and their properties cannot generally be varied without affecting other properties. To the extent possible, test fuels were specially blended to meet the requirements of the ASTM limits but, at the same time, significant changes were made to the fuels to isolate and vary the selected parameters over broad ranges. A series of combustion tests were conducted using three different types of burners -- a flame-retention head burner, a high static-pressure-retention head burner, and an air-atomized burner. With some adjustments, such modern equipment generally can operate acceptably within a wide range of fuel properties. From the experimental data, the limits of some of the properties could be estimated. The property which most significantly affects the equipment`s performance is viscosity. Highly viscous fuels are poorly atomizated and incompletely burnt, resulting in higher flue gas emissions. Although the sulfur content of the fuel did not significantly affect performance during these short-term studies, other work done at BNL demonstrated that long-term effects due to sulfur can be detrimental in terms of fouling and scale formation on boiler heat exchanger tubes.

Litzke, W.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Failure mode and effect analysis-based quality assurance for dynamic MLC tracking systems  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and implement a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)-based commissioning and quality assurance framework for dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tumor tracking systems. Methods: A systematic failure mode and effect analysis was performed for a prototype real-time tumor tracking system that uses implanted electromagnetic transponders for tumor position monitoring and a DMLC for real-time beam adaptation. A detailed process tree of DMLC tracking delivery was created and potential tracking-specific failure modes were identified. For each failure mode, a risk probability number (RPN) was calculated from the product of the probability of occurrence, the severity of effect, and the detectibility of the failure. Based on the insights obtained from the FMEA, commissioning and QA procedures were developed to check (i) the accuracy of coordinate system transformation, (ii) system latency, (iii) spatial and dosimetric delivery accuracy, (iv) delivery efficiency, and (v) accuracy and consistency of system response to error conditions. The frequency of testing for each failure mode was determined from the RPN value. Results: Failures modes with RPN{>=}125 were recommended to be tested monthly. Failure modes with RPN<125 were assigned to be tested during comprehensive evaluations, e.g., during commissioning, annual quality assurance, and after major software/hardware upgrades. System latency was determined to be {approx}193 ms. The system showed consistent and accurate response to erroneous conditions. Tracking accuracy was within 3%-3 mm gamma (100% pass rate) for sinusoidal as well as a wide variety of patient-derived respiratory motions. The total time taken for monthly QA was {approx}35 min, while that taken for comprehensive testing was {approx}3.5 h. Conclusions: FMEA proved to be a powerful and flexible tool to develop and implement a quality management (QM) framework for DMLC tracking. The authors conclude that the use of FMEA-based QM ensures efficient allocation of clinical resources because the most critical failure modes receive the most attention. It is expected that the set of guidelines proposed here will serve as a living document that is updated with the accumulation of progressively more intrainstitutional and interinstitutional experience with DMLC tracking.

Sawant, Amit; Dieterich, Sonja; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94394 (United States); Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Stanford University, Stanford, California 94394 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Modeling the Impacts of Pulsed Riverine Inflows on Hydrodynamics and Water Quality in the Barataria Bay Estuary.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Eutrophication and coastal wetland loss are the major environmental problems affecting estuaries around the world. In Louisiana, controlled diversions of the Mississippi River water back… (more)

Das, Anindita

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of sample conditioning on the water absorption of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the bottom surface of the sample to liquid water and ... of curvature, R is the universal gas constant, and T ... The sand used was natural river sand with a ...

2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

295

Criteria for an effective water resource planning process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In examining the present status of water resource planning in the Pacific Northwest, numerous critical inadequacies become readily apparent. One method of minimizing some of these inadequacies is through administrative ...

Bowers, James Myron

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Effect of water contamination on aging of hydraulic oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A. Rozenberg, Influence of Lubricating Oils on Reliability and Life of ... Oil samples were contaminated with water by mixing with 0.I, 0.5 ... The reserve of antioxi-.

297

Effect of Water Content on SOFC Single Cell Testing: Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cell was tested at 800C using pure H2 with different water content (~3% and ~30%). Impedance, IV curve, and power density were recorded. SEM and OM ...

298

Effect of Pressure Gradient and InitialWater Saturation on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

'40 30 20 10 0 !2 5 Water injection was stopped for 14 hours t q,=5 crn3/rnin,Ap=O.OIO psi/cm qp11 crn

Firoozabadi, Abbas

299

A spatially-distributed cost-effectiveness analysis framework for controlling water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the aim of comparing various agro-environmental measures to control pesticide pollution in surface waters, we propose a methodological framework for spatially-distributed cost-effectiveness analysis. We use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ... Keywords: Bio-economic modelling, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Integrated modelling, Pesticides, SWAT

Jean-Marie Lescot; Paul Bordenave; Kevin Petit; Odile Leccia

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Numerically Simulating the Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Environment for Migrating Salmon in the Lower Snake River, 2002-2003 Technical Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Summer temperatures in the Lower Snake River can be altered by releasing cold waters that originate from deep depths within Dworshak Reservoir. These cold releases are used to lower temperatures in the Clearwater and Lower Snake Rivers and to improve hydrodynamic and water quality conditions for migrating aquatic species. This project monitored the complex three-dimensional hydrodynamic and thermal conditions at the Clearwater and Snake River confluence and the processes that led to stratification of Lower Granite Reservoir (LGR) during the late spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Hydrodynamic, water quality, and meteorological conditions around the reservoir were monitored at frequent intervals, and this effort is continuing in 2003. Monitoring of the reservoir is a multi-year endeavor, and this report spans only the first year of data collection. In addition to monitoring the LGR environment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been applied. This model uses field data as boundary conditions and has been applied to the entire 2002 field season. Numerous data collection sites were within the model domain and serve as both calibration and validation locations for the numerical model. Errors between observed and simulated data varied in magnitude from location to location and from one time to another. Generally, errors were small and within expected ranges, although, as additional 2003 field data becomes available, model parameters may be improved to minimize differences between observed and simulated values. A two-dimensional, laterally-averaged hydrodynamic and water quality model was applied to the three reservoirs downstream of LGR (the pools behind Little Goose, Lower Monumental, and Ice Harbor Dams). A two-dimensional model is appropriate for these reservoirs because observed lateral thermal variations during summer and fall 2002 were almost negligible; however, vertical thermal variations were quite large (see USACE 2003). The numerical model was applied to each reservoir independently to simulate the time period between May 1 and October 1, 2002. Differences between observed and simulated data were small, although improvements to model coefficients may be performed as additional thermal data, collected in the reservoirs during 2003, becomes available.

Cook, C.; Richmond, M.; Coleman, A. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents, and degrading various compounds.

Hawthorne, Steven B. (Grand Forks, ND); Miller, David J. (Grand Forks, ND); Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie (Grand Forks, ND); Hammond, Peter James (York, GB); Clifford, Anthony Alan (Leeds, GB)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Variational transition state theory calculations of tunneling effects on concerted hydrogen motion in water clusters and formaldehyde/water clusters  

SciTech Connect

The direct participation of water molecules in aqueous phase reaction processes has been postulated to occur via both single-step mechanisms as well as concerted hydrogen atom or proton shifts. In the present work, simple prototypes of concerted hydrogen atom transfer processes are examined for small hydrogen-bonded water clusters -- cyclic trimers and tetramers -- and hydrogen-bonded clusters of formaldehyde with one and two water molecules. Rate constants for the rearrangement processes are computed using variational transition state theory, accounting for quantum mechanical tunneling effects by semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients. The variational transition state theory calculations directly utilize selected information about the potential energy surface along the minimum energy path as parameters of the reaction path Hamiltonian. The potential energy information is obtained from ab ignite electronic structure calculations with an empirical bond additivity correction (the BAC-MP4 method). Tunneling is found to be very important for these concerted rearrangement processes -- the semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients are estimated to be as high as four order of magnitude at room temperature. Effects of the size of the cluster (number of water molecules in the cyclic complex) are also dramatic -- addition of a water molecule is seen to change the calculated rates by orders of magnitude. 36 refs., 10 figs.

Garrett, B.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Melius, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Solubility effects in waste-glass/demineralized-water systems  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous systems involving demineralized water and four glass compositions (including standins for actinides and fission products) at temperatures of up to 150/sup 0/C were studied. Two methods were used to measure the solubility of glass components in demineralized water. One method involved approaching equilibrium from subsaturation, while the second method involved approaching equilibrium from supersaturation. The aqueous solutions were analyzed by induction-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). Uranium was determined using a Scintrex U-A3 uranium analyzer and zinc and cesium were determined by atomic absorption. The system that results when a waste glass is contacted with demineralized water is a complex one. The two methods used to determine the solubility limits gave very different results, with the supersaturation method yielding much higher solution concentrations than the subsaturation method for most of the elements present in the waste glasses. The results show that it is impossible to assign solubility limits to the various glass components without thoroughly describing the glass-water systems. This includes not only defining the glass type and solution temperature, but also the glass surface area-to-water volume ratio (S/V) of the system and the complete thermal history of the system. 21 figures, 22 tables. (DLC)

Fullam, H.T.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of its reactions with chlorine or ozone to form severalirradiation. Ozone can replace chlorine and chloramines fortion, filtration, and chlorine/chloramine application for

Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Haunschild, Kristine; Lund, Jay R.; Fleenor, William E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedingsof the 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may occur spent shale and the recycle gas. For of componentsmg per 100 of spent shale for inert gas runs; from 1.0 to .4material from spent shale produced inert gas runs, 011d

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Effects of Aeration Units on Water Quality in Upper Lake, Bhopal, India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During Post Pre During Post COD (ppm) Pre During Post Preper standard method (De,2002). Chemical oxygen demand (COD):COD was determined by potassium dichromate open reflux

Dixit, Savita; Verma, Neelam; Tiwari, Suchi; Bajpai, Avinash

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Polyacrylamide and water quality effects on infiltration in sandy loam soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were evaluated on a Hanford sandy loam soil (coarse-loamy,field tests near Fresno, CA, on Hanford sandy loam soils toA soil sam- ple (Hanford sandy loam) was shaken in 10 mg PAM

Ajwa, Husein A; Trout, T J

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4, 19'70, p. 89. 24. C-b Shale Oil Venture: Hydrology, MinePiles Solid wastes from the shale-oil recovery process alsoStabilization of Spent Oil Shales, EPA-600/'7-'78- 021, Feb.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stabilization of Spent Oil Shales, EPA-600/'7-'78- 021, Feb.Impact Analysis for an Oil Shale Complex at Parachute Creek,from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings of

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF LEACHATES FROM AN IN SITU OIL SHALE INDUSTRY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale Retort, Proceedings ofthe 11th Oil Shale Symposium, 1978. J. W.MB_terial in Green River Oil Shale, U.S. Bur. lvlines Rept.

