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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Water-based lubricants for metalworking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metalworking fluids currently constitute 17% of the total US industrial lubricant market. Market forces favor semisynthetic and synthetic formulations because they are more economical, and trends differ substantially from those of other lubricant markets as demand patterns shift. Lubricant manufacturers continue to reduce the use of mineral oil as a component in their formulations because synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are more cost-effective. The introduction of new engineering materials also has increased the demand for tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications. Synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are favored for cutting and metalworking applications because they perform better than the existing commercial product does. The literature strongly supports the development of environmentally friendly synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking lubricants that have longer useful lives, therefore decreasing the amount of fluid for disposal. Future lubricant formulations will focus on environmental issues, process compatibility, and worker health and safety. Biological control of fluids, in use and in disposal, will also draw attention.

Shukla, D.S.; Jain, V.K. [Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehradun (India)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

LG/BV series water lubrication VSD oil-free screw compressor ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

LG/BV series water lubrication VSD oil-free screw compressor,Kunshan CompAirs Machinery Plant Co.,Ltd is the leading air compressor manufacturer and ...

4

Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

5

Lubricant Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...are lubricated with one of the following types: Oil Grease Adhesive open-gear lubricant Solid lubricant The optimum lubricant for any application is the product that is the

6

Lubricant compositions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention provides a lubricant additive having improved antioxidant and antiwear properties made by (1) reacting an alkenylsuccinic anhydride (Asa) with an aminopolyhydroxy compound and (2) reacting the product thus obtained with a phosphorus trihalide and a polyhydroxyaromatic compound. The invention also provides a lubricant composition containing the additive.

Frangatos, G.

1980-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

7

Lubricant compositions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention provides a lubricant additive and a lubricant composition having improved demulsifying and anti-wear properties resulting from the addition thereto of such additive, which is made by reacting a partially esterified multifunctional alcohol with a phosphorus oxyhalide or a trihydrocarbyl phosphate.

Frangatos, G.

1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Reynolds, James W. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Engine lubrication oil aeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lubrication system of an internal combustion engine serves many purposes. It lubricates moving parts, cools the engine, removes impurities, supports loads, and minimizes friction. The entrapment of air in the lubricating ...

Baran, Bridget A. (Bridget Anne)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lubricants to someone by Lubricants to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research Materials Technologies Lubricants As most vehicles are on the road for more than 15 years before they are retired, investigating technologies that will improve today's vehicles is

11

DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

Qu, Jun [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Evaluation and Test of Improved Fire Resistant Fluid Lubricants for Water Reactor Coolant Pump Motors, Volume 1: Fluid Evaluation, Bearing Model Tests, Motor Tests, and Fire Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercially available fire-resistant fluid lubricants were evaluated to determine their suitability for use in primary-system pump motors in nuclear reactors. Volume 1 describes the procedures and results of tests of lubrication properties; fire and radiation resistance; and thermal, oxidative, and hydrolytic stability.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lubricants Lubricants As most vehicles are on the road for more than 15 years before they are retired, investigating technologies that will improve today's vehicles is essential. Because 11.5 percent of fuel energy is consumed by engine friction, decreasing this friction through lubricants can lead to substantial improvements in the fuel economy of current vehicles, without needing to wait for the fleet to turn over. In fact, a 1 percent fuel savings in the existing vehicle fleet possible through lubricants could save 97 thousand barrels of oil a day or $3.5 billion a year. Because of these benefits, the Vehicle Technologies Office supports research on lubricants that can improve the efficiency of internal combustion engine vehicles, complementing our work on advanced combustion engine technology.

15

United States lubricant demand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines United States Lubricant Demand for Automotive and Industrial Lubricants by year from 1978 to 1992 and 1997. Projected total United States Lubricant Demand for 1988 is 2,725 million (or MM) gallons. Automotive oils are expected to account for 1,469MM gallons or (53.9%), greases 59MM gallons (or 2.2%), and Industrial oils will account for the remaining 1,197MM gallons (or 43.9%) in 1988. This proportional relationship between Automotive and Industrial is projected to remain relatively constant until 1992 and out to 1997. Projections for individual years between 1978 to 1992 and 1997 are summarized.

Solomon, L.K.; Pruitt, P.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

Whisman, Marvin L. (Bartlesville, OK); Goetzinger, John W. (Bartlesville, OK); Cotton, Faye O. (Bartlesville, OK)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

PAO lubricant inhibits bit balling, speeds drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For drilling operations, a new polyalphaolefin (PAO) lubricant improves penetration rates by reducing bit balling tendencies in water-based mud. The additive also reduces drillstring drag. This enables the effective transmission of weight to the bit and thereby increases drilling efficiency in such applications as directional and horizontal drilling. The paper describes drilling advances, bit balling, laboratory testing, and test analysis.

Mensa-Wilmot, G. [GeoDiamond, Houston, TX (United States); Garrett, R.L. [Garrett Fluid Technology, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Stokes, R.S. [Coastal Superior Solutions Inc., Lafayette, LA (United States)

1997-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

19

Lubrication with boric acid additives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Turbine Oil Lubrication Compatibility Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's Nuclear Maintenance Application Center (NMAC) has been assisting member utilities with Lubrication issues for a number of years. This assistance includes providing answers to lubrication related problems over the phone, testing samples sent by members, providing written answers when required, publication of the NMAC newsletter (Lube Notes) once a year, and providing a Lubrication Guide which provides guidance on lubrication technology and practices that relate to the nuclear power industry. Part o...

2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Materials - Coatings & Lubricants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coatings and Lubricants: Coatings and Lubricants: Super-Hard and Ultra-Low-Friction Films for Friction and Wear Control Ali Erdemir researches nanolubricants. Ali Erdemir researches nanolubricants. The many rolling, rotating and sliding mechanical assemblies in advanced transportation vehicles present friction and wear challenges for automotive engineers. These systems operate under severe conditions-high loads, speeds and temperatures-that currently available materials and lubricants do not tolerate well. Improving the surface friction and wear characteristics of the mechanical system components is an opportunity for engineers, and the use of super-hard, slippery surface films offers promise. Argonne scientists have developed a number of smooth, wear-resistant, low-friction nanocomposite nitride and diamond-like carbon films that have

22

Studies of the frictional heating of polycrystalline diamond compact drag tools during rock cutting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A numerical-analytical model is developed to analyze temperatures in polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drag tools subject to localized frictional heating at a worn flat area and convective cooling at exposed lateral surfaces. Experimental measurements of convective heat transfer coefficients of PDC cutters in a uniform crossflow are presented and used in the model to predict temperatures under typical drilling conditions with fluid flow. The analysis compares favorably with measurements of frictional temperatures in controlled cutting tests on Tennessee marble. It is found that average temperatures at the wearflat contact zone vary directly with frictional force per unit area and are proportional to the one-half power of the cutting speed at the velocities investigated. Temperatures are found to be much more sensitive to decreases in the dynamic friction by lubrication than to increases in convective cooling rates beyond currently achievable levels with water or drilling fluids. It is shown that use of weighted drilling fluids may actually decrease cooling rates compared to those achieved with pure water. It is doubtful that tool temperatures can be kept below critical levels (750/sup 0/C) if air is employed as the drilling fluid. The degree of tool wear is found to have a major influence on the thermal response of the friction contact zone, so that for equal heating per contact area, a worn tool will run much hotter than a sharp tool. It is concluded that tool temperatures may be kept below critical levels with conventional water or mud cooling as long as the fluid provides good cutter-rock lubrication.

Ortega, A.; Glowka, D.A.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels and Lubricants Fuels and Lubricants Research to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Fuels & Lubricants Fuel Effects on Combustion Lubricants Natural Gas Research Biofuels End-Use Research

24

PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) bit research at Sandia National Laboratories  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

From the beginning of the geothermal development program, Sandia has performed and supported research into polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. These bits are attractive because they are intrinsically efficient in their cutting action (shearing, rather than crushing) and they have no moving parts (eliminating the problems of high-temperature lubricants, bearings, and seals.) This report is a summary description of the analytical and experimental work done by Sandia and our contractors. It describes analysis and laboratory tests of individual cutters and complete bits, as well as full-scale field tests of prototype and commercial bits. The report includes a bibliography of documents giving more detailed information on these topics. 26 refs.

Finger, J.T.; Glowka, D.A.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Polycrystalline semiconductor processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by imgingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step.

Glaeser, Andreas M. (Scituate, MA); Haggerty, John S. (Lincoln, MA); Danforth, Stephen C. (Winchester, MA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Mass transport through polycrystalline microstructures  

SciTech Connect

Mass transport properties are important in polycrystalline materials used as protective films. Traditionally, such properties have been studied by examining model polycrystalline structures, such as a regular array of straight grain boundaries. However, these models do not account for a number of features of real grain ensembles, including the grain size distribution and variations in grain shape. In this study, a finite difference scheme is developed to study transient and steady-state mass transport through realistic two dimensional polycrystalline microstructures. Comparisons with the transport properties of traditional model microstructures provide regimes of applicability of such models. The effects of microstructural parameters such as average grain size are examined.

Swiler, T.P.; Holm, E.A.; Young, M.F.; Wright, S.A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries, polycrystalline semiconductors and ceramics havelaser industry, people are also seeking good ceramic laser

Wang, Zhaojie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Defining the role of elastic lubricants and micro textured surfaces in lubricated, sliding friction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solutions for reducing friction in sliding, lubricated systems include modifying lubricant rheology using polymers and adding a micro-scale texture to the sliding surfaces, but the mechanism of how lubrication properties ...

Hupp, Sara J. (Sara Jean), 1979-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fuels & Lubricant Technologies- FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels & Lubricants Technology Fuels & Lubricants Technology Fuels and lubricants research at FEERC involves study of the impacts of fuel and lubricant properties on advanced combustion processes as well as on emissions and emission control strategies and devices. The range of fuels studied includes liquid fuels from synthetic and renewable sources as well as conventional and unconventional fossil-based sources. Combustion and emissions studies are leveraged with relevant single and multi-cylinder engine setups in the FEERC and access to a suite of unique diagnostic tools and a vehicle dynamometer laboratory. ORNL/DOE research has been cited by EPA in important decisions such as the 2006 diesel sulfur rule and the 2010/2011 E15 waiver decision. Major program categories and examples

31

Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

Qu, J. [ORNL] [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company] [General Motors Company

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Guidelines for Maintaining Steam Turbine Lubrication Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failures of steam turbine bearings and rotors cost the utility industry an estimated $150 million a year. A third of these failures involve contaminated lubricants or malfunctioning lubricant supply system components. This report, outlining a comprehensive surveillance program, presents guidelines for maintaining major elements in the turbine lubrication system.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Multifunctional lubricant additives and compositions thereof  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses an antioxidant/ antiwear/extreme pressure/load carrying lubricant composition. It comprises a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease or other solid lubricant prepared therefrom and a minor amount of an ashless multifunctional antioxidant/antiwear/extreme pressure/load carrying additive product comprising a thiophosphate derived from a dihydrocarbyl dithiocarbamate.

Farng, L.O.; Horodysky, A.G.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

34

Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

USDOE Top-of-Rail Lubricant Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lubrication of wheel/rail systems has been recognized for the last two decades as a very important issue for railroads. Energy savings and less friction and wear can be realized if a lubricant can be used at the wheel/rail interface. On the other hand, adverse influences are seen in operating and wear conditions if improper or excessive lubrication is used. Also, inefficiencies in lubrication need to be avoided for economic and environmental reasons. The top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant concept was developed by Texaco Corporation to lubricate wheels and rails effectively and efficiently. Tranergy Corporation has been developing its SENTRAEN 2000{trademark} lubrication system for the last ten years, and this revolutionary new high-tech on-board rail lubrication system promises to dramatically improve the energy efficiency, performance, safety, and track environment of railroads. The system is fully computer-controlled and ensures that all of the lubricant is consumed as the end of the train passes. Lubricant quantity dispensed is a function of grade, speed, curve, and axle load. Tranergy also has its LA4000{trademark} wheel and rail simulator, a lubrication and traction testing apparatus. The primary task of this project was collecting and analyzing the volatile and semivolatile compounds produced as the lubricant was used. The volatile organic compounds were collected by Carbotrap cartridges and analyzed by adsorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The semivolatile fraction was obtained by collecting liquid that dripped from the test wheel. The collected material was also analyzed by GC/MS. Both of these analyses were qualitative. The results indicated that in the volatile fraction, the only compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund List of Analytes detected were contaminants either in the room air or from other potential contamination sources in the laboratory. Similarly, in the semivolatile fraction none of the detected compounds are on the EPA's Superfund List of Analytes. The major compound in the semivolatile fraction is 1,2-propanediol, which was also found as the major component of the TOR lubricant before testing. Other compounds found in trace quantities either were present in the TOR lubricant or were small fragments from the polymeric component of the TOR lubricant. The second task for Argonne in this project was to investigate the effects of axle load, angle of attack, and quantity of lubricant on lateral friction forces, as well as the consumption time of the TOR lubricant. The second task was to collect and qualitatively identify any volatile and semivolatile compounds produced upon use of the TOR lubricant.

Mohumad F. Alzoubi; George R. Fenske; Robert A. Erck; Amrit S. Boparai

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Power Circuit Breaker Lubrication: Laboratory Assessments and Lubrication Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The life cycle performance of a high voltage circuit breaker is, to a large degree, determined by the performance of the materials and components that make up the complete breaker. The rates of deterioration of components such as compressors, pumps, seals, linkages and their lubrication and interrupter elements drive the requirements for circuit breaker maintenance and refurbishment. EPRI has conducted a series of investigation to enhance knowledge of aging processes and to identify those materials ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

Biofluid lubrication for artificial joints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research investigated biofluid lubrication related to artificial joints using tribological and rheological approaches. Biofluids studied here represent two categories of fluids, base fluids and nanostructured biofluids. Base fluids were studied through comparison of synthetic fluids (simulated body fluid and hyaluronic acid) as well as natural biofluids (from dogs, horses, and humans) in terms of viscosity and fluid shear stress. The nano-structured biofluids were formed using molecules having well-defined shapes. Understanding nano-structured biofluids leads to new ways of design and synthesis of biofluids that are beneficial for artificial joint performance. Experimental approaches were utilized in the present research. This includes basic analysis of biofluids’ property, such as viscosity, fluid shear stress, and shear rate using rheological experiments. Tribological investigation and surface characterization were conducted in order to understand effects of molecular and nanostructures on fluid lubrication. Workpiece surface structure and wear mechanisms were investigated using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The surface topography was examined using a profilometer. The results demonstrated that with the adding of solid additives, such as crown ether or fullerene acted as rough as the other solids in the 3-body wear systems. In addition, the fullerene supplied low friction and low wear, which designates the lubrication purpose of this particular particle system. This dissertation is constructed of six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to body fluids, as mentioned earlier. After Chapter II, it examines the motivation and approach of the present research, Chapter III discusses the experimental approaches, including materials, experimental setup, and conditions. In Chapter IV, lubrication properties of various fluids are discussed. The tribological properties and performance nanostructured biofluids are discussed in Chapter V, followed by summary and conclusions in Chapter VI.

