National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water quality based

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  2. An alternative approach to achieving water quality-based limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, C.M.; Graeser, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Since May 1982, members of the Iron and Steel Industry have been required to meet effluent limits based on Best Available Technology (BAT) for a process water discharge to receiving stream. US Steel Clairton Works has been successful in meeting these limits in the last three years; however, the current regulatory thrust is toward more stringent limits based on water quality. In cases of smaller streams such as the receiving stream for Clairton Works` process outfall, these limits can be very rigid. This paper will discuss the alternative approaches investigated to meet the new more stringent limits including the solution chosen.

  3. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface water, storm water and springs. April 12, 2012 Quarterly Groundwater monitoring attended by LANL managers and the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board LANL scientists brief the Northern New Mexico Citizens Advisory Board during quarterly groundwater monitoring of the well network around Area G. Contact

  4. Tissue-based water quality biosensors for detecting chemical warfare agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2003-05-27

    A water quality sensor for detecting the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent includes: a cell; apparatus for introducing water into the cell and discharging water from the cell adapted for analyzing photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms in water; a fluorometer for measuring photosynthetic activity of naturally occurring, free-living, indigenous photosynthetic organisms drawn into the cell; and an electronics package that analyzes raw data from the fluorometer and emits a signal indicating the presence of at least one chemical or biological warfare agent in the water.

  5. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Application ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract Application required for Section 401 water quality certification under the Clean Water Act. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Section 401 Water Quality...

  6. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chica, U.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Vilches, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  7. Development of An Empirical Water Quality Model for Stormwater Based on Watershed Land Use in Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullinan, Valerie I.; May, Christopher W.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Judd, Chaeli; Johnston, Robert K.

    2007-03-29

    The Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed is located on the west side of Puget Sound in Kitsap County, Washington, U.S.A. (Figure 1). The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS), U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Washington State Department of Ecology (WA-DOE), Kitsap County, City of Bremerton, City of Bainbridge Island, City of Port Orchard, and the Suquamish Tribe have joined in a cooperative effort to evaluate water-quality conditions in the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed and correct identified problems. A major focus of this project, known as Project ENVVEST, is to develop Water Clean-up (TMDL) Plans for constituents listed on the 303(d) list within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed. Segments within the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet watershed were listed on the State of Washingtons 1998 303(d) because of fecal coliform contamination in marine water, metals in sediment and fish tissue, and organics in sediment and fish tissue (WA-DOE 2003). Stormwater loading was identified by ENVVEST as one potential source of sediment contamination, which lacked sufficient data for a contaminant mass balance calculation for the watershed. This paper summarizes the development of an empirical model for estimating contaminant concentrations in all streams discharging into Sinclair and Dyes Inlets based on watershed land use, 18 storm events, and wet/dry season baseflow conditions between November 2002 and May 2005. Stream pollutant concentrations along with estimates for outfalls and surface runoff will be used in estimating the loading and ultimately in establishing a Water Cleanup Plan (TMDL) for the Sinclair-Dyes Inlet watershed.

  8. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  9. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  10. Vermont Water Quality Certification Application for Hydroelectric...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Certification Application for Hydroelectric Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Vermont Water Quality Certification...

  11. Vermont Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library General: Vermont Water Quality Standards Abstract Vermont 401 Water Quality Certification Policy Guidance for...

  12. Alaska Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Alaska Water Quality...

  13. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability Platform Review Principle Investigator: Dr. Henriette I. Jager Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review Goal Statement Addresses the following MYPP BETO goals:  Advance scientific methods and models for measuring and understanding

  14. California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California State Water Resources Control Board 401 Water...

  15. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  16. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  17. ADEQ Water Quality Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ADEQ Water Quality Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: ADEQ Water Quality FormsLegal Abstract The Arizona...

  18. Colorado Water Quality Certification General Information | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Colorado Water Quality Certification General InformationLegal Abstract The Colorado Department of...

  19. Montana Water Quality Permit Application, Nondegradation Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Permit Application, Nondegradation Authorization, and Permit Fees Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  20. Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater - Industrial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities) Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater - Industrial Activities) Website...

  1. RAPID/Geothermal/Water Quality/Alaska | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    RAPIDGeothermalWater QualityAlaska < RAPID | Geothermal | Water Quality Jump to: navigation, search RAPID Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop Toolkit BETA About...

  2. EPA Section 401 Water Quality Certification Manual | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Section 401 Water Quality Certification Manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: EPA Section 401 Water Quality Certification Manual...

  3. WC 26 - Water Quality Control Administrative Provisions | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    26 - Water Quality Control Administrative Provisions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WC 26 - Water Quality...

  4. Washington 401 Water Quality Certification JARPA Process | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    401 Water Quality Certification JARPA Process Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Washington 401 Water Quality...

  5. Water Quality Surface and Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Surface and Ground Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterQualitySurfaceandGround&oldid612197" Feedback...

  6. Utah Water Quality Standards Workgroup Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality Standards Workgroup Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Utah Water Quality Standards Workgroup Website Abstract This...

  7. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Section 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    document outlines the Agency of Natural Resources coordination process with respect to Clean Water Act Section 401 water quality certification decisions. Author Vermont...

  8. EM Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear Fuel Basin at Idaho Site EM Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear Fuel Basin at Idaho Site ...

  9. Hawaii Water Quality Certification Form | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality Certification Form Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii Water Quality Certification Form Form Type ApplicationNotice Form...

  10. Colorado Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: Colorado Water Quality Control ActLegal Abstract Statute setting forth laws for water quality control...

  11. Regional Water Quality Control Boards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Regional Water Quality Control BoardsLegal Abstract California Regional Water Quality Control Boards,...

  12. Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act Published Publisher...

  13. Geothermal Power Plants — Meeting Water Quality and Conservation Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. geothermal power plants can easily meet federal, state, and local water quality and conservation standards.

  14. Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Web) | Department of Energy and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Office presentation icon 57_mhk_modeling.ppt More Documents & Publications Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water Quality) Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator

  15. RAPID/BulkTransmission/Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality across multiple states Permitting Location State Nonpoint Source Pollution Process Nonpoint Source Pollution Agency State Discharge Elimination System...

  16. RAPID/Geothermal/Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Quality across multiple states Permitting Location State Nonpoint Source Pollution Process Nonpoint Source Pollution Agency State Discharge Elimination System...

  17. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  18. WDEQ-Water Quality Division | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality Division Jump to: navigation, search Name: WDEQ-Water Quality Division Abbreviation: WDEQ WQD Address: 122 West 25th Street 3W Place: Cheyenne, Wyoming Zip: 82002 Phone...

  19. Microsoft Word - S05072_WaterQualityComplStrategy.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Water Quality Compliance Strategy December 2009 LMS/MNT/S05072 This page intentionally left blank LMS/MNT/S05072 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit III Water Quality Compliance Strategy December 2009 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy MMTS Water Quality Compliance Strategy December 2009 Doc. No. S05072 Page i Contents 1.0 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 1 1.1

  20. Montana 401 Water Quality Certification Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana 401 Water Quality Certification Webpage Abstract Contains information on...

  1. EPA 401 Water Quality Certification website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OtherOther: EPA 401 Water Quality Certification websiteLegal Abstract The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides various information and resources related...

  2. Texas Surface Water Quality Standards Webpage | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Texas Surface Water Quality Standards Webpage Citation Texas Commission on...

  3. WSDE 401 Water Quality Certification webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for WSDE 401 Water Quality Certification webpage Citation Washington State...

  4. Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Vermont Section 401 Water Quality Certification Program Abstract Vermont Agency of Natural Resource's...

  5. Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permits) Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Water Quality Permit Program (Stormwater Discharge Permits) Website...

  6. Vermont Application for Individual Section 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application for Individual Section 401 Water Quality Certification Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Vermont Application for Individual...

  7. EPA Handbook on 401 Water Quality Certifications | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: EPA Handbook on 401 Water Quality CertificationsPermittingRegulatory...

  8. Utah Division of Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Quality Protection Permitting Contact 2 Contacts.png Woody Campbell http:www.waterquality.utah.gov Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  9. Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report: Appendix...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appendix A Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report: Appendix A Abstract Index for impaired...

  10. Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Montana 2012 Final Water Quality Integrated Report Abstract Provides an overview of sources of...

  11. Geothermal Direct-Use — Meeting Water Quality Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal direct-use applications—such as greenhouses, district and space heating, and aquaculture—can easily meet local and federal water quality standards, which help protect our environment.

  12. ADEQ 401 Water Quality Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ADEQ 401 Water Quality FormsLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  13. ARM 17-30 - Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water quality regulations. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1980 Legal Citation ARM 17.30 (1980) DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org...

  14. New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: New Mexico Surface Water Quality Bureau Federal Dredge and Fill Permits webpage Author New Mexico...

  15. Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 70 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0 Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 18 Alaska Administrative Code Chapter 70...

  16. 23 CCR 3855 et seq. - Water Quality Certification | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 23 CCR 3855 et seq. - Water Quality CertificationLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took...

  17. WAC - 173-210A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0A Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters of the State of Washington Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation:...

  18. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification of sites within the region at which water quality data are to be collected; (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process; and, (5) training of partners in the use of water quality monitoring equipment.

  19. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  20. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josphine R.; Taylor, Christophe M.; Marciochi, Don; Lower, Scott; Woodruff, Veronica; Wright, Diane; Poole, Tim

    2004-12-10

    The purpose of the research project was to advance the concept of real-time water quality management in the San Joaquin Basin by developing an application to drainage of seasonal wetlands in the Grassland Water District. Real-time water quality management is defined as the coordination of reservoir releases, return flows and river diversions to improve water quality conditions in the San Joaquin River and ensure compliance with State water quality objectives. Real-time water quality management is achieved through information exchange and cooperation between shakeholders who contribute or withdraw flow and salt load to or from the San Joaquin River. This project complements a larger scale project that was undertaken by members of the Water Quality Subcommittee of the San Joaquin River Management Program (SJRMP) and which produced forecasts of flow, salt load and San Joaquin River assimilative capacity between 1999 and 2003. These forecasts can help those entities exporting salt load to the River to develop salt load targets as a mechanism for improving compliance with salinity objectives. The mass balance model developed by this project is the decision support tool that helps to establish these salt load targets. A second important outcome of this project was the development and application of a methodology for assessing potential impacts of real-time wetland salinity management. Drawdown schedules are typically tied to weather conditions and are optimized in traditional practices to maximize food sources for over-wintering wildfowl as well as providing a biological control (through germination temperature) of undesirable weeds that compete with the more proteinaceous moist soil plants such as swamp timothy, watergrass and smartweed. This methodology combines high resolution remote sensing, ground-truthing vegetation surveys using established survey protocols and soil salinity mapping using rapid, automated electromagnetic sensor technology. This survey methodology could be complemented with biological surveys of bird use and invertebrates to produce a robust long-term monitoring strategy for habitat health and sustainability.

  2. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  3. File:Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Colorado Water Quality Control Act.pdf Size of this preview: 463 ...

  4. ARS Title 49-200 Water Quality Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -200 Water Quality Control Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ARS Title 49-200 Water Quality ControlLegal Abstract...

  5. ARM 17-30-101 - Water Quality: 401 Certification | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    30-101 - Water Quality: 401 Certification Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: ARM 17-30-101 - Water Quality:...

  6. U.A.C. R317-6: Ground Water Quality Protection | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6: Ground Water Quality Protection Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: U.A.C. R317-6: Ground Water Quality...

  7. A.A.C. R18-11: Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C. R18-11: Water Quality Standards Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: A.A.C. R18-11: Water Quality...

  8. File:06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidity318Authorization.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:06MTFShortTermWaterQualityStandardForTurbidi...

  9. Water quality investigation of Kingston Fossil Plant dry ash stacking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohac, C.E.

    1990-04-01

    Changing to a dry ash disposal systems at Kingston Fossil Plant (KFP) raises several water quality issues. The first is that removing the fly ash from the ash pond could alter the characteristics of the ash pond discharge to the river. The second concerns proper disposal of the runoff and possibly leachate from the dry ash stack. The third is that dry ash stacking might change the potential for groundwater contamination at the KFP. This report addresses each of these issues. The effects on the ash pond and its discharge are described first. The report is intended to provide reference material to TVA staff in preparation of environmental review documents for new ash disposal areas at Kingston. Although the investigation was directed toward analysis of dry stacking, considerations for other disposal options are also discussed. This report was reviewed in draft form under the title Assessment of Kingston Fossil Plant Dry Ash Stacking on the Ash Pond and Groundwater Quality.'' 11 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Integration of remote sensing and geographic information systems for Great Lakes water quality monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lathrop, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of three operational satellite remote sensing systems, namely, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), the SPOT High Resolution Visible (HRV) sensors and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), were evaluated as a means of estimating water quality and surface temperature. Empirical calibration through linear regression techniques was used to relate near-simultaneously acquired satellite radiance/reflectance data and water quality observations obtained in Green Bay and the nearshore waters of Lake Michigan. Four dates of TM and one date each of SPOT and AVHRR imagery/surface reference data were acquired and analyzed. Highly significant relationships were identified between the TM and SPOT data and secchi disk depth, nephelometric turbidity, chlorophyll a, total suspended solids (TSS), absorbance, and surface temperature (TM only). The AVHRR data were not analyzed independently but were used for comparison with the TM data. Calibrated water quality image maps were input to a PC-based raster GIS package, EPPL7. Pattern interpretation and spatial analysis techniques were used to document the circulation dynamics and model mixing processes in Green Bay. A GIS facilitates the retrieval, query and spatial analysis of mapped information and provides the framework for an integrated operational monitoring system for the Great Lakes.

  11. 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Programs in a Northern New Mexico Location" 2009-12 "Hold a Planned DOE-EM Meeting on LANL Water Quality Programs in a Northern New Mexico Location" The NNMCAB recommends ...

  12. WAC - 173-200 Water Quality Standards for Groundwaters of the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    These rules establish ground water quality standards to protect the environment and human health and protection of existing and future beneficial uses of groundwaters in...

  13. 5 CCR 1002-42 Site Specific Water Quality Standards for Ground...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: 5 CCR 1002-42 Site Specific Water Quality Standards for Ground WaterLegal Abstract...

  14. MCA 75-5-101 et seq. - Water Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 75-5-101 et seq. - Water QualityLegal Abstract Title 75, Chapter 5, MCA governs water...

  15. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. EM Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear Fuel Basin

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at Idaho Site | Department of Energy Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear Fuel Basin at Idaho Site EM Completes Project to Maintain Water Quality of Spent Nuclear Fuel Basin at Idaho Site August 31, 2015 - 12:10pm Addthis Workers train to prepare for the ion-exchange water treatment process. Workers train to prepare for the ion-exchange water treatment process. The ion-exchange resin used to treat the storage pool water. The ion-exchange resin used to treat the

  17. South Asia Water Resources Workshop: An effort to promote water quality data sharing in South Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAJEN,GAURAV; BIRINGER,KENT L.; BETSILL,J. DAVID

    2000-04-01

    To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group comprised of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and the US convened at the Soaltee Hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, September 12 to 14, 1999. The workshop was sponsored in part by the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, through funding provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The CMC promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in regions throughout the world as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. In the long term, the workshop organizers and participants are interested in the significance of regional information sharing as a means to build confidence and reduce conflict. The intermediate interests of the group focus on activities that might eventually foster regional management of some aspects of water resources utilization. The immediate purpose of the workshop was to begin the implementation phase of a project to collect and share water quality information at a number of river and coastal estuary locations throughout the region. The workshop participants achieved four objectives: (1) gaining a better understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of existing regional organizations promoting environmental cooperation in South Asia; (3) identifying sites within the region at which data is to be collected; and (4) instituting a data and information collection and sharing process.

  18. OAR 340-048 - Certification of Compliance with Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Procedures for processing applications for certification pursuant to Section 401 of the Clean Water Act. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1985 Legal Citation OAR 340-048...

  19. H.A.R. 11-54 - Water Quality Standards | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: H.A.R. 11-54 - Water Quality StandardsLegal Abstract The State of Hawaii Department of Health...

  20. 49 A.R.S. 321 et seq.: Water Quality Appeals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: 49 A.R.S. 321 et seq.: Water Quality AppealsLegal Abstract This section governs appeals to the...

  1. 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule 3.93 Water Quality Certification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    93 Water Quality Certification Definitions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule...

  2. NMS 74-6-4 Duties and Powers of the Water Quality Control Commission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    -4 Duties and Powers of the Water Quality Control Commission Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMS 74-6-4 Duties...

  3. NMS 74-6 Environmental Improvement of Water Quality | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Environmental Improvement of Water Quality Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: NMS 74-6 Environmental Improvement of...

  4. U.A.C. R317-2: Standards of Quality for Waters of the State ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: U.A.C. R317-2: Standards of Quality for Waters of the StateLegal Abstract This regulation...

  5. U.A.C. R317-15: Water Quality Certification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: U.A.C. R317-15: Water Quality CertificationLegal Abstract This rule establishes procedures for...

  6. I.C. 39-3602 - Water Quality--Definitions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: I.C. 39-3602 - Water Quality--DefinitionsLegal Abstract This statutory section provides...

  7. MCA 75-5-401 - Water Quality Permits: Board Rules for Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: MCA 75-5-401 - Water Quality Permits: Board Rules for PermitsLegal Abstract Sets forth board...

  8. Quality problems in waters used for drinking purposes in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funari, E.; Bastone, A.; Bottoni, P.; De Donno, D.; Donati, L. )

    1991-12-01

    With a grant from the Italian Ministry of the Environment, the National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) promoted and coordinated some activities aimed at determining the extent and the intensity of contamination of waters used for human consumption by some chemical agents, and describing causes and modalities of contamination and human health implications. The chemical agents examined were herbicides, nitrates, trihalomethanes, asbestos, manganese and fluoride. In this paper a first nationwide picture of these problems is reported.

  9. Two-dimensional water quality modeling of Town Creek embayment on Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, M.D.; Shiao, Ming C.; Hauser, G.E. . Engineering Lab.); Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-09-01

    TVA investigated water quality of Town Creek embayment using a branched two-dimensional model of Guntersville Reservoir. Simulation results were compared in terms of algal biomass, nutrient concentrations, and volume of embayment with depleted dissolved oxygen. Stratification and flushing play a significant role in the embayment water quality. Storms introduce large loadings of organics, nutrients, and suspended solids. Dissolved oxygen depletion is most severe after storms followed by low flow that fails to flush the embayment. Embayment water quality responses to potential animal waste and erosion controls were explored. Modeling indicated animal waste controls were much more cost-effective than erosion controls. Erosion controls will decrease embayment suspended solids and thereby increase algal biomass due to greater light penetration. 29 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Dispersal Limitations on Fish Community Recovery Following Long-term Water Quality Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Jett, Robert T.; Ryon, Michael G.; Gregory, Scott M.; Stratton, Sally H.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2016-02-22

    Holistic restoration approaches, such as water quality remediation, are likely to meet conservation objectives because they are typically implemented at watershed scales, as opposed to individual stream reaches. However, habitat fragmentation may impose constraints on the ecological effectiveness of holistic restoration strategies by limiting colonization following remediation. We questioned the importance of dispersal limitations to fish community recovery following long-term water quality remediation and species reintroductions across the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed near Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA). Long-term (26 years) responses in fish species richness and biomass to water quality remediation were evaluated in light of habitat fragmentation andmore » population isolation from instream barriers, which varied in their passage potential. In addition, ordination techniques were used to determine the relative importance of habitat connectivity and water quality, in explaining variation fish communities relative to environmental fluctuations, i.e. streamflow. Ecological recovery (changes in richness) at each site was negatively related to barrier index, a measure of community isolation by barriers relative to stream distance. Following species reintroductions, dispersal by fish species was consistently in the downstream direction and upstream passage above barriers was non-existent. The importance of barrier index in explaining variation in fish communities was stronger during higher flow conditions, but decreased over time an indication of increasing community stability and loss of seasonal migrants. Compared to habitat fragmentation, existing water quality concerns (i.e., outfalls, point source discharges) were unrelated to ecological recovery, but explained relatively high variation in community dynamics. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation limited the ecological effectiveness of intensive water quality remediation efforts and fish reintroduction efforts by impeding recolonization at isolated stream reaches.« less

  11. Water quality criteria for colored smokes: Solvent Yellow 33, Final report. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.

    1987-11-01

    The available data on the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of Solvent Yellow 33, a quinoline dye used in colored smoke grenades, were reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) guidelines were used in an attempt to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its use and of human health. 87 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Assessment of Dissolved Oxygen Mitigation at Hydropower Dams Using an Integrated Hydrodynamic/Water Quality/Fish Growth Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Coutant, Charles C

    2006-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) in rivers is a common environmental problem associated with hydropower projects. Approximately 40% of all FERC-licensed projects have requirements to monitor and/or mitigate downstream DO conditions. Most forms of mitigation for increasing DO in dam tailwaters are fairly expensive. One area of research of the Department of Energy's Hydropower Program is the development of advanced turbines that improve downstream water quality and have other environmental benefits. There is great interest in being able to predict the benefits of these modifications prior to committing to the cost of new equipment. In the case of turbine replacement or modification, there is a need for methods that allow us to accurately extrapolate the benefits derived from one or two turbines with better design to the replacement or modification of all turbines at a site. The main objective of our study was to demonstrate a modeling approach that integrates the effects of flow and water quality dynamics with fish bioenergetics to predict DO mitigation effectiveness over long river segments downstream of hydropower dams. We were particularly interested in demonstrating the incremental value of including a fish growth model as a measure of biological response. The models applied are a suite of tools (RMS4 modeling system) originally developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for simulating hydrodynamics (ADYN model), water quality (RQUAL model), and fish growth (FISH model) as influenced by DO, temperature, and available food base. We parameterized a model for a 26-mile reach of the Caney Fork River (Tennessee) below Center Hill Dam to assess how improvements in DO at the dam discharge would affect water quality and fish growth throughout the river. We simulated different types of mitigation (i.e., at the turbine and in the reservoir forebay) and different levels of improvement. The model application successfully demonstrates how a modeling approach like this one can be used to assess whether a prescribed mitigation is likely to meet intended objectives from both a water quality and a biological resource perspective. These techniques can be used to assess the tradeoffs between hydropower operations, power generation, and environmental quality.

  13. Coastal water quality from remote sensing and GIS. A case study on South West Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poli, U.; Ippoliti, M.; Venturini, C.; Falcone, P.; Marino, A.

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the application of remote sensing image processing and GIS techniques in monitoring and managing coastal areas is proposed. The methodology has been applied to South-West Sardinia Coast where the environment is endangered by industrial plants and other human activities. The area is characterized by the presence of many submarine springs aligned along coastal cliffs. Water quality parameters (chlorophyll, suspended sediments and temperature) spatial and temporal variations, have been studied using Landsat TM images. Particularly, in this paper are reported the results referred to sea surface thermal gradients, considered as one of the main water quality index. Thermal gradients have been mapped in order to outline water circulation, thermal pollution and presence and distribution of submarine springs. Furthermore, a GIS approach of relating mono and multitemporal TM data with ground referenced information on industrial plants characteristics and distribution has been applied.

  14. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed 0.5-2 cm/s has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as atarget surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does notproduce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70percent reflectivity, whilemaintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  15. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony J.; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed (0.5-2 cm/s) has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as a target surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does not produce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70% reflectivity, while maintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  16. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  17. Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: Final 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodsmith, Richard; Bookter, Andy

    2009-03-30

    The ISEMP program monitors the status and trend of water quality elements that may affect restoration project effectiveness in the Entiat subbasin. As part of this effort, the PNW Research Station (PNW) measures, analyzes and interprets temporal trends in natural stream water pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity and temperature. The Entiat River is currently on the Clean Water Act 303(d) list for pH exceedence, and there is insufficient information to determine the spatial and temporal extent or potential causes of this exceedence. In the spring 2008, PNW redeployed data-logging, multiparameter probes at four locations in the Entiat subbasin to measure water quality parameters, focusing on pH. This resumed previous data collection that was interrupted by river ice in early December 2007. Instruments were again removed from the river in early December 2008. This annual report covers the period from December 2007 through December 2008. The highest pH values occurred during the low-flow period from midsummer through the following midspring then dropped sharply during the annual snowmelt runoff period from late spring through early summer. Water temperature began rapidly increasing during the receding limb of the annual snowmelt hydrograph. Highest mean monthly temperatures occurred in July and August, while instantaneous maxima occurred during the period July-September. Dissolved oxygen reached its lowest levels during the period of highest water temperature in July-September. Specific conductivity remained very low at all sites throughout the year.