Fox, J. P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity on the behavior of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four scenarios have been proposed for the low--temperature phase behavior of liquid water, each predicting different thermodynamics. The physical mechanism which leads to each is debated. Moreover, it is still unclear which of the scenarios best describes water, as there is no definitive experimental test. Here we address both open issues within the framework of a microscopic cell model by performing a study combining mean field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a common physical mechanism underlies each of the four scenarios, and that two key physical quantities determine which of the four scenarios describes water: (i) the strength of the directional component of the hydrogen bond and (ii) the strength of the cooperative component of the hydrogen bond. The four scenarios may be mapped in the space of these two quantities. We argue that our conclusions are model-independent. Using estimates from experimental data for H bond properties the model predicts that the low-temperature phase diagram of water exhibits a liquid--liquid critical point at positive pressure.

Kevin Stokely; Marco G. Mazza; H. Eugene Stanley; Giancarlo Franzese

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

313

Effects of uranium mining of ground water in Ambrosia Lake area, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The principal ore-bearing zone in the Ambrosia Lake area of the Grants uranium district is the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic). This unit is also one of the major artesian aquifers in the region. Significant declines in the potentiometric lead within the aquifer have been recorded, although cones of depression do not appear to have spread laterally more than a few miles. Loss of potentiometric head in the Westwater Canyon Member has resulted in the interformational migration of ground water along fault zones from overlying aquifers of Cretaceous age. This migration has produced local deterioration in chemical quality of the ground water.

Kelly, T.E.; Link, R.L.; Schipper, M.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Effect of Protein Supplement Sources on Intake and Digestion of Steers Fed Low-quality Forage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential protein supplements to grazing cattle were evaluated in two projects. In the first project, Karanja seedcake samples were prepared and ruminally incubated using the in situ method to measure nutrient disappearance in cattle consuming low-quality forage. Organic matter and CP were fractionated by degradability into A, B, and C fractions. Organic matter fraction A degradability ranged from 59.6 to 89% (P < 0.05) for all the karanja seedcake samples. Fraction A of CP ranged from 61.6 to 96.2% degradability for all the samples (P < 0.05). Karanja seedcake samples were observed to contain highly degradable nutrients and our results indicate karanja seedcake may possibly be utilized in grazing cattle protein supplements, consequently increasing economic sustainability of biofuel production. In the second experiment, four non-protein nitrogen supplements were ruminally infused in steers consuming low-quality forage. Supplements included a 40% CP mineral mix (40MM), 60% CP mineral mix (60MM), 25% CP liquid (25L), or 35% CP liquid (35L). Protein provision stimulated forage OM intake and total OM intake for both liquid supplements. Forage OM intake tended to be greater for the liquid supplements; 25L (P = 0.06) and 35L (P = 0.08), then control. Total OM intake significantly increased (P < 0.01) for both liquid supplements, when compared to the control treatment. Total digestible OM intake was greater (P < 0.01) for 25L (3.4 kg/d) and 35L (3.36 kg/d) than control (2.94 kg/d). Forage and total OM intake were not significantly affected by 40MM or 60MM treatments. Total tract digestions (OM and NDF) were not observed to be significantly different (P ? 0.11) between supplements and control. Ruminal ammonia was greater (P < 0.01) for all supplements then control and total ruminal VFA concentrations increased from 84.7 to 98.7 mM for control versus supplemented. Supplementation with liquids had a significant effect on intake. Our results indicate of the four supplements, liquid supplements improved the utilization of low-quality forage by cattle, thus improving nutrient stewardship.

Stefan, Courtney Chanel

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The effects of added wheat proteins on processing and quality of wheat flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specific proteins improve quality of flour for breadmaking but protein composition in tortilla flour has not been investigated. Selected wheat protein fractions can separately modify dough resistance and extensibility. This may yield tortillas with increased diameter, opacity and stability. Tortillas were prepared using laboratory-scale, commercial equipment with fixed processing parameters. Dough and tortilla properties were evaluated using a texture analyzer and subjective methods. Tortillas were stored in plastic bags at 22?C for 28 days. The effects of ten wheat proteins (donated by Midwest Grain Products, Inc; at 3.0 baker's percent) on processing and quality of flour tortillas were determined. Mixograph parameters varied but were not significantly affected by added wheat proteins. Dough absorption, mixing time, and cysteine level were adjusted slightly to attain uniform dough for tortillas. Wheat protein fractions added to pastry, tortilla and bread flours did not significantly affect tortilla weight, moisture, pH, opacity or specific volume, except for glutenin and vital wheat gluten, which decreased opacity in pastry flour tortillas. Protein fractions yielding improved tortilla properties and stability were FP600, FP6000, FP5000 and Gliadin in pastry and tortilla flour. Addition levels of selected wheat proteins were evaluated in weak protein tortilla formulas. Addition of 1% FP5000 or PF6000 improved tortilla stability. Calcium peroxide was added to the formula to better incorporate added protein fractions in a reduced-oxidized dough system. A combination of 7.5 ppm calcium peroxide with 1% Gliadin resulted in tortillas with improved shelf stability. Bread-making quality of wheat flour is correlated with the insoluble polymeric protein fraction. The insoluble polymeric proteins in flour correlated with smaller diameter and improved rollability score at 12 days of storage for tortillas made from different wheat flours. The insoluble proteins correlated only with tortilla stability for tortillas prepared with added wheat protein fractions to flours with different protein strengths. Several wheat protein fractions improve storage stability of tortillas, while retaining good tortilla properties. This was not related to the insoluble protein amount; however the more insoluble proteins in flour caused smaller diameter tortillas.

Pascut, Simina

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Steam Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"STEAM QUALITY has been generally defined as the amount of moisture/vapor (or lack thereof) contained within steam produced from some form of boiler. It has long been used as the standard term for the measurement of ""wet or dry"" steam and as a means of measuring enthalpy. Totally dry steam is said to be ""saturated"" steam. It is sometimes defined as the ""dryness faction"". The term in its historical denotation refers to a physical attribute of the steam. That attribute being ""what is the percentage water vapor content of the steam"" as compared to the amount of steam. Dry saturated steam is steam which carries no water vapor with it and is defined as having a quality of 1.00 (100%). Since water vapor is always present at the interface between the water level and the steam in a boiler, some water vapor will always tend to pass through the system with the steam. Hence, a continuing problem. If steam does carry water vapor past the separators it will tend to coalesce as a liquid, and in doing so it also will carry boiler chemicals with it."

Johnston, W.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Pacific Gas and Electric Company’s Comments on the State Water Resources Control Board’s Proposed Policy Water Quality Control Policy on the Use of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) supports the protection of California’s marine resources through development of a consistent statewide policy implementing Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act. As we have previously stated, we support efforts to transition away from once through cooling and have clearly demonstrated that support through the

Estuarine Waters; Power Plant Cooling

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Installation of River and Drain Instrumentation Stations to Monitor Flow and Water Quality and Internet Data Sharing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the last five years, the Paso del Norte Watershed Council’s Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project (Project) was developed to provide improved access to regional water resources data for regional water stakeholders to make timely decisions in water operations and flood control. This report presents major components of the Project developed from August of 2005 through July of 2007 through funding provided by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) through the Water 2025 Challenge Grant Program to the El Paso Water Utilities, Texas A&M University, and New Mexico State University. Additional documentation of related Project activities is provided through final project reports being submitted by the City of Las Cruces (CLC) and Elephant Butte Irrigation District (EBID) for the work conducted through linked USBR-funded Projects. Tasks accomplished in the phase of work funded by the USBR include the following specific outcomes, which are detailed in later sections of the report: * Continued compilation and inclusion of new data sources identified as relevant by Project partners and users; * Installation and calibration of additional new monitoring stations and equipment and inclusion of these monitoring sites in web-based GIS map products to fill data gaps and provide additional real-time data; * Linking to additional monitoring sites being implemented by EBID through their Project work and inclusion of these sites and data in web-based GIS map products; * Development and implementation of a user needs survey focusing on new data sets of interest, enhanced access mechanisms, and other suggestions to improve the Project website; * Development and deployment of an online, downloadable Microsoft Access database of Project water resource data to provide search and query functions; * Development and deployment of an online help facility to make the site easier for users to navigate and use; * Exploration of new tools to enhance online data sharing and access; and * Implementation of suggestions compiled in the User Needs Assessment, including resolution of problems related to accessing the Project website using Firefox and Mozilla web browsers. Keywords: Paso del Norte watershed, water resources database, GIS map, ArcIMS, data sharing and transfer, user needs assessment, Rio Grande, Rio Grande Project, gage station, surface water flow, groundwater, downloadable Microsoft Access database.

Sheng, Z.; Brown, C.; Creel, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Michelsen, A.; Fahy, M. P.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Effect of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility , Yield and Quality of Crops in the Tropics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the most essential crops in organic farming systems.Among the various vegetable crops grown in Kerala, cowpeahealth, yield, and quality of crops under organic farming.