Pendelton, Alice Mae

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Fuels and Lubricants Research Division of Southwest Research includes extensive engines, fuels and lubricants research,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Caterpillar 1K Lubricant Test This test evaluates the piston deposits, liner wear, and oil consumption and oil consumption. The test is proposed for inclusion in the PC-10 category. Mack T8/T8A/T8E Lubricant of Mack engine oil specification EON+ 03, CI-4+ and will be included in PC-10. Mack T12 Lubricant Test

Chapman, Clark R.

40

Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant  

The oil-based lubricants need to be consistently reapplied, producing additional waste. The cost of applying solid lubricating coatings is rather high and, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Glass molding process with mold lubrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improvements are provided in glass forming processes of the type wherein hot metal blank molds are employed by using the complementary action of a solid film lubricant layer, of graphite dispersed in a cured thermoset organopolysiloxane, along with an overspray of a lubricating oil.

Davey, Richard G. (Toledo, OH)

1978-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

42

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Polycrystalline Thin-Film Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the area of polycrystalline thin-film materials and devices. Printable Version Photovoltaics Research Home Silicon Polycrystalline Thin Films Multijunctions New Materials,...

43

Aging model for solid lubricants used in weapon stronglinks: tribological performance and hardware review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solid lubricant used most extensively in strong links throughout the enduring stockpile contains MoS{sub 2}, which is known to react with oxygen and water vapor resulting in a change in the material`s friction and wear behavior. The authors have examined the frictional behavior of this lubricant as a function of oxidation, in support of efforts to quantify the impact of changes in the material on the dynamic behavior of the MC2969 strong link. Their results show that the friction response of oxidized lubricant is strongly influenced by the amount of burnishing performed on the lubricant after deposition. Low levels of burnish leave a thick film, of which only the near surface degrades during oxidation. Rapid wear of the oxidized material leaves a surface whose properties are the same as non-oxidized material. Higher levels of burnish leave a thinner film of lubricant such that the entire film may be oxidized. The friction coefficient on this surface reaches a steady state value greater than that of non oxidized material. In addition to these fundamental differences in steady state behavior, they have shown that the initial friction coefficient on oxidized surfaces is related to the amount of sulfide converted to sulfate, regardless of the oxidation conditions used. Measurements on parts returned from the stockpile show that the friction behavior of aged hardware is consistent with the behavior observed on controlled substrates containing thin lubricant films.

Dugger, M.T.; Peebles, D.E.; Sorroche, E.H.; Varga, K.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, R.M. [Allied Signal, Kansas City, MO (United States). Federal Manufacturing and Technology

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Double angle seal forming lubricant film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

Ernst, William D. (Troy, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Lubricants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...jelly Mineral oil plus 10 to 20% fatty oil Tallow plus 50% paraffin Tallow plus 70% paraffin Mineral oil plus 10 to 15% sulfurized fatty oil and 10% fatty

46

Polycrystalline Thin Film Used in Photovoltaics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Polycrystalline thin-film cells are made of many tiny crystalline grains of semiconductor materials. The materials used in these cells have properties that are different from those of silicon.

47

Polycrystalline thin-film technology: Recent progress in photovoltaics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polycrystalline thin films have made significant technical progress in the past year. Three of these materials that have been studied extensively for photovoltaic (PV) power applications are copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film polycrystalline silicon (x-Si) deposited on ceramic substrates. The first of these materials, polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2}, has made some rapid advances in terms of high efficiency and long-term reliability. For CuInSe{sub 2} power modules, a world record has been reported on a 0.4-m{sup 2} module with an aperture-area efficiency of 10.4% and a power output of 40.4 W. Additionally, outdoor reliability testing of CuInSe{sub 2} modules, under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, has resulted in only minor changes in module performance after more than 1000 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. CdTe module research has also resulted in several recent improvements. Module performance has been increased with device areas reaching nearly 900 cm{sup 2}. Deposition has been demonstrated by several different techniques, including electrodeposition, spraying, and screen printing. Outdoor reliability testing of CdTe modules was also carried out under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, with more than 600 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. These tests were also encouraging and indicated that the modules were stable within measurement error. The highest reported aperture-area module efficiency for CdTe modules is 10%; the semiconductor material was deposited by electrodeposition. A thin-film CdTe photovoltaic system with a power output of 54 W has been deployed in Saudi Arabia for water pumping. The Module Development Initiative has made significant progress in support of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program in the past year, and results are presented in this paper.

Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Droplet mobility on lubricant-impregnated surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-wetting surfaces containing micro/nanotextures impregnated with lubricating liquids have recently been shown to exhibit superior non-wetting performance compared to superhydrophobic surfaces that rely on stable air–liquid ...

Dhiman, Rajeev

50

An experimental investigation into oil mist lubrication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil mist lubrication offers many advantages over sump lubrication. Unfortunately, mist lubrication generates sub-micrometer sized aerosol particles (fines) that escape from the oil mist lubrication system. These particles are an environmental hazard. There can be a two-pronged approach to the present problem. The first method is to develop a suitable blend that reduces the number of 'fine' particles. Experiments are designed to identify the effect of the additives and the temperature of the lube oil in the generator. The best performing lube oil formulations are identified based on performance at different bearing speeds and the temperature of the lube oil in the generator. The second approach is based on the design of a better bearing casing to maximize collection efficiency. An attempt is made to study collection efficiency using dimensional analysis. The non-dimensional numbers are identified and their validity is analyzed. Alternatively, a boundary value problem based on continuum mechanics is partially formulated for future study.

Kannan, Krishna

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Anti-friction additives for lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect

A lubricating oil composition is described comprising (i) a major portion of lubricant oil; and (ii) from about 0.05 to about 10.0 wt.% of, as an additive, a product prepared by reacting a natural oil selected from the group consisting of coconut, babassu, palm, palm kernel, olive, castor, peanut, beef tallow and lard, with a (C/sub 2/-C/sub 10/) hydroxy acid and a polyamine.

Karol, T.J.; Magaha, H.S.; Schlicht, R.C.

1987-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

52

Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

Hsu, S.

1998-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

53

Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High performance machines such as gas turbine engines demand efficient solid lubricants at high temperature and in vacuum. The current conventional solid lubricants need to be further improved. This research evaluates carbon based solid lubricants using a high vacuum, high temperature pin-on-disc tribometer. The objectives of this research were to develop an understanding of the tribological properties of solid lubricant coatings under extreme operating conditions, and to determine whether using a carbon based solid lubricant would be acceptable for use in those conditions. Experimentally, two solid lubricant coatings on tungsten carbide substrate were tested against two different materials. The coatings were carbon based and molybdenum disulfide based. The other materials were 440C stainless steel and tungsten carbide. The temperature, pressure, and relative humidity are independent variables. The results showed that the carbon based coating increases friction and wears out quickly due to high temperature, high vacuum, and low humidity. Abrasive wear is the dominating mechanism. At elevated temperatures and in dry environment, the carbon based coating underwent significant oxidation and phase transformation. This research is beneficial for future design and development of solid lubricants for aerospace applications, as well as other industries requiring lubricants that must operate in extreme conditions. This thesis includes five chapters. Chapter I is an introduction to tribology and to the materials being used in this research. Chapter II describes the motivation and objectives behind this research. Chapter III discusses the experimental procedure and further explains the materials used. Chapter IV presents and discusses the results obtained. Chapter V discusses the major conclusions obtained from the results and offers some future work that may be conducted concerning this research.

Sanchez, Carlos Joel

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

Cavestri, R.C. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Clean and cost-effective dry boundary lubricants for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce sliding fiction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal formability tests indicated that the boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by spraying or dipping worked quite well; improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%. These findings have increased the prospect that boric acid can be formulated and optimized as an effective boundary lubricant and used to solve the friction, galling, and severe wear problems currently encountered in cold-forming of aluminum products. Accordingly, the major goal of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness and lubrication capacity of thin boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by simple dipping or spraying processes and to describe the lubrication mechanisms under typical metal forming conditions. We will also examine the nature of chemical bonding between boric acid and aluminum surfaces and develop new ways to optimize its performance as an effective boundary lubricant.

Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

56

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Oil Lubrication Guide for Rotating Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At a nuclear station, several types of safety-related and non-safety-related equipment rely on lubricating oil systems to provide lubrication to rotating components. These lubricating systems consist of gears, pumps, valves, heat exchangers, and other parts. In the event of a lubrication system failure, the supported equipment can be shut down, which in turn can lead to unanticipated entries into limiting conditions of operation, system degradation, or a unit trip. An understanding of how oil is affected...

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

57

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fuels and Lubricants Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuels and Lubricants Research Fuels and Lubricants Research As transportation accounts for two-thirds of the nearly $1 billion the U.S. spends daily on foreign oil, it is vital to increase our use of alternative fuels. Increasing the fuels available to drivers reduces price volatility, supports domestic industries, and increases environmental sustainability. The DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center provides basic information on alternative fuels, including Biodiesel, Ethanol, Natural Gas, Propane, and Hydrogen. The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research to improve how vehicles use these many of these fuels in the future, as well as activities to increase their availability today. It also researches how new petroleum-based fuels affect advanced combustion systems and how lubricants can improve the efficiency of vehicles currently on the road.

58

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on the availability of additional quantities of R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Friction and lubrication in metal rolling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the ellipticity 'IjJ (appendix E). (= a/ c in chapter 3) , real area of contact ratio. length of arc of contact in rolling (chapters 4 and 5). semi-axis of Hertz contact ellipse in transverse direction (appendix E). half indenter spacing (chapter 3). half... the friction and lubrication conditions are especially critical. This is confirm~d by Cheng [15], who discusses the practical requirements of an aluminium foil rolling lubricant and is demonstrated in a theoretical analysis of foil rolling by Fleck and J...

Sutcliffe, Michael Patrick Forbes

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

Qu, Jun (Knoxville, TN); Truhan, Jr.,; John J. (Cookeville, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

62

Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

Perez, J. M.

2000-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

63

Lubricant formulation for lower unburnt hydrocarbon emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engine-out emissions of unburnt hydrocabons from spark ignition engines are attributable to a number of mechanisms, occurring during the engine cycle, by which fuel escapes combustion. These include absorption of fuel components into the bore lubricating oil film during compression, and subsequent desorption into hot combustion gases throughout expansion. A proportion of the hydrocarbons desorbed will then be emitted, either as unburnt or partially oxidised fuel. This mechanism has been studied by a number of workers, and estimates of its importance vary from 10 to 30% of total hydrocarbons being related to the absorption/desorption process. A novel lubricant additive has been formulated for the purpose of reducing the quantity of fuel which is absorbed into the bore lubricant film, and hence the quantity of fuel subsequently desorbed. This paper describes a programme to evaluate the effect that this lubricant additive can have on engine-out emissions from a single cylinder research engine, together with results from current technology, low-emitting US and European vehicles, tested over FTP and ECE drive cycles. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Beckwith, P.; Cooper, J.H.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting next-generation'' options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called government/industry partnerships'') that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

Zweibel, K. (ed.)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting ``next-generation`` options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called ``government/industry partnerships``) that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

Zweibel, K. [ed.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Structure and Electronic Properties of Polycrystalline Dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of the theoretical approaches that can be employed to model polycrystalline oxides along with a discussion of their limitations and associated challenges. We then present results for two metal oxide materials, MgO and HfO2, where theory and experiment have come together to provide insight into the structure and electronic properties of grain boundaries. Finally, we conclude with a discussion and outlook.

Mckenna, Keith P.; Shluger, AL

2013-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

A flow modeling of lubricating greases under shear deformation by cellular automata  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Cellular Automata modeling of the lubricating grease flow under the shear deformation is proposed Lubricating greases are composed of thickening agent, liquid lubricant and various kinds of additives The thickening agent forms fibrous microstructures ...

Shunsuke Miyamoto; Hideyuki Sakai; Toshihiko Shiraishi; Shin Morishita

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Properties of carbon overcoats and perfluoro-polyether lubricants in hard disk drives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 discusses different lubricants and additives used in hardand A. Wakabayashi, "Disk lubricant additives, A20H and C2:lower corner. Both lubricant additives can be mixed with

Brunner, Ralf

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Ionic Liquids as Lubricants or Additives - Energy Innovation ...  

New ionic liquids invented at ORNL show great promise as lubricants for aluminum and steel in combustion engines, bearings, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

71

The effect of alternative fuels on the stability and lubricity of crankcase lubricants. Final report, September 1992--September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of alternative fuels on the functioning of crankcase lubricants with these three main goals: Develop simple, rapid test protocols to evaluate the influence of alternative fuels on the stability and lubricity of lubricants under conditions simulating engine operation. The objective is to have these test protocols serve industry as a precursor evaluation procedure before expensive engine tests are conducted. The reliability of these test procedures to predict the influence of additives on lubricant performance under actual operating conditions will be determined by comparison of these test results with available engine and fleet tests. Use the developed test procedures to evaluate commercially available lubricants for applications with alternative fuels and determine the influence of various bearing materials, including conventional steel as well as advanced ceramic materials. Use the test procedures to evaluate classes of lubricants and lubricant additives as well as fuel additives, and develop lubricants and additives for comparability with specific alternative fuels. Test procedures have been developed to produce lubricant fractions which can be caused by contact with alternative fuels in the crankcase and the area of the fuel injector. Associated test procedures have also been developed so that the oxidative stability and the wear characteristics of the lubricant fractions from the extraction protocol can be evaluated. Although these test procedures have been used to evaluate some lubricants, the significant impact of these tests on the development and evaluation of lubricants for alternatively fueled engines has only been initiated, and these tests should be the basis for extensive future studies.

Klaus, E.E.; Duda, J.L.; Shah, R.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

High optical quality polycrystalline indium phosphide grown on ...  

High optical quality polycrystalline indium phosphide ... III–V semiconductor solar cells have demonstrated the highest power ... (thermal oxide, 50nm ...

73

On the Microstructural Optimization of a New Polycrystalline ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Optimization of a New Polycrystalline Superalloy for Industrial Gas Turbines ... and Welding Conditions of Monopile and Transition for Offshore Wind Plant.

74

Evaluation of high temperature lubricants for downhole motors in geothermal applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Bearing-Seal Package is being developed for use with downhole motors and turbines for drilling geothermal wells. The lubricant will be sealed in the bearing section which will allow the bearings to operate directly in the lubricant. The development of the Bearing-Seal Package involves the improvement of high temperature seals and lubricants. Candidate high temperature lubricants were tested in the High Temperature Lubricant Tester under elevated temperatures and pressures. A list of candidate high temperature lubricants, a description of the lubricant test program, and the lubricant test results are presented.