  18. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the Papio-Missouri river natural resources district, Eastern Nebraska, July through September 1992. Water resources investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstraeten, I.M.; Ellis, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe the water quality of the principal aquifers in the study area. Wells representative of the geology and land use in the study area were selected for water-quality sampling. Variations in constituent concentration among aquifers are discussed. The report describes the spatial distributions of dissolved nitrite plus-nitrate as nitrogen and triazine and other acetanilide herbicides and evaluates the effects of cropland application of nitrogen and herbicides on the ground-water quality within the study area. The report also summarizes the concentrations of dissolved major and trace constituents including radionuclide activity and concentration.

  19. Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,391 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Rachel Segalman, Jeffrey Urban and Kevin See have invented a water based process to make thermoelectric films. The resulting composite film

  20. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  1. Water Quality Sampling Locations Along the Shoreline of the Columbia River, Hanford Site, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Robert E.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2009-12-14

    As environmental monitoring evolved on the Hanford Site, several different conventions were used to name or describe location information for various sampling sites along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These methods range from handwritten descriptions in field notebooks to the use of modern electronic surveying equipment, such as Global Positioning System receivers. These diverse methods resulted in inconsistent archiving of analytical results in various electronic databases and published reports because of multiple names being used for the same site and inaccurate position data. This document provides listings of sampling sites that are associated with groundwater and river water sampling. The report identifies names and locations for sites associated with sampling: (a) near-river groundwater using aquifer sampling tubes; (b) riverbank springs and springs areas; (c) pore water collected from riverbed sediment; and (d) Columbia River water. Included in the listings are historical names used for a particular site and the best available geographic coordinates for the site, as of 2009. In an effort to create more consistency in the descriptive names used for water quality sampling sites, a naming convention is proposed in this document. The convention assumes that a unique identifier is assigned to each site that is monitored and that this identifier serves electronic database management requirements. The descriptive name is assigned for the convenience of the subsequent data user. As the historical database is used more intensively, this document may be revised as a consequence of discovering potential errors and also because of a need to gain consensus on the proposed naming convention for some water quality monitoring sites.

  2. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the communitys impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  3. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  4. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  5. Effects of uranium-mining releases on ground-water quality in the Puerco River Basin, Arizona and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Wirt, L.; Lopes, T.J.; Ferguson, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to describe: (1) the water quality of the Puerco River alluvial aquifer, (2) the movement of water between the Puerco River and underlying alluvial aquifer, and (3) changes in the water quality of the alluvial and bedrock aquifers related to releases of contaminants by uranium-mining activities. This report focuses on the alluvial aquifer near the reach of the Puerco River that was subjected to continuous flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow containing mine-dewatering effluents and to flow from the tailings-pond spill.

  6. Lake Whitney Comprehensive Water Quality Assessment, Phase 1B- Physical and Biological Assessment (USDOE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Robert D; Byars, Bruce W

    2009-11-24

    Baylor University Center for Reservoir and Aquatic Systems Research (CRASR) has conducted a phased, comprehensive evaluation of Lake Whitney to determine its suitability for use as a regional water supply reservoir. The area along the Interstate 35 corridor between Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex and the Waco / Temple Centroplex represents one of the fastest growth areas in the State of Texas and reliable water supplies are critical to sustainable growth. Lake Whitney is situated midway between these two metropolitan areas. Currently, the City of Whitney as well as all of Bosque and Hill counties obtain their potable water from the Trinity Sands aquifer. Additionally, parts of the adjoining McLennan and Burleson counties utilize the Trinity sands aquifer system as a supplement to their surface water supplies. Population growth coupled with increasing demands on this aquifer system in both the Metroplex and Centroplex have resulted in a rapid depletion of groundwater in these rural areas. The Lake Whitney reservoir represents both a potentially local and regional solution for an area experiencing high levels of growth. Because of the large scope of this project as well as the local, regional and national implications, we have designed a multifaceted approach that will lead to the solution of numerous issues related to the feasibility of using Lake Whitney as a water resource to the region. Phase IA (USEPA, QAPP Study Elements 1-4) of this research focused on the physical limnology of the reservoir (bathymetry and fine scale salinity determination) and develops hydrodynamic watershed and reservoir models to evaluate how salinity would be expected to change with varying hydrologic and climatic factors. To this end, we implemented a basic water quality modeling program in collaboration with the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to add to the developing long-term database on Lake Whitney. Finally, we conducted an initial assessment of knowledge of watershed and water quality related issues by local residents and stakeholders of Lake Whitney and design an intervention educational program to address any deficiencies discovered. Phase IA was funded primarily from EPA Cooperative Agreement X7-9769 8901-0. Phase IC (USEPA, QAPP Study Element 5) of this research focused on the ambient toxicity of the reservoir with respect to periodic blooms of golden algae. Phase IC was funded primarily from Cooperative Agreement EM-96638001. Phase 1B (USDOE, Study Elements 6-11) complemented work being done via EPA funding on study elements 1-5 and added five new study elements: 6) Salinity Transport in the Brazos Watershed to Lake Whitney; 7) Bacterial Assessment; 8) Organic Contaminant Analysis on Lake Whitney; 9) Plankton Photosynthesis; 10) Lake Whitney Resident Knowledge Assessment; and 11) Engineering Scoping Perspective: Recommendations for Use.

  7. Forecasting changes in water quality in rivers associated with growing biofuels in the Arkansas-White-Red river basin, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Brandt, Craig C; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Schweizer, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    The mid-section of the Arkansas-White-Red (AWR) river basin near the 100th parallel is particularly promising for sustainable biomass production using cellulosic perennial crops and residues. Along this longitudinal band, precipitation becomes limiting to competing crops that require irrigation from an increasingly depleted groundwater aquifer. In addition, the deep-rooted perennial, switchgrass, produces modest-to-high yields in this region with minimal inputs and could compete against alternative crops and land uses at relatively low cost. Previous studies have also suggested that switchgrass and other perennial feedstocks offer environmentally benign alternatives to corn and corn stover. However, water quality implications remain a significant concern for conversion of marginal lands to bioenergy production because excess nutrients produced by agriculture for food or for energy contribute to eutrophication in the dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico. This study addresses water quality implications for the AWR river basin. We used the SWAT model to compare water quality in rivers draining a baseline, pre-cellulosic-bioenergy and post-cellulosic-bioenergy landscapes for 2022 and 2030. Simulated water quality responses varied across the region, but with a net tendency toward decreased amounts of nutrient and sediment, particularly in subbasins with large areas of bioenergy crops in 2030 future scenarios. We conclude that water quality is one aspect of sustainability for which cellulosic bioenergy production in this region holds promise.

  8. Application of Hotellings T{sup 2} charts in monitoring quality parameters in a drinking water supply system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Mafalda T.; Carolino, Elisabete; Oliveira, Teresa A.

    2015-03-10

    In water supply systems with distribution networkthe most critical aspects of control and Monitoring of water quality, which generates crises system, are the effects of cross-contamination originated by the network typology. The classics of control of quality systems through the application of Shewhart charts are generally difficult to manage in real time due to the high number of charts that must be completed and evaluated. As an alternative to the traditional control systems with Shewhart charts, this study aimed to apply a simplified methodology of a monitoring plan quality parameters in a drinking water distribution, by applying Hotellings T{sup 2} charts and supplemented with Shewhart charts with Bonferroni limits system, whenever instabilities with processes were detected.

  9. Fluorometric Tissue-based Biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Woodward, Charlene; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel

    2000-11-30

    Experimental program to develop tissue-based biosensors for detection of airborne chemical warfare agents and water quality monitoring.

  10. Water quality evaluation and geochemical assessment of iron, manganese, and arsenic in a landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Several monitoring wells at a landfill site were sampled for water quality parameters to determine the nature of groundwater contamination. The landfill, located beneath a limestone and dolomitic bedrock, has been used for about 20 years for trash and garbage disposal. The monitoring parameters include major cations and anions, as well as iron, manganese, arsenic, and other parameters measured in the field to characterize the subsurface conditions. Groundwater samples collected near the landfill and downgradient locations had higher levels of iron, manganese, arsenic, alkalinity, hardness than those samples from an upgradient well. The downgradient and on-site samples were also more acidic and turbid, The dissolved oxygen data tend to suggest reducing conditions in the leachate environment. The elevated groundwater concentrations of the three metals, especially iron, were most probably caused by the acidity generated by carbon dioxide and organic acids released from microbial degradation of organic compounds dumped into the landfill. The acidic pH led to the dissolution of iron, manganese, and arsenic bearing mineral phases. The buffering reactions of limestone and dolomite to neutralize the acidic degradation products increased the hardness cations, Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2}. Inorganic speciation modeling indicates that iron, manganese, and arsenic predominantly exist as Fe {sup +2}, Mn{sup +2}, and H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}. The possible presence of organic complexes of iron was discussed, but could be modeled due to lack of appropriate equilibrium constant data.

  11. Real-Time Water Quality Monitoring and Habitat Assessment in theSan Luis National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Burns, Josephine R.; Stromayer, Karl A.K.; Jordan, Brandon M.; Ennis, Mike J.; Woolington,Dennis W.

    2005-08-28

    The project report describes a two year experiment to control wetland drainage to the San Joaquin River of California from the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge using a decision support system for real-time water quality management. This system required the installation and operation of one inlet and three drainage flow and water quality monitoring stations which allowed a simple mass balance model to be developed of the seasonally managed wetlands in the study area. Remote sensing methods were developed to document long-term trends in wetland moist soil vegetation and soil salinity in response to management options such as delaying the initiation of seasonal wetland drainage. These environmental management tools provide wetland managers with some of the tools necessary to improve salinity conditions in the San Joaquin River and improve compliance with State mandated salinity objectives without inflicting long-term harm on the wild fowl habitat resource.

  12. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Bill

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  13. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huq, M; Palta, J; Dunscombe, P; Thomadsen, B

    2014-06-15

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what Fault tree analysis is all about. Learn how to design a quality management program based upon the information obtained from process mapping, FMEA and FTA.

  14. Use of environmental sensors and sensor networks to develop water and salinity budgets for seasonal wetland real-time water quality management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Rahilly, P.J.A,; Royer, C.W.

    2009-10-01

    Successful management of river salt loads in complex and highly regulated river basins such as the San Joaquin of California presents significant challenges to Information Technology. Models are used as means of simulating major hydrologic processes in the basin which affect water quality and can be useful as tools for organizing basin information in a structured and readily accessible manner. Models can also be used to extrapolate the results of system monitoring since it is impossible to collect data for every point and non-point source of a pollutant in the Basin. Fundamental to every model is the concept of mass balance. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art sensor technologies deployed in concert to obtain the first water and salinity budgets for a 60,000 hectare tract of seasonally managed wetlands in the San Joaquin Basin of California.

  15. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  16. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  17. Dyess Air Force Base Water Conservation and Green Energy | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Dyess Air Force Base Water Conservation and Green Energy Dyess Air Force Base Water Conservation and Green Energy Fact sheet describes the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) Success Story on water conservation and green energy at Dyess Air Foce Base at Dyess, Texas. PDF icon espc_ss_dyess.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Performance Contract Success Stories Energy Savings Performance Contract ENABLE Briefing Harold

  18. Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production Genevieve Saur (PI), Chris Ainscough (Presenter), Kevin Harrison, Todd Ramsden National ...

  19. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    2013-08-22

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  20. University of Oregon: GPS-based Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Vignola, F.; Andreas, A.

    A partnership with the University of Oregon and U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) data to compliment existing resource assessment data collection by the university.

  1. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  2. SU-E-T-413: Experience-Based VMAT Plan Quality Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, K; Kalach, N; Wolthuis, B; Tai, C; Kravchuk, A; Bernstein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify VMAT plan quality using a retrospective study of over 200 clinical treated VMAT plans created using the Eclipse Treatment Planning System to create benchmarks of plan quality for a few categories of treatment sites. Methods: Using a controlled phantom geometry, various dosimetric indices were investigated to quantify dosimetric plan quality as a function of isocenter displacement from center of mass, average path length, number of arcs and PTV proximity to critical structures. Beginning with published dosimetry indices from SRS and SBRT evaluations, UDI (Unified Dosimetry Index) and modified UDI were tested before creating a new factor VMAT-DI. VMAT-DI was developed within boundaries of this project and it includes renormalized factors of conformity index, coverage index, modified gradient index and homogeneity index as well as indices based on routine clinical practice such as absolute dose max index. The plans were then evaluated using the VMAT-DI such that benchmarks for planning could be created. Results: The majority of the plans evaluated could be assigned VMAT-DI values within a range for each treatment site. However, the outliers were results of difficult planning parameters such as very irregular targets, inhomogeneities or difficult to achieve critical structure constraints. To effectively use VMAT-DI for guidance, especially for prediction of the plan quality for body sites new to the practice, VMATDI database needs to be subdivided by target complexity and by body site index/average path length factor. Conclusion: An experienced-based VMAT-DI database can be used to help analyze plans before evaluation by the physician to show that it adheres to the clinical standards of previously treated VMAT plans which will make a guideline for concluding the optimization. The introduction of institution-wide clinical planning protocols, standardizing OAR naming and constraints will make it possible to incorporate a cumulative critical structure dosimetry index such as NTCP.

  3. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water standards might be exceeded was evaluated. A variety of scenarios and aquifer conditions was considered in a sensitivity evaluation. The scenarios and conditions simulated in Section 4, in particular those describing the geochemistry and mineralogy of potable aquifers, were selected based on the comprehensive geochemical model developed in Section 3.

  4. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  5. Photochemical synthesis of a water oxidation catalyst based on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalyst based on cobalt nanostructures Authors: Wee, T-L., Sherman, B.D., Gust, D., Moore, A.L., Moore, T.A., Liu, Y., and Scaiano, J.C. Title: Photochemical synthesis of a...

  6. Evaluation of Water Quality Conditions Near Proposed Fish Production Sites Associated with the Yakima Fisheries Project, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, Dennis D.

    1994-05-01

    In 1991, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began studying water quality at several sites in the Yakima River Basin for the Bonneville Power Administration. These sites were being proposed as locations for fish culture facilities as part of the Yakima Fisheries Project (YFP). Surface water quality parameters near the proposed fish culture facilities are currently suitable for fish production. Water quality conditions in the mainstream Yakima River and its tributaries are generally excellent in the upper part of the watershed (i.e., near Cle Elum), but they are only fair to poor for the river downstream of Union Gap (river mile 107). Water quality of the Naches River near Oak Flats is also suitable for fish production. Groundwater supplies near the proposed fish production facilities typically have elevated concentrations of metals and dissolved gases. These conditions can be mitigated using best engineering practices such as precipitation and degasification. Additionally, mixing with surface water may improve these conditions. Depending on the location and depth of the well, groundwater temperatures may be warmer than optimum for acclimating and holding juvenile and adult fish. Water quality parameters measured in the Yakima River and tributaries sometimes exceed the range of values described as acceptable for culture of salmonids and for the protection of other aquatic life. However, constituent concentrations are within ranges that exist in many northwest fish hatcheries. Additionally, site-specific tests conducted by PNL (i.e., live box exposures and egg incubation studies) indicate that fish can be successfully reared in surface and well water near the proposed facility sites. Thus, there appear to be no constraints to artificial production for the YFP.

  7. Quality assurance for image-guided radiation therapy utilizing CT-based technologies: A report of the AAPM TG-179

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Langen, Katja M.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Miften, Moyed; Moseley, Douglas J.; Pouliot, Jean; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Yoo, Sua

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Commercial CT-based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) systems allow widespread management of geometric variations in patient setup and internal organ motion. This document provides consensus recommendations for quality assurance protocols that ensure patient safety and patient treatment fidelity for such systems. Methods: The AAPM TG-179 reviews clinical implementation and quality assurance aspects for commercially available CT-based IGRT, each with their unique capabilities and underlying physics. The systems described are kilovolt and megavolt cone-beam CT, fan-beam MVCT, and CT-on-rails. A summary of the literature describing current clinical usage is also provided. Results: This report proposes a generic quality assurance program for CT-based IGRT systems in an effort to provide a vendor-independent program for clinical users. Published data from long-term, repeated quality control tests form the basis of the proposed test frequencies and tolerances.Conclusion: A program for quality control of CT-based image-guidance systems has been produced, with focus on geometry, image quality, image dose, system operation, and safety. Agreement and clarification with respect to reports from the AAPM TG-101, TG-104, TG-142, and TG-148 has been addressed.

  8. Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production Hour-by-Hour Cost ... Download the presentation slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel ...

  9. Development of Screenable Wax Coatings and Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design new formulations and production processes for water-based adhesives and wax coatings that can be easily screened from recycling operations.

  10. Evaluation of the water quality in the releases from thirty dams in the Tennessee River Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has routinely monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature from the tailwater releases of its dams since the 1950s. The original objective of this monitoring was to collect baseline information to support reaeration research and determine the relative impact of impoundments on the assimilative capacity of the river system. This monitoring has continued even though the original objective was satisfied. New purposes for this monitoring data have arisen in support of several programs, without new consideration of the monitoring strategy and sampling design. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the historical release data for 30 dams in the Tennessee Valley based on four different objectives: (1) comparison of seasonal patterns, (2) comparison of baseline conditions using descriptive statistics, (3) evaluation of monotonic trends, and (4) discussion of monitoring strategies that might be required to determine compliance with existing and proposed criteria. A secondary purpose of the report is to compile the existing database into tables and figures that would be useful for other investigators. 51 refs., 210 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially MWW_NF) better treatment alternatives from the environmental sustainability perspective since they exhibited minimal contribution to environmental damage from emissions.

  12. Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis Production | Department of Energy Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production Download the presentation slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings," held on January 17, 2013. PDF icon Wind-to-Hydrogen Cost Modeling and Project Findings Webinar

  13. Knowledge-based prediction of plan quality metrics in intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiraishi, Satomi; Moore, Kevin L.; Tan, Jun; Olsen, Lindsey A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to develop a comprehensive knowledge-based methodology for predicting achievable dose–volume histograms (DVHs) and highly precise DVH-based quality metrics (QMs) in stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) plans. Accurate QM estimation can identify suboptimal treatment plans and provide target optimization objectives to standardize and improve treatment planning. Methods: Correlating observed dose as it relates to the geometric relationship of organs-at-risk (OARs) to planning target volumes (PTVs) yields mathematical models to predict achievable DVHs. In SRS, DVH-based QMs such as brain V{sub 10Gy} (volume receiving 10 Gy or more), gradient measure (GM), and conformity index (CI) are used to evaluate plan quality. This study encompasses 223 linear accelerator-based SRS/SRT treatment plans (SRS plans) using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), representing 95% of the institution’s VMAT radiosurgery load from the past four and a half years. Unfiltered models that use all available plans for the model training were built for each category with a stratification scheme based on target and OAR characteristics determined emergently through initial modeling process. Model predictive accuracy is measured by the mean and standard deviation of the difference between clinical and predicted QMs, δQM = QM{sub clin} − QM{sub pred}, and a coefficient of determination, R{sup 2}. For categories with a large number of plans, refined models are constructed by automatic elimination of suspected suboptimal plans from the training set. Using the refined model as a presumed achievable standard, potentially suboptimal plans are identified. Predictions of QM improvement are validated via standardized replanning of 20 suspected suboptimal plans based on dosimetric predictions. The significance of the QM improvement is evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The most accurate predictions are obtained when plans are stratified based on proximity to OARs and their PTV volume sizes. Volumes are categorized into small (V{sub PTV} < 2 cm{sup 3}), medium (2 cm{sup 3} < V{sub PTV} < 25 cm{sup 3}), and large (25 cm{sup 3} < V{sub PTV}). The unfiltered models demonstrate the ability to predict GMs to ∼1 mm and fractional brain V{sub 10Gy} to ∼25% for plans with large V{sub PTV} and critical OAR involvements. Increased accuracy and precision of QM predictions are obtained when high quality plans are selected for the model training. For the small and medium V{sub PTV} plans without critical OAR involvement, predictive ability was evaluated using the refined model. For training plans, the model predicted GM to an accuracy of 0.2 ± 0.3 mm and fractional brain V{sub 10Gy} to 0.04 ± 0.12, suggesting highly accurate predictive ability. For excluded plans, the average δGM was 1.1 mm and fractional brain V{sub 10Gy} was 0.20. These δQM are significantly greater than those of the model training plans (p < 0.001). For CI, predictions are close to clinical values and no significant difference was observed between the training and excluded plans (p = 0.19). Twenty outliers with δGM > 1.35 mm were identified as potentially suboptimal, and replanning these cases using predicted target objectives demonstrates significant improvements on QMs: on average, 1.1 mm reduction in GM (p < 0.001) and 23% reduction in brain V{sub 10Gy} (p < 0.001). After replanning, the difference of δGM distribution between the 20 replans and the refined model training plans was marginal. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the ability to predict SRS QMs precisely and to identify suboptimal plans. Furthermore, the knowledge-based DVH predictions were directly used as target optimization objectives and allowed a standardized planning process that bettered the clinically approved plans. Full clinical application of this methodology can improve consistency of SRS plan quality in a wide range of PTV volume and proximity to OARs and facilitate automated treatment planning for this critical treatment site.

  14. Evaluation of Phytoremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water and Waters of Quality Similar to that Associated with Coal Bed Methane Reserves of the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Bauder

    2008-09-30

    U.S. emphasis on domestic energy independence, along with advances in knowledge of vast biogenically sourced coalbed methane reserves at relatively shallow sub-surface depths with the Powder River Basin, has resulted in rapid expansion of the coalbed methane industry in Wyoming and Montana. Techniques have recently been developed which constitute relatively efficient drilling and methane gas recovery and extraction techniques. However, this relatively efficient recovery requires aggressive reduction of hydrostatic pressure within water-saturated coal formations where the methane is trapped. Water removed from the coal formation during pumping is typically moderately saline and sodium-bicarbonate rich, and managed as an industrial waste product. Current approaches to coalbed methane product water management include: surface spreading on rangeland landscapes, managed irrigation of agricultural crop lands, direct discharge to ephermeral channels, permitted discharge of treated and untreated water to perennial streams, evaporation, subsurface injection at either shallow or deep depths. A Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory funded research award involved the investigation and assessment of: (1) phytoremediation as a water management technique for waste water produced in association with coalbed methane gas extraction; (2) feasibility of commercial-scale, low-impact industrial water treatment technologies for the reduction of salinity and sodicity in coalbed methane gas extraction by-product water; and (3) interactions of coalbed methane extraction by-product water with landscapes, vegetation, and water resources of the Powder River Basin. Prospective, greenhouse studies of salt tolerance and water use potential of indigenous, riparian vegetation species in saline-sodic environments confirmed the hypothesis that species such as Prairie cordgrass, Baltic rush, American bulrush, and Nuttall's alkaligrass will thrive in saline-sodic environments when water supplies sourced from coalbed methane extraction are plentiful. Constructed wetlands, planted to native, salt tolerant species demonstrated potential to utilize substantial volumes of coalbed methane product water, although plant community transitions to mono-culture and limited diversity communities is a likely consequence over time. Additionally, selected, cultured forage quality barley varieties and native plant species such as Quail bush, 4-wing saltbush, and seaside barley are capable of sustainable, high quality livestock forage production, when irrigated with coalbed methane product water sourced from the Powder River Basin. A consequence of long-term plant water use which was enumerated is elevated salinity and sodicity concentrations within soil and shallow alluvial groundwater into which coalbed methane product water might drain. The most significant conclusion of these investigations was the understanding that phytoremediation is not a viable, effective technique for management of coalbed methane product water under the present circumstances of produced water within the Powder River Basin. Phytoremediation is likely an effective approach to sodium and salt removal from salt-impaired sites after product water discharges are discontinued and site reclamation is desired. Coalbed methane product water of the Powder River Basin is most frequently impaired with respect to beneficial use quality by elevated sodicity, a water quality constituent which can cause swelling, slaking, and dispersion of smectite-dominated clay soils, such as commonly occurring within the Powder River Basin. To address this issue, a commercial-scale fluid-bed, cationic resin exchange treatment process and prototype operating treatment plant was developed and beta-tested by Drake Water Technologies under subcontract to this award. Drake Water Technologies secured U.S. Patent No. 7,368,059-B2, 'Method for removal of benevolent cations from contaminated water', a beta Drake Process Unit (DPU) was developed and deployed for operation in the Powder River Basin. First year operatio

  15. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 2, Work plan: Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990 Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential CERCLA removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground-water contamination in the Mad River Valley Aquifer within and across WPAFB boundaries. The action will be based on a Focused Feasibility Study with an Action Memorandum serving as a decision document that is subject to approval by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The first phase (Phase 1) of this effort involves an investigation of ground-water contamination migrating across the southwest boundary of Area C and across Springfield Pike adjacent to Area B. Task 4 of Phase 1 is a field investigation to collect sufficient additional information to evaluate removal alternatives. The field investigation will provide information in the following specific areas of study: water-level data which will be used to permit calibration of the ground-water flow model to a unique time in history; and ground-water quality data which will be used to characterize the current chemical conditions of ground water.