Bhaskaran, Usha Pankajam; Krishna, Devi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Clean Water Action Plan: Restoring and protecting America`s waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On October 18, 1997, the 25th anniversary of the enactment of the Clean Water Act, the Vice President called for a renewed effort to restore and protect water quality. The Vice President asked that the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with other affected agencies, develop a Clean Water Action Plan that builds on clean water successes and addresses three major goals: (1) enhanced protection from public health threats posed by water pollution; (2) more effective control of polluted runoff; and (3) promotion of water quality protection on a watershed basis.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the factors emphasized by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), a national consensus-based standard under the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) for developing sustainable or high performance buildings, is water efficiency. A LEED registered project can attain up to five points under water efficiency upon successful integration of various techniques to conserve water. Many techniques are available to conserve water and grey water reuse is one option considered by many LEED registered projects. In spite of widespread popularity, some of the sustainable techniques including grey water reuse, which is recommended by the USGBC and various agencies engaged in green building constructions, are not viable in many parts of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have a positive or negative effect on the design team’s decision to implement a grey water reuse system: capital cost, maintenance cost, LEED credits, local plumbing codes, project schedule, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment, filtration, overflow protection, grey water storage tanks, etc. also add to the cost of construction. Ninety percent of the projects claim that project schedule is not affected by the implementation of a grey water reuse system in a green building project. The factors which prevent the project team from implementing a grey water reuse system include capital cost, maintenance cost, local plumbing codes, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. LEED credits and the spirit of sustainability are the factors which have a positive effect on the design team’s decision to implement a grey water reuse system.

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The Effect of Temperature on the Absolute Permeability to Distilled Water of Unconsolidated Sand Cores  

SciTech Connect

The work presented herein is a study of the effect of temperature on the absolute permeability to distilled water of unconsolidated sandstones at one confining pressure. The absolute permeability to distilled water of Ottawa silica sand was not dependent on the temperature level.

Sageev, A.; Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

323

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of houses with a high perfor- mance heat pump as well as resistance, gas, and oil heated houses with a high#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

324

Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass production between each soil were significant for Western Wheatgrass and Alfafla. The Sheridan sandy loam soil resulted in the highest production for western wheatgrass and alfalfa while the X-ranch sandy loam had the lowest production rate for both plants. Plant production levels resulting from untreated CBNG produced water were significantly higher compared to untreated conventional oil and gas produced water. However, few differences were found between water treatments. The biomass produced from the greenhouse study was analyzed for elemental composition and for forage value. Elemental composition indentified several interesting findings. Some of the biomass was characterized with seemly high boron and sodium levels. High levels of boron found in some of the biomass was unexpected and may indicate that alfalfa and western wheatgrass plants may have been impacted by either soil or irrigation water containing high boron levels. Plants irrigated with water treated using EDR technology appeared to contain higher levels of boron with increased levels of treatment. Forage evaluations were conducted using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The data collected show small differences, generally less than 10%, between produced water treatments including the no treatment and 100% treatment conditions for each plant species studied. The forage value of alfalfa and western wheatgrass did not show significant tendencies dependent on soil, the amount of produced water treatment, or treatment technology.

Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

325

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

SciTech Connect

We investigate aerosol effects on climate for 1980, 1995 (meant to reflect present-day) and 2030 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model coupled to an on-line aerosol source and transport model with interactive oxidant and aerosol chemistry. Aerosols simulated include sulfates, organic matter (OM), black carbon (BC), sea-salt and dust and additionally, the amount of tropospheric ozone is calculated, allowing us to estimate both changes to air quality and climate for different time periods and emission amounts. We include both the direct aerosol effect and indirect aerosol effects for liquid-phase clouds. Future changes for the 2030 A1B scenario are examined, focusing on the Arctic and Asia, since changes are pronounced in these regions. Our results for the different time periods include both emission changes and physical climate changes. We find that the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) has a large impact on photochemical processing, decreasing ozone amount and ozone forcing, especially for the future (2030-1995). Ozone forcings increase from 0 to 0.12 Wm{sup -2} and the total aerosol forcing increases from -0.10 Wm{sup -2} to -0.94 Wm{sup -2} (AIE increases from -0.13 to -0.68 Wm{sup -2}) for 1995-1980 versus 2030-1995. Over the Arctic we find that compared to ozone and the direct aerosol effect, the AIE contributes the most to net radiative flux changes. The AIE, calculated for 1995-1980, is positive (1.0 Wm{sup -2}), but the magnitude decreases (-0.3Wm{sup -2}) considerably for the future scenario. Over Asia, we evaluate the role of biofuel and transportation-based emissions (for BC and OM) via a scenario (2030A) that includes a projected increase (factor of two) in biofuel and transport-based emissions for 2030 A1B over Asia. Projected changes from present-day due to the 2030A emissions versus 2030 A1B are a factor of 4 decrease in summertime precipitation in Asia. Our results are sensitive to emissions used. Uncertainty in present-day emissions suggest that future climate projections warrant particular scrutiny.

Menon, Surabi; Menon, Surabi; Unger, Nadine; Koch, Dorothy; Francis, Jennifer; Garrett, Tim; Sednev, Igor; Shindell, Drew; Streets, David

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

326

An integrated assessment tool to define effective air quality policies at regional scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the Integrated Assessment of air quality is dealt with at regional scale. First the paper describes the main challenges to tackle current air pollution control, including economic aspects. Then it proposes a novel approach to manage the ... Keywords: Air quality modeling, Decision support, Integrated assessment modeling, Model reduction, Multi-objective optimization

Claudio Carnevale; Giovanna Finzi; Enrico Pisoni; Marialuisa Volta; Giorgio Guariso; Roberta Gianfreda; Giuseppe Maffeis; Philippe Thunis; Les White; Giuseppe Triacchini

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global survey of cloud particle size variations can provide crucial constraints on how cloud processes determine cloud liquid water contents and their variation with temperature, and further, may indicate the magnitude of aerosol effects on ...

Qingyuan Han; William B. Rossow; Andrew A. Lacis

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effects of acidic water on young-of-the-year smallmouth bass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental Biology of Fishes Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 223-229,1988. 0 Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht. Effects of acidic water on young-of-the-year smallmouth ...

329

The Effects of a Jet-Like Current on Gravity Waves in Shallow Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of a strong current with horizontal shear on shallow water waves is studied. For jet-like currents, the existence of trapped waves and the reciprocity of scattering coefficients are pointed out. Detailed consequences of current ...

Chiang C. Mei; Edmond Lo

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Effects of Land Cover Change on the Energy and Water Balance of the Mississippi River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of land cover change on the energy and water balance of the Mississippi River basin are analyzed using the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) model. Results of a simulated conversion from complete forest cover to crop cover over a ...

Tracy E. Twine; Christopher J. Kucharik; Jonathan A. Foley

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A Wind Tunnel Study of Turbulence Effects on the Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Water Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments are described where the effects of turbulence on the impaction scavenging of aerosol particles by water drops were investigated. During the experiments the drops were freely suspended at their terminal velocities in the ...

O. Vohl; S. K. Mitra; K. Diehl; G. Huber; S. C. Wurzler; K-L. Kratz; H. R. Pruppacher

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

A User’s Guide to the Comprehensive Water Quality Database for Groundwater in the Vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, Rev. No.: 1  

SciTech Connect

This water quality database (viz.GeochemXX.mdb) has been developed as part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Program with the cooperation of several agencies actively participating in ongoing evaluation and characterization activities under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The database has been constructed to provide up-to-date, comprehensive, and quality controlled data in a uniform format for the support of current and future projects. This database provides a valuable tool for geochemical and hydrogeologic evaluations of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and surrounding region. Chemistry data have been compiled for groundwater within the NTS and the surrounding region. These data include major ions, organic compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, various field parameters, and environmental isotopes. Colloid data are also included in the database. The GeochemXX.mdb database is distributed on an annual basis. The extension ''XX'' within the database title is replaced by the last two digits of the release year (e.g., Geochem06 for the version released during the 2006 fiscal year). The database is distributed via compact disc (CD) and is also uploaded to the Common Data Repository (CDR) in order to make it available to all agencies with DOE intranet access. This report provides an explanation of the database configuration and summarizes the general content and utility of the individual data tables. In addition to describing the data, subsequent sections of this report provide the data user with an explanation of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocols for this database.

Farnham, Irene

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Simulating the Effect of Water on the Fracture System of Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It was observed that many hydraulically fractured horizontal shale gas wells exhibit transient linear flow behavior. A half-slope on a type curve represents this transient linear flow behavior. Shale gas wells show a significant skin effect which is uncommon in tight gas wells and masks early time linear behavior. Usually 70-85 percent of frac water is lost in the formation after the hydraulic fracturing job. In this research, a shale gas well was studied and simulated post hydraulic fracturing was modeled to relate the effect of frac water to the early significant skin effect observed in shale gas wells. The hydraulically fractured horizontal shale gas well was described in this work by a linear dual porosity model. The reservoir in this study consisted of a bounded rectangular reservoir with slab matrix blocks draining into neighboring hydraulic fractures and then the hydraulic fractures feed into the horizontal well that fully penetrates the entire rectangular reservoir. Numerical and analytical solutions were acquired before building a 3D 19x19x10 simulation model to verify accuracy. Many tests were conducted on the 3D model to match field water production since initial gas production was matching the analytical solutions before building the 3D simulation model. While some of the scenarios tested were artificial, they were conducted in order to reach a better conceptual understanding of the field. Increasing the water saturation in the formation resulted in increasing water production while lowering gas production. Adding a fractured bottom water layer that leaked into the hydraulic fracture allowed the model to have a good match of water and gas production rates. Modeling trapped frac water around the fracture produced approximately the same amount of water produced by field data, but the gas production was lower. Totally surrounding the fracture with frac water blocked all gas production until some of the water was produced and gas was able to pass through. Finally, trapped frac water around the fracture as combined with bottom water showed the best results match. It was shown that frac water could invade the formation surrounding the hydraulic fracture and could cause formation damage by blocking gas flow. It was also demonstrated that frac water could partially block off gas flow from the reservoir to the wellbore and thus lower the efficiency of the hydraulic fracturing job. It was also demonstrated that frac water affects the square root of time plot. It was proven by simulation that the huge skin at early time could be caused by frac water that invades and gets trapped near the hydraulic fractures due to capillary pressure.