DeLafosse, P.H.; Tibbitts, G.A.; Green, S.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Unburned lubricant produces 60%90% of organic carbon emissions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approxi- mately one order

77

Seal/lubricant systems for geothermal drilling equipment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development and testing of seals and lubricants for journal-type roller-cone rock bits for drilling into geothermal reservoirs at temperatures over 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) are described. The conditions experienced by seals and lubricants subjected to geothermal drilling are reviewed along with the basic design requirements for roller-cone bit seals and journal bearing lubricants. Two unique test facilities are described: a seal test machine which simulates pressures, temperatures, and mechanical eccentricities, and a lubricant tester capable of evaluating load-bearing ability at temperature and pressure. Three candidate elastomeric compounds demonstrated 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F) capability and several others demonstrated 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) or greater capability. Successful elastomeric seal candidates were proprietary compounds based on EPDM, Kalrez, and/or Viton polymers. Three mechanical seals for reservoir temperatures over 288/sup 0/C (550/sup 0/F) are presented. Lubricant screening tests on more than 50 products are summarized, and several newly developed lubricants which meet both the compatibility and lubrication requirements are described. Several seal/lubricant systems are recommended for laboratory or field geothermal drilling tests in roller-cone drill bits. The future availability of drill bits for geothermal use is discussed, as well as the potential spinoffs of the program findings for nongeothermal roller-cone bits.

Hendrickson, R.R.; Winzenried, R.W.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Nephelometric determination of the chemical oxygen demand in filtrates after the ultrafiltration purification of used lubricants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regions with developed industry are characterized by a large amount of lubricants in wastewater, and controlling the amount of mineral oil in the water in these regions is of prime importance. One of the methods of purifying used lubricants is ultrafiltration. In most cases, ultrafiltration purification is performed in BTU-0.5/2 tubular units with F-1 Teflon membranes. It is known that, in the case of the ultrafiltration purification of dispersed systems, the part of the dispersed phase with a particle size smaller than the diameter of membrane pores usually penetrates to the filtrate. The formation of the dispersed phase with a smaller size of particles is also possible because oil particles of a larger size are pressed through the membrane due to the wetting of the membrane material with the dispersed phase, which is the case of Teflon membranes. As a result, water produced by the ultrafiltration purification of lubricant-containing wastes contains oil particles 10-100 nm in size, which is comparable to the membrane pores. The amount of these particles can be small, which makes their determination difficult. Moreover, the method of controlling the amount of oil in the filtrate should be rapid, sensitive, and simple enough to allow its application in industrial conditions.

Bykadorov, N.U.; Radchenko, S.S. [Volgograd State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

The experimental evaluation and application of high temperature solid lubricants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A research program meant to develop an understanding of high temperature solid lubrication and experimental techniques through the development of a composite lubricant coating system was described. The knowledge gained through this research was then applied to a specific engineering challenge, the tribology of a sliding seal for hypersonic flight vehicles. The solid lubricant coating is a chromium carbide based composite combined with silver, which acts as a low temperature lubricant, and barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, which acts as a high temperature lubricant. This composite coating provides good wear resistance and low friction for sliding contacts from room temperature to over 900 C in reducing or oxidative environments. The specific research on this coating included a composition screening using a foil gas bearing test rig and the use of thin silver films to reduce initial wear using a pin-on-disk test rig. The chemical stability of the materials used was also addressed. This research indicated that soft metallic films and materials which become soft at elevated temperatures are potentially good lubricants. The general results from the experiments with the model solid libricant coating were then applied to a sliding seal design concept. This seal design requires that a braided ceramic fabric slide against a variety of metal counterface materials at temperatures from 25 to 850 C in an oxidative environment. A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to evaluate the tribological properties of these materials and to develop lubrication techniques. The results indicate that these materials must be lubricated to prevent wear and reduce friction. Thin films of silver, gold and calcium fluoride provided lubrication to the sliding materials. The data obtained and the lubrication techniques developed provide important information to designers of sliding seals.

Dellacorte, C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Modeling of Irradiation Hardening of Polycrystalline Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High energy particle irradiation of structural polycrystalline materials usually produces irradiation hardening and embrittlement. The development of predict capability for the influence of irradiation on mechanical behavior is very important in materials design for next generation reactors. In this work a multiscale approach was implemented to predict irradiation hardening of body centered cubic (bcc) alpha-iron. The effect of defect density, texture and grain boundary was investigated. In the microscale, dislocation dynamics models were used to predict the critical resolved shear stress from the evolution of local dislocation and defects. In the macroscale, a viscoplastic self-consistent model was applied to predict the irradiation hardening in samples with changes in texture and grain boundary. This multiscale modeling can guide performance evaluation of structural materials used in next generation nuclear reactors.

Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Garmestani, Hamid; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

911 911 Fuels & Lubricant Technologies VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE 2012 annual progress report U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20585-0121 FY 2012 PROGRESS REPORT FOR FUEL & LUBRICANT TECHNOLOGIES Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Approved by Kevin Stork Team Leader, Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office June 2013 DOE/EE-0911 Acknowledgement We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Alliance Technical Services, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory for their technical and artistic contributions in preparing and publishing this report.

82

Recent developments in polycrystalline diamond-drill-bit design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of design criteria for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits for use in severe environments (hard or fractured formations, hot and/or deep wells) is continuing. This effort consists of both analytical and experimental analyses. The experimental program includes single point tests of cutters, laboratory tests of full scale bits, and field tests of these designs. The results of laboratory tests at simulated downhole conditions utilizing new and worn bits are presented. Drilling at simulated downhole pressures was conducted in Mancos Shale and Carthage Marble. Comparisons are made between PDC bits and roller cone bits in drilling with borehole pressures up to 5000 psi (34.5 PMa) with oil and water based muds. The PDC bits drilled at rates up to 5 times as fast as roller bits in the shale. In the first field test, drilling rates approximately twice those achieved with conventional bits were achieved with a PDC bit. A second test demonstrated the value of these bits in correcting deviation and reaming.

Huff, C.F.; Varnado, S.G.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:36pm Addthis Polycrystalline thin-film cells are made of many tiny crystalline grains of semiconductor materials. The materials used in these cells have properties that are different from those of silicon. Thin-film cells have many advantages over their thick-film counterparts. For example, they use much less material. The cell's active area is usually only 1 to 10 micrometers thick, whereas thick films typically are 100 to 300 micrometers thick. Also, thin-film cells can usually be manufactured in a large-area process, which can be an automated, continuous production process. Finally, they can be deposited on flexible substrate materials. The term thin film comes from the method used to deposit the film, not from

84

Research on Polycrystalline Films for Micro- and Nano-Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycrystalline films are used in a wide array of micro- and nano-scale devices, for electronic, mechanical, magnetic, photonic and chemical functions. Increasingly, the properties, performance, and reliability of films ...

Thompson, Carl V.

85

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride at the National Center for Photovoltaics.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Grain-Boundary Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a study of the atomic structure and electronic effects of grain boundaries in polycrystalline photovoltaic materials such as Si, CdTe, CuInSe2, and CuGaSe2.

Yan, Y.; Jiang, C. S.; Wu, X. Z.; Noufi, R.; Wei, S. H.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

Not Available

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

Cleland, John W. (Knoxville, TN); Westbrook, Russell D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wood, Richard F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Young, Rosa T. (Knoxville, TN)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Estimating Geometric Dislocation Densities in Polycrystalline Materialsfrom Orientation Imaging Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Herein we consider polycrystalline materials which can be taken as statistically homogeneous and whose grains can be adequately modeled as rigid-plastic. Our objective is to obtain, from orientation imaging microscopy (OIM), estimates of geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) densities.

Man, Chi-Sing [University of Kentucky; Gao, Xiang [University of Kentucky; Godefroy, Scott [University of Kentucky; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

TransForum v31n1 - Rail Lubricant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RAIL LUBRICANT TECHNOLOGY GOES HIGH TECH "I ... have invented a new and useful improvement on locomotive-engines used on railroads and common roads by which inclined planes and...

91

Notes 01. The fundamental assumptions and equations of lubrication theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental assumption in Lubrication Theory. Derivation of thin film flow equations from Navier-Stokes equations. Importance of fluid inertia effects in thin film flows. Some fluid physical properties

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effects of Lubrication on Density Gradient of Titanium Powder ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was found that 0.3wt% of lubricant significantly improves the density variation, but ... of Ti-6Al-4V Components Made by Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing.

93

Peeling, healing and bursting in a lubricated elastic sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the dynamics of an elastic sheet lubricated by the flow of a thin layer of fluid that separates it from a rigid wall. By considering long wavelength deformations of the sheet, we derive an evolution equation ...

Hosoi, A.E.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Amorphous silicon/polycrystalline thin film solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved photovoltaic solar cell is described including a p-type amorphous silicon layer, intrinsic amorphous silicon, and an n-type polycrystalline semiconductor such as cadmium sulfide, cadmium zinc sulfide, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide, and gallium nitride. The polycrystalline semiconductor has an energy bandgap greater than that of the amorphous silicon. The solar cell can be provided as a single-junction device or a multijunction device.

Ullal, H.S.

1991-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

95

Circuit Breaker Lubrication: Compatibility and Selection—Laboratory Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a circuit breaker over its lifetime is largely determined by the performance of the materials and components that make up the complete breaker. The rates of deterioration of lubricants and other components drive the requirements for circuit breaker maintenance and refurbishment. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a comprehensive research effort to develop the knowledge base required by utilities for the correct selection and application of lubricants for ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

96

Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX)

1996-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

97

Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (US). Center for Solid State Electronics Research

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Reactor Coolant Pump/Reactor Recirculation Pump Motor Lubrication Oil Systems Maintenance G uide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

RCP and RRP Motor Lubrication system issues have ranked high on NMAC maintenance Issues Surveys in recent years. Problems reported have included oil leakage at power, the need for additional reservoirs to accommodate leakage, oil degradation (foaming, particulate) as well as sludge problems due to the design of the motor and some as a result of new oil formulations and other changes made by the oil suppliers. Reactor Coolant Pumps (RCP) used in Pressurized Water Reactors and Reactor Recirculation Pumps ...

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

99

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

CRC handbook of lubrication. Theory and practice of tribology: Volume II: Theory and design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook covers the general area of lubrication and tribology in all its facets: friction, wear lubricants (liquid, solid, and gas), greases, lubrication principles, applications to various mechanisms, design principles of devices incorporating lubrication, maintenance, lubrication scheduling, and standardized tests; as well as environmental problems and conservation. The information contained in these two volumes will aid in achieving effective lubrication for control of friction and wear, and is another step to improve understanding of the complex factors involved in tribology. Both metric and English units are provided throughout both volumes.

Booser, E.R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Rotary seal with enhanced lubrication and contaminant flushing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resilient, ring shaped interference-type hydrodynamic rotary seal having waves on the lubricant side which provide increased film thickness and flushing action by creating contact pressure induced angulated restrictions formed by abrupt restrictive diverters. The angulated restrictions are defined by projecting ridges, corners at the trailing edge of the waves, or simply by use of a converging shape at the trailing edge of the waves which is more abrupt than the gently converging hydrodynamic inlet shape at the leading edge of the waves. The abrupt restrictive diverter performs two functions; a restricting function and a diverting function. The angulated restrictions cause a local film thickness restriction which produces a damming effect preventing a portion of the lubricant from leaking out of the dynamic sealing interface at the trailing edge of the wave, and results in a much thicker lubricant film thickness under the waves. This contributes to more film thickness in the remainder of the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment because film thickness tends to decay gradually rather than abruptly due to the relative stiffness of the seal material. Because of the angle of the abrupt restrictive diverter relative to the relative rotation direction, in conjunction with the restriction or damming effect, a strong diverting action is produced which pumps lubricant across the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment. The lubricant diversion is caused by the component of the rotational velocity tangent to the abrupt restrictive diverter. The component of rotational velocity normal to the abrupt restrictive diverter causes a portion of the lubricant film to be pumped past the abrupt restrictive diverter, thereby assuring adequate lubrication thereof.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Sugar Land, TX)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

An economical route to high quality lubricants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current rends in the automotive and industrial markets toward more efficient engines, longer drain intervals, and lower emissions all contribute to placing increasingly stringent performance requirements on lubricants. The demand for higher quality synthetic and non-conventional basestocks is expected to grow at a much faster rate than that of conventional lube basestocks to meet these higher performance standards. Yukong Limited has developed a novel technology (the Yukong UCO Lube Process) for the economic production of high quality, high-viscosity-index lube basestocks from a fuels hydrocracker unconverted oil stream. A pilot plant based on this process has been producing oils for testing purposes since May 1994. A commercial facility designed to produce 3,500 BPD of VHVI lube basestocks cane on-stream at Yukong`s Ulsan refinery in October 1995. The Badger Technology Center of Raytheon Engineers and Constructors assisted Yukong during the development of the technology and prepared the basic process design package for the commercial facility. This paper presents process aspects of the technology and comparative data on investment and operating costs. Yukong lube basestock product properties and performance data are compared to basestocks produced by conventional means and by lube hydrocracking.

Andre, J.P. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hahn, S.K.; Kwon, S.H.; Min, W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Growth and opportunities in the lubricants business in Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for lubricants is increasing faster in Asia than any other part of the world. This development is being propelled largely by the expansion of the transportation and manufacturing sectors. By the year 2000, lubricant consumption in Asia will exceed that of Western Europe, Africa and the Middle East combined. Aside from this growth, most of the region is shifting from very low quality to higher quality value-added products. In view of these factors, there has been an explosion of activity over the past few years as lubricant blenders and additive suppliers attempt to position themselves within the market. Over the past year, Chem Systems has undertaken an extensive study of the lubricants business in East Asia, focusing on the evolution of this complex market structure and the identification of attractive opportunities. The overview presented in this paper is a product of these efforts. Whether you are a multinational oil company, independent blender, national oil company or multinational additive suppler, the questions are the same when developing a strategy for the region: regional overview of lubricant business structure; outlook for Asian demand; profile of lube/additives businesses; and successful competition--what is required?