  16. A carbon nanotube based resettable sensor for measuring free chlorine in drinking water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Leo H. H.; Hoque, Enamul; Kruse, Peter; Ravi Selvaganapathy, P.

    2015-02-09

    Free chlorine from dissolved chlorine gas is widely used as a disinfectant for drinking water. The residual chlorine concentration has to be continuously monitored and accurately controlled in a certain range around 0.5–2 mg/l to ensure drinking water safety and quality. However, simple, reliable, and reagent free monitoring devices are currently not available. Here, we present a free chlorine sensor that uses oxidation of a phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) to dope single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and to change their resistance. The oxidation of PCAT by chlorine switches the PCAT-SWCNT system into a low resistance (p-doped) state which can be detected by probing it with a small voltage. The change in resistance is found to be proportional to the log-scale concentration of the free chlorine in the sample. The p-doping of the PCAT-SWCNT film then can be electrochemically reversed by polarizing it cathodically. This sensor not only shows good sensing response in the whole concentration range of free chlorine in drinking water but is also able to be electrochemically reset back many times without the use of any reagents. This simple sensor is ideally suited for measuring free chlorine in drinking water continuously.

  17. Authority of states of use section 401 water quality certification to deny or condition Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licenses. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, E.O.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis discusses a recent United States Supreme Court case that will have a profound influence on the licensure of hydroelectric projects and the related ability of States to protect the quality of their waters. On October 4, 1993, the Supreme Court granted a Writ of Certiorari to resolve a conflict among the state courts of last resort. This case involves two fundamental and competing national interests: the nation's thirst for cheap, dependable power versus its equally strong desire to improve the quality of its water resources. It also involves two underlying regulatory regimes that overlap and conflict with each other in some ways. This case illustrates how those two national interests and their underlying regulatory regimes cannot always be reconciled. It also demonstrates how Congress, with its muddled ways of passing legislation, can create conflicts between federal and state regulatory agencies.

  18. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Knutson; Seyed Dastgheib; Yaning Yang; Ali Ashraf; Cole Duckworth; Priscilla Sinata; Ivan Sugiyono; Mark Shannon; Charles Werth

    2012-04-30

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO{sub 2}-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13 ?? 23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.

  19. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development of the cycle and have gained an in-depth understanding of the governing fundamental knowledge, based on the laws of physics and thermodynamics and verified with our testing results. Through this research, we are identifying optimal working fluid and operating conditions to eventually demonstrate the core technology for space cooling or other applications.

  20. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as baseline data for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a baseline data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and visualization techniques of the Piceance Basin structure spatial distribution of the oil shale resources. The sur- face water/groundwater models quantify the water shortage and better understanding the spatial distribution of the available water resources. The energy resource development systems model reveals the phase shift of water usage and the oil shale production, which will facilitate better planning for oil shale development. Detailed descriptions about the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research will be given in the sec- tion of ACCOMPLISHMENTS, RESULTS, AND DISCUSSION of this report.

  1. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  2. Effects of coal fly-ash disposal on water quality in and around the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. Water-resources investigations (final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, M.A.

    1981-04-01

    Dissolved constituents in seepage from fly-ash settling ponds bordering part of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (the Lakeshore) have increased trace elements, and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in ground water and surface water downgradient from the settling ponds. Data suggest that concentrations of some dissolved trace elements may be greater beneath interdunal pond 2 than in the pond. The soil system downgradient from the settling ponds seems to have affected the concentrations of dissolved ions in the settling-pond seepage. Calcium concentrations were greater in ground water downgradient from the settling ponds than in the ponds. Where organic material was present downgradient from the settling ponds, concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, molybdenum, potassium, sulfate, and strontium were greater in the ground water than in the ponds. In contrast, the concentrations of cadmium, copper, nickel, aluminum, cobalt, lead, and zinc were less.

  3. Manipulation of coupled osmotic flows for stabilisation of shales exposed to water-based drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oort, E. van; Hale, A.H.; Mody, F.K.

    1995-12-31

    Coupled osmotic flows have been studied as a means of stabilising shales exposed to water-based muds. The prime factor that governs the magnitude of chemical osmotic flow, i.e. the shale-fluid membrane efficiency, was investigated in detail. Its dependence on shale parameters, fluid parameters and external conditions was quantified. Membrane efficiency was found to increase with an increase in (hydrated) solute-to-pore-size ratio, with an increase in the shale`s high-surface area clay content and with a decrease shale permeability when increasing effective confining stress. Moreover, new drilling fluid chemistries for improving the efficiencies of low- and non-selective shale-fluid systems were identified. Induced osmotic flow with optimised shale-fluid membrane efficiencies in water-based environments is presented as a new strategy for improving wellbore stability in shales.

  4. The Development and Optimization of Techniques for Monitoring Water Quality on-Board Spacecraft Using Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extraction (C-SPE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    April Hill

    2007-12-01

    The main focus of this dissertation is the design, development, and ground and microgravity validation of methods for monitoring drinking water quality on-board NASA spacecraft using clorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE). The Introduction will overview the need for in-flight water quality analysis and will detail some of the challenges associated with operations in the absence of gravity. The ability of C-SPE methods to meet these challenges will then be discussed, followed by a literature review on existing applications of C-SPE and similar techniques. Finally, a brief discussion of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy theory, which provides a means for analyte identification and quantification in C-SPE analyses, is presented. Following the Introduction, four research chapters are presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 reports the results from microgravity testing of existing C-SPE methods and procedures aboard NASA's C-9 microgravity simulator. Chapter 2 discusses the development of a C-SPE method for determining the total concentration of biocidal silver (i.e., in both dissolved and colloidal forms) in water samples. Chapter 3 presents the first application of the C-SPE technique to the determination of an organic analyte (i.e., formaldehyde). Chapter 4, which is a departure from the main focus of the thesis, details the results of an investigation into the effect of substrate rotation on the kinetics involved in the antigen and labeling steps in sandwich immunoassays. These research chapters are followed by general conclusions and a prospectus section.

  5. Bio-based photosynthetic conversion of CO2 and water to replace petroleum

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    feedstock on an industrial scale - Energy Innovation Portal Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Bio-based photosynthetic conversion of CO2 and water to replace petroleum feedstock on an industrial scale National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is widely used as an organic synthesis intermediate, a medical and biochemical

  6. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  7. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsai, S.P.

    1997-07-08

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

  8. Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality ...

  9. Effects of highway runoff on the quality of water and bed sediments of two wetlands in central Florida. Report of Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiffer, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a study of the effects of highway runoff on the chemical quality of water and bed sediments of a cypress wetland and a freshwater marsh in central Florida indicate that detention of the runoff prior to release into the wetland reduces concentrations of automobile-related chemicals in the water and bed sediments in the wetland. Detention of highway runoff for the cypress wetland occurs in a 68- by 139-foot detention pond, and in a 12- by 25-foot trash retainer for the freshwater marsh. Results from the study indicate that detention structures, larger than the trash retainer at the freshwater marsh, may cause sufficient sorption and settling of substances contained in highway runoff.

  10. Twenty-Plus Years of Environmental Change and Ecological Recovery of East Fork Poplar Creek: Background and Trends in Water Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, John G; Stewart, Arthur J; Loar, James M

    2011-01-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Department of Energy's Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, allowing discharge of effluents to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The effluents ranged from large volumes of chlorinated once-through cooling water and cooling tower blow-down to smaller discharges of treated and untreated process wastewaters, which contained a mixture of heavy metals, organics, and nutrients, especially nitrates. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to meet two major objectives: demonstrate that the established effluent limitations were protecting the classified uses of EFPC, and document the ecological effects resulting from implementing a Water Pollution Control Program at the Y-12 Complex. The second objective is the primary focus of the other papers in this special series. This paper provides a history of pollution and the remedial actions that were implemented; describes the geographic setting of the study area; and characterizes the physicochemical attributes of the sampling sites, including changes in stream flow and temperature that occurred during implementation of the BMAP. Most of the actions taken under the Water Pollution Control Program were completed between 1986 and 1998, with as many as four years elapsing between some of the most significant actions. The Water Pollution Control Program included constructing nine new wastewater treatment facilities and implementation of several other pollution-reducing measures, such as a best management practices plan; area-source pollution control management; and various spill-prevention projects. Many of the major actions had readily discernable effects on the chemical and physical conditions of EFPC. As controls on effluents entering the stream were implemented, pollutant concentrations generally declined and, at least initially, the volume of water discharged from the Y-12 Complex declined. This reduction in discharge was of ecological concern and led to implementation of a flow management program for EFPC. Implementing flow management, in turn, led to substantial changes in chemical and physical conditions of the stream: stream discharge nearly doubled and stream temperatures decreased, becoming more similar to those in reference streams. While water quality clearly improved, meeting water quality standards alone does not guarantee protection of a waterbody's biological integrity. Results from studies on the ecological changes stemming from pollution-reduction actions, such as those presented in this series, also are needed to understand how best to restore or protect biological integrity and enhance ecological recovery in stream ecosystems. With a better knowledge of the ecological consequences of their decisions, environmental managers can better evaluate alternative actions and more accurately predict their effects.

  11. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulk heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.

  12. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (α < 10⁴ cm⁻¹), by widening the depletion region through engineering its doping density and profile. Graded doped n-SrTiO3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulkmore » heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.« less

  13. Development of EEM based siliconwater and silicawater wall potentials for non-reactive molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Junghan; Iype, Eldhose; Frijns, Arjan J.H.; Nedea, Silvia V.; Steenhoven, Anton A. van

    2014-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of heat transfer in gases are computationally expensive when the wall molecules are explicitly modeled. To save computational time, an implicit boundary function is often used. Steele's potential has been used in studies of fluidsolid interface for a long time. In this work, the conceptual idea of Steele's potential was extended in order to simulate watersilicon and watersilica interfaces. A new wall potential model is developed by using the electronegativity-equalization method (EEM), a ReaxFF empirical force field and a non-reactive molecular dynamics package PumMa. Contact angle simulations were performed in order to validate the wall potential model. Contact angle simulations with the resulting tabulated wall potentials gave a siliconwater contact angle of 129, a quartzwater contact angle of 0, and a cristobalitewater contact angle of 40, which are in reasonable agreement with experimental values.

  14. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore » 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  15. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  16. Mechanisms of stress corrosion cracking for iron-based alloys in high-temperature water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.Y.; Congleton, J.; Bahraloloom, A.

    1998-11-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibilities of a series of iron-based alloys (IBA), including some high-purity irons, were evaluated in lithiated water at temperatures up to 300 C. Inclusion distributions in each material were established using quantitative metallography and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). Electrochemical measurements were performed to investigate film formation kinetics. Results showed the minimum potential for SCC was a function of the inclusion content. Reducing the inclusion content in IBA moved the minimum potential for SCC in the anodic direction and/or increased the temperature for the onset of cracking but did not eliminate SCC.

  17. Limitations and requirements of using the chemical speciation code, MINTEQA2, to predict water quality impacts at fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danzig, A.J.; McEntyre, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    The chemical speciation model, MINTEQA2, was used to simulate the effects of proposed waste process changes on the final waste water effluent at coal-fired power plants. The chemistry of the waste water system at the plants was extremely complex, involving factors such as temperature, redox couples, ionic strength, adsorption, and gas phase equilibria. MINTEQA2 is capable of computing equilibria among the dissolved, adsorbed, solid, and gas phases in an environmental setting. This paper focuses on the limitations and requirements of using the model for these purposes. Specifics include sampling protocols, biological factors, and knowledge of how MINTEQA2 works. This approach could be used to aid in modeling treatment systems for a variety of power generated wastes.

  18. A Users Guide to the Comprehensive Water Quality Database for Groundwater in the Vicinity of the Nevada Test Site, Rev. No.: 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene

    2006-09-01

    This water quality database (viz.GeochemXX.mdb) has been developed as part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Program with the cooperation of several agencies actively participating in ongoing evaluation and characterization activities under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The database has been constructed to provide up-to-date, comprehensive, and quality controlled data in a uniform format for the support of current and future projects. This database provides a valuable tool for geochemical and hydrogeologic evaluations of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and surrounding region. Chemistry data have been compiled for groundwater within the NTS and the surrounding region. These data include major ions, organic compounds, trace elements, radionuclides, various field parameters, and environmental isotopes. Colloid data are also included in the database. The GeochemXX.mdb database is distributed on an annual basis. The extension ''XX'' within the database title is replaced by the last two digits of the release year (e.g., Geochem06 for the version released during the 2006 fiscal year). The database is distributed via compact disc (CD) and is also uploaded to the Common Data Repository (CDR) in order to make it available to all agencies with DOE intranet access. This report provides an explanation of the database configuration and summarizes the general content and utility of the individual data tables. In addition to describing the data, subsequent sections of this report provide the data user with an explanation of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) protocols for this database.

  19. Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii

    2009-07-01

    The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

  20. Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric deviceswhich convert heat into energythat can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

  1. Concept Paper for Real-Time Temperature and Water QualityManagement for San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2004-12-20

    The San Joaquin River Riparian Habitat Restoration Program (SJRRP) has recognized the potential importance of real-time monitoring and management to the success of the San Joaquin River (SJR) restoration endeavor. The first step to realizing making real-time management a reality on the middle San Joaquin River between Friant Dam and the Merced River will be the installation and operation of a network of permanent telemetered gauging stations that will allow optimization of reservoir releases made specifically for fish water temperature management. Given the limited reservoir storage volume available to the SJJRP, this functionality will allow the development of an adaptive management program, similar in concept to the VAMP though with different objectives. The virtue of this approach is that as management of the middle SJR becomes more routine, additional sensors can be added to the sensor network, initially deployed, to continue to improve conditions for anadromous fish.

  2. Bioenergy Impacts … Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  3. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Sampling and analysis plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In April 1990, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), initiated an investigation to evaluate a potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to prevent, to the extent practicable, the offsite migration of contaminated ground water from WPAFB. WPAFB retained the services of the Environmental Management Operations (EMO) and its principle subcontractor, International Technology Corporation (IT) to complete Phase 1 of the environmental investigation of ground-water contamination at WPAFB. Phase 1 of the investigation involves the short-term evaluation and potential design for a program to remove ground-water contamination that appears to be migrating across the western boundary of Area C, and across the northern boundary of Area B along Springfield Pike. Primarily, Task 4 of Phase 1 focuses on collection of information at the Area C and Springfield Pike boundaries of WPAFB. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) has been prepared to assist in completion of the Task 4 field investigation and is comprised of the Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) and the Field Sampling Plan (FSP).

  4. Combinatorial Development of Water Splitting Catalysts Based on the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodbury, Neal

    2010-03-31

    The use of methods to create large arrays of potential catalysts for the reaction H2O ???????????????¯???????????????????????????????  ???????????????????????????????½ O2 + 2H+ on the anode of an electrolysis system were investigated. This reaction is half of the overall reaction involved in the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. This method consisted of starting with an array of electrodes and developing patterned electrochemical approaches for creating a different, defined peptide at each position in the array. Methods were also developed for measuring the rate of reaction at each point in the array. In this way, the goal was to create and then tests many thousands of possible catalysts simultaneously. This type of approach should lead to an ability to optimize catalytic activity systematically, by iteratively designing and testing new libraries of catalysts. Optimization is important to decrease energy losses (over-potentials) associated with the water splitting reaction and thus for the generation of hydrogen. Most of the efforts in this grant period were focused on developing the chemistry and analytical methods required to create pattern peptide formation either using a photolithography approach or an electrochemical approach for dictating the positions of peptide bond formation. This involved testing a large number of different reactions and conditions. We have been able to find conditions that have allowed us to pattern peptide bond formation on both glass slides using photolithographic methods and on electrode arrays made by the company Combimatrix. Part of this effort involved generating novel approaches for performing mass spectroscopy directly from the patterned arrays. We have also been able to demonstrate the ability to measure current at each electrode due to electrolysis of water. This was performed with customized instrumentation created in collaboration with Combimatrix. In addition, several different molecular designs for peptides that bound metals (primarily Mn) were developed and synthesized and metal binding was demonstrated. Finally, we investigated a number of methods. We have shown that we can create surfaces on glass slides appropriate for patterning peptide formation and have made arrays of peptides as large as 30,000 using photolithographic methods. However, side reactions with certain amino acid additions greatly limited the utility of the photolithographic approach. In addition, we found that transferring this patterned chemistry approach to large arrays was problematic. Thus, we turned to direct electrochemical patterning using the Combimatrix electrode arrays. Here we were also able to demonstrate patterned peptide bond forming chemistry, but yield and consistency of the reaction remains insufficient to create the quality of array required for realistic optimization of catalytic peptide sequences. We are currently exploring both new polymerization chemistries for generating catalysts on surface as well as adopting methods developed at Intel for creating peptide arrays directly on electronic substrates (silicon wafers).

  5. Separation and concentration of water-borne contaminants utilizing insulator-based dielectrophoresis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca Hazalia; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Cummings, Eric B.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Simmons, Blake Alexander; McGraw, Gregory J.; Salmi, Allen J.; Ceremuga, Joseph T.; Fintschenko, Yolanda

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on and presents the capabilities of insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) microdevices for the concentration and removal of water-borne bacteria, spores and inert particles. The dielectrophoretic behavior exhibited by the different particles of interest (both biological and inert) in each of these systems was observed to be a function of both the applied electric field and the characteristics of the particle, such as size, shape, and conductivity. The results obtained illustrate the potential of glass and polymer-based iDEP devices to act as a concentrator for a front-end device with significant homeland security and industrial applications for the threat analysis of bacteria, spores, and viruses. We observed that the polymeric devices exhibit the same iDEP behavior and efficacy in the field of use as their glass counterparts, but with the added benefit of being easily mass fabricated and developed in a variety of multi-scale formats that will allow for the realization of a truly high-throughput device. These results also demonstrate that the operating characteristics of the device can be tailored through the device fabrication technique utilized and the magnitude of the electric field gradient created within the insulating structures. We have developed systems capable of handling numerous flow rates and sample volume requirements, and have produced a deployable system suitable for use in any laboratory, industrial, or clinical setting.

  6. Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Quality of Quality Measurement Experiments S. Bottone and S. Moore Mission Research Corporation Santa Barbara, California Introduction Quality Measurement Experiments (QME) are a special class of Value-Added Products (VAP). QMEs add value to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program datastreams by providing for continuous assessment of the quality of incoming data based on internal consistency checks, comparisons between independent similar measurements, or comparisons between

  7. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  8. Gadolinium-doped water cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma-ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dazeley, Steven A; Svoboda, Robert C; Bernstein, Adam; Bowden, Nathaniel

    2013-02-12

    A water Cerenkov-based neutron and high energy gamma ray detector and radiation portal monitoring system using water doped with a Gadolinium (Gd)-based compound as the Cerenkov radiator. An optically opaque enclosure is provided surrounding a detection chamber filled with the Cerenkov radiator, and photomultipliers are optically connected to the detect Cerenkov radiation generated by the Cerenkov radiator from incident high energy gamma rays or gamma rays induced by neutron capture on the Gd of incident neutrons from a fission source. The PMT signals are then used to determine time correlations indicative of neutron multiplicity events characteristic of a fission source.

  9. SU-E-I-33: Initial Evaluation of Model-Based Iterative CT Reconstruction Using Standard Image Quality Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingold, E; Dave, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a new model-based iterative reconstruction with existing reconstruction methods (filtered backprojection and basic iterative reconstruction) using quantitative analysis of standard image quality phantom images. Methods: An ACR accreditation phantom (Gammex 464) and a CATPHAN600 phantom were scanned using 3 routine clinical acquisition protocols (adult axial brain, adult abdomen, and pediatric abdomen) on a Philips iCT system. Each scan was acquired using default conditions and 75%, 50% and 25% dose levels. Images were reconstructed using standard filtered backprojection (FBP), conventional iterative reconstruction (iDose4) and a prototype model-based iterative reconstruction (IMR). Phantom measurements included CT number accuracy, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), modulation transfer function (MTF), low contrast detectability (LCD), and noise power spectrum (NPS). Results: The choice of reconstruction method had no effect on CT number accuracy, or MTF (p<0.01). The CNR of a 6 HU contrast target was improved by 167% with iDose4 relative to FBP, while IMR improved CNR by 145367% across all protocols and dose levels. Within each scan protocol, the CNR improvement from IMR vs FBP showed a general trend of greater improvement at lower dose levels. NPS magnitude was greatest for FBP and lowest for IMR. The NPS of the IMR reconstruction showed a pronounced decrease with increasing spatial frequency, consistent with the unusual noise texture seen in IMR images. Conclusion: Iterative Model Reconstruction reduces noise and improves contrast-to-noise ratio without sacrificing spatial resolution in CT phantom images. This offers the possibility of radiation dose reduction and improved low contrast detectability compared with filtered backprojection or conventional iterative reconstruction.

  10. Advanced fuel assembly characterization capabilities based on gamma tomography at the Halden boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, S.; Eitrheim, K.; Svaerd, S. J.; Hallstadius, L.; Willman, C.

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of individual fuel rods using gamma spectroscopy is a standard part of the Post Irradiation Examinations performed on experimental fuel at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor. However, due to handling and radiological safety concerns, these measurements are presently carried out only at the end of life of the fuel, and not earlier than several days or weeks after its removal from the reactor core. In order to enhance the fuel characterization capabilities at the Halden facilities, a gamma tomography measurement system is now being constructed, capable of characterizing fuel assemblies on a rod-by-rod basis in a more timely and efficient manner. Gamma tomography for measuring nuclear fuel is based on gamma spectroscopy measurements and tomographic reconstruction techniques. The technique, previously demonstrated on irradiated commercial fuel assemblies, is capable of determining rod-by-rod information without the need to dismantle the fuel. The new gamma tomography system will be stationed close to the Halden reactor in order to limit the need for fuel transport, and it will significantly reduce the time required to perform fuel characterization measurements. Furthermore, it will allow rod-by-rod fuel characterization to occur between irradiation cycles, thus allowing for measurement of experimental fuel repeatedly during its irradiation lifetime. The development of the gamma tomography measurement system is a joint project between the Inst. for Energy Technology - OECD Halden Reactor Project, Westinghouse (Sweden), and Uppsala Univ.. (authors)

  11. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.5569.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  12. Design of 95 GHz gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid with water cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodin, Dmitri; Ben-Moshe, Roey; Einat, Moshe

    2014-07-15

    The design work for 2nd harmonic 95 GHz, 50 kW gyrotron based on continuous operation copper solenoid is presented. Thermionic magnetron injection gun specifications were calculated according to the linear trade off equation, and simulated with CST program. Numerical code is used for cavity design using the non-uniform string equation as well as particle motion in the cold cavity field. The mode TE02 with low Ohmic losses in the cavity walls was chosen as the operating mode. The Solenoid is designed to induce magnetic field of 1.8 T over a length of 40 mm in the interaction region with homogeneity of 0.34%. The solenoid has six concentric cylindrical segments (and two correction segments) of copper foil windings separated by water channels for cooling. The predicted temperature in continuous operation is below 93?C. The parameters of the design together with simulation results of the electromagnetic cavity field, magnetic field, electron trajectories, and thermal analyses are presented.

  13. A fluorescence-based method for rapid and direct determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shan, Huimei; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Ma, Teng; Shang, Jianying; Pan, Duoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71-5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDEmore » 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2-4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.« less

  14. U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-23

    Case study overview of integrated solar hot water/photovoltaic systems at the U.S. Marine Corps Camp Pendleton training pools.

  15. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-01-26

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153?cm{sup 2}/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  16. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  17. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor encountered many technical challenging and hasn't been done in the past for any oil shale basin. The database built during this study remains valuable for any other future studies involving oil shale and water resource management in the Piceance Basin. The methodology applied in the development of the GIS based Geospatial Infrastructure can be readily adapted for other professionals to develop database structure for other similar basins.

  18. Safe Drinking Water Act and Regulations (EPA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Safe Drinking Water Act is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  20. Incorporation of Hydrogen Bonding Functionalities into the Second Coordination Sphere of Iron-Based Water Oxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffert, Wesley A.; Mock, Michael T.; Appel, Aaron M.; Yang, Jenny Y.