Hamam, Hassan Hasan H.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Stillage recycling: effect on ethanol yield, energy consumption, and stillage quality  

SciTech Connect

Grain sorghum thin stillage was recycled as cooking water in ethanol production experiments using bench- and pilot-scale systems. When stillage replaced 50 to 75% of the cooking water, large increases occurred in solids content, COD, and EC of resulting stillage. Ethanol yield, energy and water use were not affected.

Sweeten, J.M.; Coble, C.G.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Effect of jaw size in megavoltage CT on image quality and dose  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Recently, the jaw size for the TomoTherapy Hi-Art II{sup Registered-Sign} (TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI) was reduced from 4 mm (J4) to 1 mm (J1) to improve the longitudinal (IEC-Y) resolution in megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images. This study evaluated the effect of jaw size on the image quality and dose, as well as the dose delivered to the lens of the eye, which is a highly radiosensitive tissue. Methods: MVCT image quality (image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, high-contrast resolution, and full width at half-maximum) and multiple scan average dose (MSAD) were measured at different jaw sizes. A head phantom and photoluminescence glass dosimeters (PLDs) were used to measure the exposed lens dose (cGy). Different MVCT scan modes (pitch = 1, 2, and 3) and scan lengths (108 mm, 156 mm, and 204 mm) were applied in the MSAD and PLDs measurements. Results: The change in jaw size from J4 to J1 produced no change or only a slight improvement in image noise, uniformity, contrast linearity, and high-contrast resolution. However, the full-width at half-maximum reduced from approximately 7.2 at J4 to 4.5 mm at J1, which represents an enhancement in the longitudinal resolution. The MSAD at the center point changed from approximately 0.69-2.32 cGy (peripheral: 0.83-2.49 cGy) at J4 to 0.85-2.81 cGy (peripheral: 1.05-2.86 cGy) at J1. The measured lens dose increased from 0.92-3.36 cGy at J4 to 1.06-3.91 cGy at J1. Conclusions: The change in jaw size improved longitudinal resolution. The MVCT imaging dose of approximately 3.86 cGy, 1.92 cGy, and 1.22 cGy was delivered at a pitch of 1, 2, and 3, respectively, per fraction in the head and neck treatment plans. Therefore, allowance for an approximately 15% increase in lens dose over that with J4 should be provided with J1.

Jung, Jae Hong; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Kim, Yong Ho; Moon, Seong Kwon; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Eun Seog; Chang, Ah Ram; Kim, Tae Ho; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Suh, Tae-Suk; Huh, Hyun Do [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174, Korea and Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon 1174 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan 23-20 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul 657 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 505 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Inha University of Korea, Incheon 7-206 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

337

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

338

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

339

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

340

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by Soft X Rays Print The geometric structure of liquid water has been investigated in detail by many techniques, but many details are still under debate, such as the actual number of hydrogen bonds (at a given time) between the various water molecules. Even less is known about the electronic structure. Since it is the intermittent bonding between water molecules that gives liquid water its peculiar characteristics, the electronic structure plays a crucial role in understanding the properties of the liquid state. Consequently, information essential for insight into chemical and biological processes in aqueous environments is lacking. To address this need, researchers from Germany and the U.S. have used soft x-ray spectroscopy at the ALS to gain detailed insight into the electronic structure of liquid water. Their spectra show a strong isotope and a weak temperature effect, and, for the first time, a splitting of the primary emission line in x-ray emission spectra. By making use of the internal "femtosecond clock" of the core-hole lifetime, a detailed picture of the electronic structure can be painted that involves fast dissociation processes of the probed water molecules.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

Effects of energy development on air quality in the Rocky Mountain West. [Environmental effects of coal and oil shale development  

SciTech Connect

Future need for fossil fuels may lead to an exploitation of Western coal and oil shale at the expense of the traditional clean air and clear skies of the West. This report evaluates the prospects for future changes in western air quality, the constraints imposed on western energy development by air quality regulations, and the impacts of that development.

Hinman, G.W.; Leonard, E.M.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial dimensions and the final dimensions after 2 weeks of storage in controlled environment of all the samples were measured. Durability, dimensional stability, and moisture content tests were conducted after two weeks of storage of the briquettes produced. Initial results indicated that moisture content played a significant role on briquettes durability, stability, and density. Low moisture content of the straws (7-12%) gave more durable briquettes. Briquette density increased with increasing pressure depending on the moisture content value. The axial expansion was more significant than the lateral expansion, which in some cases tended to be nil depending on the material and operating variables. Further data analysis is in progress in order to understand the significance of the process variables based on ANOVA. Regression models were developed to predict the changes in quality of briquettes with respect of the process variables under study. Keywords: Herbaceous biomass, densification, briquettes, density, durability, dimensional stability, ANOVA and regression equations

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Development and application of an integrated ecological modelling framework to analyze the impact of wastewater discharges on the ecological water quality of rivers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modelling is an effective tool to investigate the ecological state of water resources. In developing countries, the impact of sanitation infrastructures (e.g. wastewater treatment plants) is typically assessed considering the achievement of legal physicochemical ... Keywords: Habitat suitability models, Information-theoretic approach, Integrated ecological modelling, MIKE 11, Multi-model inference

Javier E. Holguin-Gonzalez, Gert Everaert, Pieter Boets, Alberto Galvis, Peter L. M. Goethals

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Guidance to the Electric Power Industry for Implementing Environmental Protection Agency's 2001 Methylmercury Water Quality Criterio n  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adoption of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) methylmercury fish tissue criterion in 2001 raised many issues for permitting agencies and for individual discharges. Among them is how to translate from a tissue-based criterion to a water-column criteria for methylmercury. Adoption of a methylmercury standard requires translation to other forms of mercury if, for instance, permits continue to be written in terms of total recoverable mercury. This report covers a number of topics raised by ...

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Direct radiometric observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect over the equatorial Pacific ocean  

SciTech Connect

Airborne radiometric measurements were used to determine tropospheric profiles of the clear sky greenhouse effect. At sea surface temperatures (SSTs) larger than 300 kelvin, the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect was found to increase with SST at a rate of 13 to 15 watts per square meter per kelvin. Satellite measurements of infrared radiances and SSTs indicate that almost 52 percent of the tropical oceans between 20{degrees}N and 20{degrees}S are affected during all seasons. Current general circulation models suggest that the increase in the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect with SST may have climatic effects on a planetary scale. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Valero, F.P.J.; Collins, W.D.; Bucholtz, A. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

347

Training Quality and Earnings: The Effects of Competition on the Provision of Public-Sponsored Training Programs,” Mimeo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of market-based approaches in the provision of publicsponsored training programs. In particular, we study the link between training quality and labor earnings using a Peruvian program that targets disadvantaged youths. Multiple proxies for training quality are identified from bidding processes in which public and private training institutions that operate for profit compete for limited public funding. Using difference-indifferences kernel matching and standard regression-based approaches, we find that beneficiaries attending high-quality training courses have higher average and marginal treatment impacts. These earnings differentials are larger for females rather than males, and are larger in the medium term rather than in the short run. External validity was assessed by using five different cohorts of individuals over an eight-year period.

Alberto Chong; Jose Galdo

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quality impacts from 1980 to 2030 Table 1. Description ofincreases to 309.9 Wm ?2 for 2030. References Albrecht B Aquality impacts from 1980 to 2030 Shindell D, Faluvegi G,

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Quality Control and Tilt Correction Effects on the Turbulent Fluxes Observed at an Ocean Platform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates atmospheric factors influencing the quality and the postprocessing (e.g., tilt correction) of fast-response measurements of turbulent fluxes for difficult open-sea measurements over an offshore platform. The data were ...

Hyun-Mi Oh; Kyung-Eak Kim; Kyung-Ja Ha; Larry Mahrt; Jae-Seol Shim

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

The effects of degraded oil and pre-frying treatments on the quality of tortilla chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refined soybean oils were degraded at 190C for 60 hours. It was observed that degradation time correlated well with free fatty acid contents, total polar materials, convective heat transfer coefficient, color, specific gravity, viscosity, and surface tension. The off-flavor and foaming developed during frying suggested that the soybean oil should have been discarded after 25 hours of use when the amount of total polar materials reached 27%. The abused soybean oil (degraded for 60 hr) showed a different temperature profile during frying as compared with the fresh oil. The levels of oil degradation did not pose any significant effects on oil content, moisture content, and fracturability. Tortillas were prepared under different pre-frying conditions, i.e., oven-baked in an air forced oven at 190C for 3.5 min (OBL), oven-baked in a 3-tiered gas-fired oven at 343'C, 190C, and 190C for the top, middle, and bottom,, respectively, for 71 sec (OBH), raw, and freezing OBH at-12 C for 24 hours (FT). These tortillas were fried in fresh soybean oil for 60 sec at 190'C and quality of the final products were analyzed. The initial moisture content of the tortilla affected the final oil content of the chip, significantly. The pre-frying treatments affected the final oil and moisture contents of tortilla chips. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) pictures demonstrated that the starch/protein matrix and the size of the pores throughout the chip were the most important factors affecting the force needed to break through the tortilla chips.