Burke, B.F. [Chem Systems, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Fuel efficient lubricants and the effect of special base oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for improved fuel economy is placing increasing pressure upon engine manufacturers world-wide. Lubricants that can provide additional fuel efficiency benefits are being vigorously sought. Such lubricants must achieve the current performance specifications that are also increasing in severity. To meet all of these requirements, passenger car lubricant formulations will need special base oils. This paper presents data on comparable 5W-30 formulations based on either hydrogenated mineral oil, or hydrocracked or poly alpha olefin basestocks. These blends clearly demonstrate the effect of improved volatility on oil consumption and oxidation stability in a range of bench engine tests. Equivalent engine test performance is observed for the hydrocracked and polyalphaolefin blends. Both exhibit performance superior to that attained by the hydrogenated mineral oil-based blend. Predicted Sequence VI fuel savings for these blends show additional fuel efficiency benefits for hydrocracked vs. hydrogenated mineral oil-based blends. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Kiovsky, T.E. [BP Oil Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Yates, N.C.; Bales, J.R. [BP Oil International Limited, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

MIS and SIS solar cells on polycrystalline silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

MIS and SIS structured solar cells are receiving much attention in the photovoltaic community. Seemingly, these cells could be a viable alternative to thermally diffused p-n junctions for use on thin-film polycrystalline silicon substrates. This review describes MIS/SIS structured solar cells and the possible advantages of these structures for use with thin-film polycrystalline silicon. The results of efficiency calculations are presented. Also addressed are lifetime stability and fabrication techniques amenable to large scale production. Finally, the relative advantages and disadvantages of these cells and the results obtained are presented.

Cheek, G.; Mertens, R.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Turbine Generator Auxiliary Systems Volume 1: Turbine Generator Lubrication System Maintenance Guide -- 2012 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides nuclear and fossil plant personnel with current maintenance information on lubrication system components and specifications, treatment, and analysis of the lubricating oil.BackgroundInput from member utilities indicated that maintenance guides were needed for the turbine-generator auxiliary systems. The first auxiliary system selected was the turbine-generator lubrication system used in nuclear and ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

Molybdenum-containing compositions and lubricants and fuels containing them  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molybdenum-containing compositions are prepared by the reaction of an acid of molybdenum or salt thereof, phenol or aldehyde condensation product therewith, and a primary or secondary amine. The preferred amines are diamines such as tallow-substituted trimethylene diamine and their formaldehyde condensation products. An optional but preferred ingredient in the reaction mixture is at least one oil-soluble dispersant. The molybdenumcontaining compositions are useful as additives in lubricants and fuels, and are especially useful in lubricants when combined with compounds containing active sulfur.

Karn, J.L.

1981-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

108

Lubricity of deeply hydrogenated diesel fuels. The Swedish experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally adapted diesel fuels defined by the Swedish Government contain extremely low levels of sulphur and have limited aromatics contents. Road trials and pump durability tests of these fuels revealed unacceptable wear in injection pumps due to low lubricity. Additive solutions were identified using bench tests and then proven in field trials. Market experience has substantiated the findings that fuels using the chosen additive give fully satisfactory performance. This paper illustrates how practical solutions to lubricity questions can be found, and is applicable wherever specifications demand fuels requiring a high degree of hydroprocessing. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Tucker, R.F.; Stradling, R.J.; Wolveridge, P.E.; Rivers, K.J.; Ubbens, A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Research on polycrystalline thin-film materials, cells, and modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports research activities in polycrystalline thin films through the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). This program includes research and development (R D) in both copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this program is to support R D of photovoltaic cells and modules that meet the DOE long-term goals of high efficiency (15%--20%), low cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and reliability (30-year life time). Research carried out in this area is receiving increased recognition due to important advances in polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules. These have become the leading thin-film materials for photovoltaics in terms of efficiency and stability. DOE has recognized this potential through a competitive initiative for the development of CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe modules. This paper focuses on the recent progress and future directions of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program and the status of the subcontracted research on these promising photovoltaic materials. 26 refs., 12 figs, 1 tab.

Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Lubricant base oil and wax processing. [Glossary included  

SciTech Connect

This book provides state-of-the-art information on all processes currently used to manufacture lubricant base oils and waxes. It furnishes helpful lists of conversion factors, construction cost data, and process licensors, as well as a glossary of essential petroleum processing terms.

Sequeira, A. Jr.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Symbiotic Simulation Control in Supply Chain of Lubricant Additive Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the increasing growth of manufacture networks as well as the global competition in the lubricant industry, efficient management of a supply chain is vital for large vertically-integrated petroleum companies. Operational decision-making should consider ... Keywords: Symbiotic Simulation

Zeng Fanchao; Stephen John Turner; Heiko Aydt

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Diesel engine lubrication with poor quality residual fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of marine residual fuel is declining. This is being caused by a gradual trend towards production of heavier crudes and increased residuum conversion processes in refineries to meet light product demand while holding down crude runs. Additionally, more stringent inland fuel sulfur regulations have caused the higher sulfur residues to be used for marine residual fuel blending. Engine manufacturers are making major efforts in design so that their engines can burn these fuels at high efficiency with minimum adverse effects. The oil industry is developing improved lubricants to reduce as much as possible the increased wear and deposit formation caused by these poor quality fuels. To guide the development of improved lubricants, knowledge is required about the impact of the main fuel characteristics on lubrication. This paper summarizes work conducted to assess the impact of fuel sulfur, Conradson carbon and asphaltenes on wear and deposit formation in engines representative of full scale crosshead diesel engines and medium speed trunk piston engines. Results obtained with improved lubricants in these engines are reviewed.

Van der Horst, G.W.; Hold, G.E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Use of Textured Surfaces to Mitigate Sliding Friction and Wear of Lubricated and Non-Lubricated Contacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Effect of water contamination on aging of hydraulic oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A. Rozenberg, Influence of Lubricating Oils on Reliability and Life of ... Oil samples were contaminated with water by mixing with 0.I, 0.5 ... The reserve of antioxi-.

115

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

116

Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Polycrystalline thin-film module and system performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Module and System Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems (arrays). These evaluations on module/array performance and stability are conducted at the NREL Photovoltaic Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) in Golden, CO. The modules and arrays are located at 39.7{degree}N latitude, 105.2{degree}W longitude, and at 1,782 meters elevation. Currently, two polycrystalline thin-film technologies are the focus of the research presented here. The module structures are copper indium diselenide (CIS) from Siemens Solar Industries and cadmium telluride (CdTe) from Solar Cells, Inc. The research team is attempting to correlate individual module performance with array performance for these two polycrystalline thin-film technologies. This is done by looking at module and array performance over time. Also, temperature coefficients are determined at both the module and array level. Results are discussed.

Strand, T.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; Mrig, L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF POLYCRYSTALLINE LITHIUM FLUORIDE (thesis)  

SciTech Connect

Techniques for forming polycrystalline LiF from the melt and for fabricating test specimens were developed and evaluated using single-crystal LiF as a control. Large -grain polycrystalline specimens tested in fourpoint loading always showed some plastic deformation (0.078 to 0.798%) before fracture, but the plastic flow was sharpiy reduced from that of single crystals. An etch was developed revealing dislocations on all crystallographic faces of LiF. Details of plastic deformation in polycrystalline material were investigated. Deformation was inhomogeneous among the grains of an aggregate because of differences in orientation with respect to the applied stress, also within individual grains because of interactions between adjoining grains. Grain boundaries were barriers to slip, but stresses resulting from slip in one grain were transmitted to neighboring grains and often caused local deformation near the boundary. Because of local stresses, local slip systems operated although the resolved shear stresses on them from the applied load were below the critical yield stress. In one case, slip occurred on an (010) plane. Three-grain junctions were areas of high residual stress. Fractures originated at boundaries at or near 3-grain junctions, not as a result of inherent boundary weakness but rather because of high stresses developed at the boundary. A quantitative expression for fracture originating in a slip band was applied to one type of fracture. (auth)

Scott, W.D.

1962-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

120

Materials - Coatings & Lubricants - Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology ICAT brochure cover TRI - BOL*O*GY (N) -- the science and technology of friction, wear, and lubrication of interacting surfaces in relative motion. The Illinois Center for Advanced Tribology (ICAT) is a virtual center that brings together the skills and talents of multiple investigators and unique facilities from Argonne National Laboratory and three partnering universities to resolve critical friction, wear, and lubrication issues in biomedical implants, alternative energy technologies, and extreme environments. The Center's tribology experts work closely with industry, and with state and federal agencies through jointly funded research projects, to perform leading-edge research on the impact of materials, coatings, and fluids on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Circuit Breaker Lubrication - Assessment of Field-Aged Bearings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

 The life cycle performance of a high-voltage circuit breaker is, to a large degree, determined by the performance of the materials and components that make up the complete breaker. The rates of deterioration of components such as compressors, pumps, seals, linkages and their lubrication, and interrupter elements drive the requirements for circuit breaker maintenance and refurbishment. EPRI conducted a series of investigations to enhance knowledge of aging processes and to identify those ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Crystallization to polycrystalline silicon thin film and simultaneous inactivation of electrical defects by underwater laser annealing  

SciTech Connect

We propose a low-temperature laser annealing method of a underwater laser annealing (WLA) for polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films. We performed crystallization to poly-Si films by laser irradiation in flowing deionized-water where KrF excimer laser was used for annealing. We demonstrated that the maximum value of maximum grain size of WLA samples was 1.5 {mu}m, and that of the average grain size was 2.8 times larger than that of conventional laser annealing in air (LA) samples. Moreover, WLA forms poly-Si films which show lower conductivity and larger carrier life time attributed to fewer electrical defects as compared to LA poly-Si films.

Machida, Emi [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 1-8 Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8472 (Japan); Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama-cho, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ikenoue, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry  

SciTech Connect

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

Dietle, Lannie (Houston, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

125

Lubricating bacteria model for branching growth of bacterial colonies, Phys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various bacterial strains (e.g. strains belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Serratia and Salmonella) exhibit colonial branching patterns during growth on poor semi-solid substrates. These patterns reflect the bacterial cooperative self-organization. Central part of the cooperation is the collective formation of lubricant on top of the agar which enables the bacteria to swim. Hence it provides the colony means to advance towards the food. One method of modeling the colonial development is via coupled reaction-diffusion equations which describe the time evolution of the bacterial density and the concentrations of the relevant chemical fields. This idea has been pursued by a number of groups. Here we present an additional model which specifically includes an evolution equation for the lubricant excreted by the bacteria. We show that when the diffusion of the fluid is governed by nonlinear diffusion coefficient branching patterns evolves. We study the effect of the rates of emission and decomposition of the lubricant fluid on the observed patterns. The results are compared with experimental observations. We also include fields of chemotactic agents and food chemotaxis and conclude that these features are needed in order to explain the observations. 1 I.

Yonathan Kozlovsky; Inon Cohen; Ido Golding; Eshel Ben-jacob

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

AECL Qualification of Greases for Motor-Operated Valve Stem/Stem Nut Lubrication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frictional characteristics of lubricants used in the actuators of motor-operated valves are critical to ensuring adequate actuator output capability. As part of the EPRI Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, testing was conducted at ambient temperature conditions on over 20 stem-stem nut lubricants in use in United States nuclear plants as documented in EPRI report TR-103235. Additional research has been conducted on several MOV lubricants after thermal and radiation aging under ...

1998-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Discusses the impact of lubricant formulation on the performance of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Adsorber Catalysts, including background/motivation for study, experimental design, and results.

Whitacre, S. D.

2005-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

128

The feasibility of using electrostatic charge condition monitoring for lubricant additive screening.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??International standards require lubricant formulators to develop additive packages that increase fuel economy, reduce environmental impact and minimise wear over ever increasing service intervals. However,… (more)

Booth, James Edward

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: From the Laboratory to Solar Fields; Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We review the status of commercial polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and photovoltaic (PV) modules, including current and projected commercialization activities.

von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Fabrication and Characterization of Polycrystalline CuInSe 2 Thin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Thin Film Structures for Energy Efficient Systems. Presentation Title, Fabrication and Characterization of Polycrystalline CuInSe2 Thin Film by ...

131

High Mobility Exceeding 40cm 2 /Vs in Polycrystalline Al-doped Cu ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, High Mobility Exceeding 40cm2/Vs in Polycrystalline ... with a resistivity of 1.37 ?cm and electron concentration of 2.3×1017, ...

132

Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

133

Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

134

Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

Reactive sticking coefficients for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition-rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low-pressure cold-wall reactor. The RSCs have nonlinear Arrhenius temperature dependencies and decrease with increasing flux at low (710 /sup 0/C) temperatures. Several simple models are proposed to explain these observations. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition-rate measurements.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Lubricant oil consumption effects on diesel exhaust ash emissions using a sulfur dioxide trace technique and thermogravimetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A detailed experimental study was conducted targeting lubricant consumption effects on ,diesel exhaust ash levels using a model year 2002 5.9L diesel engine, high and low Sulfur commercial lubricants, and clean diesel ...

Plumley, Michael J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Modeling of lubricant performance in Kurt Orbahn tests for viscosity modifiers based on star polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of stress-induced degradation of a star polymer additive dissolved in a mineral oil lubricant is modeled. The polymer degradation is modeled on the basis of a new system of kinetic integro-differential equations for the distribution densities ... Keywords: Existence and uniqueness, Lubricant degradation, Modeling, Star polymer molecules

Ilya I. Kudish

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Finite element analysis of elastohydrodynamic circular journal bearing with micropolar lubricants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the effect of deformation of the bearing liner on the static characteristics of a circular journal bearing operating with micropolar fluid is analysed. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modeled as micropolar fluid. ... Keywords: deformation coefficient, elastohydrodynamic, micropolar lubricant

V. P. Sukumaran Nair; K. Prabhakaran Nair

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

A view of lubricant demand and quality into the '90's  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lubricant demand and quality are forecast in this paper using the same techniques as in our 1978 and 1982 papers, but with updated factors based on four more years of history, the present economic outlook and the status of lubricant technology.

Boston, E.D.; Ballard, H.D. Jr.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

An efficient preconditioned iterative solution of fully-coupled elastohydrodynamic lubrication problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the fast preconditioned iterative solution to large sparse linear systems arising from the application of Newton and quasi-Newton methods to fully coupled elastohydrodynamic lubrication line and point contact problems. The new blockwise ... Keywords: Elastohydrodynamic lubrication, Finite element method, Fully coupled approach, Linear elasticity, Multigrid, Preconditioned GMRES

Sarfraz Ahmed; Christopher E. Goodyer; Peter K. Jimack

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Impurity-defect interaction in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. The role of hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the cell ? ii) Will the defects of the polycrystalline material hinder the photovoltaic properties..., leading also to a degradation of the efficiency of the photovoltaic cells ? iii) What would655 Impurity-defect interaction in polycrystalline silicon for photovoltaic applications. The role

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

142

Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, suing a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data.

Carpenter, D.A.

1993-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

143

Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles  

SciTech Connect

A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data.

Carpenter, Donald A. (Lenior City, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Waste lubricating oil: an annotated review. 1982 revision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of renewed interest in waste oil, both in terms of energy conservation and as a threat to the environment, there appears to be a need for a systemic compilation of information on the subject. This is a revision of the 1979 manuscript (BETC/IC-79/4) reflecting publications of the last three years as well as incorporation of papers that were overlooked. The number of citations has jumped from 486 to 1203, with all previous citations also listed here. The bibliography is divided into broad subject areas. The Introduction gives the history and development of the used oil reclamation industry. The General section includes the comprehensive papers that address several subjects and thus, give a capsulated overview of the used oil situation. Sources of Information and Statistical Treatments of Data tell how to obtain additional and future information and data relating to waste oil and could aid those persons interested in keeping their knowledge current. The Other Lubricating Oils section covers many of the lubricants that have the potential for recycling. The Other Oils section is divided into four sub-sections to aid the reader to find the subject of interest. The section on Related Subjects includes those sideline areas that could apply to used oil reclamation.