    2013-08-06

    Energy storage and conversion schemes based on environmentally benign chemical fuels will require the discovery of faster, cheaper, and more robust catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although pendant bases have led to enhanced turnover frequencies with non-aqueous substrates, their effect on the catalytic behavior of molecular water oxidation catalysts has received little attention. Herein, the syntheses, structures, and catalytic activities of new iron complexes with pendant bases are reported. Of these, the complex [Fe(mepydz)4(CH3CN)2](OTf)2 (mepydz = N,N?-dimethyl-N,N?-bis(pyridazin-3-ylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, OTf = trifluoromethanesulonate) (8(CH3CN)22+) is the most active catalyst. Initial turnover frequencies of 141 h?1 and 24 h?1 were measured using ceric ammonium nitrate at pH 0.7 and sodium periodate at pH 4.7, respectively. At pH 4.7, 8(CH3CN)22+ the initial turnover frequency is 70% faster than the structurally analogous complex without ancillary proton relays. These results demonstrate that the incorporation of pendant bases into molecular water oxidation catalysts is a synthetic principle that should be considered in the development of new OER catalysts. This work was supported by Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  1. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public.

  2. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality Tour The Laboratory calculates the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) to determine effects of Laboratory operations on the public. Open full...

  3. Accuracy Based Generation of Thermodynamic Properties for Light Water in RELAP5-3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cliff B. Davis

    2010-09-01

    RELAP5-3D interpolates to obtain thermodynamic properties for use in its internal calculations. The accuracy of the interpolation was determined for the original steam tables currently used by the code. This accuracy evaluation showed that the original steam tables are generally detailed enough to allow reasonably accurate interpolations in most areas needed for typical analyses of nuclear reactors cooled by light water. However, there were some regions in which the original steam tables were judged to not provide acceptable accurate results. Revised steam tables were created that used a finer thermodynamic mesh between 4 and 21 MPa and 530 and 640 K. The revised steam tables solved most of the problems observed with the original steam tables. The accuracies of the original and revised steam tables were compared throughout the thermodynamic grid.

  4. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems system will have similar performance to todays regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  5. Ground water and snow sensor based on directional detection of cosmogenic neutrons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Marleau, Peter; Griffin, Patrick J.

    2011-06-01

    A fast neutron detector is being developed to measure the cosmic ray neutron flux in order to measure soil moisture. Soil that is saturated with water has an enhanced ability to moderate fast neutrons, removing them from the backscatter spectrum. The detector is a two-element, liquid scintillator detector. The choice of liquid scintillator allows rejection of gamma background contamination from the desired neutron signal. This enhances the ability to reconstruct the energy and direction of a coincident neutron event. The ability to image on an event-by-event basis allows the detector to selectively scan the neutron flux as a function of distance from the detector. Calibrations, simulations, and optimization have been completed to understand the detector response to neutron sources at variable distances and directions. This has been applied to laboratory background measurements in preparation for outdoor field tests.

  6. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Computer-based procedure for field activities: results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oxstrand, Johanna; Bly, Aaron; LeBlanc, Katya

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the users workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energys (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) along with partners from the nuclear industry have been investigating the design requirements for computer-based work instructions (including operations procedures, work orders, maintenance procedures, etc.) to increase efficiency, safety, and cost competitiveness of existing light water reactors.

  7. Redesigning Radiotherapy Quality Assurance: Opportunities to Develop an Efficient, Evidence-Based System to Support Clinical Trials-Report of the National Cancer Institute Work Group on Radiotherapy Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekelman, Justin E.; Deye, James A.; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Bentzen, Soren M.; Bruner, Deborah; Curran, Walter J.; Dignam, James; Efstathiou, Jason A.; FitzGerald, T.J.; Hurkmans, Coen; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Lee, J. Jack; Merchant, Thomas E.; Michalski, Jeff; Palta, Jatinder R.; Simon, Richard; Ten Haken, Randal K.; Timmerman, Robert; Tunis, Sean; Coleman, C. Norman; and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: In the context of national calls for reorganizing cancer clinical trials, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a 2-day workshop to examine challenges and opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) in clinical trial design. Methods and Materials: Participants reviewed the current processes of clinical trial QA and noted the QA challenges presented by advanced technologies. The lessons learned from the radiotherapy QA programs of recent trials were discussed in detail. Four potential opportunities for optimizing radiotherapy QA were explored, including the use of normal tissue toxicity and tumor control metrics, biomarkers of radiation toxicity, new radiotherapy modalities such as proton beam therapy, and the international harmonization of clinical trial QA. Results: Four recommendations were made: (1) to develop a tiered (and more efficient) system for radiotherapy QA and tailor the intensity of QA to the clinical trial objectives (tiers include general credentialing, trial-specific credentialing, and individual case review); (2) to establish a case QA repository; (3) to develop an evidence base for clinical trial QA and introduce innovative prospective trial designs to evaluate radiotherapy QA in clinical trials; and (4) to explore the feasibility of consolidating clinical trial QA in the United States. Conclusion: Radiotherapy QA can affect clinical trial accrual, cost, outcomes, and generalizability. To achieve maximum benefit, QA programs must become more efficient and evidence-based.

  8. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  9. Likelihood-based gene annotations for gap filling and quality assessment in genome-scale metabolic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedict, Matthew N.; Mundy, Michael B.; Henry, Christopher S.; Chia, Nicholas; Price, Nathan D.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2014-10-16

    Genome-scale metabolic models provide a powerful means to harness information from genomes to deepen biological insights. With exponentially increasing sequencing capacity, there is an enormous need for automated reconstruction techniques that can provide more accurate models in a short time frame. Current methods for automated metabolic network reconstruction rely on gene and reaction annotations to build draft metabolic networks and algorithms to fill gaps in these networks. However, automated reconstruction is hampered by database inconsistencies, incorrect annotations, and gap filling largely without considering genomic information. Here we develop an approach for applying genomic information to predict alternative functions for genes and estimate their likelihoods from sequence homology. We show that computed likelihood values were significantly higher for annotations found in manually curated metabolic networks than those that were not. We then apply these alternative functional predictions to estimate reaction likelihoods, which are used in a new gap filling approach called likelihood-based gap filling to predict more genomically consistent solutions. To validate the likelihood-based gap filling approach, we applied it to models where essential pathways were removed, finding that likelihood-based gap filling identified more biologically relevant solutions than parsimony-based gap filling approaches. We also demonstrate that models gap filled using likelihood-based gap filling provide greater coverage and genomic consistency with metabolic gene functions compared to parsimony-based approaches. Interestingly, despite these findings, we found that likelihoods did not significantly affect consistency of gap filled models with Biolog and knockout lethality data. This indicates that the phenotype data alone cannot necessarily be used to discriminate between alternative solutions for gap filling and therefore, that the use of other information is necessary to obtain a more accurate network. All described workflows are implemented as part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase) and are publicly available via API or command-line web interface.

  10. Likelihood-based gene annotations for gap filling and quality assessment in genome-scale metabolic models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benedict, Matthew N.; Mundy, Michael B.; Henry, Christopher S.; Chia, Nicholas; Price, Nathan D.; Maranas, Costas D.

    2014-10-16

    Genome-scale metabolic models provide a powerful means to harness information from genomes to deepen biological insights. With exponentially increasing sequencing capacity, there is an enormous need for automated reconstruction techniques that can provide more accurate models in a short time frame. Current methods for automated metabolic network reconstruction rely on gene and reaction annotations to build draft metabolic networks and algorithms to fill gaps in these networks. However, automated reconstruction is hampered by database inconsistencies, incorrect annotations, and gap filling largely without considering genomic information. Here we develop an approach for applying genomic information to predict alternative functions for genesmore » and estimate their likelihoods from sequence homology. We show that computed likelihood values were significantly higher for annotations found in manually curated metabolic networks than those that were not. We then apply these alternative functional predictions to estimate reaction likelihoods, which are used in a new gap filling approach called likelihood-based gap filling to predict more genomically consistent solutions. To validate the likelihood-based gap filling approach, we applied it to models where essential pathways were removed, finding that likelihood-based gap filling identified more biologically relevant solutions than parsimony-based gap filling approaches. We also demonstrate that models gap filled using likelihood-based gap filling provide greater coverage and genomic consistency with metabolic gene functions compared to parsimony-based approaches. Interestingly, despite these findings, we found that likelihoods did not significantly affect consistency of gap filled models with Biolog and knockout lethality data. This indicates that the phenotype data alone cannot necessarily be used to discriminate between alternative solutions for gap filling and therefore, that the use of other information is necessary to obtain a more accurate network. All described workflows are implemented as part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase (KBase) and are publicly available via API or command-line web interface.« less

  11. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

    2009-07-31

    Abstract Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (? 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ?20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found. Wettability of the surface was substantially increased for heater coupons boiled in alumina and zinc oxide nanofluids, and such wettability increase seems to correlate reasonably well with the observed marked CHF enhancement for the respective nanofluids. Interpretation of the experimental data was conducted in light of the governing surface parameters (surface area, contact angle, roughness, thermal conductivity) and existing models. It was found that no single parameter could explain the observed HTC or CHF phenomena.

  12. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  13. Laboratory development and field application of a novel water-based drill-in fluid for geopressured horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, J.W.; Harrison, J.C.; Hale, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Research has identified a novel water-based drill-in fluid for drilling and completing geopressured horizontal wells. This fluid has a unique combination of properties which make it especially suitable for geopressured applications. They include the use of calcium and/or zinc bromide as a base brine, minimal concentration of calcium carbonate as bridging material, low plastic viscosity, tight fluid loss control, good filter cake properties, and excellent return permeability. This drill-in fluid has been used successfully to drill a 1,200 foot production interval, 4.75 inch diameter wellbore in the Gulf of Mexico with a system weight of 13.2 lbm/gal, bottom hole temperature of 185{degrees} F., and a 1400 to 1700 psi overbalance. The system functioned very well in both the drilling and completion operations. Fluid rheology was easily maintainable and the hole conditions were excellent without torque or drag problems. Initial production data suggests that the well is producing at expected rates with low drawdown pressure.

  14. Quality Assurance Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Quality Control Technician; Quality Assurance Inspector; Quality Assurance Representative

  15. Air Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. March 17, 2015 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air

  16. Quality Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Quality Management, within the Office of Health, Safety and Security develops policies and procedures to ensure the classification and control of information is effective and...

  17. Oasys Water | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oasys Water Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oasys Water Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Product: Cambridge-based developer of Engineered Osmosis, desalination and water treatment...

  18. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Williams, Melanie; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Jiangong; MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad; Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ?66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, ?, and ?{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEERMedicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEERMedicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  19. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned CCDD sites; site assessments and remedial feasibility studies are ongoing in each State. Remediation alternatives addressed physical hazards and potential for groundwater transport of dissolved salt and petroleum hydrocarbons that might be leached from wastes. Remediation options included excavation of wastes and contaminated adjacent soils followed by removal to permitted disposal facilities or land farming if sufficient on-site area were available.

  20. Quality Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quality Policy It is the policy of the Department of Energy to establish quality requirements to ensure that risks and environmental impacts are minimized and that safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the facility or activity and its work. The Department implements this policy through the QA Order and the QA rule directives to ensure quality assurance requirements are clearly specified for the broad spectrum of work performed by DOE and its contractors.

  1. Individual Permit for Storm Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    discharges. The Permit establishes target action levels (TALs) that are equivalent to New Mexico State water-quality criteria. These TALs are used as benchmarks to determine the...

  2. Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Projected Biofuel Production on Water Use and Water Quality March 27-29, 2015 Analysis and Sustainability WBS:4.2.1.10 May Wu Argonne National Laboratory This ...

  3. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-06-17

    This Order ensures that the quality of DOE/NNSA products and services meets or exceeds the customers' expectations. Cancels DOE O 414.1B and DOE N 411.1. Canceled by DOE O 414.1D.

  4. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-04-25

    The Order defines roles and responsibilities for providing quality assurance for DOE products and services.Admin Chg 1, dated 5-8-13, supersedes DOE O 414.1D.

  5. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-09-29

    To establish an effective management system [i.e., quality assurance programs (QAPs)] using the performance requirements of this Order, coupled with technical standards where appropriate. Cancels DOE O 414.1.

  6. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-04-29

    This Order ensures that the quality of DOE/NNSA products and services meets or exceeds the customer's expectations. This Order cancels DOE O 414.1A, Quality Assurance, dated 9-29-99, and Attachment 1, paragraph 8, and Attachment 2, paragraph 22, of DOE O 440.1A, Worker Protection Management for DOE Federal and Contractor Employees, dated 3-27-98. Cancels: DOE O 414.1A and DOE O 440.1A, parts as noted.

  7. Quality Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    QP001 Revision 0 Effective October 15, 2001 QUALITY PROGRAM Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Jude M. Clark Approved by: _______________________________________________ Date: ______________ Donald B. Karner Procedure ETA-QP001 Revision 0 2 2001 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 3 2.0 Scope 3 3.0 Documentation 3 4.0 Prerequisites 4 5.0 Exclusions 5 6.0 Quality

  8. Cerro Grande Fire Impact to Water Quality and Stream Flow near Los Alamos National Laboratory: Results of Four Years of Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.M. Gallaher; R.J. Koch

    2004-09-15

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned about 7400 acres of mixed conifer forest on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and much of the 10,000 acres of mountainside draining onto LANL was severely burned. The resulting burned landscapes raised concerns of increased storm runoff and transport of contaminants by runoff in the canyons traversing LANL. The first storms after the fire produced runoff peaks that were more than 200 times greater than prefire levels. Total runoff volume for the year 2000 increased 50% over prefire years, despite a decline in total precipitation of 13% below normal and a general decrease in the number of monsoonal thunderstorms. The majority of runoff in 2000 occurred in the canyons at LANL south of Pueblo Canyon (70%), where the highest runoff volume occurred in Water Canyon and the peak discharge occurred in Pajarito Canyon. This report describes the observed effects of the Cerro Grande fire and related environmental impacts to watersheds at and near Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the first four runoff seasons after the fire, from 2000 through 2003. Spatial and temporal trends in radiological and chemical constituents that were identified as being associated with the Cerro Grande fire and those that were identified as being associated with historic LANL discharges are evaluated with regard to impacts to the Rio Grande and area reservoirs downstream of LANL. The results of environmental sampling performed by LANL, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) after the Cerro Grande fire are included in the evaluation. Effects are described for storm runoff, baseflow, stream sediments, and area regional reservoir sediment.

  9. Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Flapper, Joris; Ke, Jing; Kramer, Klaas; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry – including four dairy processes – cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder.

  10. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  11. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1995. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    Water resources data for the 1995 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 65 gaging stations; stage only for 40 gaging stations and 6 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 23 gage stations) and 76 wells; and water levels for 217 observation wells. Also included are data for 113 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  12. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1994. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for Louisiana consists of records for stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage only for 45 gaging stations and 6 lakes; water quality for 51 surface-water stations (including 24 gage stations) and 84 wells; and water levels for 209 observations wells. Also included are data for 115 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  13. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  14. Clean Water Act and Regulations (EPA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clean Water Act (CWA; 33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq.) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters.

  15. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  16. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-01-16

    To provide Department of Energy (DOE) policy, set forth principles, and assign responsibilities for establishing, implementing, and maintaining programs of plans and actions to assure quality achievement in DOE programs. Canceled by DOE O 5700.6A, dated 7-21-1981.

  17. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1981-07-21

    To provide Department of Energy (DOE) policy, set forth principles, and assign responsibilities for establishing, implementing, and maintaining programs of plans and actions to assure quality achievement in DOE programs. Cancels DOE O 5700.6, dated 1-16-1981. Canceled by DOE O 5700.6B, dated 9-23-1986.

  18. SU-E-T-532: Validation and Implementation of Model-Based Patient Specific Quality Assurance Using Mobius3D and MobiusFX in a Clinical Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galavis, P; Osterman, K; Jozsef, G; Becker, S; Dewyngaert, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This work carries out the commissioning and validation of the Mobius3D and MobiusFX software tools, which can replace the time-consuming measurement-based patient specific quality assurance (PSQA). Methods: The beam model supplied by Mobius3D was validated against a 21EX linac's beam measured data. Complex patient (VMAT) plans using Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) was used to test the consistency between Mobius3D (calculates dose using patient image and field data) and MobiusFx (calculates dose using treatment dynalog files). Dose difference and gamma analysis (3%/3mm) between Mobius3D and MobiusFx were used to assess treatment plan and treatment delivery consistency. An end-to-end test was performed to validate Mobius3D and MobiusFx against ion chamber measurements. Effect of the dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) on Mobius3D dose calculation was additionally investigated. Results: Mobius3D beam model parameters matched within 1%-3% with our beam measured data. A comparison of Mobius3D and MobiusFx dose matrices for VMAT planned prostate cases showed (0.330.07)% mean dose difference with gamma values above 95%. The end-to-end test showed dose differences of 1% between Mobius3D and MobiusFx. Dependence of Mobius3D dose calculation upon DLG was explored by introducing a 0.5 mm change in the default value for DLG. This change resulted in agreement differences above 2% Conclusion: Use of reference beam data would appear to speed up commissioning process for the clinical implementation of Mobius3D. However, careful consideration is required when comparing the information provided by the software, since large dose variations can be seen when the proper parameters are not optimized. The plan and delivered dose were in good agreement; hence MobiusFx has the potential to significantly speed up the PSQA process and at the same time helps to verify treatment parameters that are not possible with measurement-based PSQA.

  19. Signed Quality Assurance Hub Memo

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    :I I! DR. STEVEN L. KRAHN DEPUTY ASSISTANT SEC SAFETY AND SECCTRITY PROGRAM ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SUBJECT: Office of Environmental Management Quality Assurance Performance Assessment, Commitment, and Corrective Action Management Program Launch In a memorandum to the FieldlSite Managers dated July 10,2009, it was announced that the Office of Standards and Quality Assurance (EM-23) had deployed a pilot prototype web-based system (Hub) to facilitate providing real-time status of Quality

  20. Y-12s Biomonitoring and Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Although many industries were slow to come into compliance, most permitted sites today devote full-time resources to...

  1. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Author Washington State Department of Ecology Published Washington State Department of Ecology, 2014 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  2. Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

    2009-06-07

    We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  3. Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-07-12

    To establish an effective management system [i.e., quality assurance programs(QAPs)] using the performance requirements of this Order, coupled with technical standards where appropriate. Change 1, dated 7/12/01, facilitates the Department's organizational transition necessitated by establishment of the NNSA. (Attachment 2 of this Order is canceled by DOE O 470.2B.) Cancels: DOE O 414.1

  4. ARM - Data Quality Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality Program DQ Resources Data Quality Assessment and Control Report (PDF, 747KB) Data Quality Office Data Quality Problem Reporting (DQPR) Contact Us Submit Data Quality Findings Randy Peppler, Data Quality Manager Ken Kehoe, Data Quality Specialist Justin Monroe, Data Quality Specialist Adam Theisen, Data Quality Specialist Sean Moore, Data Quality Consultant Instrument and Site Contacts Instrument Mentors AAF Contacts AMF Contacts NSA Site Contacts SGP Site Contacts TWP Site Contacts Data

  5. NRS 445A Water Controls | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NRS 445A Water ControlsLegal Abstract General provisions for water pollution control and water quality of the public water systems in Nevada. Published NA Year Signed or...

  6. Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Quality, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biofuels and Biofuel Blends Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels ...

  7. Montana Department of Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Quality is an organization based in Helena, Montana. References "Webpage" Air Quality Permitting Contact Contacts.png Dave Klemp (406) 404.0286 http:...

  8. Subtask 1.18 - A Decision Tool for Watershed-Based Effluent Trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xixi Wang; Bethany A. Kurz; Marc D. Kurz

    2006-11-30

    Handling produced water in an economical and environmentally sound manner is vital to coalbed methane (CBM) development, which is expected to increase up to 60% in the next 10-15 years as the demand for natural gas increases. Current produced water-handling methods (e.g., shallow reinjection and infiltration impoundments) are too costly when implemented on a well-by-well basis. A watershed-based effluent credit trading approach may be a means of managing produced water at reduced cost while meeting or surpassing water quality regulations. This market-based approach allows for improved water quality management by enabling industrial, agricultural, and municipal discharge facilities to meet water quality permit requirements by purchasing pollutant reduction credits from other entities within the same watershed. An evaluation of this concept was conducted for the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Montana and Wyoming by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). To conduct this assessment, the EERC collected and evaluated existing water quality information and developed the appropriate tools needed to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of specific trading scenarios. The accomplishments of this study include (1) an exploration of the available PRB water quantity and quality data using advanced statistical techniques, (2) development of an integrated water quality model that predicts the impacts of CBM produced water on stream salinity and sodicity, (3) development of an economic model that estimates costs and benefits from implementing potential trading options, (4) evaluation of hypothetical trading scenarios between select watersheds of the PRB, and (5) communication of the project concept and results to key state and federal agencies, industry representatives, and stakeholders of the PRB. The preliminary results of a basinwide assessment indicate that up to $684 million could be saved basinwide without compromising water quality as a result of implementing a watershed-based credit-trading approach.

  9. Water and Energy (18 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces students to the properties of water and using water as an energy source with the following activities

  10. Data Driven Quality Assurance and Quality Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Data Driven Quality Assurance & Quality Control," Patrick Roche, Conservation Services Group. Provides an overview of data QA/QC system design.

  11. Tahoe Water Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tahoe Water Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tahoe Water Systems Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Develops a self-contained solarwind based water pumping technology....

  12. Vidler Water Company Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vidler Water Company Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vidler Water Company Inc Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89703 Sector: Solar Product: Nevada-based water and land...

  13. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    2008-01-15

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  14. Large Scale Ice Water Path and 3-D Ice Water Content

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Liu, Guosheng

    Cloud ice water concentration is one of the most important, yet poorly observed, cloud properties. Developing physical parameterizations used in general circulation models through single-column modeling is one of the key foci of the ARM program. In addition to the vertical profiles of temperature, water vapor and condensed water at the model grids, large-scale horizontal advective tendencies of these variables are also required as forcing terms in the single-column models. Observed horizontal advection of condensed water has not been available because the radar/lidar/radiometer observations at the ARM site are single-point measurement, therefore, do not provide horizontal distribution of condensed water. The intention of this product is to provide large-scale distribution of cloud ice water by merging available surface and satellite measurements. The satellite cloud ice water algorithm uses ARM ground-based measurements as baseline, produces datasets for 3-D cloud ice water distributions in a 10 deg x 10 deg area near ARM site. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) areal measurement. That is, this study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements at the point of ARM site. We use the cloud characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain satellite retrieval, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the cloud ice water distributions within an area, i.e., 10 deg x 10 deg centered at ARM site.

  15. Oregon Department of Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    its decision-making. DEQ is responsible for protecting and enhancing Oregon's water and air quality, for cleaning up spills and releases of hazardous materials, for managing the...

  16. Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Grunewald

    2009-12-31

    By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

  17. Water related environmental decision-making in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daane, J.; Bilotkach, U.

    1995-12-01

    Ukraine is reshaping its approach to addressing environmental concerns. This paper will describe past and current water-related environmental decision-making in Ukraine and identify efforts being made to improve such decision-making. Numerous water related agencies survived the break-up of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Their ability to analyze water quality, and make good environmental decisions with regard to surface and ground water resources, drinking water supply, pesticide management, water-related recreational activities, and wastewater disposal issues (especially those related to industries), is questionable. Poor quality assurance and quality control have hampered water monitoring endeavors. The quality of testing and pollutant monitoring is affected by the state of development of monitoring techniques. Environmental policy decisions based on these data are then suspect. Decisions were made in the past at much higher levels, often in Moscow. Local and regional monitoring agencies were encouraged to perform innumerable tests, but were not necessarily encouraged to make informed decisions as a result of test data. Large-scale capital-intensive infrastructure projects were planned in the past to solve many of the water shortage problems in southern Ukraine. More than 1,000 reservoirs and six major canal systems were constructed and more were designed. Also, industrial waste ponds were constructed to capture toxic wastes, heavy metals, and other pollutants from large industrial facilities. New methods are necessary to change problem-solving from large infrastructure solutions to smaller more efficient uses of resources through technologically efficient improvements, assigning economic value to resources, and conservation of those resources.