Tseng, Yi-Chang

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The Quality-of-Life Effects of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Existing studies that examine the effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer on patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Our goals were to prospectively explore acute changes in patient-reported QOL endpoints during and after treatment and to establish a distribution of scores that could be used for comparison as new treatment modalities emerge. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled at 2 institutions. Validated cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-CR30) and colorectal cancer-specific (EORTC QLQ-CR38 and EORTC QLQ-CR 29) QOL questionnaires were administered to patients 1 month before they began CRT, at week 4 of CRT, and 1 month after they had finished CRT. The questionnaires included multiple symptom scales, functional domains, and a composite global QOL score. Additionally, a toxicity scale was completed by providers 1 month before the beginning of CRT, weekly during treatment, and 1 month after the end of CRT. Results: Global QOL showed a statistically significant and borderline clinically significant decrease during CRT (-9.50, P=.0024) but returned to baseline 1 month after the end of treatment (-0.33, P=.9205). Symptoms during treatment were mostly gastrointestinal (nausea/vomiting +9.94, P<.0001; and diarrhea +16.67, P=.0022), urinary (dysuria +13.33, P<.0001; and frequency +11.82, P=.0006) or fatigue (+16.22, P<.0001). These symptoms returned to baseline after therapy. However, sexual enjoyment (P=.0236) and sexual function (P=.0047) remained persistently diminished after therapy. Conclusions: Rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT may experience a reduction in global QOL along with significant gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms during treatment. Moreover, provider-rated toxicity scales may not fully capture this decrease in patient-reported QOL. Although most symptoms are transient, impairment in sexual function may persist after the completion of therapy and merits further investigation.

Herman, Joseph M., E-mail: jherma15@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Narang, Amol K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Hematology Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Reese, Jennifer B. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Gearhart, Susan L. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States) [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Azad, Nolifer S. [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Medical Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chan, June; Olsen, Leah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Efron, Jonathan E. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Determination of the toxicity, water-quality interactions, and biomagnification of selenium in aquatic food chains. Technical report for 15 August 1987-14 August 1989 (Final)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ecological degradation of aquatic ecosystems associated with the presence of elevated concentrations of the trace element selenium has been of considerable scientific, governmental, and public concern. The increased flux of selenium into several aquatic ecosystems, due to anthropogenic activities, has resulted in death, teratogenesis, reproductive impairment and decreased populations in fish and waterfowl communities in the systems. Research is continuing on several investigations into the toxicity, bioaccumulation, transfer, and biotransformation of selenium in aquatic organisms and laboratory food chains. Initial studies were primarily concerned with the comparative acute and chronic toxicity, water-quality interactions, and toxicological interactions of several chemical species of selenium to a variety of aquatic organisms. Further research was directed towards the biotransformation, transfer, and subsequent bioaccumulation of selenium in simplified laboratory aquatic food chains. Studies on the transfer, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of selenium from dietary sources to consumers were conducted. The development of methodology for determining and quantifying the biochemical speciation of selenium in aquatic organisms was initiated.

Maier, K.J.; Ogle, R.S.; Maier, K.A.R.; Williams, M.J.; Malchow, D.

1989-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

353

Aerosol climate effects and air quality impacts from 1980 to 2030  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CDNC), cloud optical depth (COD) and the AIE for the pastto the increases observed for COD, the liquid water path (suppressed precipitation), and COD rather than CC. (Although

Menon, Surabi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

Gisler, Galen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Weaver, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gittings, Micheal L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

FA Spane, Jr.

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effects of composite flours on quality and nutritional profile of flour tortillas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Obesity, glucose intolerance or insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure are now prevalent in the U.S. Increased intake of dietary fiber, omega- 3 fatty acids, and antioxidants may help prevent or manage these diseases. Tortillas are now part of the American diet, and are excellent carriers of higher amounts of fiber and other nutraceutical ingredients. This study was conducted to determine the effects of incorporating nutraceutical ingredients (flaxseed, sorghum bran, oat flour, buckwheat flour) on whole white wheat tortilla quality. Tortillas were prepared using a hot-press, gas-fired oven and were evaluated for physical properties, texture and shelf-stability. Objective and subjective tests demonstrated that whole white wheat and multigrain tortilla doughs were harder, rougher and less extensible than refined flour tortilla dough. Multigrain flour tortillas were thinner, larger and more translucent than the refined flour treatment. Incorporation of whole multigrain flours affected color of the product, giving darker tortillas. Tortilla flexibility decreased over time. After 16 days of storage rollability scores of tortillas decreased drastically. The most pronounced decrease in tortilla flexibility was observed for 5% sorghum bran, 10% buckwheat, and for the treatment prepared with of 5% flax, 5% sorghum, 5% oat, 5% buckwheat. The flexibility loss was higher for whole white wheat and multigrain tortillas than for the refined one which was confirmed with objective and subjective tests. To extend shelf stability of whole multigrain tortillas various amounts of commercial hydrocolloid and ?-amylase were added to the formulation. Tortillas with 75 ppm, 100 ppm of ?-amylase, 1% and 1.5% of gum retained their flexibility during 16 days of storage. Consumer acceptability of the whole multigrain tortillas (5% flaxseed, 5% sorghum bran, 5% oat, 5% buckwheat) was compared with commercial multigrain tortillas and whole white wheat flour tortillas using an untrained sensory panel. The multigrain tortillas were liked by the panel as much as the other samples. Prepared multigrain tortillas had improved nutritional value. Each multigrain treatment contained at least 3 g of dietary fiber, 0.29 g of ?- linolenic fatty acid, lignans and antioxidants. It makes possible to claim them as a ?good source of dietary fiber? and ?an excellent source of ?-linolenic fatty acid?. The formulations tested, together with future refinements, provide more options to consumers seeking healthier alternatives to refined wheat flour tortillas.

Gritsenko, Maria

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effective fracture geometry obtained with large water sand ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas formation exhibits some unusual reservoir characteristics: nano-darcy matrix permeability, presence of natural fractures and gas storage on the matrix surface that makes it unique in many ways. It’s difficult to design an optimum fracture treatment for such formation and even more difficult is to describe production behavior using a reservoir model. So far homogeneous, two wing fracture, and natural fracture models have been used for this purpose without much success. Micro seismic mapping technique is used to measure the fracture propagation in real time. This measurement in naturally fractured shale formation suggests a growth of fracture network instead of a traditional two wing fractures. There is an industry wise consensus that fracture network plays an important role in determining the well productivity of such formations. A well with high density of fracture networks supposed to have better productivity. Shale formations have also exhibited production pattern which is very different from conventional or tight gas reservoir. Initial flow period is marked by steep decline in production while the late time production exhibits a slow decline. One of the arguments put for this behavior is linear flow from a bi-wing fractured well at early time and contribution of adsorbed gas in production at late time. However, bi-wing fracture geometry is not supported by the micro-seismic observation. A realistic model should include both the fracture network and adsorbed gas property. In this research we have proposed a new Power Law Permability model to simulate fluid flow from hydraulically fractured Shale formation. This model was first described by Valko & Fnu (2002) and used for analyzing acid treatment jobs. The key idea of this model is to use a power law permeability function that varies with the radial distance from well bore. Scaling exponent of this power law function has been named power law index. The permeability function has also been termed as secondary permeability. This work introduces the method of Laplace solution to solve the problem of transient and pseudo steady-state flow in a fracture network. Development and validation of this method and its extension to predict the pressure (and production) behaviour of fracture network were made using a novel technic. Pressure solution was then combined with material balance through productivity index to make production forecast. Reservoir rock volume affected by the fracture stimulation treatment that contributes in the production is called effective stimulated volume. This represents the extent of fracture network in this case. Barnett shale formation is a naturally fractured shale reservoir in Fort Worth basin. Several production wells from this formation was analysed using Power Law Model and it was found that wells productivity are highly dependent on stimulated volume. Apparently the wells flow under pseudo steady state for most part of their producing life and the effect of boundary on production is evident in as soon as one months of production. Due to short period of transient flow production from Barnett formations is expected to be largely independent of the relative distribution of permeability and highly dependent on the stimulated area and induced secondary permeability. However, an indirect relationship between permeability distribution and production rate is observed. A well with low power law index shows a better (more even) secondary permeability distribution in spatial direction, larger stimulated volume and better production. A comparative analysis between the new model and traditional fracture model was made. It was found that both models can be used successfully for history matching and production forecasting from hydraulically fractured shale gas formation.

Kumar, Amrendra

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

The Greenhouse's Effect: NETL and Phipps Join Forces to Study Water |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Greenhouse's Effect: NETL and Phipps Join Forces to Study The Greenhouse's Effect: NETL and Phipps Join Forces to Study Water The Greenhouse's Effect: NETL and Phipps Join Forces to Study Water August 15, 2013 - 4:19pm Addthis Photo credit: © Denmarsh Photography, Inc. Photo credit: © Denmarsh Photography, Inc. What does this project do? Interested in more information on sustainable research initiatives? Check out: Phipps' Center for Sustainable Landscapes At first glance, one of the world's greenest greenhouses and an energy lab may seem an unlikely pair, but they share more than their Pittsburgh, Pa., location. The Phipps Conservatory Botanical Gardens and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) also share a concern for water. Phipps showcases lush gardens and dazzling plants as its main attraction,

362

Effects of Climate Variability and Change on Mountain Water Resources in the Western U.S.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The western U.S. derives its water resources predominantly from cold season precipitation and storage in snowpack along the narrow Cascades and Sierra ranges, and the Rocky Mountains. Hydroclimate is modulated by the diverse orographic features across the region. Precipitation, runoff, and water demand generally peaks during winter, spring, and summer respectively. Such phase differences between water supply and demand create a necessity for water management, which is reflected by major development in irrigation, hydropower production, and flood control during the past 50 years. Because water resources have been essential to the economic development and environmental well being of the western states, it is worrisome that recent studies suggest that global warming may exert significant impacts on snowpack and streamflow, which may seriously affect water resources in the western U.S. in the 21st century (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Leung and Ghan 1999; Mile et al. 2000; Leung et al. 2002a; Miller et al. 2002). To understand how climate change may affect mountain water resources, we have taken the approach of ?end-to-end? assessment where simulations of current and future climate produced by global climate models (GCMs) are downscaled using regional climate models (RCMs), which then provide atmospheric conditions for assessing water impacts using hydrologic models (e.g., Leung and Wigmosta 1999; Miller et al. 2000; Wood et al. 2002) and water management models (e.g., Hamlet and Lettenmaier 1999; Payne et al. 2002). This suite of models guides us through a comprehensive and global view of the effects of greenhouse warming on the atmosphere-ocean-land system to regional climate change, hydrologic response in river basins and watersheds, and reservoir management. The latter converts hydrologic response to impacts on water management objectives and enables the evaluation of adaptation strategies through modifications to existing reservoir operating rules.