Cotton, F.O.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Status of High Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and our environment. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course. This work includes bringing thin-film cells and modules toward 25% and 20% efficiencies, respectively, and developing multijunction concentrator cells and modules able to convert more than one-third of the sun's energy to electricity (i.e., 33% efficiency). This paper will address recent accomplishments of the NREL in-house research effort involving polycrystalline thin-film tandems, as well as the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

Symko-Davies, M.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

Not Available

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Quarterly report, 1 April 1992--30 June 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The Feasibility study of using Palm oil as the lubricant of Automative Engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In general,the lubricants were composed by basestock and additive,and the basestock is usual use mineral oil. This paper examines the viscosity,viscosity index and antiwear properties… (more)

tzeng, jason

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Modeling the lubrication of the piston ring pack in internal combustion engines using the deterministic method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Piston ring packs are used in internal combustion engines to seal both the high pressure gas in the combustion chamber and the lubricant oil in the crank case. The interaction between the piston ring pack and the cylinder ...

Chen, Haijie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Effects of lubricant viscosity and surface texturing on ring-pack performance in internal combustion engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The piston ring-pack contributes approximately 25% of the mechanical losses in an internal combustion engine. Both lubricant viscosity and surface texturing were investigated in an effort to reduce this ring-pack friction ...

Takata, Rosalind (Rosalind Kazuko), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an additive for liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition, particularly diesel fuels. The additive composition is the reaction product of polyalkenyl-substituted succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles. It also finds use in lubricant compositions.

Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; McGonigle, S.S.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

153

Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disclosed in an additive for liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition, particularly diesel fuels. The additive composition is the reaction product of polyalkenyl-substituted succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles. It also finds use in lubricant compositions.

Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; McGonigle, S.S.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

A tribological study of the interaction between surface micro texturing and viscoelastic lubricants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study is performed on micro textured surfaces using both elastic and Newtonian fluids in order to understand the effect of surface texturing and fluid rheology on sliding friction under lubricated conditions. ...

Hupp, Sara J. (Sara Jean), 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

How to reduce torque and drag with a plastic sphere lubricant  

SciTech Connect

A new mud lubricant, Lubra-Beads has been used to reduce torque and drag in deviated holes, improve wire line operations, improve casing running times and, in some cases, improve rates of penetrations. Treatments have varied from batch treatments to treating the entire system. The type of treatment used depends on the problem encountered. The case histories presented described ways in which Lubra-Beads mud lubricant has been used to reduce torque and drag and increase penentration rates.

Vieaux, G.J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

In-situ Tracking of Slip Activation in Bulk Polycrystalline Zirconium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, In-situ Tracking of Slip Activation in Bulk Polycrystalline Zirconium. Author(s), J. Lind, S. F. Li, C. M. Hefferan, R. Pokharel, A. D. Rollett, ...

157

Structure and Effects of Extended Defects in Polycrystalline Si Thin Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The structure and effects of extended defects in rapid deposited polycrystalline Si thin films were studied using a combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and first-principles total energy calculations.

Yan, Y.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Wang, T. H.; Ciszek, T. F.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Striving for a Standard Protocol for Preconditioning or Stabilization of Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A protocol was devised for preconditioning polycrystalline CdTe and CIGS cell technologies under bias with light exposure or forward-bias currents at elevated temperatures and the results reported.

del Cueto, J. A.; Deline, C. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.; Anderberg, A.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information.

Not Available

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Friction and wear performance of low-friction carbon coatings under oil lubrication.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amorphous carbon coatings with very low friction properties were recently developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These coatings have shown good promise in mitigating excessive wear and scuffing problems associated with low-lubricity diesel fuels. To reduce the negative effect of sulfur and other lubricant additives in poisoning the after-treatment catalyst, a lubricant formulation with a low level of sulfur may be needed. Exclusion of proven sulfur-containing extreme pressure (EP) and antiwear additives from oils will require other measures to ensure durability of critical lubricated components. The low-friction carbon coating has the potential for such applications. In the present study, we evaluated the friction and wear attributes of three variations of the coating under a boundary lubrication regime. Tests were conducted with both synthetic and mineral oil lubricants using a ball-on-flat contact configuration in reciprocating sliding. Although the three variations of the coating provided modest reductions in friction coefficient, they all reduced wear substantially compared to an uncoated surface. The degradation mode of oxidative wear on the uncoated surface was replaced by a polishing wear mode on the coated surfaces.

Kovalchenko, A.; Ajayi, O. O.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

2001-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film and method for production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film comprises growing a film of boron phosphide in a vertical growth apparatus on a metal substrate. The metal substrate has a coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from that of boron phosphide that the film separates cleanly from the substrate upon cooling thereof, and the substrate is preferably titanium. The invention also comprises a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film for use in electronic device fabrication.

Baughman, R.J.; Ginley, D.S.

1982-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

162

Method for production of free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film comprises growing a film of boron phosphide in a vertical growth apparatus on a metal substrate. The metal substrate has a coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from that of boron phosphide that the film separates cleanly from the substrate upon cooling thereof, and the substrate is preferably titanium. The invention also comprises a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film for use in electronic device fabrication.

Baughman, Richard J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ginley, David S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

Not Available

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Kinetic Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation ofKinetic Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation of Polycrystalline Thin film growthPolycrystalline Thin film growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

grain orientations s The first application of this code is to the growth of Mo tips, including chemicalKinetic Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation ofKinetic Lattice Monte Carlo Simulation of Polycrystalline Applications Motorola National Science Foundation National Center for Supercomputer Applications Motorola #12

Adams, James B

165

Potentially useful polyolester lubricant additives an overview of antioxidants, antiwear and antiseize compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable service lubrication of compressors with polyolesters that do not contain additives is the optimal goal for hermetic compressor use. Chlorine derived from CFC and HCFC refrigerants is reported to have effective antiwear properties and negates the widespread use of additives in mineral oil lubricated systems. The use of antioxidants for mineral oil and polyolesters have been reported; antioxidant additive activity seems essential for polyolesters.- Antiwear and antiseize additives seem to be a short term goal for use with polyolesters. High silicone aluminum to steel wear seems to be a primary target for additive use. The interaction of specific heteroatom organic compounds with highly polar surface active synthetic polyolester lubricants is complex. Results of an extensive literature search describe results from a service base determined at ambient conditions. Known lubricant additives used in the hermetic compressor industry, the. mode of action of several types of additives and some lubricant additive chemistry that demonstrates selective thermal stability in conjunction with the chemical structure are examined.

Cavestri, R.C. [Imagination Resources, Inc., Dublin, OH (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

MIL-L-87177 and CLT:X-10 Lubricants Improve Electrical Connector Fretting Corrosion Behavior  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a fretting research project using MIL-L-87177 and CLT: X-10 lubricants on Nano-miniature connectors. When they were fretted without lubricant, individual connectors first exceeded our 0.5 ohm failure criteria from 2,341 to 45,238 fretting cycles. With additional fretting, their contact resistance increased to more than 100,000 ohms. Unmodified MIL-L-87177 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to between 430,000 and over 20,000,000 fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 modified by addition of Teflon powder delayed first failure to beyond 5 million fretting cycles. Best results were obtained when Teflon was used and also when both the straight and modified lubricants were poured into and then out of the connector. CLT: X-10 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to beyond 55 million cycles in one test where a failure was actually observed and to beyond 20 million cycles in another that was terminated without failure. CLT: X-10 recovered an unlubricated connector driven deeply into failure, with six failed pins recovering immediately and four more recovering during an additional 420 thousand fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 was not able to recover a connector under similar conditions.

AUKLAND,NEIL R.; HANLON,JAMES T.

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

The lubrication of engine valve trains equipped with ceramicized followers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The valve train wear characteristics of motored 2.2l and 2.3l engines were examined using ceramic and conventional metal cam followers. Under regular wear conditions with fully formulated motor oils, minimal wear was observed on the metal cam lobes running with either the ceramicized or metal followers. Running under chemically accelerated wear conditions with low quality oil, however, cam lobe wear with ceramicized followers was observed to be significantly less than that with metal followers. The difference in wear was diminished when testing high quality oils under chemically accelerated conditions. Typical testing revealed that the metal follower pads quickly developed considerable wear in a characteristic pattern, while the ceramic followers pads quickly developed considerable were in a characteristic pattern, while the ceramic followers exhibited only slight polishing. Scanning electron photographs revealed details of the used ceramic surfaces, and that wear took place by polishing and by intergranular fracture with subsequent material removal. Engine wear is a major factor that limits the life of today's passenger cars. Particularly for the newer models that have smaller but higher speed and output engines incorporating current designs such as overhead camshafts, 4-valves per cylinder and turbochargers, the valve train represents one of the highest wear components within an engine. In light of the trend towards extended drivetrain warranties, there is a strong demand for lubricant suppliers to develop engine oils with improved antiwear performance. In a parallel effort, automotive engine and component manufacturers are enhancing valve train durability with technologies that include roller followers and the use of advanced ceramic materials.

Blahey, A.G.; Habeeb, J.J.; Rogers, W.N.< 110> The lubrication of engine valve trains equipped with ceramicized followers.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Identification of tribological research and development needs for lubrication of advanced heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.

Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Levinson, T.M.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Quarterly report, 1 July 1992--30 September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on the availability of additional quantities of R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Quarterly report, 1 October 1992--30 December 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Multifractal analysis of stress time series during ultrathin lubricant film melting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Melting of an ultrathin lubricant film confined between two atomically flat surfaces is we studied using the rheological model for viscoelastic matter approximation. Phase diagram with domains, corresponding to sliding, dry, and two types of $stick-slip$ friction regimes has been built taking into account additive noises of stress, strain, and temperature of the lubricant. The stress time series have been obtained for all regimes of friction using the Stratonovich interpretation. It has been shown that self-similar regime of lubricant melting is observed when intensity of temperature noise is much larger than intensities of strain and stress noises. This regime is defined by homogenous distribution, at which characteristic stress scale is absent. We study stress time series obtained for all friction regimes using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. It has been shown that multifractality of these series is caused by different correlations that are present in the system and also by a power-law distribu...

Khomenko, A V; Borisyuk, V N; 10.1142/S0219477510000046

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Accurate lubrication corrections for spherical and non-spherical particles in discretized fluid simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discretized fluid solvers coupled to a Newtonian dynamics method are a popular tool to study suspension flow. As any simulation technique with finite resolution, the lattice Boltzmann method, when coupled to discrete particles using the momentum exchange method, resolves the diverging lubrication interactions between surfaces near contact only insufficiently. For spheres, it is common practice to account for surface-normal lubrication forces by means of an explicit correction term. A method that additionally covers all further singular interactions for spheres is present in the literature as well as a link-based approach that allows for more general shapes but does not capture non-normal interactions correctly. In this paper, lattice-independent lubrication corrections for aspherical particles are outlined, taking into account all leading divergent interaction terms. An efficient implementation for arbitrary spheroids is presented and compared to purely normal and link-based models. Good consistency with Stok...

Janoschek, Florian; Toschi, Federico

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe[sub 2] photovoltaic cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The limiting role of polycrystallinity in thin-film solar calls has been reduced somewhat during the past year, and efficiencies of both CdTe and CuInSe[sub 2] cells are approaching 15%. Quantitative separation of loss mechanisms shows that individual losses, with the exception of forward recombination current, can be made comparable to their single crystal counterparts. One general manifestation of the extraneous trapping states in that the voltage of all polycrystalline thin-film cells drifts upward by 10--50 mV following the onset of illumination.

Sites, J.R. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Tribological and microstructural investigation of the PM200 series of self-lubricating composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This master`s thesis describes an investigation of the effects of processing and compositional variations on the tribological, microstructural, and compressive strength characteristics of PM212. PM212 is a self-lubricating composite, comprised of a wear-resistant metal bonded (NiCo) chromium carbide matrix, containing the solid lubricants barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic and silver. Several alternate composites were formulated which had lubricant and matrix variations. Processing variations included sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIPping). Pin-on-disk tests were used to screen the alternates for friction and wear properties. Several of the chromium carbide-based self-lubricating composites exhibited low friction and wear in sliding against a nickel-based superalloy. One specific composition contained gold in place of silver to minimize the potential reactivity of the composite with possible environmental contaminants such as sulfur. This formulation also resulted in a composite with good tribological properties. Results indicate that several of these composites have potential use as sliding bearing and seal materials in operation from 25{degrees}C to temperatures as high as 900{degrees}C. The good tribological performance by several different composites showed that the composition of PM212 can be altered without dramatically affecting performance.

Bogdanski, M.S.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

Hoult, D.P.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

180

Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

182

Multifractal analysis of stress time series during ultrathin lubricant film melting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Melting of an ultrathin lubricant film confined between two atomically flat surfaces is we studied using the rheological model for viscoelastic matter approximation. Phase diagram with domains, corresponding to sliding, dry, and two types of $stick-slip$ friction regimes has been built taking into account additive noises of stress, strain, and temperature of the lubricant. The stress time series have been obtained for all regimes of friction using the Stratonovich interpretation. It has been shown that self-similar regime of lubricant melting is observed when intensity of temperature noise is much larger than intensities of strain and stress noises. This regime is defined by homogenous distribution, at which characteristic stress scale is absent. We study stress time series obtained for all friction regimes using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. It has been shown that multifractality of these series is caused by different correlations that are present in the system and also by a power-law distribution. Since the power-law distribution is related to small stresses, this case corresponds to self-similar solid-like lubricant.

A. V. Khomenko; I. A. Lyashenko; V. N. Borisyuk

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

183

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

Not Available

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Design of a dry sump lubrication system for a Honda® CBR 600 F4i engine for Formula SAE applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dry sump lubrication system for a Formula SAE race car was designed and manufactured in order to gain the various advantages this type of system affords. A dry sump system stores oil in an external tank and pumps it ...

Farkhondeh, Ehsan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Solar cells utilizing pulsed-energy crystallized microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing multi-terminal devices such as solar cells wherein a pulsed high energy source is used to melt and crystallize amorphous silicon deposited on a substrate which is intolerant to high processing temperatures, whereby the amorphous silicon is converted into a microcrystalline/polycrystalline phase. Dopant and hydrogenation can be added during the fabrication process which provides for fabrication of extremely planar, ultra shallow contacts which results in reduction of non-current collecting contact volume. The use of the pulsed energy beams results in the ability to fabricate high efficiency microcrystalline/polycrystalline solar cells on the so-called low-temperature, inexpensive plastic substrates which are intolerant to high processing temperatures.