  18. Assessment of Possible Cycle Lengths for Fully-Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel-Based Light Water Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2012-04-01

    The tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel developed for High Temperature reactors is known for its extraordinary fission product retention capabilities [1]. Recently, the possibility of extending the use of TRISO particle fuel to Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology, and perhaps other reactor concepts, has received significant attention [2]. The Deep Burn project [3] currently focuses on once-through burning of transuranic fissile and fissionable isotopes (TRU) in LWRs. The fuel form for this purpose is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the TRISO fuel particle design from high temperature reactor technology, but uses SiC as a matrix material rather than graphite. In addition, FCM fuel may also use a cladding made of a variety of possible material, again including SiC as an admissible choice. The FCM fuel used in the Deep Burn (DB) project showed promising results in terms of fission product retention at high burnup values and during high-temperature transients. In the case of DB applications, the fuel loading within a TRISO particle is constituted entirely of fissile or fissionable isotopes. Consequently, the fuel was shown to be capable of achieving reasonable burnup levels and cycle lengths, especially in the case of mixed cores (with coexisting DB and regular LWR UO2 fuels). In contrast, as shown below, the use of UO2-only FCM fuel in a LWR results in considerably shorter cycle length when compared to current-generation ordinary LWR designs. Indeed, the constraint of limited space availability for heavy metal loading within the TRISO particles of FCM fuel and the constraint of low (i.e., below 20 w/0) 235U enrichment combine to result in shorter cycle lengths compared to ordinary LWRs if typical LWR power densities are also assumed and if typical TRISO particle dimensions and UO2 kernels are specified. The primary focus of this summary is on using TRISO particles with up to 20 w/0 enriched uranium kernels loaded in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies. In addition to consideration of this 'naive' use of TRISO fuel in LWRs, several refined options are briefly examined and others are identified for further consideration including the use of advanced, high density fuel forms and larger kernel diameters and TRISO packing fractions. The combination of 800 {micro}m diameter kernels of 20% enriched UN and 50% TRISO packing fraction yielded reactivity sufficient to achieve comparable burnup to present-day PWR fuel.

  19. Environmental impact of APC residues from municipal solid waste incineration: Reuse assessment based on soil and surface water protection criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quina, Margarida J.; Bordado, Joao C.M.; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The Dutch Building Material Decree (BMD) was used to APC residues from MSWI. > BMD is a straightforward tool to calculate expectable loads to the environment of common pollutants. > Chloride load to the environment lead to classification of building material not allowed. > At least a pre-treatment (e.g. washing) is required in order to remove soluble salts. > The stabilization with phosphates or silicates eliminate the problem of heavy metals. - Abstract: Waste management and environmental protection are mandatory requirements of modern society. In our study, air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) were considered as a mixture of fly ash and fine particulate solids collected in scrubbers and fabric filters. These are hazardous wastes and require treatment before landfill. Although there are a number of treatment options, it is highly recommended to find practical applications rather than just dump them in landfill sites. In general, for using a construction material, beyond technical specifications also soil and surface water criteria may be used to ensure environmental protection. The Dutch Building Materials Decree (BMD) is a valuable tool in this respect and it was used to investigate which properties do not meet the threshold criteria so that APC residues can be further used as secondary building material. To this end, some scenarios were evaluated by considering release of inorganic species from unmoulded and moulded applications. The main conclusion is that the high amount of soluble salts makes the APC residues a building material prohibited in any of the conditions tested. In case of moulding materials, the limits of heavy metals are complied, and their use in Category 1 would be allowed. However, also in this case, the soluble salts lead to the classification of 'building material not allowed'. The treatments with phosphates or silicates are able to solve the problem of heavy metals, but difficulties with the soluble salts are still observed. This analysis suggests that for APC residues to comply with soil and surface water protection criteria to be further used as building material at least a pre-treating for removing soluble salts is absolutely required.

  20. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solutions based upon mixed quantum-classical approximation. I. Proton transfer reaction in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Atsushi; Kojima, Hidekazu; Okazaki, Susumu

    2014-08-28

    In order to investigate proton transfer reaction in solution, mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics calculations have been carried out based on our previously proposed quantum equation of motion for the reacting system [A. Yamada and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044507 (2008)]. Surface hopping method was applied to describe forces acting on the solvent classical degrees of freedom. In a series of our studies, quantum and solvent effects on the reaction dynamics in solutions have been analysed in detail. Here, we report our mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics calculations for intramolecular proton transfer of malonaldehyde in water. Thermally activated proton transfer process, i.e., vibrational excitation in the reactant state followed by transition to the product state and vibrational relaxation in the product state, as well as tunneling reaction can be described by solving the equation of motion. Zero point energy is, of course, included, too. The quantum simulation in water has been compared with the fully classical one and the wave packet calculation in vacuum. The calculated quantum reaction rate in water was 0.70 ps{sup ?1}, which is about 2.5 times faster than that in vacuum, 0.27 ps{sup ?1}. This indicates that the solvent water accelerates the reaction. Further, the quantum calculation resulted in the reaction rate about 2 times faster than the fully classical calculation, which indicates that quantum effect enhances the reaction rate, too. Contribution from three reaction mechanisms, i.e., tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing reactions, is 33:46:21 in the mixed quantum-classical calculations. This clearly shows that the tunneling effect is important in the reaction.

  1. Montana Produced Water General Permit - Example Authorization...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit. Author Montana Department of Environmental Quality - Water Protection Bureau Published State of Montana, 052010 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability:...

  2. Catalog of publications, Office of Science and Technology (Office of Water, Environmental Protection Agency), 1999 edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-08-01

    This catalog focuses on the following: Introduction to the Office of Science and Technology (OST); Industrial Effluent Limitations and Guidelines (Listed alphabetically by Point Source); Water Quality Standards; Ambient Water Quality Criteria; Biological Quality Criteria; Nutrient Criteria; Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Guidelines (Sediment Quality Criteria); Drinking Water Criteria; Drinking Water Health Advisories; Water Quality Modeling and Total Maximum Daily Loads Guidance; Analytical Laboratory Methods; Contaminated Sediments; Fish Tissue Quality; Municipal Sewage Sludge; Great Lakes Guidance; Beach Water Quality; Pollution Prevention-IP3 Reports; Videotapes; and Datafiles and Software.

  3. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockward, Tommy

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  4. DOE Order on Quality Assurance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY: www.directives.doe.gov Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy ORDER Washington, D.C. Approved: 4-25-2011 SUBJECT: QUALITY ASSURANCE 1. PURPOSE. a. To ensure that Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), products and services meet or exceed customers' requirements and expectations. b. To achieve quality for all work based upon the following principles: (1) All work, as defined in this Order,

  5. water-management | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Management R&D Water research encompasses the need to reduce the amount of freshwater used by power plants and to minimize any potential impacts of plant operations on water quality. The vision for this program area is to develop a 21st century America that can count on abundant, sustainable fossil energy and water resources to achieve the flexibility, efficiency, reliability, and environmental quality essential for continued security and economic health. To accomplish this,

  6. ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE CYCLE LENGTHS FOR FULLY-CERAMIC MICRO-ENCAPSULATED FUEL-BASED LIGHT WATER REACTOR CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Sonat Sen; Michael A. Pope; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu; Francesco Venneri

    2012-04-01

    The use of TRISO-particle-based dispersion fuel within SiC matrix and cladding materials has the potential to allow the design of extremely safe LWRs with failure-proof fuel. This paper examines the feasibility of LWR-like cycle length for such a low enriched uranium fuel with the imposed constraint of strictly retaining the original geometry of the fuel pins and assemblies. The motivation for retaining the original geometry is to provide the ability to incorporate the fuel 'as-is' into existing LWRs while retaining their thermal-hydraulic characteristics. The feasibility of using this fuel is assessed by looking at cycle lengths and fuel failure rates. Other considerations (e.g., safety parameters, etc.) were not considered at this stage of the study. The study includes the examination of different TRISO kernel diameters without changing the coating layer thicknesses. The study shows that a naive use of UO{sub 2} results in cycle lengths too short to be practical for existing LWR designs and operational demands. Increasing fissile inventory within the fuel compacts shows that acceptable cycle lengths can be achieved. In this study, starting with the recognized highest packing fraction practically achievable (44%), higher enrichment, larger fuel kernel sizes, and the use of higher density fuels have been evaluated. The models demonstrate cycle lengths comparable to those of ordinary LWRs. As expected, TRISO particles with extremely large kernels are shown to fail under all considered scenarios. In contrast, the designs that do not depart too drastically from those of the nominal NGNP HTR fuel TRISO particles are shown to perform satisfactorily and display a high rates of survival under all considered scenarios. Finally, it is recognized that relaxing the geometry constraint will result in satisfactory cycle lengths even using UO{sub 2}-loaded TRISO particles-based fuel with enrichment at or below 20 w/o.

  7. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1996. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    The report contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage only for 41 gaging stations and 5 lakes; water quality for 38 surface-water stations (including 22 gage stations) and 100 wells; and water levels for 235 observation wells. Also included are data for 117 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations.

  8. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Development of a Computer-based Benchmarking and Analytical Tool. Benchmarking and Energy & Water Savings Tool in Dairy Plants (BEST-Dairy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Flapper, Joris; Ke, Jing; Kramer, Klaas; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-02-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop a computer-based benchmarking and energy and water savings tool (BEST-Dairy) for use in the California dairy industry - including four dairy processes - cheese, fluid milk, butter, and milk powder. BEST-Dairy tool developed in this project provides three options for the user to benchmark each of the dairy product included in the tool, with each option differentiated based on specific detail level of process or plant, i.e., 1) plant level; 2) process-group level, and 3) process-step level. For each detail level, the tool accounts for differences in production and other variables affecting energy use in dairy processes. The dairy products include cheese, fluid milk, butter, milk powder, etc. The BEST-Dairy tool can be applied to a wide range of dairy facilities to provide energy and water savings estimates, which are based upon the comparisons with the best available reference cases that were established through reviewing information from international and national samples. We have performed and completed alpha- and beta-testing (field testing) of the BEST-Dairy tool, through which feedback from voluntary users in the U.S. dairy industry was gathered to validate and improve the tool's functionality. BEST-Dairy v1.2 was formally published in May 2011, and has been made available for free downloads from the internet (i.e., http://best-dairy.lbl.gov). A user's manual has been developed and published as the companion documentation for use with the BEST-Dairy tool. In addition, we also carried out technology transfer activities by engaging the dairy industry in the process of tool development and testing, including field testing, technical presentations, and technical assistance throughout the project. To date, users from more than ten countries in addition to those in the U.S. have downloaded the BEST-Dairy from the LBNL website. It is expected that the use of BEST-Dairy tool will advance understanding of energy and water usage in individual dairy plants, augment benchmarking activities in the market places, and facilitate implementation of efficiency measures and strategies to save energy and water usage in the dairy industry. Industrial adoption of this emerging tool and technology in the market is expected to benefit dairy plants, which are important customers of California utilities. Further demonstration of this benchmarking tool is recommended, for facilitating its commercialization and expansion in functions of the tool. Wider use of this BEST-Dairy tool and its continuous expansion (in functionality) will help to reduce the actual consumption of energy and water in the dairy industry sector. The outcomes comply very well with the goals set by the AB 1250 for PIER program.

  9. WE-G-18A-01: JUNIOR INVESTIGATOR WINNER - Low-Dose C-Arm Cone-Beam CT with Model-Based Image Reconstruction for High-Quality Guidance of Neurosurgical Intervention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, A; Stayman, J; Otake, Y; Gallia, G; Siewerdsen, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To address the challenges of image quality, radiation dose, and reconstruction speed in intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) for neurosurgery by combining model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) with accelerated algorithmic and computational methods. Methods: Preclinical studies involved a mobile C-arm for CBCT imaging of two anthropomorphic head phantoms that included simulated imaging targets (ventricles, soft-tissue structures/bleeds) and neurosurgical procedures (deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode insertion) for assessment of image quality. The penalized likelihood (PL) framework was used for MBIR, incorporating a statistical model with image regularization via an edgepreserving penalty. To accelerate PL reconstruction, the ordered-subset, separable quadratic surrogates (OS-SQS) algorithm was modified to incorporate Nesterov's method and implemented on a multi-GPU system. A fair comparison of image quality between PL and conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) was performed by selecting reconstruction parameters that provided matched low-contrast spatial resolution. Results: CBCT images of the head phantoms demonstrated that PL reconstruction improved image quality (?28% higher CNR) even at half the radiation dose (3.3 mGy) compared to FBP. A combination of Nesterov's method and fast projectors yielded a PL reconstruction run-time of 251 sec (cf., 5729 sec for OS-SQS, 13 sec for FBP). Insertion of a DBS electrode resulted in severe metal artifact streaks in FBP reconstructions, whereas PL was intrinsically robust against metal artifact. The combination of noise and artifact was reduced from 32.2 HU in FBP to 9.5 HU in PL, thereby providing better assessment of device placement and potential complications. Conclusion: The methods can be applied to intraoperative CBCT for guidance and verification of neurosurgical procedures (DBS electrode insertion, biopsy, tumor resection) and detection of complications (intracranial hemorrhage). Significant improvement in image quality, dose reduction, and reconstruction time of ?4 min will enable practical deployment of low-dose C-arm CBCT within the operating room. AAPM Research Seed Funding (2013-2014); NIH Fellowship F32EB017571; Siemens Healthcare (XP Division)

  10. HSS Quality Initiatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Colette Broussard, Office of Quality Assurance Policy and Assistance, Office of Nuclear Safety, Quality Assurance and Environment Track 9-2

  11. Section 22: Quality Assurance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Quality Assurance (40 CFR 194.22) Table of Contents 22.0 Quality Assurance (40 CFR ...

  12. Poster Thur Eve 17: In-phantom and Fluence-based Measurements for Quality Assurance of Volumetric-driven Adaptation of Arc Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaly, B; Hoover, D; Mitchell, S; Wong, E

    2014-08-15

    During volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) of head and neck cancer, some patients lose weight which may result in anatomical deviations from the initial plan. If these deviations are substantial a new treatment plan can be designed for the remainder of treatment (i.e., adaptive planning). Since the adaptive treatment process is resource intensive, one possible approach to streamlining the quality assurance (QA) process is to use the electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to measure the integrated fluence for the adapted plans instead of the currently-used ArcCHECK device (Sun Nuclear). Although ArcCHECK is recognized as the clinical standard for patient-specific VMAT plan QA, it has limited length (20 cm) for most head and neck field apertures and has coarser detector spacing than the EPID (10 mm vs. 0.39 mm). In this work we compared measurement of the integrated fluence using the EPID with corresponding measurements from the ArcCHECK device. In the past year nine patients required an adapted plan. Each of the plans (the original and adapted) is composed of two arcs. Routine clinical QA was performed using the ArcCHECK device, and the same plans were delivered to the EPID (individual arcs) in integrated mode. The dose difference between the initial plan and adapted plan was compared for ArcCHECK and EPID. In most cases, it was found that the EPID is more sensitive in detecting plan differences. Therefore, we conclude that EPID provides a viable alternative for QA of the adapted head and neck plans and should be further explored.

  13. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  14. Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) January 28

  15. Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101) January 28...

  16. Improving Air Quality with Solar Energy; U.S. DOE Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative Fact Sheet Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Quality with Solar Energy Many states are seeking additional air pollution control strategies. Zero-emission solar technologies, such as solar electricity and solar water heating, can help air quality and energy offcials in cities, states, and federal agencies improve air quality, achieve Clean Air Act goals, and reduce pollution control costs for both industry and taxpayers. Solar technologies provide energy for heating, cooling, and lighting homes and heating water without any direct

  17. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  18. Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970 The Congress declares that there is a national policy for the environment which provides for the enhancement of environmental quality. This policy is evidenced by statutes heretofore enacted relating to the prevention, abatement, and control of environmental pollution, water and land resources, transportation, and economic and regional development. PDF icon Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970

  19. Track 9: Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 9: Quality Assurance

  20. TU-C-BRE-11: 3D EPID-Based in Vivo Dosimetry: A Major Step Forward Towards Optimal Quality and Safety in Radiation Oncology Practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mijnheer, B; Mans, A; Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Spreeuw, H; Herk, M van

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a 3D in vivo dosimetry method that is able to substitute pre-treatment verification in an efficient way, and to terminate treatment delivery if the online measured 3D dose distribution deviates too much from the predicted dose distribution. Methods: A back-projection algorithm has been further developed and implemented to enable automatic 3D in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments using a-Si EPIDs. New software tools were clinically introduced to allow automated image acquisition, to periodically inspect the record-and-verify database, and to automatically run the EPID dosimetry software. The comparison of the EPID-reconstructed and planned dose distribution is done offline to raise automatically alerts and to schedule actions when deviations are detected. Furthermore, a software package for online dose reconstruction was also developed. The RMS of the difference between the cumulative planned and reconstructed 3D dose distributions was used for triggering a halt of a linac. Results: The implementation of fully automated 3D EPID-based in vivo dosimetry was able to replace pre-treatment verification for more than 90% of the patient treatments. The process has been fully automated and integrated in our clinical workflow where over 3,500 IMRT/VMAT treatments are verified each year. By optimizing the dose reconstruction algorithm and the I/O performance, the delivered 3D dose distribution is verified in less than 200 ms per portal image, which includes the comparison between the reconstructed and planned dose distribution. In this way it was possible to generate a trigger that can stop the irradiation at less than 20 cGy after introducing large delivery errors. Conclusion: The automatic offline solution facilitated the large scale clinical implementation of 3D EPID-based in vivo dose verification of IMRT/VMAT treatments; the online approach has been successfully tested for various severe delivery errors.

  1. Assessing data quality for a federal environmental restoration project: Rationalizing the requirements of multiple clients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiszka, V.R.; Carlsen, T.M.

    1994-07-01

    Most environmental restoration projects at federal facilities face the difficult task of melding the quality assurance (QA) requirements of multiple clients, as well as dealing with historical data that are often of unknown quality. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we have successfully integrated the requirements of our multiple clients by carefully developing a QA program that efficiently meets our clients` needs. The Site 300 Experimental Test Site is operated by LLNL in support of its national defense program. The responsibility for conducting environmental contaminant investigations and restoration at Site 300 is vested in the Site 300 Environmental Restoration Project (Site 300 ERP) of LLNL`s Environmental Restoration Division. LLNL Site 300 ERP must comply with the QA requirements of several clients, which include: the LLNL Environmental Protection Department, the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency-Region IX (EPA), the California Regional Water Quality Control Board -- Central Valley Region, and the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. This comprehensive QA program was used to determine the acceptability of historical data. The Site 300 ERP began soil and ground water investigations in 1982. However, we did not begin receiving analytical quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) data until 1989; therefore, the pre-1989 data that were collected are of unknown quality. The US EPA QAMS-005/80 defines data quality as the totality of features and characteristics of data that bears on its ability to satisfy a given purpose. In the current context, the characteristics of major importance are accuracy, precision, completeness, representativeness, and comparability. Using our established QA program, we determined the quality of this historical data based on its comparability to the post-1989 data. By accepting this historical data, we were able to save a considerable amount of money in recharacterization costs.

  2. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security Home/Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis, Capabilities, Energy, Energy-Water Nexus, Global, Global,

  3. TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M.; REN,B.; WU,X.Y.; ZHONG,N.; ATKINS,H.L.

    2001-02-17

    Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.

  4. BETO-Funded Study Offers Methods to Support a Water-Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BETO-Funded Study Offers Methods to Support a Water-Sustainable Bioenergy Industry ... practices influence water quality, agriculture production, and feedstock production in ...

  5. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development more have drawn attention to potential uses of ...

  6. Quality Assurance | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality Assurance Is A Key Focus At Jefferson Lab Quality assurance is a critical function at Jefferson Lab, protecting workers, lab facilities, the environment and the public. A D D I T I O N A L L I N K S: Quality Home Lessons Learned Quality Plan ESH&Q Home top-right bottom-left-corner bottom-right-corner Quality Assurance The Quality Assurance & Continuous Improvement Department has the critical role of working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other regulators on the

  7. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  8. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  9. U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton: Using The Sun For Hot Water And Electricity, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    Case study overview of integrated solar hot water/photovoltaic systems at the U.S. Marine Corps Camp Pendleton training pools.

  10. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  11. Army Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Armys ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  12. IT Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quality, error-free work holds down costs. Avoiding mistakes and rework saves valuable time, effort, and materials. Quality assurance provides the mechanisms for paying close attention to details...

  13. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  14. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security Home/Tag:Water Security - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper Competition Analysis,

  15. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL * Kate McMordie Stoughton - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory * kate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com Topics * Performance contracting analysis * Water industry terms * Federal reduction goals * Water balance * Water efficiency

  16. Quality Work Plan Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov ACI Detroit Quality Work Plan Update April 2014 QWP: Background Culmination of a multi-year investment aimed at demonstrating quality and accountability in the WAP Taking action on lessons learned through various quality assurance reviews Establishing WAP as a national leader in technical resources and quality assurance Improving long term sustainability by building the foundation of the national industry with WAP at the core 2

  17. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  18. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.

  19. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  20. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-01-28

    The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water.

  1. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  2. Utah Department of Environmental Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    laws and works with individuals, community groups, and businesses to protect the quality of our air, land and water in the state of Utah. The following Divisions make up...

  3. Wonders of Water (14 activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    An inquiry-based curriculum that introduces scientific concepts of electricity, water, and hydropower to elementary students with the following activities

  4. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  5. SU-F-BRE-12: Optical Resonator Water Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J; DeMarco, J; Low, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Water calorimetry based on resistance thermometry has matured as a primary standard. Developing an optical technique hold the promise to push the boundaries of what is currently achievable with dosimetry. We will present a feasibility study and the current progress of construction of a Fabry-Perot resonator for dose to water measurement. Additionally, estimations of the theoretical limits resonator sensitivity and potential sources of noise for the system are described. Methods: A temperature change from the dose to water would be measured by the change in the index of refraction from the water in the cavity. Calculations are presented of the expected signal from the resonator for dose to water. The Fabry-Perot resonator constructed from optical quality narrowband mirrors is described. A water cell will be inserted into the cavity gap to provide the medium swept cavity length technique is explored as a specific implementation of this technique. Results: Calculations indicate that a dose to water on the order of a Gray is measureable with a reasonably implementable system. A resonator is currently under construction and progress towards a proof of principle measurement will be presented. The primary sources of noise, in order of importance, are expected to be; optical absorption by the medium, mechanical perturbations of the cavity length and thermal expansion of the optical mounts. Estimations of these noise sources and mitigation techniques will be discussed. Conclusion: A Fabry-Perot resonator is a promising technique for measuring the absorbed dose to water from a radiotherapy beam. This technique has the potential to serve as a check on the current primary standard for dose to water measurements. As well, i0074 may be the foundation for a new class of optical property based dosimetry measurement.

  6. Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidic, Radisav

    2015-01-24

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using abandoned mine drainage (AMD) as make- up water for the reuse of produced water for hydraulic fracturing. There is an abundance of AMD sources near permitted gas wells as documented in this study that can not only serve as makeup water and reduce the demand on high quality water resources but can also as a source of chemicals to treat produced water prior to reuse. The assessment of AMD availability for this purpose based on proximity and relevant regulations was accompanied by bench- and pilot-scale studies to determine optimal treatment to achieve desired water quality for use in hydraulic fracturing. Sulfate ions that are often present in AMD at elevated levels will react with Ba? and Sr? in produced water to form insoluble sulfate compounds. Both membrane microfiltration and gravity separation were evaluated for the removal of solids formed as a result of mixing these two impaired waters. Laboratory studies revealed that neither AMD nor barite formed in solution had significant impact on membrane filtration but that some produced waters contained submicron particles that can cause severe fouling of microfiltration membrane. Coagulation/flocculation was found to be an effective process for the removal of suspended solids and both bench- and pilot-scale studies revealed that optimal process conditions can consistently achieve the turbidity of the finished water below 5 NTU. Adjusting the blending ratio of AMD and produced water can achieve the desired effluent sulfate concentration that can be accurately predicted by chemical thermodynamics. Co-treatment of produced water and AMD will result in elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the solid waste generated in this process due to radium co-precipitation with barium sulfate. Laboratory studies revealed that the mobility of barite that may form in the subsurface due to the presence of sulfate in the fracturing fluid can be controlled by the addition of appropriate antiscalants.