Leung, Lai R.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

364

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

The Effects of Knowledge of Earnings Persistence, Financial Statement Format, and Concerns about Quality of Earnings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: This paper examines whether financial statement users exhibit greater ability to discriminate between high and low-accrual firms when they have greater knowledge of earnings persistence, greater awareness of concerns about the quality of earnings, and when accruals are presented more clearly in the financial statements. I find that users with greater knowledge of earnings persistence and greater awareness of concerns about the quality of earnings have greater discriminative ability. High-knowledge users are not affected by the presence and placement of an accrual subtotal in the financial statements. Low-knowledge users discriminate the most when the accrual subtotal is juxtaposed with accrual line items in the cash flow statement. Low-knowledge users do not discriminate much when the accrual subtotal is not presented, or when the subtotal is presented but is not juxtaposed with accrual line items within the same statement.

Bernardine Low; Khim Kelly; Bob Libby; Mark Nelson; Steve Smith; Hun-tong Tan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Information Quality | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quality Information Quality Peer Review Agenda Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review Effects of Intermediate Ethanol Blends on Legacy Vehicles and Small Non-Road Engines,...

367

Bottom-up derivation of an effective thermostat for united atoms simulations of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we derive the effective pairwise interactions in a Langevin type united atoms model of water. The interactions are determined from the trajectories of a detailed molecular dynamics simulation of simple point charge water. A standard method is used for estimating the conservative interaction, whereas a new "bottom-up" method is used to determine the effective dissipative and stochastic interactions. We demonstrate that, when compared to the standard united atoms model, the transport properties of the coarse-grained model is significantly improved by the introduction of the derived dissipative and stochastic interactions. The results are compared to a previous study, where a "top-down" approach was used to obtain transport properties consistent with those of the simple point charge water model.

Eriksson, Anders; Nystrom, Johan; Tunstrom, Kolbjorn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

THE EFFECT OF RADIATION ON THE CORROSION OF METALS BY WATER. (Problem No. 322 MLC 2213)  

SciTech Connect

Long-time tests have been made on the effect of various types of radiation on the corrosion of 2S aluminum in simulated W water. In no case was any acceleration of corrosion by the radiation observed; the effect of radiation, if any, appeared to be a protective one. Deuteron irradiation did accelerate the corrosion of mild steel at low flow rates in hot water of pH 6 to 7, but no appreciable effect was observed with copper, stainless steel, or tuballoy. The general theory of the effect of radiation on corrosion is discussed, with the conclusion that no acceleration of corrosion by radiation is to be expected in most cases of practical interest. (auth)

Allen, A.O.; Bowman, M.C.; Goldowski, N.; Larson, R.G.; Treiman, L.

1944-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

369

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Effect of the Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide on the Radiation Absorption and Temperature Profile in Troposphere.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The work on this paper focus on the effect of the water vapor and carbon dioxide on the absorption of atmospheric radiation and the temperature… (more)

Li, Chieh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Simulations of the Effects of Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water, and Ice on AMSU Moisture Channel Brightness Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer simulations are performed to determine how water vapor and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water and ice particles within typical midlatitude atmospheres affect brightness temperatures TB's of moisture sounding channels used in ...

Bradley M. Muller; Henry E. Fuelberg; Xuwu Xiang

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A decision-oriented model to evaluate the effect of land use and agricultural management on herbicide contamination in stream water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modelling stream water pollution by herbicides in agricultural areas is a critical issue since numerous and incompletely known processes are involved. A decision-oriented model, SACADEAU-Transf, which represents water and pesticide transfer in medium-sized ... Keywords: Agriculture, Catchment, Decision oriented, Herbicide, Modelling, Pesticide, Stream water quality, Subsurface flow, Surface flow

Chantal Gascuel-Odoux; Pierre Aurousseau; Marie-Odile Cordier; Patrick Durand; Frederick Garcia; Véronique Masson; Jordy Salmon-Monviola; Florent Tortrat; Ronan Trepos

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

The effect of efficiency standards on water use and water heating energy use in the US: A detailed end-use treatment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is an important end-use, accounting for roughly 16% of total primary energy consumption in the US residential sector. Recently enacted efficiency standards on water heaters and hot water-using equipment (e.g., dishwashers, clothes washers, showerheads, and faucets) will substantially affect the energy use of water heaters in the future. Assessment of current and future utility programs and government policies requires that regulators, resource planners, and forecasters understand the effects of these regulations. In order to quantify these impacts, this paper presents a detailed end-use breakdown of household hot and cold water use developed for the US Department of Energy. This breakdown is based on both previous studies and new data and analysis. It is implemented in a spreadsheet forecasting framework, which allows significant flexibility in specifying end-use demands and linkages between water heaters and hot water-using appliances. We disaggregate total hot and cold water use (gallons per day) into their component parts: showers, baths, faucets (flow dominated and volume dominated), toilets, landscaping/other, dishwashers, and clotheswashers. We then use the end-use breakdown and data on equipment characteristics to assess the impacts of current efficiency standards on hot water use and water heater energy consumption.

Koomey, J.G.; Dunham, C.; Lutz, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.  

SciTech Connect

Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

Silva, Consuelo Juanita

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind generation.

Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

376

Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

Quality Portal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Measurement Quality Assurance Program , coordinated by ... see all Quality programs and projects ... ... Events. 2014 Examiner Training Schedule. NIST ...

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

379

Relative influence of lapse rate and water vapor on the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Observational data are employed in a radiative transfer model to simulate the mean variation in normalized greenhouse effect (NGE) between January and July. This is performed at a variety of locations, and the mean local rate of change in NGE with surface temperature is determined. The result is 1.5 times larger than the variation of NGE with surface temperature obtained by spatially correlating the aggregated data. This disagreement is ascribed to systematic differences between the two approaches and is interpreted as indicating the significant role that large-scale circulations as well as surface temperatures have on determining local thermal and humidity structures. The separate effects of water vapor and lapse rate variations are estimated, by simulating the January-July changes in NGE with each process in turn held constant: beyond the tropics the lapse rate feedback is found to dominate over the water vapor feedback, particularly over land; in the inter-tropics, lapse rate variations account for about a third of the change in greenhouse trapping, contributing substantially to the `super-greenhouse effect.` Utilizing a radiative-convective model, the possible effects on climate change of both lapse rate changes and water vapor feedback are compared: a global mean model cliamte is perturbed by a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide and equilibrium surface temperatures obtained for a variety of lapse rates. If, under conditions of climate change, the global mean lapse rate varies with surface temperature in the same manner as in the present-day mean seasonal cycle (increasing the lapse rate magnitude by 6%), then the lapse rate feedback amplifies the modeled water vapor feedback by 40%; conversely, a 12% reduction in the magnitude of the lapse rate completely nullifies the water vapor feedback.

Sinha, A. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

GLP 10 Good Laboratory Practice for the Purity of Water Water ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... resistivity (along with other water quality measurements) are often used to assess the water quality used in cooling towers, boilers, relative humidity ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use  

SciTech Connect

The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Essays on the Effectiveness of Environmental Conservation and Water Management Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An awareness of the effect of agricultural production on the environment has led to the development of policies to mitigate its adverse effects. This dissertation provides analyses of agri-environmental policies designed to protect environmental assets, as well as analytical decision-making tools useful for conducting policy evaluations. The first essay employs propensity score matching techniques to estimate the additionality of federal agricultural conservation programs for six conservation practices for farmers in Ohio. Additionality is an important measure of the effectiveness of conservation programs in inducing an increase in the conservation effort of farmers. Results suggest that additionality is positive and statistically significant for all six conservation practices. However, while programs achieve positive additionality for all practice types, a comparison between conservation practices reveals that certain practice types achieve higher percent additionality than others. Such results, coupled with information on the environmental benefits obtained per practice, could prove useful to program managers for improving the effectiveness of conservation programs. The second essay develops a new methodology to decompose the additionality measure into the two effects induced by conservation programs: expansion versus the new adoption of conservation practices. To do so, the relative contributions of two types of farmers, prior-adopters and new-adopters, are estimated. Results of the decomposition reveal that the additionality for prior-adopters is not significant for all practice types. Instead, additional conservation effort comes from new-adopters adopting new practices. Second, decomposition estimates suggest that practice types with a greater fraction of enrolled farmers that are new-adopters achieve greater percent additionality than those with greater proportions of prior-adopters. This suggests that a farmers? history in conservation adoption has a significant influence on additionality levels. The final essay analyzes the effect of recent instream flow diversion-guidelines on agricultural water security and streamflows within a decentralized water management regime. Spatially-explicit economic and hydrologic models are integrated to evaluate the tradeoffs between salmon bypass-flows and agricultural water security for three different diversion-guidelines within a northern-California watershed. Results indicate that the most restrictive diversion-guideline provides the greatest protection of bypass-flow days within smaller watersheds; however, within larger watersheds protection is not as significant. Water security, however, decreases sharply under the strict and moderate diversion-guidelines, especially during dry years. Overall, results indicate that greater focus should be given to protecting streamflows in the smallest watersheds, and meeting human water needs during dry years, when agricultural water security is impacted the most.