Kaschmitter, J.L.; Sigmon, T.W.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

186

Solar cells utilizing pulsed-energy crystallized microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing multi-terminal devices such as solar cells wherein a pulsed high energy source is used to melt and crystallize amorphous silicon deposited on a substrate which is intolerant to high processing temperatures, whereby to amorphous silicon is converted into a microcrystalline/polycrystalline phase. Dopant and hydrogenization can be added during the fabrication process which provides for fabrication of extremely planar, ultra shallow contacts which results in reduction of non-current collecting contact volume. The use of the pulsed energy beams results in the ability to fabricate high efficiency microcrystalline/polycrystalline solar cells on the so-called low-temperature, inexpensive plastic substrates which are intolerant to high processing temperatures.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Release of impurities from structural defects in polycrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is critical to understand the behavior of metallic impurities in polycrystalline silicon used for solar cells. These impurities significantly increase the minority carrier recombination rate and, in turn, degrade cell performance. Impurity gettering is a commonly used method to remove these impurities from the material, however, past work has suggested that impurity release from structural defects drastically limits the gettering process. Presently, there is only a limited understanding of impurity release from structural defects. In this work, a correlation between structural defects and the location of metal impurities in as-grown material is established and the release of nickel and copper from structural defects in polycrystalline silicon was studied in as-grown material and after sequential thermal treatments which dissolve the impurities into the silicon matrix. Synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence impurity mapping with spatial resolution of {approx} 1 {micro}m, was used to determine impurity distributions after each thermal treatment.

McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Imaizumi, M. [Toyota Technological Inst., Nagoya (Japan)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Advances in hybrid water-lubricated journal bearings for use in ocean vessels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The outboard bearings that support shafts in naval ships and submarines present unique challenges to designers, shipbuilders, and operators. Such bearings must operate continuously and reliably in demanding environments ...

Heberley, Brian Douglas

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Thin-film polycrystalline n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction  

SciTech Connect

Results of X-ray diffraction and spectral-optical studies of n-ZnO and p-CuO films deposited by gas-discharge sputtering with subsequent annealing are presented. It is shown that, despite the difference in the crystal systems, the polycrystallinity of n-ZnO and p-CuO films enables fabrication of a heterojunction from this pair of materials.

Lisitski, O. L.; Kumekov, M. E.; Kumekov, S. E. [Satpaev Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Sputter-deposited lubricant thin films for high-temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this research program is to investigate and produce lubricant multilayer coatings deposited by sputtering to provide friction coefficients as low as 0.3 in air at temperatures varying from room temperature to 800{degrees}C under tribological test conditions appropriate to specific lubrication applications. The friction properties (friction coefficients and wear rates) of sputter-deposited silver, calcium fluoride and Ag/CaF{sub x} multilayer structures determined under various tribological conditions are reported. The tribological properties of sputter-deposited CaF{sub x}/Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} thin bilayer structures at 500{degrees}C and 700{degrees}C in air are compared to those of thick coatings of plasma-sprayed composite material (PS-212-type) similar to coatings developed by NASA. 11 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Pauleau, Y.; Marechal, N.; Juliet, P.; Rouzaud, A. [CEA-Nuclear Research Center, Grenoble (France); Zimmermann, C. [Dassault Aviation, Saint Cloud (France); Gras, R. [Institut Superieur des Materiaux, Saint Quen (France)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Film Thickness Changes in EHD Sliding Contacts Lubricated by a Fatty Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the appearance of abnormal film thickness features formed in elastohydrodynamic contacts lubricated by a fatty alcohol. Experiments were conducted by varying the slide to roll ratio between a steel ball and a glass disk in a ball-on-disk type device. Lauric alcohol was used as lubricant and film thickness was measured in the contact area by optical interferometry. Experimental results showed that the film thickness distributions under pure rolling conditions remained classical whereas the film shape changed when the slide to roll ratio was increased. The thickness in the central contact area increased and in the same time inlet and exit film thicknesses were modified. In addition, the film shapes observed when the ball surface was moving faster than the disk one and those obtained in the opposite case were different, i.e. when opposite signs but equal absolute values of the slide to roll ratio were applied.

Yagi, Kazuyuki

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this three-year program is to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Two specific objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Amoco/Enron Solar, Frederick, MD (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Protected Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits For Hard Rock Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two bits were designed. One bit was fabricated and tested at Terra-Tek's Drilling Research Laboratory. Fabrication of the second bit was not completed due to complications in fabrication and meeting scheduled test dates at the test facility. A conical bit was tested in a Carthage Marble (compressive strength 14,500 psi) and Sierra White Granite (compressive strength 28,200 psi). During the testing, Hydraulic Horsepower, Bit Weight, Rotation Rate, were varied for the Conical Bit, a Varel Tricone Bit and Varel PDC bit. The Conical Bi did cut rock at a reasonable rate in both rocks. Beneficial effects from the near and through cutter water nozzles were not evident in the marble due to test conditions and were not conclusive in the granite due to test conditions. At atmospheric drilling, the Conical Bit's penetration rate was as good as the standard PDC bit and better than the Tricone Bit. Torque requirements for the Conical Bit were higher than that required for the Standard Bits. Spudding the conical bit into the rock required some care to avoid overloading the nose cutters. The nose design should be evaluated to improve the bit's spudding characteristics.

Robert Lee Cardenas

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

194

Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Final subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes results and conclusions of the final phase (III) of a three-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film heterojunction solar cells. The research consisted of the investigation of the relationships between processing, materials properties, and device performance. This relationship was quantified by device modeling and analysis. The analysis of thin-film polycrystalline heterojunction solar cells explains how minority-carrier recombination at the metallurgical interface and at grain boundaries can be greatly reduced by the proper doping of the window and absorber layers. Additional analysis and measurements show that the present solar cells are limited by the magnitude of the diode current, which appears to be caused by recombination in the space charge region. Developing an efficient commercial-scale process for fabricating large-area polycrystalline, thin-film solar cells from a research process requires a detailed understanding of the individual steps in making the solar cell, and their relationship to device performance and reliability. The complexities involved in characterizing a process are demonstrated with results from our research program on CuInSe{sub 2}, and CdTe processes.

Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Yokimcus, T.A. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Field Guide: Lubrication of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers - 2013 Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-voltage circuit breakers (HVCBs) perform essential protection and control functions on power transmission networks. Circuit breaker mechanisms have multiple components that must operate in concert in order for the breaker to perform properly. If one component does not operate correctly, the circuit breaker may mis-operate or fail. A circuit breaker mis-operation may cause equipment damage and outages—both expensive consequences. Proper lubrication ...

2013-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

196

Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives  

SciTech Connect

Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

Yu, Bo [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoqi [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Water cooled scavenged crankcase type otto internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a system for a water cooled scavenged crankcase type two-cycle internal combustion engine comprising: a heat reclaimation system for extracting heat from an engine jacket for heating water supplied form an add-on reservoir via a heat exchanger located within the engine cylinder cooling system, the water being subsequently additionally heated by an exhaust pipe type heat exchanger to a superheated steam state and thence conveyed by a conduit to a steam lubricator for adjustably conveying in variably timed spaced succession intervals of regulated droplets of high viscous oil, fortified with adde graphite and tallow enrichment lubricant ingredients, and thence conveying such by steam at atmospheric pressure into an intake manifold which receives a carbureted air/fuel mixture into the crankcase via a manually operated auxiliary air intake device and way check valve and fire screen, due to suction effect of the piston up stroke action of the piston during engine operation.

Bidwell, H.

1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

198

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual subcontract report, January 1--June 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this three-year program is to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Two specific objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. To achieve these objectives, Solarex is working in the following technical areas: casting, wire saws, cell process, module assembly, frameless module development, and automated cell handling. Accomplishments reported include: Cast first successful larger ingot producing 73% larger volume of usable Si; Increased the size of the ingot even further and cast an ingot yielding nine 11.4 {times} 11.4 cm bricks, representing a 125% increase in usable Si from a single casting; Operated the wire-saw in a semi-operational mode, producing 459,000 wafers at 94.1% overall yield; Reduced the cost of wire-saw consumables, spare parts, and waste disposal; Developed a cost-effective back surface field process that increases cell efficiency by 5% and began production trials; Developed a plan for increasing the capacity in the module assembly area; Completed qualification testing of modules built using Spire`s automated tabbing and stringing machine; Selected, tested, and qualified a low-cost electrical termination system; Completed long-term UV testing of experimental back sheets; Qualified the structure and adhesive-tape system for mounting frameless modules; and ARRI completed a study of the fracture properties of cast polycrystalline Si wafers and provided the information necessary to calculate the maximum stresses allowable during wafer handling.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Predicting Thermal Conductivity Evolution of Polycrystalline Materials Under Irradiation Using Multiscale Approach  

SciTech Connect

A multiscale methodology was developed to predict the evolution of thermal conductivity of polycrystalline fuel under irradiation. In the mesoscale level, phase field model was used to predict the evolution of gas bubble microstructure. Generation of gas atoms and vacancies were taken into consideration. In the macroscopic scale, a statistical continuum mechanics model was applied to predict the anisotropic thermal conductivity evolution during irradiation. Microstructure predicted by phase field model was fed into statistical continuum mechanics model to predict properties and behavior. Influence of irradiation intensity, exposition time and morphology were investigated. This approach provides a deep understanding on microstructure evolution and property prediction from a basic scientific viewpoint.

Li, Dongsheng; Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Surface segregation effects in electrocatalysis: Kinetics ofoxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Effects of surface segregation on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied on a polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy in acid electrolyte using ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface sensitive probes and the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) method. Preparation, modification and characterization of alloy surfaces were done in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Depending on the preparation method, two different surface compositions of the Pt3Ni alloy are produced: a sputtered surface with 75 % Pt and an annealed surface (950 K ) with 100 % Pt. The latter surface is designated as the 'Pt-skin' structure, and is a consequence of surface segregation, i.e., replacement of Ni with Pt atoms in the first few atomic layers. Definitive surface compositions were established by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). The cyclic voltammetry of the 'Pt-skin' surface as well as the pseudocapacitance in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential region is similar to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Activities of ORR on Pt3Ni alloy surfaces were compared to polycrystalline Pt in 0.1M HClO4 electrolyte for the observed temperature range of 293 < T < 333 K. The order of activities at 333 K was: 'Pt-skin' > Pt3Ni (75% Pt) > Pt with the maximum catalytic enhancement obtained for the 'Pt-skin' being 4 times that for pure Pt. Catalytic improvement of the ORR on Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces was assigned to the inhibition of Pt-OHad formation (on Pt sites) versus polycrystalline Pt. Production of H2O2 on both surfaces were similar compared to the pure Pt. Kinetic analyses of RRDE data confirmed that kinetic parameters for the ORR on the Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces are the same as on pure Pt: reaction order, m=1, two identical Tafel slopes, activation energy, {approx} 21-25 kJ/mol. Therefore the reaction mechanism on both Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces is the same as one proposed for pure Pt i.e. 4e{sup -} reduction pathway.

Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ON THE LOAD CAPACITY OF THE HYDRO-MAGNETICALLY LUBRICATED SLIDER BEARING  

SciTech Connect

The load capacity of liquid metal lubricated slider bearings subject to an applied magnetic field transverse to the film is investigated. The optimum profile is determined and found to be the Rayleigh step form with the riser location and step height ratio dependent on the strength of the magnetic field. Load capacity is favored by large magnetic fields, small film thicknesses, and electrically insulating bearing surfaces. Only modest load increases can be obtained from conventional magnets of reasonable size. Substantial load increases could be accomplished by the recently developed superconducting electromagnets. (auth)

Osterle, J.F.; Young, F.J.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Investigation of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in bolting materials on light water reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments performed at BNL have shown that the concentration of boric acid to a moist paste at approximately the boiling point of water can produce corrosion rates of the order of several tenths of an inch per year on bolting and piping materials, which values are consistent with service experience. Other failure evaluation experience has shown that primary coolant/lubricant interaction may lead to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of steam generator manway studs. An investigation was also performed on eleven lubricants and their effects on A193 B7 and A540 B24 bolting materials. H/sub 2/S generation by the lubricants, coefficient of friction results and transgranular SCC of the bolting materials in steam are discussed. 13 refs.

Czajkowski, C.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Progress in High-Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandem Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications. The goal is that PV will contribute significantly to the U.S. and world energy supply and environmental enhancement in the 21st century. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course, to accelerate and enhance their impact in the marketplace. To accomplish this, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices. This paper will describe progress of the subcontractor and in-house R&D on critical pathways for a PV technology having a high potential to reach cost-competitiveness goals: 25%-efficient, low-cost polycrystalline thin-film tandems for large-area, flat-plate modules.

Symko-Davies, M.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

The double effect of grain size on the work hardening behavior of polycrystalline copper  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Following the approach by Ashby, one can consider that strain compatibility between adjacent grains of a polycrystal generates geometrical dislocations. These dislocations participated in the strengthening mechanism in conjunction with statistically stored dislocations which are related to the single-crystal behavior. The dislocations of either species are indistinguishable and, as a whole, they may contribute to cell formation. The dislocation structure formed in a polycrystal is then a function of the major or minor intergranular accommodation complexity. At intermediate strain values the accommodation is distributed over the cells leading to a linear relationship between the tensile stress and the inverse of the cell size, whatever the grain size of the tested samples. The aim of the present work is to check that the presence of statistical and geometrical dislocations in the grains, as well as the fact that at the very early stage of plastic deformation the mean free path of dislocations is of the order of the grain size, leads to a double effect of the grain size on the work hardening behavior of polycrystalline copper. Moreover, careful analysis of the mechanical behavior of polycrystalline copper, including the microstructural aspects of plastic deformation, is performed, allowing the understanding of the relationship between the work hardening ratio and the grain size.

Gracio, J.J. (Univ. de Aveiro (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica)

1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Cratering behavior in single- and poly-crystalline copper irradiated by an intense pulsed ion beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When treated with intense pulsed ion beams (IPIB), many materials exhibit increased wear resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. However, this treatment often results in cratering and roughening of the surface. In this work, high purity single crystal and polycrystalline copper samples were irradiated with pulses from an IPIB to gain insight into the causes of this cratering behavior. Samples were treated with 1,2,5, and 10 shots at 2 J/cm{sup 2} and 5 J/cm{sup 2} average energy fluence per shot. Shots were about 400 ns in duration and consisted of a mixture of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions at 300 keV. It was found that the single crystal copper cratered far less than the polycrystalline copper at the lower energy fluence. At the higher energy fluence, cratering was replaced by other forms of surface damage, and the single crystal copper sustained less damage at all but the largest number of shots. Molten debris from the Lucite anode (the ion source) was removed and redeposited on the samples with each shot.