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Recommended Quality Management Provisions DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Recommended Quality Management Provisions. PDF icon QM Cheklist.pdf More Documents & Publications Version Tracking Document for DOE Challenge Homes, National Program Requirements (Rev. 03) Washington DOE ZERH Program Requirements DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Solar Hot Water-Ready Checklist

  8. Mesh Quality Improvement Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-11-15

    MESQUITE is a linkable software library to be used by simulation and mesh generation tools to improve the quality of meshes. Mesh quality is improved by node movement and/or local topological modifications. Various aspects of mesh quality such as smoothness, element shape, size, and orientation are controlled by choosing the appropriate mesh qualtiy metric, and objective function tempate, and a numerical optimization solver to optimize the quality of meshes, MESQUITE uses the TSTT mesh interfacemore » specification to provide an interoperable toolkit that can be used by applications which adopt the standard. A flexible code design makes it easy for meshing researchers to add additional mesh quality metrics, templates, and solvers to develop new quality improvement algorithms by making use of the MESQUITE infrastructure.« less

  9. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  10. Report: EM Quality Assurance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM QUALITY ASSURANCE September 25, 2008 Submitted by the EMAB Quality Assurance Subcommittee Background: In Fiscal Year (FY) 2008, the Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB) was tasked to dialogue with the Office of Quality Assurance (EM-60, QA) as it works to revitalize standards and institutionalize QA into Departmental and EM processes. In addition, EMAB was directed to dialogue with EM-60 on incorporating QA and engineering into the procurement process. Board members reviewed and

  11. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  12. Ground water hydrology report: Revision 1, Attachment 3. Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This report presents ground water hydrogeologic activities for the Maybell, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site. The Department of Energy has characterized the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the site and determined that the proposed remedial action would comply with the requirements of the EPA ground water protection standards.

  13. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  14. Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

  15. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power - NearyFig1 Permalink Gallery University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Water Power University of Illinois uses Sandia Labs' reference hydrokinetic turbine to study potential bed erosion effects Sandia Labs Water Power Technologies Department promotes open-source marine hydrokinetic research by disseminating information on MHK technology designs

  16. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power/Energy Conversion Efficiency/Water Power - Water PowerTara Camacho-Lopez2016-02-16T18:27:48+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower Optimization Developing tools for optimizing the U.S. hydropower fleet's performance with minimal environmental impact. Technology Development Improving the power performance and reliability of marine hydrokinetic technologies. Market Acceleration & Deployment Addressing barriers to development, deployment, and evaluation of

  17. Draft framework for watershed-based trading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-30

    Effluent trading is an innovative way for water quality agencies and community stakeholders to develop common-sense, cost-effective solutions for water quality problems in their watersheds. Trading can allow communities to grow and prosper while retaining their commitment to water quality. The bulk of this framework discusses effluent trading in watersheds. Remaining sections discuss transactions that, while not technically fulfilling the definition of `effluent` trade, do involve the exchange of valued water quality or other ecological improvements between partners responding to market initiatives. This document therefore includes activities such as trades within a facility (intra-plant trading) and wetland mitigation banking, effluent trading/watersheds/watershed management/water quality protection/water quality management.

  18. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  19. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment

  20. Dose-to-water conversion for the backscatter-shielded EPID: A frame-based method to correct for EPID energy response to MLC transmitted radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwan, Benjamin J. OConnor, Daryl J.; King, Brian W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop a frame-by-frame correction for the energy response of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (a-Si EPIDs) to radiation that has transmitted through the multileaf collimator (MLC) and to integrate this correction into the backscatter shielded EPID (BSS-EPID) dose-to-water conversion model. Methods: Individual EPID frames were acquired using a Varian frame grabber and iTools acquisition software then processed using in-house software developed inMATLAB. For each EPID image frame, the region below the MLC leaves was identified and all pixels in this region were multiplied by a factor of 1.3 to correct for the under-response of the imager to MLC transmitted radiation. The corrected frames were then summed to form a corrected integrated EPID image. This correction was implemented as an initial step in the BSS-EPID dose-to-water conversion model which was then used to compute dose planes in a water phantom for 35 IMRT fields. The calculated dose planes, with and without the proposed MLC transmission correction, were compared to measurements in solid water using a two-dimensional diode array. Results: It was observed that the integration of the MLC transmission correction into the BSS-EPID dose model improved agreement between modeled and measured dose planes. In particular, the MLC correction produced higher pass rates for almost all Head and Neck fields tested, yielding an average pass rate of 99.8% for 2%/2 mm criteria. A two-sample independentt-test and fisher F-test were used to show that the MLC transmission correction resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the mean and the standard deviation of the gamma values, respectively, to give a more accurate and consistent dose-to-water conversion. Conclusions: The frame-by-frame MLC transmission response correction was shown to improve the accuracy and reduce the variability of the BSS-EPID dose-to-water conversion model. The correction may be applied as a preprocessing step in any pretreatment portal dosimetry calculation and has been shown to be beneficial for highly modulated IMRT fields.

  1. Hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics-Based Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Polyols in Liquid Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caratzoulas, Stavros; Courtney, Timothy; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2011-01-01

    We use the conversion of protonated glycerol to acrolein for a case study of the mechanism of acid-catalyzed dehydration of polyols in aqueous environments. We employ hybrid Quamtum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Molecular Dynamics (QM/MM MD) simulations with biased sampling and perform free energy calculations for the elementary steps of the reaction. We investigate the effects of solvent dynamics and in particular the role of quantum mechanical water in the dehydration mechanism. We present results supporting a mechanism that proceeds via water-mediated proton transfers and thus through an enol intermediate. We find that the first dehydration may take place by two, low-energy pathways requiring, respectively, 20.9 and 18.8 kcal/mol of activation free energy. The second dehydration requires 19.9 kcal/mol of activation free energy while for the overall reaction we compute a free energy change of -8 kcal/mol.

  2. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: We developed a high-sensitive frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. The output signal was highly enhanced by applying voltage to a metal layer on SiN. The spatial resolution of new FTE method is 41 nm. New FTE system enables observation of the intact bacteria and virus in water. - Abstract: The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41 nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  3. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  4. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (?est: 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (?est: 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 104 m3 d1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  5. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  6. Groundwater quality assessment plan for single-shell waste management area B-BX-BY at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SM Narbutovskih

    2000-03-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a first determination groundwater quality assessment at the Hanford Site. This work was performed for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, in accordance with the Federal Facility Compliance Agreement during the time period 1996--1998. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if waste from the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) B-BX-BY had entered the groundwater at levels above the drinking water standards (DWS). The resulting assessment report documented evidence demonstrating that waste from the WMA has, most likely, impacted groundwater quality. Based on 40 CFR 265.93 [d] paragraph (7), the owner-operator must continue to make the minimum required determinations of contaminant level and of rate/extent of migrations on a quarterly basis until final facility closure. These continued determinations are required because the groundwater quality assessment was implemented prior to final closure of the facility.

  7. Urban Sustainability Water Module

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-22

    Most urban areas are experiencing substantial growth rate. In order to support the growth and still maintain the high quality of life currently available in these areas, government planners, and developers and general stakeholders are very interested in a product that will allow them to experiment with different development scenarios to determine the best path forward. One of the biggest concerns is the amount of water that will be available as the growth continues. Thismore » software package will allow them as a group to input their ideas and get a visual view of the results, immediately. They will be able to watch the water resources as they are consumed by the increasing growth in residential, commercial and industrial areas.« less

  8. Quality Assurance Specialist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM), Office of Standards and Quality Assurance. The EM mission is to achieve safe and compliant...

  9. Software Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-10-02

    DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01. To define requirements and responsibilities for software quality assurance (SQA) within the Department of Energy (DOE). Does not cancel other directives.

  10. Software Quality Assurance

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-10-02

    To define requirements and responsibilities for software quality assurance (SQA) within the Department of Energy (DOE). DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01.

  11. Quality Assurance Corporate Board

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Quality Assurance Corporate Board is an executive board that includes both senior U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor representatives who are...

  12. Quality Assurance Program Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-08-16

    This Guide provides information on principles, requirements, and practices used to establish and implement an effective Quality Assurance Program. Admin Chg 2, dated 5-8-13, Admin Chg 1.

  13. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

  14. Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Keys to Successful Quality Assurance and Quality Control Programs (101), call slides and discussion summary.

  15. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  16. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

  17. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 ?m in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  18. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  19. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  20. Air Quality | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Quality Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  1. Environmental Management (EM) Quality Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Formal EM Quality Procedures that assist the Office of Standards and Quality Assurance personnel during the execution and operation of its activities.

  2. Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

    2007-05-01

    This report and its accompanying Microsoft Excel workbooksummarize water data we found to support efforts of the EnvironmentalProtection Agency s WaterSense program. WaterSense aims to extend theoperating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities and prolongthe availability of water resourcesby reducing residential andcommercial water consumption through the voluntary replacement ofinefficient water-using products with more efficient ones. WaterSense hasan immediate need for water consumption data categorized by sector and,for the residential sector, per capita data available by region. Thisinformation will assist policy makers, water and wastewater utilityplanners, and others in defining and refining program possibilities.Future data needs concern water supply, wastewater flow volumes, waterquality, and watersheds. This report focuses primarily on the immediateneed for data regarding water consumption and product end-use. We found avariety of data on water consumption at the national, state, andmunicipal levels. We also found several databases related towater-consuming products. Most of the data are available in electronicform on the Web pages of the data-collecting organizations. In addition,we found national, state, and local data on water supply, wastewater,water quality, and watersheds.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - epa_clean_water_act.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview of the Clean Water Act Clean Water Act Jessica Franks, Ph.D. Jessica Franks, Ph.D. USEPA, Region 6 USEPA, Region 6 Continuing Planning Process TMDL Minimum Elements * Identify Watershed * Identify/locate pollutant sources * Estimate existing pollutant loading * Determine assimilative capacity Point Source NPDES Permits Control Nonpoint Sources List Impaired Waters Monitor/Assess WQS Attainment Water Quality Standards Integrated Watershed Plan Clean Water Act Framework 1992 Regulations

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results...

  5. Oregon Directive for NPDES Permits and Section 401 Water Quality...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CertificationsPermittingRegulatory GuidanceSupplemental Material Abstract Provides methods and direction to be followed by the DEQ for implementing Oregon's Antidegradation...

  6. City of Glendale Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Glendale Water & Power Place: Glendale, California Zip: 91206 Product: California-based water and electrical utility. The utility is...

  7. World Wind and Water Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Water Energy LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: World Wind and Water Energy LLC Place: Delaware Sector: Wind energy Product: Delaware-based company focused on developing...

  8. Water-Stable Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework Material with High-Surface Area and Gas-Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutov, OV; Bury, W; Gomez-Gualdron, DA; Krungleviciute, V; Fairen-Jimenez, D; Mondloch, JE; Sarjeant, AA; Al-Juaid, SS; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK

    2014-08-14

    We designed, synthesized, and characterized a new Zr-based metal-organic framework material, NU-1100, with a pore volume of 1.53 ccg(-1) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 4020 m(2)g(-1); to our knowledge, currently the highest published for Zr-based MOFs. CH4/CO2/H-2 adsorption isotherms were obtained over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in excellent agreement with the computational predictions. The total hydrogen adsorption at 65 bar and 77 K is 0.092 gg(-1), which corresponds to 43 gL(-1). The volumetric and gravimetric methane-storage capacities at 65 bar and 298 K are approximately 180 v(STP)/v and 0.27 gg(-1), respectively.

  9. Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

    2010-01-06

    The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

  10. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Force Hurlburt Field, Florida In FY 2013 Hurlburt Field Air Force Base modified its water reuse system to improve capacity, resulting in savings of 13 million gallons of water...

  11. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  12. Water Network Tool for Resilience v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-12-09

    WNTR is a python package designed to simulate and analyze resilience of water distribution networks. The software includes: - Pressure driven and demand driven hydraulic simulation - Water quality simulation to track concentration, trace, and water age - Conditional controls to simulate power outages - Models to simulate pipe breaks - A wide range of resilience metrics - Analysis and visualization tools

  13. Office of Quality Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Quality Management develops and interprets Government-wide policies and procedures and conducts training to ensure the accurate identification of information and documents that must be classified or controlled under statute or Executive order to protect the national security and controlled unclassified Official Use Only information for the effective operation of the Government.

  14. Quality Assurance Program Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-08-16

    This Guide provides information on principles, requirements, and practices used to establish and implement an effective Quality Assurance Program. Cancels DOE G 414.1-2A, DOE G 414.1-3 and DOE G 414.1-5. Admin Chg 1, dated 9-27-11. Admin Chg 2, dated 5-8-13.

  15. Quality Assurance Program Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-08-16

    The directive provides guidance for DOE elements and contractors in developing and implementing an effective Quality Assurance Program. Cancels DOE G 414.1-2A, DOE G 414.1-3 and DOE G 414.1-5. Superseded by Admin Chg 1, 9-27-11.

  16. Quality Assurance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Quality Assurance QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY When properly implemented, the principles and requirements form a management system to plan, perform, assess, and improve work. The requirements are performance oriented and offer implementation flexibility. The DOE quality management system moves beyond the traditional quality assurance requirements that had become narrowly focused on compliance, and inspections. The management system is designed to link with an

  17. Water resources review: Wheeler Reservoir, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallus, R.; Cox, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    Protection and enhancement of water quality is essential for attaining the full complement of beneficial uses of TVA reservoirs. The responsibility for improving and protecting TVA reservoir water quality is shared by various federal, state, and local agencies, as well as the thousands of corporations and property owners whose individual decisions affect water quality. TVA's role in this shared responsibility includes collecting and evaluating water resources data, disseminating water resources information, and acting as a catalyst to bring together agencies and individuals that have a responsibility or vested interest in correcting problems that have been identified. This report is one in a series of status reports that will be prepared for each of TVA's reservoirs. The purpose of this status report is to provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics and conditions of Wheeler Reservoir, including: reservoir purposes and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and the watershed; water quality conditions: aquatic biological conditions: designated, actual, and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those uses; ongoing or planned reservoir management activities. Information and data presented here are form the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. 21 refs., 8 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. GrndWaterFlow.book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 THERMAL SENSITIVITY AND VERIFICATION 8.1 Introduction The flow model calibration described in earlier sections utilizes a thermal field based upon calibration of the heat flux at the base of the model domain (Appendix C). In calibrating the heat fluxes with a conduction-only model to minimize residuals between observed and simulated temperatures in boreholes, certain anomalies were identified indicating convective flow. These anomalies indicate that cooler water from near the water table is

  19. Annual hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed: Water Year 1990 (October 1989--September 1990)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Moore, G.K.; Watts, J.A.; Broders, C.C.; Bednarek, A.T.

    1991-09-01

    This report summarizes, for the Water Year 1990 (October 1989-- September 1990), the dynamic hydrologic data collected on the Whiteoak Creek (WOC) Watershed's surface and subsurface flow systems. These systems affect the quality or quantity of surface water and groundwater. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to 1. characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system, 2. plan and assess remedial action activities, and 3. provide long-term availability of data and assure quality. Characterizing the hydrology of the WOC watershed provides a better understanding of the processes which drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identifying of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. Hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. The majority of the data summarized in this report are available from the Remedial Action Programs Data and Information Management System data base. Surface water data available within the WOC flow system include discharge and runoff, surface water quality, radiological and chemical contamination of sediments, and descriptions of the outfalls to the WOC flow system. Climatological data available for the Oak Ridge area include precipitation, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction. Information on groundwater levels, aquifer characteristics, and groundwater quality are presented. Anomalies in the data and problems with monitoring and accuracy are discussed. 58 refs., 54 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of southern California to Washington, and occasional, seasonal, or transitory associations of coastal pelagic fishes such as jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) may also occur at WECs in these waters. Importantly, our review indicated that negative effects of WEC structures on special-status fish species, such as increased predation of juvenile salmonids or rockfishes, are not likely. In addition, WECs installed in coastal California, especially in southern California waters, have the potential to attract high densities of reef-associated fishes and may even contribute to rockfish productivity, if fish respond to the WECs similarly to oil and gas platforms, which have some of the highest secondary production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat studied globally (Claisse et al. 2014). We encountered some information gaps, owing to the paucity or lack, in key locations, of comparable surrogate structures in which fish assemblages and ecological interactions were studied. TECs are most likely to be used in the Puget Sound area, but suitable surrogates are lacking there. However, in similarly cold-temperate waters of Europe and Maine, benthopelagic fish occurred around tidal turbines during lower tidal velocities, and this type of interaction may be expected by similar species at TECs in Puget Sound. To address information gaps in the near term, such as whether WECs would function as FADs in temperate waters, studies of navigation buoys using hydroacoustics are recommended.

  1. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, Nancy E.; Fritz, James S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present.

  2. Liquid chromatographic determination of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fortier, N.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-11-13

    A sensitive method for the determination of water in the presence of common interferences is presented. The detection system is based on the effect of water on the equilibrium which results from the reaction aryl aldehydes, such as cinnamaldehyde and methanol in the eluent to form cinnamaldehyde dimethylacetal, plus water. This equilibrium is shifted in a catalytic atmosphere of a hydrogen ion form past column reactor. The extent of the shift and the resulting change in absorbance are proportional to the amount of water present. 1 fig.

  3. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    infrastructure - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  4. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    savings - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  5. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scarcity - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  6. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; McNeil, Michael; Dunham_Whitehead, Camilla; Letschert, Virginie; della_Cava, Mirka

    2008-02-28

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) influences the market for plumbing fixtures and fittings by encouraging consumers to purchase products that carry the WaterSense label, which certifies those products as performing at low flow rates compared to unlabeled fixtures and fittings. As consumers decide to purchase water-efficient products, water consumption will decline nationwide. Decreased water consumption should prolong the operating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities.This report describes the method used to calculate national water savings attributable to EPA?s WaterSense program. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet model, the National Water Savings (NWS) analysis model, accompanies this methodology report. Version 1.0 of the NWS model evaluates indoor residential water consumption. Two additional documents, a Users? Guide to the spreadsheet model and an Impacts Report, accompany the NWS model and this methodology document. Altogether, these four documents represent Phase One of this project. The Users? Guide leads policy makers through the spreadsheet options available for projecting the water savings that result from various policy scenarios. The Impacts Report shows national water savings that will result from differing degrees of market saturation of high-efficiency water-using products.This detailed methodology report describes the NWS analysis model, which examines the effects of WaterSense by tracking the shipments of products that WaterSense has designated as water-efficient. The model estimates market penetration of products that carry the WaterSense label. Market penetration is calculated for both existing and new construction. The NWS model estimates savings based on an accounting analysis of water-using products and of building stock. Estimates of future national water savings will help policy makers further direct the focus of WaterSense and calculate stakeholder impacts from the program.Calculating the total gallons of water the WaterSense program saves nationwide involves integrating two components, or modules, of the NWS model. Module 1 calculates the baseline national water consumption of typical fixtures, fittings, and appliances prior to the program (as described in Section 2.0 of this report). Module 2 develops trends in efficiency for water-using products both in the business-as-usual case and as a result of the program (Section 3.0). The NWS model combines the two modules to calculate total gallons saved by the WaterSense program (Section 4.0). Figure 1 illustrates the modules and the process involved in modeling for the NWS model analysis.The output of the NWS model provides the base case for each end use, as well as a prediction of total residential indoor water consumption during the next two decades. Based on the calculations described in Section 4.0, we can project a timeline of water savings attributable to the WaterSense program. The savings increase each year as the program results in the installation of greater numbers of efficient products, which come to compose more and more of the product stock in households throughout the United States.

  7. Sensitivity of health risk estimates to air quality adjustment procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, R.G.

    1997-06-30

    This letter is a summary of risk results associated with exposure estimates using two-parameter Weibull and quadratic air quality adjustment procedures (AQAPs). New exposure estimates were developed for children and child-occurrences, six urban areas, and five alternative air quality scenarios. In all cases, the Weibull and quadratic results are compared to previous results, which are based on a proportional AQAP.

  8. Seeking to calm troubled waters: The Missisquoi River Keepers Project and the development of a community-based river protection program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.M.; Delaney, M.; Dickens, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Missisquoi River, in northwestern Vermont and southern Quebec, has become the focus of efforts to develop local community-based means to address environmental and cultural concerns affecting the region`s Native and non-Native peoples. The River flows through historical Abenaki territory, and is relied upon by tribal members for subsistence, cultural, and spiritual purposes. The River has been in a controversy involving aboriginal fishing and sovereignty rights, hydroelectric development, transboundary pollution problems, protection of Native cultural and historical sites, state resource management practices, and formal federal/state recognition of the Abenaki nation. The Missisquoi River Keepers Project is a cooperative program initiated by the Abenaki in 1993 to protect the River and its watershed by uniting often adversarial Native and non-Native communities in the region. This paper discusses how ecological monitoring, environmental and cultural education, community organizing, and outreach to federal, state and local officials are being utilized to identify the watershed`s problems and to resolve conflicts. The Project is working with different interest groups to develop consensus and to find creative means to reverse the degradation of the watershed. The Project has also provided legal and technical support in reviewing environmental permits, rule-making, and enforcement of federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The Project may serve as a useful model forlocal management of watershed protection programs.

  9. Development of Technology for Effective Removal of Arsenic and Cyanides from Drinking Water and Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jae

    2008-02-09

    The purpose of the project was to perform a joint research and development effort focused upon the development of methods and the prototype facility for effective removal of arsenic and cyanides from drinking water and wastewater, based on the UPEC patented technology. The goals of this project were to validate UPEC technology, to manufacture a prototype facility meeting the market requirements, and to introduce it to both industry and municipalities which deal with the water quality. The project involved design and fabrication of one experimental unit and one prototypical industrial unit, and tests at industrial and mining sites. The project used sodium ferrate (Na2FeO4) as the media to remove arsenic in drinking water and convert arsenic into non-hazardous form. The work consisted of distinct phases ending with specific deliverables in development, design, fabrication and testing of prototype systems and eventually producing validation data to support commercial introduction of technology and its successful implementation.

  10. 2011 Quality Council Annual Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY QUALITY COUNCIL ANNUAL REPORT For Calendar Year 2011 Office of Health Safety and Security

  11. 2010 Quality Council Annual Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY QUALITY COUNCIL ANNUAL REPORT For Calendar Year 2010 Office of Health Safety and Security

  12. Quality Work Plan Training Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program's comprehensive Quality Work Plan requirements and resources to meet this obligation in the field.

  13. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

  14. SU-E-T-464: On the Equivalence of the Quality Correction Factor for Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorriaux, J; Paganetti, H; Testa, M; Giantsoudi, D; Schuemann, J; Bertrand, D; Orban de Xivry, J.; Lee, J; Palmans, H; Vynckier, S; Sterpin, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In current practice, most proton therapy centers apply IAEA TRS-398 reference dosimetry protocol. Quality correction factors (kQ) take into account in the dose determination process the differences in beam qualities used for calibration unit and for treatment unit. These quality correction factors are valid for specific reference conditions. TRS-398 reference conditions should be achievable in both scattered proton beams (i.e. DS) and scanned proton beams (i.e. PBS). However, it is not a priori clear if TRS-398 kQ data, which are based on Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in scattered beams, can be used for scanned beams. Using TOPAS-Geant4 MC simulations, the study aims to determine whether broad beam quality correction factors calculated in TRS-398 can be directly applied to PBS delivery modality. Methods: As reference conditions, we consider a 101010 cm{sup 3} homogeneous dose distribution delivered by PBS system in a water phantom (32/10 cm range/modulation) and an air cavity placed at the center of the spread-out-Bragg-peak. In order to isolate beam differences, a hypothetical broad beam is simulated. This hypothetical beam reproduces exactly the same range modulation, and uses the same energy layers than the PBS field. Ion chamber responses are computed for the PBS and hypothetical beams and then compared. Results: For an air cavity of 220.2 cm{sup 3}, the ratio of ion chamber responses for the PBS and hypothetical beam qualities is 0.9991 0.0016. Conclusion: Quality correction factors are insensitive to the delivery pattern of the beam (broad beam or PBS), as long as similar dose distributions are achieved. This investigation, for an air cavity, suggests that broad beam quality correction factors published in TRS-398 can be applied for scanned beams. J. Sorriaux is financially supported by a public-private partnership involving the company Ion Beam Applications (IBA)

  15. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  16. Underlying Quality Principles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These principles are consistent with Integrated Safety Management Policy, P 450.4A and support ISM implementation. 1. Define Policies and Objectives--Ensure they are Understood and Accepted. Management must set expectations for the organization as a whole before employees can do their jobs, satisfy their customers, and strive to improve the quality of their work. This is accomplished by developing and implementing specific policies and objectives that reflect the operating philosophy of the facility's management. Once these policies and objectives have been established, all managers must take the necessary actions to ensure that each employee shares their vision of the organization's purpose.

  17. Signed Quality Assurance Hub Memo | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    In a memorandum to the FieldSite Managers dated July 10, 2009, it was announced that the Office of Standards and Quality Assurance (EM-23) had deployed a pilot prototype web-based ...