Mezzatesta, Mariano

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Menthol Sensory Qualities and Possible Effects on Topography: A White Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effects of menthol: A white paper; 2010. Hilliard R. Effecton nicotine dependence: A white paper; 2010. Perfetti TA,consumer perceptions: A white paper; Roper B, Wilkins S. [

Yerger, Valerie B ND; McCandless, Phyra M JD, MPH

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

The Effects of Organic Material and Mycorrhizal Inoculation On Horticultural Seedling Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

colonization and two levels of compost supply on nutrientH, 2007. Effects of compost addition on extra-radical growthchemical properties of composts. N Compost materials 1.

Ortas, Ibrahim; Demirbas, Ahmet; Akpinar, Ça?da?; ?im?ek, Murat; Kaya, Zülküf

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION AND CONSTRAINTS ON WATER UPTAKE OF FUEL-CELL MEMBRANES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Briian; Weber, Adam

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

386

On the Importance of Zero-Point Effects in Molecular Level Classical Simulations of Water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss the fundamental difficulties involved in comparing energetic results obtained via classical simulations of bulk water with the observed values. Emphasis is placed on the difference between quantum and classical dynamics and correction techniques, which can be used to emulate quantum effects in a classical system, are investigated. We present molecular dynamics simulation results for liquid water using the ''Thole-type'' all atom polarizable water model, which has previously been shown to give reasonable results for both ice Ih and small water clusters. We employ expressions for the density of states power spectrum in the liquid in either atomic or rigid-body coordinates that are appropriate for rigid molecule simulations. It is demonstrated that the atomic power spectra can be written as a linear combination of the center of mass and rotational power spectra via the use of the ''coupling matrix'' of linear coefficients. This approach allows us to introduce the concept of ''fractional degrees of freedom'' for nuclei in rigid molecule simulation. Within this framework, it is illustrated that, in a rigid water molecule, the Oxygen and Hydrogen atoms have 2.82 and 1.59 degrees of freedom, respectively (for the TIP4P geometry). Within our suggested approach, we finally demonstrate that Debye-Waller factors can be obtained from the coupling matrix and show that quantum corrections to the structure can be accounted for by raising the temperature of the system in a classical simulation by around 500, a result consistent with previous suggestions.

Burnham, Christian J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Metropolitan New York in the greenhouse: Air quality and health effects  

SciTech Connect

A variety of potential effects on human health resulting from climate change have been identified in several assessments. According to an international panel{sup 1} they include direct effects of extreme temperatures on cardiovascular deaths, secondary effects due to vector-borne diseases or crop yields, and tertiary effects such as those that might arise from conflicts over freshwater supplies. To this fist we add the secondary effects of increased air pollution, which may result either directly from climate change or indirectly from increased air conditioning loads and the corresponding pollutant emissions from electric utilities. Higher ozone concentrations have been linked to increased ambient temperatures by both theory and observations of monitoring data. A similar association with particulate matter has been limited to observations, thus far. The pollution-heat linkage has been recognized before` but health effects have not been evaluated in terms of predictions of the joint effects of both agents. This paper has been prepared in two sections. First, we discuss the ozone situation with special reference to the Northeast Corridor and New York. In the second section, we present estimates of the health effects of climate change on New York and discuss some mitigation options.

Kleinman, L.I.; Lipfert, F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effects of light water reactor coolant environment on the fatigue lives of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of light water reactor coolant environment on the fatigue lives of Effects of light water reactor coolant environment on the fatigue lives of reactor materials July 8, 2013 A metal component can become progressively degraded, and its structural integrity can be adversely impacted when it is subjected to repeated fluctuating loads, or fatigue loading. Fatigue loadings on nuclear reactor pressure vessel components can occur because of changes in pressure and temperature caused by transients during operation, such as reactor startup or shutdown and turbine trip events. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code recognizes fatigue as a possible cause of failure of reactor materials and provides rules for designing nuclear power plant components to avoid fatigue failures. For various materials, the ASME Code defines the

389

Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention is adapted to manipulate the chemical properties of water in order to improve the effectiveness of a desired chemical process. The method involves heating the water in the vessel to subcritical temperatures between 100.degree. to 374.degree. C. while maintaining sufficient pressure to the water to maintain the water in the liquid state. Various physiochemical properties of the water can be manipulated including polarity, solute solubility, surface tension, viscosity, and the disassociation constant. The method of the present invention has various uses including extracting organics from solids and semisolids such as soil, selectively extracting desired organics from nonaqueous liquids, selectively separating organics using sorbent phases, enhancing reactions by controlling the disassociation constant of water, cleaning waste water, and removing organics from water using activated carbon or other suitable sorbents.

Hawthorne, Steven B. (Grand Forks, ND); Miller, David J. (Grand Forks, ND); Yang, Yu (Greenville, NC); Lagadec, Arnaud Jean-Marie (Grand Forks, ND)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Prepulse effect on laser-induced water-window radiation from a liquid nitrogen jet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is schematically shown in Fig. 1. A high-purity nitrogen gas was cooled and liquefied through the cooling stagesPrepulse effect on laser-induced water-window radiation from a liquid nitrogen jet J. Son,a M. Cho.3­4.4 nm x ray from a liquid nitrogen jet. It is observed that a prepulse of only 2 mJ enhances

Kim, Jae-Hoon

391

Effect of Light Water Reactor Environments on Fracture Resistance in Irradiated Stainless Steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Austenitic stainless steels are used extensively for the fabrication of reactor internal components due to their high strength and fracture toughness. However, the fracture properties of these materials degrade with exposure to neutron irradiation. The effects on the reduction of fracture properties may depend on neutron fluence, cold work, corrosion potential, water purity, temperature, and loading. The exact role of these environmental parameters remains unclear.Fracture toughness ...

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

392

Antiscatter grids in mobile C-arm cone-beam CT: Effect on image quality and dose  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: X-ray scatter is a major detriment to image quality in cone-beam CT (CBCT). Existing geometries exhibit strong differences in scatter susceptibility with more compact geometries, e.g., dental or musculoskeletal, benefiting from antiscatter grids, whereas in more extended geometries, e.g., IGRT, grid use carries tradeoffs in image quality per unit dose. This work assesses the tradeoffs in dose and image quality for grids applied in the context of low-dose CBCT on a mobile C-arm for image-guided surgery. Methods: Studies were performed on a mobile C-arm equipped with a flat-panel detector for high-quality CBCT. Antiscatter grids of grid ratio (GR) 6:1-12:1, 40 lp/cm, were tested in ''body'' surgery, i.e., spine, using protocols for bone and soft-tissue visibility in the thoracic and abdominal spine. Studies focused on grid orientation, CT number accuracy, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in quantitative phantoms at constant dose. Results: There was no effect of grid orientation on possible gridline artifacts, given accurate angle-dependent gain calibration. Incorrect calibration was found to result in gridline shadows in the projection data that imparted high-frequency artifacts in 3D reconstructions. Increasing GR reduced errors in CT number from 31%, thorax, and 37%, abdomen, for gridless operation to 2% and 10%, respectively, with a 12:1 grid, while image noise increased by up to 70%. The CNR of high-contrast objects was largely unaffected by grids, but low-contrast soft-tissues suffered reduction in CNR, 2%-65%, across the investigated GR at constant dose. Conclusions: While grids improved CT number accuracy, soft-tissue CNR was reduced due to attenuation of primary radiation. CNR could be restored by increasing dose by factors of {approx}1.6-2.5 depending on GR, e.g., increase from 4.6 mGy for the thorax and 12.5 mGy for the abdomen without antiscatter grids to approximately 12 mGy and 30 mGy, respectively, with a high-GR grid. However, increasing the dose poses a significant impediment to repeat intraoperative CBCT and can cause the cumulative intraoperative dose to exceed that of a single diagnostic CT scan. This places the mobile C-arm in the category of extended CBCT geometries with sufficient air gap for which the tradeoffs between CNR and dose typically do not favor incorporation of an antiscatter grid.

Schafer, S.; Stayman, J.W.; Zbijewski, W.; Schmidgunst, C.; Kleinszig, G.; Siewerdsen, J.H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 (United States); Siemens Healthcare XP Division, Erlangen, Bavaria 91052 (Germany); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21202 (United States) and Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

The effect of location on the predicted performance of a heat pump water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the HPWH extracts energy from the air in its environment, the question arises as to how this energy extraction would affect the house heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system if the HPWH were located in a conditioned space of a household. A second question concerns the savings obtained by locating the HPWH in an unconditioned space such as a garage or basement. The effect of locating the HPWH in the conditioned spaces of houses with a high-performance heat pump as well as resistance- gas- and oil-heated houses with a high performance electric air conditioner was studied. All calculations were made on a desktop computer. Weather bin data and inlet water temperatures for each city were used to calcuate the energy consumption for the house first with a resistance water heater, and then with a HPWH. The difference between these values was used to calculate the performance factor (PF) of the HPWH. The HPWH will add to the house heating load in winter and lessen the house cooling load in summer.

Levins, W.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Detecting and Evaluating the Effect of Overlaying Thin Cirrus Cloud on MODIS Retrieved Water-Cloud Droplet Effective Radius  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detecting and Evaluating the Effect Detecting and Evaluating the Effect of Overlaying Thin Cirrus Cloud on MODIS Retrieved Water-Cloud Droplet Effective Radius F.-L Chang and Z. Li Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Z. Li Department of Meteorology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Introduction Cirrus clouds can largely modify the solar reflected and terrestrial emitted radiances. The ubiquitous presence of cirrus clouds has a global coverage of about 20% to30% and more than 70% in the tropics (Wylie et al. 1994). The probability of cirrus clouds overlaying a low-level boundary layer cloud system is greater than 50% (Hahn et al. 1982, 1984; Tian and Curry 1989; Mace et al. 1997). They are often optically thin and semitransparent and frequently reside in high altitude overlapping with a low-level

395

Cost-Effective Pole or Pad Mounted Power Quality Solution: Component and System Cost Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static Series Compensation (SSC) devices, sometines called "dynamic voltage restorers" or DVRs, have been available on the marketplace since about 1994. These devices are designed to mitigate voltage sags and swells originating from the power system by injecting voltage in series with the power supply. The additive effect of the injected voltage produces an essentially undisturbed voltage for the load. There are several vendors presently producing SSCs. These devices all have essentially the same power e...