Wood, B.P.; Bitteker, L.J.; Waganaar, W.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Plasma Physics Group; Perry, A.J. [A.I.M.S. Marketing, San Diego, CA (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Annual subcontract report, 16 January 1991--15 January 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

Gonzalez, Franklin N. (Gainesville, FL); Neugroschel, Arnost (Gainesville, FL)

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Contamination effects on the performance of a heat pump charged with R-407C and POE lubricant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of contamination on the performance of a heat pump charged with R407c and POE were investigated. Testing consisted of three different phases of study. The first set of tests examined the long term reliability of a heat pump operating with an alternative refrigerant when the unit has mineral oil contamination present. One unit operated with R-22 and mineral oil, while the second used R-407c and POE with 11.9% mineral oil contamination. Data analysis showed that the R-407c unit operated at approximately 15 psi (103.4 kPa) higher pressure with compressor discharge temperatures which were approximately I O'F (5.6'C) lower than the R-22 unit. The capacity of each unit was approximately the same, yet the R-407c unit consumed more power during operation. The compressor from the R-407c unit showed normal wear for the length of time that the unit had been in operation. Although this was an encouraging result, the compressors had only completed approximately 20% of the cycles projected for the study. The next phase of the project involved performance testing of two additional heat pump units. Overall, the results showed that mineral oil contamination had minimal immediate effect on the performance of a heat pump. However, the power consumption during the high temperature heating and high temperature cooling tests increased by as much as 1822.5 Btuh (534 W) when mineral oil contamination of at least 5.6% was present in the first system, The final phase of the project examined the effects of water contamination on the reliability of a unit charged with R-407c and POE lubricant. One unit was left as dry as possible, while the second unit was contaminated with 1200 PPM of moisture. Laboratory tests showed little to no increase in moisture content as well as the three metals during the study. The total acid number in the water contaminated unit showed a general increase. This increase could have potentially lead to increased amounts of the trace metals as the acid attacked system components.

Fitzhenry, Shane Alan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Formation damage studies of lubricants used with drill-in fluids systems on horizontal open-hole wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of lubricants in formation damage. Two types of lubricants were tested along with two types of drill-in fluids. The DIF's tested included a sized-calcium carbonate (SCC) and a sized-salt (SS). Also a set of variables including drill solids content (2%-6%), hydrochloric acid concentration (2%-10%), and temperature (110°F-160°F) were changed during the testing procedure. A matrix design was used to determine the behavior in regain permeability and break through time depending on the different variables in the testing, and two devices were used to measure responses, Conoco cell and ceramic disc cell respectively. Results have shown that regain permeability and break through time responses are not affected in a greater degree when lubricants (Idlube or Mil-Lube) are added to the DIF systems (SS and SCC). When comparing results between lubricants, Idlube gives a higher regain permeability percentage and faster break through time at higher concentrations than Mil-Lube in both DIF systems. Overall, sized calcium carbonate seems to be a better DIF system than Sized salt for these types of experiments, being much more efficient in reducing break through times than in increasing regain permeability.

Gutierrez, Fernando A

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

Qu, Jun [ORNL; Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Li, Huaqing [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The quarterly status report for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research Program is presented. Objectives for 1 October 1995--31 December 1995 include completion of contract negotiations for Study of Foaming Characteristics project, and finalizing Phase IV and Phase V projects.

Szymurski, S.R.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Kinetic measurement and prediction of the hydrogen outgassing from the polycrystalline LiH/LiOH system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, we present the use of temperature programmed reaction/decomposition (TPR) in the isoconversion mode to measure outgassing kinetics and to make kinetic prediction concerning hydrogen release from the polycrystalline LiH/LiOH system in the absence of any external H{sub 2}O source.

Dinh, L N; Grant, D M; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Leckey, J H; Siekhaus, W J; Balazs, B; McLean II, W

2005-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

213

Application of polycrystalline diamond compact bits in the Kuparuk River Field, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

In soft to medium-hard clays and shales, polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have proved economically successful in the Kuparuk River field, AK. Through the redesign and modification of PDC bits and rig equipment, the necessary operating parameters have been achieved, and the use of PDC bits has become routine. These bits are typically run with a bit weight of 30,000 to 40,000 lbf (133 to 178 kN), a standpipe pressure of 4,000 psi (27 MPa), a pump rate of 400 to 450 gal/min (1.5 to 1.7 m/sup 3//min), and a rotary speed of 150 to 200 rev/min. Use of these high operating parameters saves about $50,000 per PDC bit when compared with roller-cone bits.

Balkenbush, R.J.; Onisko, J.E.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Wear mechanisms for polycrystalline-diamond compacts as utilized for drilling in geothermal environments. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work, which was performed in the period from 12/6/79 to 9/30/81 included: (1) rock cutting experiments with single point polycrystalline sintered diamond compact (PDC) cutters to quantitatively determine cutter wear rates and identify wear modes, (2) PDC rock cutting experiments to measure temperatures developed and examine the effects of tool wear, cutting parameters and coolant flow rates on temperature generation, (3) assisting in performing full scale laboratory drilling experiments with PDC bits, using preheated air to simulate geothermal drilling conditions, and in analyzing and reporting the experimental results, and (4) acting in a consulting role with the purpose of establishing design specifications for geothermal hard matrix PDC bits to be procured by Sandia Laboratories for test purposes.

Hibbs, L.E. Jr.; Sogoian, G.C.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

High cycle fatigue of polycrystalline silicon thin films in laboratory air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When subjected to alternating stresses, most materials degrade, e.g., suffer premature failure, due to a phenomenon known as fatigue. It is generally accepted that in brittle materials, such as ceramics, cyclic fatigue can only take place where there is some degree of toughening, implying that premature fatigue failure would not be expected in polycrystalline silicon where such toughening is absent. However, the fatigue failure of polysilicon is reported in the present work, based on tests on thirteen thin-film (2 µm thick) specimens cycled to failure in laboratory air (~25ºC, 30-50 % relative humidity), where damage accumulation and failure of the notched cantilever beams were monitored electrically during the test. Specimen lives ranged from about 10 seconds to 34 days (5 x 10 5 to 1 x 10 11 cycles) with the stress amplitude at failure being reduced to ~50 % of the low-cycle strength for lives in excess of 10 9 cycles.

C. L. Muhlstein; S. B. Brown; R. O. Ritchie

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Lubricant Classification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Engine tests for API classification...wear ASTM sequence VI (1982 Buick V-6 engine): Fuel economy Diesel engines CRC L-38: Bearing corrosion, oxidation, shear stability Caterpillar 1K: Piston deposits Detroit diesel 6V-92TA (two-stroke engine): Piston

217

Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic K? lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K? line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

2008-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

218

News From the D.C. Office: Lubricating the Market for Energy-Efficient  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. 3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. News From the D.C. Office Lubricating the Market for Energy-Efficient Products: Snake Oil vs. Slick Databases A handful of tools are essential for those involved in analyzing energy-efficiency policies or designing and implementing programs, no matter what their area of interest or institutional or individual role. My own short list includes: Detailed information on the structure of energy end-use and market trends. Empirical data that document the real-world performance of technologies and programs. Simulation models that use these data to shed light on the future impact of policies and programs. Accessible, accurate information on the efficiency, costs, and other characteristics of energy-efficient products. My colleagues could certainly add to this list, but for now I want to focus

219

A new emergency lubricating-oil system for steam turbine generators: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A positive-displacement pump, powered by a turbine-shaft driven permanent magnet generator (PMG) can be used to provide lubricating oil over nearly the entire turbine generator speed range. The concept offers high reliability through its simplicity; switchgear, batteries and other auxiliaries are eliminated by hard-wiring the PMG to the pump induction drive motor. In this study, an existing PMG supplying power to the electrohydraulic control (EHC) system was evaluated as the power supply for an induction motor-driven screw pump running in a ''wafting'' mode as a backup to a conventional dc emergency oil system. The screw pump rotates all the time that the turbine shaft turns; check valves allow it to deliver oil instantly if the system pressure falls. It was found that the pump drive motor would start and run reliably with no adverse effects on the PMG or the electrohydraulic control (EHC) system. 6 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

Kalan, G.L.; Oney, W.R.; Steenburgh, J.H.; Elwell, R.C.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. The Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to

222

Synthesis of polycrystalline SnO{sub 2} nanotubes on carbon nanotube template for anode material of lithium-ion battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrystalline tin oxide nanotubes have been prepared by a layer-by-layer technique on carbon nanotubes template. Firstly, the surface of carbon nanotubes was modified by polyelectrolyte. Then, a uniform layer of tin oxide nanoparticles was formed on the positive charged surface of carbon nanotubes via a redox process. At last, the polycrystalline tin oxide nanotubes were synthesized after calcination at 650 deg. C in air for 3 h. The as-synthesized polycrystalline nanotubes with large surface area exhibit finer lithium storage capacity and cycling performance, which shows the potentially interesting application in lithium-ion battery.

Du Ning; Zhang Hui; Chen Bindi; Ma Xiangyang; Huang Xiaohua; Tu Jiangping [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials and Department of Material Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Deren [State Key Lab of Silicon Materials and Department of Material Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: mseyang@zju.edu.cn

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

223

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell and module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 December 1993--30 November 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed under a 3-y contract to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance, and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Specific objectives are to reduce manufacturing cost for polycrstalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/W and to increase manufacturing capacity by a factor of 3. Solarex is working on casting, wire saws, cell process, module assembly, frameless module development, and automated cell handling.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Using Environmental Solutions to Lubrication at Hydropower Plants: A Hydropower Technology Round-Up Report, Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydropower owners and operators are confronted with the dual challenge of compliance with continually-developing environmental regulations and increasingly vigorous competition in the electric generation market. Managing this challenge requires consideration and selected application of new and emerging strategies and technologies. This volume of EPRI's Hydropower Technology Roundup Report presents an overview of research, practices, lessons learned, and some examples regarding the use of self-lubricating...

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

Patent search and review on roller-bit bearings seals and lubrication systems. [State-of-the-art  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over 300 patents on bit design were reviewed, and the more important ones were abstracted. These patents were divided into three groups dealing with roller bit bearings, seals, and lubrication systems. Review of these patents helps identify the problems encountered by previous bit designers and establishes the current state-of-the-art of roller bit design. This report can be used as a reference for designing improved bits both for the petroleum and the geothermal industries.

Maurer, W.C.

1975-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

Metastable Electrical Characteristics of Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules upon Exposure and Stabilization: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The significant features of a series of stabilization experiments conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) between May 2009 and the present are reported. These experiments evaluated a procedure to stabilize the measured performance of thin-film polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of CdTe and CIGS thin-film PV devices and modules exhibit transitory changes in electrical performance after thermal exposure in the dark and/or bias and light exposures. We present the results of our case studies of module performance versus exposure: light-soaked at 65 degrees C; exposed in the dark under forward bias at 65 degrees C; and, finally, longer-term outdoor exposure. We find that stabilization can be achieved to varying degrees using either light-soaking or dark bias methods and that the existing IEC 61646 light-soaking interval may be appropriate for CdTe and CIGS modules with one caveat: it is likely that at least three exposure intervals are required for stabilization.

Deline, C. A.; del Cueto, J. A.; Albin, D. S.; Rummel, S. R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

MICROMACHINED POLYCRYSTALLINE SIGE-BASED THERMOPILES FOR MICROPOWER GENERATION ON HUMAN BODY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a polycrystalline silicon germanium (poly-SiGe) thermopile specially designed for thermoelectric generators used on human body. Both the design of the single thermocouple and the arrangement of the thermocouple array have been described. A rim structure has been introduced in order to increase the temperature difference across the thermocouple junctions. The modeling of the thermocouple and the thermopile has been performed analytically and numerically. An output power of about 1 ?W at an output voltage of more than 1 V is expected from the current design of thermopiles in a watch-size generator. The key material properties of the poly-SiGe have been measured. The thermopile has been fabricated and tested. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the advantage of the rim structure in increasing output voltage. In presence of forced convection, the output voltage of a non-released thermopile can increase from about 53 mV/K/cm 2 to about 130 mV/K/cm 2 after the rim structure is formed. A larger output voltage from the thermopile is expected upon process completion. 1.

Z. Wang; V. Leonov; P. Fiorini; C. Van Hoof

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Photovoltaic mechanisms in polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1, 1979--March 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of grain size on short circuit current density was investigated by approximating individual silicon grains as right circular cylinders and solving the diffusion equation within the base region. This model confirms the previous results that for grain radii exceeding a few tenths of a millimeter, the minority carrier lifetime in the grain essentially determines the short-circuit current response of the cell. The dark I-V characteristics of some polycrystalline solar cells were measured and compared with single crystal cells. The dark current of the polycrystalline cells is dominated by recombination within the space-charge region well past the one sun maximum power point. This has the effect of lowering the cells output power and open circuit voltage. Single crystal cells are dominated by recombination within the quasi-neutral regions at the one sun maximum power point and, consequently, the fill factor and open circuit voltage are greater. Additionally, some preliminary measurements of the spatial dependence of diffusion length were made, Laue X-ray diffraction study of crystal orientations was performed and some SEM micrographs of polycrystalline wafers were taken.

Storti, G.; Johnson, S.; Lin, H.C.; Armstrong, R.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Tribological and mechanical comparison of sintered and HIPped PM212 - high temperature self-lubricating composites  

SciTech Connect

Selected tribological, mechanical and thermophysical properties of two versions of PM212 (sintered and hot isostatically pressed, HIPped) are compared. PM212, a high temperature self-lubricating composite, contains 70 wt percent metal bonded chromium carbide, 15 wt percent CaF2/BaF2 eutectic and 15 wt percent silver. PM212 in the sintered form is about 80 percent dense and has previously been shown to have good tribological properties from room temperature to 850 C. Tribological results of a fully densified, HIPped version of PM212 are given. They are compared to sintered PM212. In addition, selected mechanical and thermophysical properties of both types of PM212 are discussed and related to the tribological similarities and differences between the two PM212 composites. In general, both composites display similar friction and wear properties. However, the fully dense PM212 HIPped composite exhibits slight lower friction and wear than sintered PM212. This may be attributed to its generally higher strength properties. The sintered version displays stable wear properties over a wide load range indicating its promise for use in a variety of applications. Based upon their properties, both the sintered and HIPped PM212 have potential as bearing and seal materials for advanced high temperature applications. 12 refs.