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  19. Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    flow system Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Raft River monitor well potentiometric head responses and water quality as related to the...

  20. Quality Procedure - Audits | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Audits Quality Procedure - Audits This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for scheduling, planning, performing, and reporting Quality Assurance (QA) audits of EM-QA-001, Environmental Management Quality Assurance Program implementation at EM Headquarters and Field Office programs, facilities and projects. PDF icon Quality Procedure - Audits More Documents & Publications Quality Procedure - Document Control Quality Procedure - Supplier Qualification Quality Procedure -

  1. Quality Procedure - Document Control | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Control Quality Procedure - Document Control This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for preparing, managing, and revising EM Headquarters Office of Standards and Quality Assurance controlled documents in accordance with EM-QA-001, Environmental Management Quality Assurance Program. PDF icon Quality Procedure - Document Control More Documents & Publications Quality Procedure - Supplier Qualification Quality Procedure - Approved Suppliers List Quality Procedure - Records

  2. Air quality committee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Committees on air quality, coal, forest resources, and public lands and land use report on legislative, judicial, and administrative developments in 1979. There was no new significant air quality legislation, but a number of lawsuits raised questions about State Implementation Plans, prevention of significant deterioration, the Clean Air Act Amendments, new source performance standards, and motor vehicle emissions. Efforts to increase coal utilization emphasized implementation of the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 and the Surface Mining Program. New legislation protects certain forest products from exploitation and exportation. Forest-related lawsuits focused on the RARE II process. Land-use legislation modified credit assistance to coastal zones and the language of interstate land sales, established a new agency to consolidate flood-insurance programs, and added protection to archaeological resources. Land-use-related lawsuits covered coastal zone management, interstate land sales, Indian reservations, and land-use planning in the context of civil rights, antitrust action, exclusionary zoning, comprehensive planning, and regional general welfare. Other suits addressed grants, leasing, claims, grazing rights, surveys, and other matters of public lands concern. Administrative actions centered on implementing the Coastal Zone Management Act, establishing the Council of Energy Resource Tribes, and developing guidelines for energy development. 147 references. (DCK)

  3. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  4. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  5. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  6. Water Project Screening Tool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Excel-based tool enables federal agencies to quickly screen sites for water-efficiency opportunities. The objective of the tool is to help federal sites identify a comprehensive suite of water efficiency projects, especially targeted at energy savings performance contracts and utility energy service contracts. General information related to a site's water use is entered into the file, and the tool provides qualitative recommendations on potential water efficiency projects. The tool generates

  7. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  8. Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    04 OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review INTRODUCTION This Bulletin establishes that important scientific information shall be peer reviewed by qualified specialists before it is disseminated by the federal government. We published a proposed Bulletin on September 15, 2003. Based on public comments, we published a revised proposal for additional comment on April 28, 2004. We are now finalizing the April version, with minor revisions responsive to the

  9. Water-based lubricants for metalworking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, D.S.; Jain, V.K.

    1997-05-01

    Metalworking fluids currently constitute 17% of the total US industrial lubricant market. Market forces favor semisynthetic and synthetic formulations because they are more economical, and trends differ substantially from those of other lubricant markets as demand patterns shift. Lubricant manufacturers continue to reduce the use of mineral oil as a component in their formulations because synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are more cost-effective. The introduction of new engineering materials also has increased the demand for tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications. Synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are favored for cutting and metalworking applications because they perform better than the existing commercial product does. The literature strongly supports the development of environmentally friendly synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking lubricants that have longer useful lives, therefore decreasing the amount of fluid for disposal. Future lubricant formulations will focus on environmental issues, process compatibility, and worker health and safety. Biological control of fluids, in use and in disposal, will also draw attention.

  10. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  11. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  12. Quality Assurance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Quality Assurance PPPO's Quality Assurance (QA) program effectively and efficiently implements DOE Environmental Management (EM) QA and oversight policies/requirements across the PPPO organization and among its contractors. The EM QA program describes the methods by which QA is implemented into the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), Contractor Assurance System (CAS), and the overall work processes conducted on EM's projects. PPPO uses approved QA procedures, plans, and

  13. SOFTWARE QUALITY & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROGRAM: Software Configuration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOFTWARE QUALITY & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROGRAM: Software Configuration Management Checklist SOFTWARE QUALITY & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING PROGRAM: Software Configuration Management...

  14. Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Preliminary Quality Assurance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Preliminary Quality Assurance Implementation Plan Used Fuel Disposition Campaign Preliminary Quality Assurance Implementation Plan The primary...

  15. Career Map: Quality Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Engineer Career Map: Quality Engineer A male quality engineer sits at a desk with several computers showing data. Quality Engineer Position Title Quality Engineer Alternate Title(s) Quality Assurance, Quality Control Education & Training Level Advanced, Bachelors required, prefer graduate degree or equivalent experience Education & Training Level Description Quality engineers need a bachelor's degree in an engineering field, plus experience. Professional certifications may be

  16. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  17. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  18. International Quality Assurance Standards (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Hacke, P.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kempe, M.; Yamamichi, M.

    2011-02-01

    Tests to make quantitative predictions about photovoltaic (PV) modules are needed. This presentation proposes the creation of international quality assurance standards for PV modules.

  19. Communication Product Quality Assurance Checklists

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These quality assurance checklists list the requirements for Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) publication and exhibit communication products.

  20. Quality Procedure - Supplier Qualification | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supplier Qualification Quality Procedure - Supplier Qualification This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for supplier qualification activities conducted by Environmental Management (EM) Headquarters (HQ) Office of Standards and Quality Assurance in accordance with EM-QA-001, Environmental Management Quality Assurance Program. PDF icon Quality Procedure - Supplier Qualification More Documents & Publications Quality Procedure - Approved Suppliers List Quality Procedure -

  1. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  2. Procedures for ground-water investigations. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  3. A Basic Guide to EM's Quality Assurance Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Management » Quality Assurance » A Basic Guide to EM's Quality Assurance Program A Basic Guide to EM's Quality Assurance Program Brief booklet discussion of highlights from the EM Corporate Quality Assurance Program (based on Revision 0 of the program). PDF icon A Basic Guide to EM's Quality Assurance Program More Documents & Publications SOPP-43, EM-23 Quality Assurance Oversight Protocol for EM Review/Field Self-Assessment of Site-Specific QAPs/QIPs Protocol for EM Review/Field

  4. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace; Craig Morgan; Stephanie Carney

    2012-04-30

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  5. Characterization of image quality and image-guidance performance of a preclinical microirradiator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarkson, R.; Lindsay, P. E.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, G.; Jelveh, S.; Hill, R. P.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To assess image quality and image-guidance capabilities of a cone-beam CT based small-animal image-guided irradiation unit (micro-IGRT). Methods: A micro-IGRT system has been developed in collaboration with the authors' laboratory as a means to study the radiobiological effects of conformal radiation dose distributions in small animals. The system, the X-Rad 225Cx, consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube and a flat-panel amorphous silicon detector mounted on a rotational C-arm gantry and is capable of both fluoroscopic x-ray and cone-beam CT imaging, as well as image-guided placement of the radiation beams. Image quality (voxel noise, modulation transfer, CT number accuracy, and geometric accuracy characteristics) was assessed using water cylinder and micro-CT test phantoms. Image guidance was tested by analyzing the dose delivered to radiochromic films fixed to BB's through the end-to-end process of imaging, targeting the center of the BB, and irradiation of the film/BB in order to compare the offset between the center of the field and the center of the BB. Image quality and geometric studies were repeated over a 5-7 month period to assess stability. Results: CT numbers reported were found to be linear (R{sup 2}{>=}0.998) and the noise for images of homogeneous water phantom was 30 HU at imaging doses of approximately 1 cGy (to water). The presampled MTF at 50% and 10% reached 0.64 and 1.35 mm{sup -1}, respectively. Targeting accuracy by means of film irradiations was shown to have a mean displacement error of [{Delta}x,{Delta}y,{Delta}z]=[-0.12,-0.05,-0.02] mm, with standard deviations of [0.02, 0.20, 0.17] mm. The system has proven to be stable over time, with both the image quality and image-guidance performance being reproducible for the duration of the studies. Conclusions: The micro-IGRT unit provides soft-tissue imaging of small-animal anatomy at acceptable imaging doses ({<=}1 cGy). The geometric accuracy and targeting systems permit dose placement with submillimeter accuracy and precision. The system has proven itself to be stable over 2 yr of routine laboratory use (>1800 irradiations) and provides a platform for the exploration of targeted radiation effects in small-animal models.

  6. Solar Radiation Empirical Quality Assessment

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-03-01

    The SERIQC1 subroutine performs quality assessment of one, two, or three-component solar radiation data (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) obtained from one-minute to one-hour integrations. Included in the package is the QCFIT tool to derive expected values from historical data, and the SERIQC1 subroutine to assess the quality of measurement data.

  7. Order Module--DOE O 414.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    14.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE Order Module--DOE O 414.1D, QUALITY ASSURANCE "To ensure that DOE, including NNSA, products and services meet or exceed customers' requirements and expectations. To achieve quality for all work based upon the following principles: All work, as defined in this Order, is conducted through an integrated and effective management system. Management support for planning, organization, resources, direction, and control is essential to quality assurance (QA). Performance

  8. ESPC Success Story - Dyess Air Force Base

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DYESS AIR FORCE BASE DYESS, TEXAS Water Conservation and Green Energy ESPC SUCCESS STORY Dyess Air Force Base and surrounding west Texas has been under extreme-drought water restrictions for years. To ease the stress on the nearby city of Abilene's potable water supply, Dyess began using the city's effluent water for irrigation. They arranged to use existing oil pipelines to economically transport the water 7 miles from the city to the base. Dyess also entered into an energy savings performance

  9. Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report: Final Results (Brochure)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Results Prepared for South Coast Air Quality Management District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory CRD-01-098 Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel Demonstration in a Southern California Vehicle Fleet Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report Yosemite Waters Vehicle Evaluation Report i Alternative Fuel Trucks YOSEMITE WATERS VEHICLE EVALUATION REPORT Authors Leslie Eudy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Robb Barnitt, NREL Teresa L. Alleman, NREL August 2005 Acknowledgements This

  10. Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake Kirkham; Amy Powell; Lucas Rich

    2011-02-01

    Highly Integrated Quality Assurance – An Empirical Case Drake Kirkham1, Amy Powell2, Lucas Rich3 1Quality Manager, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625 M/S 6122, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6122 2Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory 3Quality Engineer, RPS Program, Idaho National Laboratory Contact: Voice: (208) 533-7550 Email: Drake.Kirkham@inl.gov Abstract. The Radioisotope Power Systems Program of the Idaho National Laboratory makes an empirical case for a highly integrated Quality Assurance function pertaining to the preparation, assembly, testing, storage and transportation of 238Pu fueled radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Case data represents multiple campaigns including the Pluto/New Horizons mission, the Mars Science Laboratory mission in progress, and other related projects. Traditional Quality Assurance models would attempt to reduce cost by minimizing the role of dedicated Quality Assurance personnel in favor of either functional tasking or peer-based implementations. Highly integrated Quality Assurance adds value by placing trained quality inspectors on the production floor side-by-side with nuclear facility operators to enhance team dynamics, reduce inspection wait time, and provide for immediate, independent feedback. Value is also added by maintaining dedicated Quality Engineers to provide for rapid identification and resolution of corrective action, enhanced and expedited supply chain interfaces, improved bonded storage capabilities, and technical resources for requirements management including data package development and Certificates of Inspection. A broad examination of cost-benefit indicates highly integrated Quality Assurance can reduce cost through the mitigation of risk and reducing administrative burden thereby allowing engineers to be engineers, nuclear operators to be nuclear operators, and the cross-functional team to operate more efficiently. Applicability of this case extends to any high-value, long-term project where traceability and accountability are determining factors.

  11. The Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fix, N. J.

    2007-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted interim groundwater remedial activities on the Hanford Site since the mid-1990s for several groundwater contamination plumes. DOE established the Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies Project (Technologies Project) in 2006 to evaluate alternative treatment technologies. The objectives for the technology project are as follows: develop a 300 Area polyphosphate treatability test to immobilize uranium, design and test infiltration of a phosphate/apatite technology for Sr-90 at 100-N, perform carbon tetrachloride and chloroform attenuation parameter studies, perform vadose zone chromium characterization and geochemistry studies, perform in situ biostimulation of chromium studies for a reducing barrier at 100-D, and perform a treatability test for phytoremediation for Sr-90 at 100-N. This document provides the quality assurance guidelines that will be followed by the Technologies Project. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is based on the quality assurance requirements of DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance, and 10 CFR 830, Subpart A--Quality Assurance Requirements as delineated in Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys Standards-Based Management System. In addition, the technology project is subject to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA/240/B-01/003, QA/R-5). The Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD, DOE/RL-96-68) apply to portions of this project and to the subcontractors. HASQARD requirements are discussed within applicable sections of this plan.

  12. The role of wellbore remediation on the evolution of groundwater quality from CO₂ and brine leakage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mansoor, Kayyum; Carroll, Susan A.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-12-31

    Long-term storage of CO₂ in underground reservoirs requires a careful assessment to evaluate risk to groundwater sources. The focus of this study is to assess time-frames required to restore water quality to pre-injection levels based on output from complex reactive transport simulations that exhibit plume retraction within a 200-year simulation period. We examined the relationship between plume volume, cumulative injected CO₂ mass, and permeability. The role of mitigation was assessed by projecting falloffs in plume volumes from their maximum peak levels with a Gaussian function to estimate plume recovery times to reach post-injection groundwater compositions. The results show a strongmore » correlation between cumulative injected CO₂ mass and maximum plume pH volumes and a positive correlation between CO₂ flux, cumulative injected CO₂, and plume recovery times, with secondary dependence on permeability.« less

  13. The role of wellbore remediation on the evolution of groundwater quality from CO? and brine leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansoor, Kayyum; Carroll, Susan A.; Sun, Yunwei

    2014-12-31

    Long-term storage of CO? in underground reservoirs requires a careful assessment to evaluate risk to groundwater sources. The focus of this study is to assess time-frames required to restore water quality to pre-injection levels based on output from complex reactive transport simulations that exhibit plume retraction within a 200-year simulation period. We examined the relationship between plume volume, cumulative injected CO? mass, and permeability. The role of mitigation was assessed by projecting falloffs in plume volumes from their maximum peak levels with a Gaussian function to estimate plume recovery times to reach post-injection groundwater compositions. The results show a strong correlation between cumulative injected CO? mass and maximum plume pH volumes and a positive correlation between CO? flux, cumulative injected CO?, and plume recovery times, with secondary dependence on permeability.

  14. Anderson-Cook named American Society for Quality Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anderson-Cook named ASQ Fellow Anderson-Cook named ASQ Fellow Fellows are recognized based on their pre-eminence in technology, theory, education, or the application or management of quality control. January 17, 2012 Christine Anderson-Cook Christine Anderson-Cook Contact Steve Sandoval Communications Office (505) 665-9206 Email LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, January 17, 2012-Christine Anderson-Cook of Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently selected as a Fellow of the American Society for Quality,

  15. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  16. LANL sponsors Quality New Mexico

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality New Mexico performance excellence conference April 19, 2011 April 12, 2011 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, April 12, 2011-Want to take your organization to the next level and network with performance leaders from across the nation? Los Alamos National Laboratory is the lead sponsor of the 17th annual Quality New Mexico Learning Summit and New Mexico Quality Awards ceremony, to be held April 19 and 20 at the Albuquerque Marriott Pyramid North."In the end, it all comes down to learning,"

  17. The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Overview and Summary

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Present day water and energy systems are interdependent. Water is used in all phases of energy production and electricity generation. Energy is required to extract, convey, and deliver water of appropriate quality for diverse human uses, and then again to treat wastewaters prior to their return to the environment. Historically, interactions between energy and water have been considered on a regional or technology-by- technology basis. At the national and international levels, energy and water

  18. Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants Water Use in the Development and Operations of Geothermal Power Plants This report summarizes what is currently known about the life cycle water requirements of geothermal electric power-generating systems and the water quality of geothermal waters. It is part of a larger effort to compare the life cycle impacts of large-scale geothermal electricity generation with other power generation technologies.

  19. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  20. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  1. Sandia Energy Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doe-eere-technologist-in-residence-pilotfeed 0 Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm http:energy.sandia.govsandia-team-attends-world-water-week-in-sto...

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  3. Electric Storage Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Residential Residential Lighting Energy Star Appliances Consumer Electronics Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric Storage Water...

  4. Residential Absorption Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Kyle ... Target MarketAudience: Residential gas water heating Key Partners: GE CRADA partner SRA ...

  5. CRAD, NNSA- Quality Assurance (QA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CRAD for Quality Assurance (QA). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  6. Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Congress established the Council on Environmental Quality within the Executive Office of the President as part of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In enacting NEPA, Congress...

  7. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J.

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  8. Submersible purification system for radioactive water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbott, Michael L.; Lewis, Donald R.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, submersible water purification system for use in a pool of water containing radioactive contamination includes a prefilter for filtering particulates from the water. A resin bed is then provided for removal of remaining dissolved, particulate, organic, and colloidal impurities from the prefiltered water. A sterilizer then sterilizes the water. The prefilter and resin bed are suitably contained and are submerged in the pool. The sterilizer is water tight and located at the surface of the pool. The water is circulated from the pool through the prefilter, resin bed, and sterilizer by suitable pump or the like. In the preferred embodiment, the resin bed is contained within a tank which stands on the bottom of the pool and to which a base mounting the prefilter and pump is attached. An inlet for the pump is provided adjacent the bottom of the pool, while the sterilizer and outlet for the system is located adjacent the top of the pool.

  9. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus, while there is considerable geofluid loss at 2.7 gal/kWh, fresh water consumption during operations is similar to that of aircooled binary systems. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of water demand for future growth in deployment of utility-scale geothermal power generation. The approach combines the life cycle analysis of geothermal water consumption with a geothermal supply curve according to resource type, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and potential growth scenarios. A total of 17 growth scenarios were evaluated. In general, the scenarios that assumed lower costs for EGSs as a result of learning and technological improvements resulted in greater geothermal potential, but also significantly greater water demand due to the higher water consumption by EGSs. It was shown, however, that this effect could be largely mitigated if nonpotable water sources were used for belowground operational water demands. The geographical areas that showed the highest water demand for most growth scenarios were southern and northern California, as well as most of Nevada. In addition to water demand by geothermal power production, Chapter 5 includes data on water availability for geothermal development areas. A qualitative analysis is included that identifies some of the basins where the limited availability of water is most likely to affect the development of geothermal resources. The data indicate that water availability is fairly limited, especially under drought conditions, in most of the areas with significant near- and medium-term geothermal potential. Southern California was found to have the greatest potential for water-related challenges with its combination of high geothermal potential and limited water availability. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 6. Overall, this work highlights the importance of utilizing dry cooling systems for binary and EGS systems and minimizing fresh water consumption throughout the life cycle of geothermal power development. The large resource base for EGSs represents a major opportunity for the geothermal industry; however, depending upon geology, these systems can require large quantities of makeup water due to belowground reservoir losses. Identifying potential sources of compatible degraded or low-quality water for use for makeup injection for EGS and flash systems represents an important opportunity to reduce the impacts of geothermal development on fresh water resources. The importance of identifying alternative water sources for geothermal systems is heightened by the fact that a large fraction of the geothermal resource is located in areas already experiencing water stress. Chapter 7 is a glossary of the technical terms used in the report, and Chapters 8 and 9 provide references and a bibliography, respectively.

  10. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and regulators. The report will also serve to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic decisions could be made. Finally, a discussion is provided of the role DER could play in addressing

  11. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-water...

  12. Utah Water Rights Fee Schedule | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Utah Water Rights Fee Schedule Abstract Water rights fee schedule based on amount appropriated....

  13. Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative- Residential Water Heater Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Blue Ridge Electric Cooperative offers up to $300 for the purchase of an electric water heater. The rebate amount varies based on the size of the water heater purchased.

  14. U.S. Virgin Islands- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A household can receive a maximum of two solar water heater rebates. Rebate amounts vary slightly based upon installed equipment. Rebates will be $1,250 for solar water heaters with an OG-300 rat...

  15. Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia Mirza, Program Manager

    2011-12-06

    This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  17. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  18. Quality Assurance Program Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Program Plan Quality Assurance Program Plan The achievement of quality in LM activities and products requires implementation of a formal Quality Assurance (QA) Program. This program establishes principles, requirements, practices, and methods for integrating quality into the daily operations of our programs and projects. The QA Program functions as a management tool to ensure that quality objectives are achieved throughout LM's technical, administrative, and operational

  19. Quality Assurance Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Quality Assurance Program Formal EM policy on the use of the corporate Quality Assurance Program (EM-QA-001 Rev. 1) to ensure all EM projects utilize a consistent quality assurance approach. PDF icon Quality Assurance Policy, Revision 1 PDF icon EM Quaility Assurance Program (EM-QA-001 Revision 1) More Documents & Publications EM Quality Assurance Program (EM-QA-001 Revision 1) EM Quality Assurance Program (EM-QA-001 Revision 0)

  20. Quality Procedure - Document Review | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review Quality Procedure - Document Review This procedure establishes the process for the reivew and approval of Environmental Managemnt (EM) Quality Assurance (QA) program documents as performed by the Office of Standards and Quality Assurance. This procedure also establishes the process for review and approval of other EM documents external to the EM Headquarters Office of Standards and Quality Assurance. PDF icon Quality Procedure - Document Review More Documents & Publications Quality

  1. Quality Procedure - Records Management | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Records Management Quality Procedure - Records Management This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for identifying and managing records, including quality records, generated by EM Headquarters Office of Standards and Quality Assurance personnel as well as Office of Standards and Quality Assurance representatives located in DOE EM Field Offices in accordance with EM-QA-001, Environmental Management Quality Assurance Program. PDF icon Quality Procedure - Records Management More

  2. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  3. Quality Assurance Corporate Board | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Corporate Board The Office of Environmental Management (EM) Quality ... Safety and Security Program, who is the Chief Executive Officer and Chair of the Board. ...

  4. WIPP Documents - Quality Assurance and Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality Assurance and Safety Quality Assurance Program Document DOE/CBFO-94-1012 Rev. 12 Effective date: 8/15

  5. Quality Assurance Program Guide - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CURRENT DOE G 414.1-2B Admin Chg 2, Quality Assurance Program Guide by Colette Broussard Functional areas: Administrative Change, Quality Assurance and Oversight This Guide...

  6. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  7. Energy-Water Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and

  8. Water resources review: Ocoee reservoirs, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.P.

    1990-08-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is preparing a series of reports to make technical information on individual TVA reservoirs readily accessible. These reports provide a summary of reservoir purpose and operation; physical characteristics of the reservoir and watershed; water quality conditions; aquatic biological conditions; and designated, actual and potential uses of the reservoir and impairments of those use. This reservoir status report addressed the three Ocoee Reservoirs in Polk County, Tennessee.

  9. FIELD TEST OF THE FLAME QUALITY INDICATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew M. Rudin; Thomas Butcher; Henry Troost

    2003-02-04

    The flame quality indicator concept was developed at BNL specifically to monitor the brightness of the flame in a small oil burner and to provide a ''call for service'' notification when the brightness has changed from its setpoint, either high or low. In prior development work BNL has explored the response of this system to operational upsets such as excess air changes, fouled atomizer nozzles, poor fuel quality, etc. Insight Technologies, Inc. and Honeywell, Inc. have licensed this technology from the U.S. Department of Energy and have been cooperating to develop product offerings which meet industry needs with an optimal combination of function and price. Honeywell has recently completed the development of the Flame Quality Monitor (FQM or Honeywell QS7100F). This is a small module which connects via a serial cable to the burners primary operating control. Primary advantages of this approach are simplicity, cost, and ease of installation. Call-for-service conditions are output in the form of front panel indicator lights and contact closure which can trigger a range of external communication options. Under this project a field test was conducted of the FQM in cooperation with service organizations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut. At total of 83 field sites were included. At each site the FQM was installed in parallel with another embodiment of this concept--the Insight AFQI. The AFQI incorporates a modem and provides the ability to provide detailed information on the trends in the flame quality over the course of the two year test period. The test site population was comprised of 79.5% boilers, 13.7% warm air furnaces, and 6.8% water heaters. Nearly all were of residential size--with firing rates ranging from 0.6 gallons of oil per hour to 1.25. During the course of the test program the monitoring equipment successfully identified problems including: plugged fuel lines, fouled nozzles, collapsed combustion chambers, and poor fuel pump cut-off. Service organizations can use these early indications to reduce problems and service costs. There were also some ''call-for-service'' indications for which problems were not identified. The test program also showed that monitoring of the flame can provide information on burner run times and this can be used to estimate current oversize factors and to determine actual fuel usage, enabling more efficient fuel delivery procedures.