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cost Effective Pole or Pad Mounted Power Quality Solution: Functional Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Static Series Compensation (SSC) devices, sometimes called "dynamic voltage restorers" or DVRs, have been available on the marketplace since about 1994. These devices are designed to mitigate voltage sags and swells originating from the power system by injecting voltage in series with the power supply. The additive effect of the injected voltage produces an essentially undisturbed voltage for the load. There are several vendors presently producing SSCs. These devices all have essentially the same power e...

2000-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

397

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1995); P. 998-1006, 6 FIGS., 2 TABLES. The effect of steam quality on the electrical behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 60, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1995); P. 998-1006, 6 FIGS., 2 TABLES. The effect of steam quality on the electrical behavior of steam-flooded sands: A laboratory study David B. Butler* and Rosemary J. Knight* ABSTRACT Laboratory measurements of the effects of steam injection on the electrical

Knight, Rosemary

398

Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

Casey, Daniel

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Heterogeneous reactivity effects in medium- and high-enriched uranium metal-water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of heterogeneity on reactivity of low-, medium-, and high-enriched, water-moderated uranium metal systems has been examined for various hydrogen-to-fissile (H/X) ratios using the CSAS1X sequence in SCALE and MCNP. For the calculations, an infinite array of close-packed unit cells was modeled which consisted of centered uranium metal spheres surrounded by water. The enrichments used correspond to the average enrichments of fragmented fuel plates in three proposed waste shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The analysis performed to obtain peak reactivity for each enrichment as a function of particle size and H/X ratio led to the development of the topic discussed in this paper.

Lichtenwalter, J.J.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water quality effects" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON WATER INTAKE, FOOD INTAKE, AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE ALBINO RAT*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1961, Dubos and Schaedler (1) reported a reduction in water intake in animals treated with bacterial endotoxin. Mice were raised in a pathogen-free environment and subsequently tested with one of several toxins. Alteration in daily water intake was found to occur at doses well below the LDs0. Because of the long-standing interest in this laboratory in drive states, their behavioral consequences, and physiological basis (2), this property of endotoxin was explored in the albino rat. Our animals were not raised in a pathogen-free environment. Using fairly large doses of toxin, we were able to confirm the findings of Dubos and Schaedler, and, in addition, demonstrate a profound toxin effect on food intake and body temperature. Using behavioral and physiological techniques, we made exploratory studies of resistance and sensitization to toxin and of its possible site of action. Materials and Methods Animals.--AU the animals were male Sprague-Dawley albino rats, 90 to 120 days old, weighing 300 gm or more. They were housed in individual wire cages in a temperature-controlled room, and were fed Purina lab chow and tap water. Water intakes were measured by making water bottles available for 30 minutes every day and weighing the bottles before and after consumption. After several "familiarization " days the rats would drink a fairly standard amount each day. Food intake was measured by weighing the food in the cages every 24 hours, the food being continuously available. Animals on food-intake measurement were given water ad lib and those on water-intake measurement were given food ad lib. Temperatures were taken with an ordinary rectal thermometer, lubricated and inserted almost its entire length. The animals showed no unusual distress and tolerated the procedure day after day. Thermometers were left in place 3 to 5 minutes and then read. Thermometem that dropped out were replaced for 3 additional minutes. A paper towel on the cage floor facilitated recovery of lost thermometers. Toxin.--A eommerdally prepared lipopolysaccharide extract of Eschericlda coli was used

E. Holmes; Neal; E. Miller, Ph.D.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Effect of pressure on the phase behavior and structure of water confined between nanoscale hydrophobic and hydrophilic plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1 GPa, the system crystallizes into a bilayer ice. A P-d phase diagram showing the vapor, liquid, and bilayer ice phases is proposed. When water is confined by hydrophilic hydroxylated silica platesEffect of pressure on the phase behavior and structure of water confined between nanoscale

406

Safety Assurance of Pecans by Irradiation without a Detrimental Effect on Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pecan nuts might become contaminated with foodborne pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli., through birds and other potential sources of contamination that can lead to serious illness or even death, as well as financial losses. For example, the outbreak of Salmonella in pecan products in Texas caused major product recalls in 2010. Irradiation with electron beams could be an effective method of preventing potential outbreaks without changing the pecans' taste, color and flavor and without causing any risk of recontamination before the product reaches the consumer. However, when irradiation is applied alone, the shelf life of the product is decelerated because of the detrimental effect of lipid oxidation. Therefore, to extend the shelf of the pecans while assuring their safety, irradiation of pecans under modified atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions could be a viable option. This research showed that when treated with electron beams, surrogates of Escherichia coli (a cocktail of BAA-1427, BAA-1428, and BAA-1430), and Salmonella (S. Typhimurium LT2) were more resistant to ionizing radiation (higher D10 values) when packed under vacuum (VP) than under air or other MAP conditions. This research also showed that lipid oxidation in pecans (due to exposure to ionizing radiation) shows a lag phase, probably due to the antioxidants present in pecan nuts. The lag phase represents a delay period before the pecan nuts start to get rancid (increase in PV formation), and it is best described by a modified Gompertz model. Kinetic evaluation of the lipid oxidation reaction suggests that the dose level has a more drastic effect in PV formation than the type of package used during the irradiation treatment, e.g., vacuum packed versus nitrogen-packed. Moreover, accelerated shelf life studies (4 weeks at 48.9oC) showed that vacuum-packed (VP) pecans can be stored at -25 degrees C up to three years, while irradiated (at 3.0 kGy) VP pecans can be stored only for eight months, without the detrimental effects of lipid oxidation. Therefore, irradiation of pecans under air at 3.0 kGy reduces the shelf life of the nuts in terms of rancidity, but vacuum-packaging can be used to extend their shelf-life. Irradiation in oxygen packaging increases rancidity and the oxidation reaction rate accelerates with increasing dose. Irradiation under nitrogen packaging requires lower doses to achieve the almost same number of log reductions in microbial population. The use of nitrogen packaging also inhibits the oxidative reaction leading to rancidity in pecans. Although there are some drawbacks to the application of nitrogen packaging in an irradiation plant (special machinery and packaging films (permeability specifications for N2 gas)), the savings induced by avoiding recalls may make this technology worthy of consideration.

Karagoz, Isin 1983-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Effect of daylighting on energy consumption and daylight quality in an existing elementary school  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigates the effects of daylighting in an existing elementary school in College Station, Texas. The conclusions are generalizable to similar school designs in hot and humid climates. This study focuses on the trends observed in the building??s heating, cooling, and lighting energy consumption due to daylighting, and the overall effect on total energy consumption. Skylights with 1% to 10% glazing surface to floor area and clerestories from 2 ft to 8 ft glazing height were analyzed to formulate balanced daylighting designs that could provide for decreased electricity and gas energy consumption and increased daylight illuminance levels and energy cost savings. Classroom and Library areas inside the case study school building were analyzed using walk-throughs and daylight factor measurements to understand existing lighting conditions and the potential for daylighting. Physical scale models of the study spaces with and without daylighting alternatives were built for daylight factor and daylight penetration analysis. Computer simulation models were created for the base case and all proposed daylighting designs for building energy performance evaluation using the DOE-2 building energy simulation program. Daylight factors from the actual spaces, physical model measurements, and computer simulation outputs were studied for trendsin interior daylight illuminance levels. Annual energy consumption analyses were performed using DOE-2 and involved heating, cooling, and electrical energy use comparisons of all proposed designs with the base case. One design each from the skylight and clerestory cases, and an overall design based upon the performance criteria are proposed for the existing school building. The building energy analyses suggested that a considerable reduction in artificial lighting and total electricity use could be achieved through proper sizing of skylights and clerestories. Heating energy use stayed almost constant in all cases. Considering all different trends in energy use, all the proposed cases perform better than the base case in terms of total energy savings. The spaces analyzed constituted 15% of total school area, and projected savings would be much higher if daylighting could be applied to the entire school building.

Atre, Umesh Vinayak

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Water Vapor, Surface Temperature, and the Greenhouse Effect—A Statistical Analysis of Tropical-Mean Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor feedback is one of the important factors that determine the response of the atmosphere to surface warming. To take into account the compensating drying effects in downdraft regions, averaging over the whole Tropics is necessary. ...

Hu Yang; Ka Kit Tung

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Assessment of the Effects of Tidal Mixing in the Kuril Straits on the Formation of the North Pacific Intermediate Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess accurately the effect of tidal mixing in the Kuril Straits on the formation of the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), the spatial distribution of diapycnal diffusivity recently obtained by the present authors is incorporated into ...

Yuki Tanaka; Toshiyuki Hibiya; Yoshihiro Niwa

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Retrieval of cloud properties using CALIPSO Imaging Infrared Radiometer. Part II: effective diameter and ice water path  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper describes the version 3 Level 2 operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data collected in the framework of the CALIPSO mission to retrieve cirrus cloud effective diameter and ice water path in synergy with the ...

Anne Garnier; Jacques Pelon; Philippe Dubuisson; Ping Yang; Michaël Faivre; Olivier Chomette; Nicolas Pascal; Pat Lucker; Tim Murray

411

Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater and Radionuclide Migration in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluating the Effects of Underground Nuclear Testing Below the Water Table on Groundwater, using FEHM, evaluate perturbed groundwater behavior associated with underground nuclear tests to an instantaneous pressu