  10. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  11. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Marine Ecotoxicology Research Station; Long, E.R. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); MacDonald, D.D. [MacDonald Environmental Sciences Ltd., Ladysmith, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) software quality plan. Part 1 : ASC software quality engineering practices version 1.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minana, Molly A.; Sturtevant, Judith E.; Heaphy, Robert; Hodges, Ann Louise; Boucheron, Edward A.; Drake, Richard Roy; Forsythe, Christi A.; Schofield, Joseph Richard, Jr.; Pavlakos, Constantine James; Williamson, Charles Michael; Edwards, Harold Carter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Software Quality Plan is to clearly identify the practices that are the basis for continually improving the quality of ASC software products. Quality is defined in DOE/AL Quality Criteria (QC-1) as conformance to customer requirements and expectations. This quality plan defines the ASC program software quality practices and provides mappings of these practices to the SNL Corporate Process Requirements (CPR 1.3.2 and CPR 1.3.6) and the Department of Energy (DOE) document, ASCI Software Quality Engineering: Goals, Principles, and Guidelines (GP&G). This quality plan identifies ASC management and software project teams' responsibilities for cost-effective software engineering quality practices. The SNL ASC Software Quality Plan establishes the signatories commitment to improving software products by applying cost-effective software engineering quality practices. This document explains the project teams opportunities for tailoring and implementing the practices; enumerates the practices that compose the development of SNL ASC's software products; and includes a sample assessment checklist that was developed based upon the practices in this document.

  13. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  14. Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quality Assurance Strategies Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Quality Assurance Strategies, call ...

  15. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  16. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  17. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  18. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  19. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps | Department of Energy Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps This December 3, 2013 webinar explored the findings of CALiPER 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps and discussed what attributes to look for to increase

  20. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1-68 Revision 0 Data Quality Objectives Summary Report: Evaluation of Natural Beryllium and Its Ratio to Other Metals in Background Hanford Surface Soils Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Rich land Operations S ENERGY Office RO. Box 550 Richland, Washington 99352 APProwed for Public Rehe Futw Dlserrdn Ur~kled DOE/RL-201 1-68 Revision 0 Data Quality Objectives Summary Report: Evaluation of Natural Beryllium and Its

  1. Weapons Quality Assurance Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5-2008 September 2008 DOE STANDARD WEAPON QUALITY ASSURANCE QUALIFICATION STANDARD NNSA Weapon Quality Assurance Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1025-2008 This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DOE-STD-1025-2008 iv INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1025-2008 v

  2. Cogeneration of Electricity and Potable Water Using The International Reactor Innovative And Secure (IRIS) Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, D.T.; Binder, J.L.; Kostin, V.I.; Panov, Y.K.; Polunichev, V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Conti, D.; Alonso, G.

    2004-10-06

    The worldwide demand for potable water has been steadily growing and is projected to accelerate, driven by a continued population growth and industrialization of emerging countries. This growth is reflected in a recent market survey by the World Resources Institute, which shows a doubling in the installed capacity of seawater desalination plants every ten years. The production of desalinated water is energy intensive, requiring approximately 3-6 kWh/m3 of produced desalted water. At current U.S. water use rates, a dedicated 1000 MW power plant for every one million people would be required to meet our water needs with desalted water. Nuclear energy plants are attractive for large scale desalination application. The thermal energy produced in a nuclear plant can provide both electricity and desalted water without the production of greenhouse gases. A particularly attractive option for nuclear desalination is to couple a desalination plant with an advanced, modular, passively safe reactor design. The use of small-to-medium sized nuclear power plants allows for countries with smaller electrical grid needs and infrastructure to add new electrical and water capacity in more appropriate increments and allows countries to consider siting plants at a broader number of distributed locations. To meet these needs, a modified version of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant design has been developed for the cogeneration of electricity and desalted water. The modular, passively safe features of IRIS make it especially well adapted for this application. Furthermore, several design features of the IRIS reactor will ensure a safe and reliable source of energy and water even for countries with limited nuclear power experience and infrastructure. The IRIS-D design utilizes low-quality steam extracted from the low-pressure turbine to boil seawater in a multi-effect distillation desalination plant. The desalination plant is based on the horizontal tube film evaporation design used successfully with the BN-350 nuclear plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan. Parametric studies have been performed to optimize the balance of plant design. Also, an economic analysis has been performed, which shows that IRIS-D should be able to provide electricity and clean water at highly competitive costs.

  3. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of measuring water vapor, making it a prime location for research of this type. The first water vapor IOP, conducted in September 1996, focused on using instruments to measure water vapor and determining the accuracy and calibration of each instrument. The second water vapor IOP, held in September and October of 1997,

  4. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitable water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount of water vapor in a vertical column of air, often expressed as the depth of the layer of water that would be formed if all the water vapor were condensed to liquid water. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following

  5. Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maintaining System Air Quality Maintaining System Air Quality This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET #12 PDF icon Maintaining System Air Quality (August 2004) More Documents & Publications Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Engineer End Uses for Maximum Efficiency Stabilizing System Pressure

  6. Quality engineering as a discipline of study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, Rachel R.; Hoover, Marcey L.

    2012-12-01

    The current framework for quality scholarship in the United States ranges from the training and education of future quality engineers, managers, and professionals to focused and sustained research initiatives that, through academic institutions and other organizations, aim to improve the knowledge and application of quality across a variety of sectors. Numerous quality journals also provide a forum for professional dissemination of information.

  7. Quality Work Plan Inspection and Monitoring Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Inspection and monitoring requirements for Weatherization Assistance Program's comprehensive Quality Work Plan.

  8. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  9. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup 2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  10. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  11. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  12. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  13. 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award Winner David Morin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster features 2013 Federal Energy and Water Management Award winner David Morin of the U.S. Air Force's Laughlin Air Force Base in Texas.

  14. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for ...

  15. Consolidated Water Power Company CWPCo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CWPCo Jump to: navigation, search Name: Consolidated Water Power Company (CWPCo) Place: Wisconsin Sector: Hydro Product: Wisconsin-based owner and operator of hydroelectric power...

  16. California State Water Resources Control Board | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. California State Water Resources Control Board is an organization based in Sacramento, California. References "SWRCB...

  17. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NAS Oceana decided to decentralize the heating and cooling system based on the calculated potential energy and water savings of the localized boilers and ground source heat pumps. ...

  18. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  19. NDN Water Summit 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The NDN Water Summit is a two-day summit to build tribal executive capacity through a strategic series of forums, events, and sharing of documentation and experiences. Speakers will cover topics on water policy, climate change, and more.

  20. Indian Water 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Indian Water is a call to help plan a national water summit. This strategic session consist of a facilitated dialog with tribal leaders on important opportunities, challenges and tactics, which...

  1. Order Module--SAFETY SOFTWARE GUIDE FOR USE WITH 10 CFR 830, SUBPART A, QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS, AND DOE O 414.1C, QUALITY ASSURANCE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     According to DOE-STD-1146-2007, General Technical Base Qualification Standard, this module was to summarize the quality assurance information found in attachments 3, 4, and 5, of DOE O 414.1C,...

  2. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-20

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories Combustion Engineering, Inc., (ABB CE) and CQ Inc. completed a broad, comprehensive program to demonstrate the economic and environmental benefits of using higher quality U.S. coals for electrical power generation and developed state-of-the-art user-friendly software--Coal Quality Expert (CQE)-to reliably predict/estimate these benefits in a consistent manner. The program was an essential extension and integration of R and D projects performed in the past under U.S. DOE and EPRI sponsorship and it expanded the available database of coal quality and power plant performance information. This software will permit utilities to purchase the lowest cost clean coals tailored to their specific requirements. Based on common interest and mutual benefit, the subject program was cosponsored by the U.S. DOE, EPRI, and eight U.S. coal-burning utilities. In addition to cosponsoring this program, EPN contributed its background research, data, and computer models, and managed some other supporting contracts under the terms of a project agreement established between CQ Inc. and EPRI. The essential work of the proposed project was performed under separate contracts to CQ Inc. by Electric Power Technologies (El?'T), Black and Veatch (B and V), ABB Combustion Engineering, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), and Decision Focus, Inc. Although a significant quantity of the coals tied in the United States are now cleaned to some degree before firing, for many of these coals the residual sulfur content requires users to install expensive sulfur removal systems and the residual ash causes boilers to operate inefficiently and to require frequent maintenance. Disposal of the large quantities of slag and ash at utility plant sites can also be problematic and expensive. Improved and advanced coal cleaning processes can reduce the sulfur content of many coals to levels conforming to environmental standards without requiring post-combustion desulfurization systems. Also, some coals may be beneficiated or blended to a quality level where significantly less costly desulfurization systems are needed. Coal cleaning processes may also be used to remove the precursors of other troublesome emissions that can be identified now or in the future. An added benefit of coal cleaning and blending is the reduction in concentrations of mineral impurities in the fuel leading to improved performance and operation of the'' boiler in which it is fired. The ash removed during the pre-combustion cleaning process can be more easily and safely disposed of at the mine than at the utility plant after combustion. EPRI's Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) has shown that improved fuel quality can result in savings in unit capital and operating costs. This project produced new and improved software to select coal types and specifications resulting in the best quality and lowest cost fuel to meet specific environmental requirements.

  3. Electrolysis of Water

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students observe the electrolysis of water using either photovoltaics or a battery as the electric energy source.

  4. Water | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States The Energy Sector withdraws more freshwater than any other sector in the United States Significant opportunities are emerging in the public and private sector to tackle water stewardship: the U.S. Department of Energy has identified the energy-water nexus as an emerging activity that require substantial R&D investment in the coming years, and DOE's Water Energy Nexus report has identified reclaimed

  5. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water Vapor Water vapor is the most effective, fastest changing, and least understood of the greenhouse gases. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas; as a matter of fact, it is the dominant greenhouse gas. But scientists don't

  6. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  7. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  8. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  9. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  10. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  11. High-Quality, Low-Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Quality, Low- Cost Bulk Gallium Nitride Substrates Electrochemical Solution Growth: A Scalable Semiconductor Manufacturing Process The ever-growing demand in the past decade for more energy effcient solid-state lighting and electrical power conversion is leading to a higher demand for wide bandgap semiconductor-based devices, such as gallium nitride (GaN), over traditional silicon (Si)-based devices. High cost and limited availability, how- ever, have hindered the adoption of GaN substrates

  12. Impact of leaf motion constraints on IMAT plan quality, deliver accuracy, and efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Fan; Rao Min; Ye Jinsong; Shepard, David M.; Cao Daliang

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) is a radiation therapy delivery technique that combines the efficiency of arc based delivery with the dose painting capabilities of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A key challenge in developing robust inverse planning solutions for IMAT is the need to account for the connectivity of the beam shapes as the gantry rotates from one beam angle to the next. To overcome this challenge, inverse planning solutions typically impose a leaf motion constraint that defines the maximum distance a multileaf collimator (MLC) leaf can travel between adjacent control points. The leaf motion constraint ensures the deliverability of the optimized plan, but it also impacts the plan quality, the delivery accuracy, and the delivery efficiency. In this work, the authors have studied leaf motion constraints in detail and have developed recommendations for optimizing the balance between plan quality and delivery efficiency. Methods: Two steps were used to generate optimized IMAT treatment plans. The first was the direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) inverse planning module in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. Then, a home-grown arc sequencer was applied to convert the optimized intensity maps into deliverable IMAT arcs. IMAT leaf motion constraints were imposed using limits of between 1 and 30 mm/deg. Dose distributions were calculated using the convolution/superposition algorithm in the Pinnacle{sup 3} planning system. The IMAT plan dose calculation accuracy was examined using a finer sampling calculation and the quality assurance verification. All plans were delivered on an Elekta Synergy with an 80-leaf MLC and were verified using an IBA MatriXX 2D ion chamber array inserted in a MultiCube solid water phantom. Results: The use of a more restrictive leaf motion constraint (less than 1-2 mm/deg) results in inferior plan quality. A less restrictive leaf motion constraint (greater than 5 mm/deg) results in improved plan quality but can lead to less accurate dose distribution as evidenced by increasing discrepancies between the planned and the delivered doses. For example, the results from our patient-specific quality assurance measurements demonstrated that the average gamma analysis passing rate decreased from 98% to 80% when the allowable leaf motion increased from 3 to 20 mm/deg. Larger leaf motion constraints also led to longer treatment delivery times (2 to 4 folds) due to the additional MLC leaf motion. Conclusions: Leaf motion constraints significantly impact IMAT plans in terms of plan quality, delivery accuracy, and delivery efficiency with the impact magnified for more complex cases. Our studies indicate that a leaf motion constraint of 2 to 3 mm/deg of gantry rotation can provide an optimal balance between plan quality, delivery accuracy, and efficiency.

  13. Algae culture for cattle feed and water purification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varani, F.T.; Schellenbach, S.; Veatch, M.; Grover, P.; Benemann, J.

    1980-05-16

    The feasibility of algae growth on centrate from anaerobic digester effluent and the refeed of both effluent solids and the algae to feedlot cattle were investigated. The digester was operated with dirt feedlot manure. The study serves as a supplement for the work to design a utility sized digester for the City of Lamar to convert local feedlot manure into a fuel gas. The biogas produced would power the electrical generation plant already in service. Previous studies have established techniques of digester operation and the nutritional value for effluent solids as fed to cattle. The inclusion of a single-strain of algae, Chlorella pyrenidosa in the process was evaluated here for its capability (1) to be grown in both open and closed ponds of the discharge water from the solids separation part of the process, (2) to purify the discharge water, and (3) to act as a growth stimulant for cattle feed consumption and conversion when fed at a rate of 6 grams per head per day. Although it was found that the algae could be cultured and grown on the discharge water in the laboratory, the study was unable to show that algae could accomplish the other objectives successfully. However, the study yielded supplementary information useful to the overall process design of the utility plant. This was (1) measurement of undried digester solids fed to cattle in a silage finishing ration (without algae) at an economic value of $74.99 per dry ton based on nutritional qualities, (2) development of a centrate treatment system to decolorize and disinfect centrate to allow optimum algae growth, and (3) information on ionic and mass balances for the digestion system. It is the recommendation of this study that algae not be used in the process in the Lamar bioconversion plant.

  14. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality PDF icon mfg-initiative_factsheet_jun2015.pdf More Documents & Publications Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality Prospects for U.S.-Based Manufacturing in the SSL Industry Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Development Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

  15. Field demonstration of coal combustion by-products based road sub-base in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Mohanty, S.; Bryant, M.

    2006-07-01

    Development and demonstration of large-volume beneficial use applications for ponded fly ash are considered very important as a cost reduction strategy for the generation industry and value enhancement for the coal mining industry. One such application described is the road sub-base fo the Industry Access Truck Route in Meredosia, Illinois, which used approximately 77,000 cubic yard of compacted high loss-on-ignition (LOI) Class-F ponded fly ash. The Truck Route is a 24-feet wide road built on a 0 to 7 feet thick compacted fly ash sub-base. Illinois Department of Transportation estimated that the use of fly ash in this project saved more than $100,000 to the State of Illinois. Furthermore, natural resources in the form of relatively fertile soil were preserved by substituting fly ash for the available borrow in the area; quality agricultural topsoil is limited in the area. The article gives details of the project and reports favourable results on monitoring ground water quality. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Substitute Water Supply Plans Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Division of Water Resources Substitute Water Supply...

  17. Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  18. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  19. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: Part I. Water and solute movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-02-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  20. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-06-29

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

  1. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  2. SU-E-T-552: Minimum Monitor Unit Effects On Plan Quality for Multi-Field Optimized Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, M; Beltran, C; Herman, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of the minimum monitor unit (MU) on the quality of clinical treatment plans for scanned proton therapy. Methods: Delivery system characteristics limit the minimum number of protons that can be delivered per spot, resulting in a min-MU limit. Plan quality can be impacted by the min-MU limit. Two sites were used to investigate the impact of min-MU on treatment plans: pediatric brain tumor at a depth of 5-10 cm; a head and neck tumor at a depth of 1-20 cm. Three field intensity modulated spot scanning proton plans were created for each site with the following parameter variations: min-MU limit range of 0.0000-0.0060; and spot spacing range of 0.5-2.0σ of the nominal spot size at isocenter in water (σ=4mm in this work). Comparisons were based on target homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. Results: The increase of the min-MU with a fixed spot spacing decreases plan quality both in homogeneous target coverage and in the avoidance of critical structures. Both head and neck and pediatric brain plans show a 20% increase in relative dose for the hot spot in the CTV and 10% increase in key critical structures when comparing min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0060 with a fixed spot spacing of 1σ. The DVHs of CTVs show min-MU limits of 0.0000 and 0.0010 produce similar plan quality and quality decreases as the min-MU limit increases beyond 0.0020. As spot spacing approaches 2σ, degradation in plan quality is observed when no min-MU limit is imposed. Conclusion: Given a fixed spot spacing of ≤ 1σ of the spot size in water, plan quality decreases as min- MU increases greater than 0.0020. The effect of min-MU should be taken into consideration while planning spot scanning proton therapy treatments to realize its full potential.

  3. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1991. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Restoration of aquatic ecosystems - science, technologies and public policy; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences; and Ground water models - scientific and regulatory applications. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  4. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1993-1994. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Alternatives for ground water cleanup; Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; and, Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  5. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1992-1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1992. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; Ground water vulnerability assessment; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; and Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  6. 1998 Cost and Quality Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8) Distribution Category UC-950 Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants 1998 Tables June 1999 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of

  7. CBEI - Improving Benchmarking Data Quality

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Benchmarking Data Quality 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Scott Wagner, swagner@engr.psu.edu CBEI - Pennsylvania State University Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 5/1/2014 Planned end date: 4/30/2016 Key Milestones: 1. Analysis of 2013 Philadelphia benchmarking data; Evaluation of Proficiency in Benchmarking Certificate program; Draft engagement strategy for Baltimore; 6/30/2014 2. Final Guide to Community-Wide Benchmarking Analysis, facts sheets and web content;

  8. Concentrations of 23 trace elements in ground water and surface water at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1988--91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liszewski, M.J.; Mann, L.J.

    1993-12-31

    Analytical data for 23 trace elements are reported for ground- and surface-water samples collected at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during 1988--91. Water samples were collected from 148 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer, 18 wells completed in discontinuous deep perched-water zones, and 1 well completed in an alluvial aquifer. Surface-water samples also were collected from three streams, two springs, two ponds, and one lake. Data are categorized by concentrations of total recoverable of dissolved trace elements. Concentrations of total recoverable trace elements are reported for unfiltered water samples and include results for one or more of the following: aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and zinc. Concentrations of dissolved trace elements are reported for water samples filtered through a nominal 0.45-micron filter and may also include bromide, fluoride, lithium, molybdenum, strontium, thallium, and vanadium. Concentrations of dissolved hexavalent chromium also are reported for many samples. The water samples were analyzed at the US Geological Survey`s National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado. Methods used to collect the water samples and quality assurance instituted for the sampling program are described. Concentrations of chromium equaled or exceeded the maximum contaminant level at 12 ground-water quality monitoring wells. Other trace elements did not exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels.

  9. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  10. Quality at Y-12, part 2Or: Looking at Y-12 weapons quality ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality at Y-12, part 2 Or: Looking at Y-12 weapons quality (title as it appeared in The Oak Ridger) Thanks to Ken Bernander and Bud Leete we continue with the history of Quality...

  11. Quality at Y-12, part 3 -- Or: Quality goes beyond nuclear weapons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality at Y-12, part 3 Or: Quality goes beyond nuclear weapons (title as it appeared in The Oak Ridger) As we continue our look at the history of Quality at Y-12, Bud Leete, Y-12 ...

  12. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse...

  13. Water Heaters | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202"...

  14. Water Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Gateway Edit History Water Power (Redirected from Water) Jump to: navigation, search Water Power Community Forum...

  15. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs. Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn

  16. Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Forecasting model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainard, James Robert

    2009-10-01

    This report documents The Nambe Pueblo Water Budget and Water Forecasting model. The model has been constructed using Powersim Studio (PS), a software package designed to investigate complex systems where flows and accumulations are central to the system. Here PS has been used as a platform for modeling various aspects of Nambe Pueblo's current and future water use. The model contains three major components, the Water Forecast Component, Irrigation Scheduling Component, and the Reservoir Model Component. In each of the components, the user can change variables to investigate the impacts of water management scenarios on future water use. The Water Forecast Component includes forecasting for industrial, commercial, and livestock use. Domestic demand is also forecasted based on user specified current population, population growth rates, and per capita water consumption. Irrigation efficiencies are quantified in the Irrigated Agriculture component using critical information concerning diversion rates, acreages, ditch dimensions and seepage rates. Results from this section are used in the Water Demand Forecast, Irrigation Scheduling, and the Reservoir Model components. The Reservoir Component contains two sections, (1) Storage and Inflow Accumulations by Categories and (2) Release, Diversion and Shortages. Results from both sections are derived from the calibrated Nambe Reservoir model where historic, pre-dam or above dam USGS stream flow data is fed into the model and releases are calculated.

  17. A High Spatiotemporal Assessment of Consumptive Water Use and Water Scarcity in the Conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Brandon C.; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik

    2015-08-15

    Increasing demands for energy production and national objectives for securing energy independence from domestic sources of energy, both renewable and non-renewable, are heavily dependent on available water resources. This explicit interdependency between energy production and required water resources is commonly referred to as the water-energy nexus The competition for available water resources can, in part, be understood by evaluating the quantity, timing and spatial distribution of water availability and use. The location and timing at which water is available and consumed dominantly affects the extent to which not only energy and water influence one another, but also the greater cross-sector dependencies that for example, influence agriculture, industry, environment, economics, and social well-being. The understanding of water resources and its use, from a spatiotemporal perspective, is critical for shaping future water use policy and management, planning for change-based impacts at the local level, and resolving prevalent issues and priorities now and into the future. To this end, we present a systematic method for both spatial and temporal disaggregation of United States Geological Survey (USGS) annual, county-scale water use data to a consistent 1/8 spatial resolution at a monthly time-step. The utility of this approach and the resulting data are demonstrated by examining water scarcity at varying spatiotemporal resolutions in the context of food and energy security.

  18. 242-A Evaporator quality assurance plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basra, T.S.

    1995-05-04

    The purpose of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is to provide requirements for activities pertaining to sampling, shipping, and analyses associated with candidate feed tank samples for the 242-A Evaporator project. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator project is to reduce the volume of aqueous waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System and will result in considerable savings to the disposal of mixed waste. The 242-A Evaporator feed stream originates from DSTs identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A Evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending the condensate (called process condensate) to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LEPF) storage basin where it is stored prior to treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this quality assurance project plan is to provide the planning, implementation, and assessment of sample collection and analysis, data issuance, and validation activities for the candidate feed tanks.

  19. Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlich, M.; Jockwer, N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on JOCKWERS experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of these studies was to select a water transport model, that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse Salt Mine. The main result is, that an evaporation front model, with Knudsen-type vapor transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non evaporated zone, showed the best agreement with experimental evidence.

  20. The hazardous priority substances in Italy: National rules and environmental quality standard in marine environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggi, Chiara Onorati, Fulvio Lamberti, Claudia Virno Cicero, Anna Maria

    2008-01-15

    Article number 16 of the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) lays down the community strategy for establishment of harmonised quality standards for the priority substances and other substances posing a significant risk to the aquatic environment. In order to achieve the protection objectives of the Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of the Environment proposed the quality standards for surface water, sediments and biota related to the priority substances listed in the decision No. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of November 20 (2001) [Decision N. 2455/2001/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 November 2001. The list of priority substances in the field of water policy and amending Directive 2000/60/EC. Official Journal of the European Communities, 15.12.2001, p. 5]. Particularly, for the protection of the marine environment, the proposed Italian rules state that, from 1 January 2021, the concentrations of the hazardous priority substances in Italian marine and lagoon waters must be near the natural background for natural substances, like metals, and near zero for the anthropogenic one. According to Directive 2000/60/EC, the Italian Ministry of Environment issued in 2003 Decree 367 in which has derived 160 Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water and 27 Environmental Quality Objective (EQO) for sediment of marine coastal area, lagoons and coastal ponds. Biota quality standards have still to be fixed. The paper illustrates the criteria applied for the definition of the quality standards and some comments are presented.