Dellacorte, C.; Sliney, H.E.; Bogdanski, M.S. (NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States) Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Tribological evaluation of piston skirt/cylinder liner contact interfaces under boundary lubrication conditions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The friction and wear between the piston and cylinder liner significantly affects the performance of internal combustion engines. In this paper, segments from a commercial piston/cylinder system were tribologically tested using reciprocating motion. The tribological contact consisted of aluminium alloy piston segments, either uncoated, coated with a graphite/resin coating, or an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) coating, in contact with gray cast iron liner segments. Tests were conducted in commercial synthetic motor oils and base stocks at temperatures up to 120 C with a 2 cm stroke length at reciprocating speeds up to 0.15 m s{sup -1}. The friction dependence of these piston skirt and cylinder liner materials was studied as a function of load, sliding speed and temperature. Specifically, an increase in the sliding speed led to a decrease in the friction coefficient below approximately 70 C, while above this temperature, an increase in sliding speed led to an increase in the friction coefficient. The presence of a coating played an important role. It was found that the graphite/resin coating wore quickly, preventing the formation of a beneficial tribochemical film, while the a-C : H coating exhibited a low friction coefficient and provided significant improvement over the uncoated samples. The effect of additives in the oils was also studied. The tribological behaviour of the interface was explained based on viscosity effects and subsequent changes in the lubrication regime, formation of chemical and tribochemical films.

Demas, N. G.; Erck, R. A.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Soft lubrication: the elastohydrodynamics of non-conforming and conforming contacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft interfaces and show that elastic deformation couples tangential and normal forces and thus generates lift. We consider materials that deform easily, due to either geometry (e.g. a shell) or constitutive properties (e.g. a gel or a rubber), so that the effects of pressure and temperature on the fluid properties may be neglected. Four different system geometries are considered: a rigid cylinder moving parallel to a soft layer coating a rigid substrate; a soft cylinder moving parallel to a rigid substrate; a cylindrical shell moving parallel to a rigid substrate; and finally a cylindrical conforming journal bearing coated with a thin soft layer. In addition, for the particular case of a soft layer coating a rigid substrate we consider both elastic and poroelastic material responses. For all these cases we find the same generic behavior: there is an optimal combination of geometric and material parameters that maximizes the dimensionless normal force as a function of the softness parameter = hydrodynamic pressure/elastic stiffness = surface deflection/gap thickness which characterizes the fluid-induced deformation of the interface. The corresponding cases for a spherical slider are treated using scaling concepts.

J. M. Skotheim; L. Mahadevan

2004-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

232

Electrochemical studies of the automotive lubricant additive zinc n-dibutyldithiophosphate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDTPs) are widely incorporated in lubricant formulations as antioxidant and antiwear additives. Using the model compound zinc n-dibutyldithiophosphate (Bu-ZDTP) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, cyclic voltammetry is applied to a detailed study of Bu-ZDTP electro-oxidation. Bu-ZDTP is shown to be oxidized in a chemically irreversible electron transfer process under diffusion-limited conditions. A similar study of Bu-ZDTP reduction revealed nucleation of zinc at the electrode surface. A chronoamperometric investigation of zinc deposition classified the nucleation according to a progressive mechanism with the diffusion coefficient for Bu-ZDTP in DMF solution as 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. By comparison with diffusion coefficients obtained via Levich analysis of Bu-ZDTP oxidation, the oxidation process is assigned as a two-electron transfer. The use of atomic force microscopy as a means of directly visualizing zinc nuclei formed as a result of Bu-ZDTP reduction is described.

Jacob, S.R.; Compton, R.G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Lab.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Quarterly report No. 1, January 1, 1979-March 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A theory capable of predicting the performance of polycrystalline silicon solar cells is formulated. It relates grain size to mobility, lifetime, diffusion length, reverse saturation current, open circuit photovoltage and fill factor. Only the diffusion lengths measured by the surface photovoltage technique for grains less than or equal to 5 ..mu..m do not agree with our theory. The reason for this discrepancy is presently being investigated. We conclude that grains greater than or equal to 100 ..mu..m are necessary to achieve efficiencies greater than or equal to 10 percent at AM1 irradiance. The calculations were performed for the case of no grain boundary passivation. At present we are investigating the improvements to be expected from grain boundary passivation. We have determined that the parameters that best fit the available data are as follows: (1) Number of surface states at grain boundaries acting as recombination centers - 1.6 x 10/sup 13//cm/sup 2/. (2) Capture cross section - 2 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/. (3) Surface recombination velocity at grain boundary - 3.2 x 10/sup 4/ cm/sec. The following types of solar cells are considered in the model: SnO/sub 2//Si Heterostructure, MIS, and p/n junction. In all types of solar cells considered, grain boundary recombination plays a dominant role, especially for small grains. Though the calculations were originally expected to yield only order of magnitude results, they have proven to be accurate for most parameters within 10 percent.

Ghosh, A.K.; Feng, T.; Maruska, H.P.; Fishman, C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Virtual Electrochemical Strain Microscopy of Polycrystalline LiCoO2 Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recently developed technique, electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), utilizes the strong coupling between ionic current and anisotropic volumetric chemical expansion of lithium-ion electrode materials to dynamically probe the sub-one-hundred? nm inter-facial kinetic intercalation properties. A numerical technique based on the finite element method was developed to analyze the underlying physics that govern the ESM signal generation and establish relations to battery performance. The performed analysis demonstrates that the diffusion path within a thin film is tortuous and the extent of lithium diffusion into the electrode is dependent on the SPM-tip-imposed overpotential frequency. The detected surface actuation gives rise to the development of an electromechanical hysteresis loop whose shape is dependent on grain size and overpotential frequency. Shape and tilting angle of the loop are classified into low and high frequency regimes, separated by a transition frequency which is also a function of lithium diffusivity and grain size, f{sub T} = D//{sup 2}. Research shows that the crystallographic orientation of the surface actuated grain has a significant impact on the shape of the loop. The polycrystalline crystallographic orientation of the grains induces a diffusion path network in the electrode which impacts on the mechanical reliability of the battery. Simulations demonstrate that continuous battery cycling results in a cumulative capacity loss as a result of the hysteric non-reversible lithium intercalation. Furthermore, results suggest that ESM has the capability to infer the local out-of-plane lithium diffusivity and the out-of-plane contribution to Vegard tensor.

Chung, Ding-wen [Purdue University; Balke, Nina [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Garcia, R. Edwin [Purdue University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The Effect of Grain Size and Phosphorous-doping of Polycrystalline 3C-SiC on Infrared Reflectance Spectra  

SciTech Connect

The effect of P-doping and grain size of polycrystalline 3C-SiC on the infrared reflectance spectra is reported. The relationship between grain size and full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggest that the behaviour of the 3C-SiC with the highest phosphorous doping level (of 1.2 x 10{sup 19} at. cm{sup -3}) is different from those with lower doping levels (< 6.6 x 10{sup 18} at. cm{sup -3}). It is also further demonstrated that the plasma resonance frequency (w{sub p}) is not influenced by the grain size.

I. J. van Rooyen; J. A. A. Engelbrecht; A. Henry; E. Janzen; J. H. Neethling; P. M. van Rooyen

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Thin-film polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Quarterly report no. 3, October 16, 1980-January 15, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are: 1) to develop cell fabrication procedures to further define the maximum capabilities of the conducting oxide/silicon heterojunction solar cells; 2) to optimize the spray fabrication technique for making reproducible high efficiency cells; 3) to assess the stability and the projected lifetime of the cell structure; 4) to identify through appropriate measurements the effects of grain boundaries and intragrain defects on the electronic transport mechanisms in thin-film polycrystalline silicon; and 5) to determine the feasibility of a large-scale fabrication process. Progress is reported.

Ghosh, A. K.; Feng, T.; Eustace, D. J.; Maruska, H. P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Device physics of thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules. Annual subcontract report, December 6, 1993--December 5, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress has been made in several applications of device physics to thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules. At the cell level, results include a more quantitative separation of photon losses, the impact of second barriers on cell operation, and preliminary studies of how current-voltage curves are affected by band offsets. Module analysis includes the effects of the typical monolithic, series-connected cell geometry, analytical techniques when only the two module leads are accessible, and the impact of chopping frequency, local defects, and high-intensity beams on laser-scanning measurements.

Sites, J.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Model catalytic studies of single crystal, polycrystalline metal, and supported catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation is focused on understanding the structure-activity relationship in heterogeneous catalysis by studying model catalytic systems. The catalytic oxidation of CO was chosen as a model reaction for studies on a variety of catalysts. A series of Au/TiO2 catalysts were prepared from various metalorganic gold complexes. The catalytic activity and the particle size of the gold catalysts were strongly dependent on the gold complexes. The Au/TiO2 catalyst prepared from a tetranuclear gold complex showed the best performance for CO oxidation, and the average gold particle size of this catalyst was 3.1 nm. CO oxidation was also studied over Au/MgO catalysts, where the MgO supports were annealed to various temperatures between 900 and 1300 K prior to deposition of Au. A correlation was found between the activity of Au clusters for the catalytic oxidation of CO and the F-center concentration in the MgO support. In addition, the catalytic oxidation of CO was studied in a batch reactor over supported Pd/Al2O3 catalysts, a Pd(100) single crystal, as well as polycrystalline metals of rhodium, palladium, and platinum. A hyperactive state, corresponding to an oxygen covered surface, was observed at high O2/CO ratios at elevated pressures. The reaction rate at this state was significantly higher than that on CO-covered surfaces at stoichiometric conditions. The oxygen chemical potential required to achieve the hyperactive state depends on the intrinsic properties of the metal, the particle size, and the reaction temperature. A well-ordered ultra-thin titanium oxide film was synthesized on the Mo(112) surface as a model catalyst support. Two methods were used to prepare this Mo(112)- (8x2)-TiOx film, including direct growth on Mo(112) and indirect growth by deposition of Ti onto monolayer SiO2/Mo(112). The latter method was more reproducible with respect to film quality as determined by low-energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy. The thickness of this TiOx film was one monolayer and the oxidation state of Ti was +3 as determined by Auger spectroscopy, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Yan, Zhen

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Annual subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results and conclusion of Phase I of a multi-year research program on polycrystalline thin film solar cells are presented. The research comprised investigation of the relationships among processing, materials properties and device performance of both CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. The kinetics of the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} by selenization with hydrogen selenide was investigated and a CuInSe{sub 2}/CdS solar cell was fabricated. An alternative process involving the reaction of deposited copper-indium-selenium layers was used to obtain single phase CuInSe{sub 2} films and a cell efficiency of 7%. Detailed investigations of the open circuit voltage of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells showed that a simple Shockley-Read-Hall recombination mechanism can not account for the limitations in open circuit voltage. Examination of the influence of CuInSe{sub 2} thickness on cell performance indicated that the back contact behavior has a significant effect when the CuInSe{sub 2} is less than 1 micron thick. CdTe/CdS solar cells with efficiencies approaching 10% can be repeatedly fabricated using physical vapor deposition and serial post deposition processing. The absence of moisture during post deposition was found to be critical. Improvements in short circuit current of CdTe solar cells to levels approaching 25 mA/cm{sup 2} are achievable by making the CdS window layer thinner. Further reductions in the CdS window layer thickness are presently limited by interdiffusion between the CdS and the CdTe. CdTe/CdS cells stored without protection from the atmosphere were found to degrade. The degradation was attributed to the metal contact. CdTe cells with ZnTe:Cu contacts to the CdTe were found to be more stable than cells with metal contacts. Analysis of current-voltage and spectral response of CdTe/CdS cells indicates the cell operates as a p-n heterojunction with the diode current dominated by SRH recombination in the junction region of the CdTe.

Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR program technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Near single-crystalline, high-carrier-mobility silicon thin film on a polycrystalline/amorphous substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A template article including a base substrate including: (i) a base material selected from the group consisting of polycrystalline substrates and amorphous substrates, and (ii) at least one layer of a differing material upon the surface of the base material; and, a buffer material layer upon the base substrate, the buffer material layer characterized by: (a) low chemical reactivity with the base substrate, (b) stability at temperatures up to at least about 800.degree. C. under low vacuum conditions, and (c) a lattice crystal structure adapted for subsequent deposition of a semiconductor material; is provided, together with a semiconductor article including a base substrate including: (i) a base material selected from the group consisting of polycrystalline substrates and amorphous substrates, and (ii) at least one layer of a differing material upon the surface of the base material; and, a buffer material layer upon the base substrate, the buffer material layer characterized by: (a) low chemical reactivity with the base substrate, (b) stability at temperatures up to at least about 800.degree. C. under low vacuum conditions, and (c) a lattice crystal structure adapted for subsequent deposition of a semiconductor material, and, a top-layer of semiconductor material upon the buffer material layer.

Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM); Choi, Woong (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ingrain and grain boundary scattering effects on electron mobility of transparent conducting polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conducting polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with different thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C by ion-plating deposition with direct current arc-discharge. The dependences of crystal structure, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO films on thickness have been systematically studied. Optical response due to free electrons of the GZO films was characterized in the photon energy range from 0.73 to 3.8 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The free electron response was expressed by the simple Drude model combined with the Tauc-Lorentz model. From the SE analysis and the results of Hall measurements, electron effective mass, m{sup *}, and optical mobility, {mu}{sub opt}, of the GZO films were determined, based on the assumptions that the films are homogeneous and optically isotropic. By comparing the {mu}{sub opt} and Hall mobility, {mu}{sub Hall}, an indication on the effect of ingrain and grain boundary scattering limiting the electron mobility has been obtained. Moreover, the variation in scattering mechanism causing thickness dependence of {mu}{sub Hall} was correlated with the development of polycrystalline grain structure.

Yamada, Takahiro; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Materials Design Center, Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Can Oil Float Completely Submerged in Water?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Droplet formation in a system of two or more immiscible fluids is a celebrated topic of research in the fluid mechanics community. In this work, we propose an innovative phenomenon where oil when injected drop-wise into a pool of water moves towards the air-water interface where it floats in a fully submerged condition. The configuration, however, is not stable and a slight perturbation to the system causes the droplet to burst and float in partially submerged condition. The droplet contour is analyzed using edge detection. Temporal variation of a characteristic length of the droplet is analyzed using MATLAB image processing. The constraint of small Bond Number established the assumption of lubrication regime in the thin gap. A brief theoretical formulation also showed the temporal variation of the gap thickness

Nath, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Souvick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1991--31 March 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The limiting role of polycrystallinity in thin-film solar calls has been reduced somewhat during the past year, and efficiencies of both CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells are approaching 15%. Quantitative separation of loss mechanisms shows that individual losses, with the exception of forward recombination current, can be made comparable to their single crystal counterparts. One general manifestation of the extraneous trapping states in that the voltage of all polycrystalline thin-film cells drifts upward by 10--50 mV following the onset of illumination.

Sites, J.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

H2 carrier gas dependence of Young's modulus and hardness of chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline 3C-SiC thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the mechanical properties of poly (polycrystalline) 3C-SiC thin films according to 0%, 7%, and 10% carrier gas (H"2) concentrations using nano-indentation. When H"2 concentration was 10%, it has been proved that the mechanical properties, ... Keywords: AFM, Hardness, Nano-indentation, Poly 3C-SiC, Young's modulus

Gwiy-Sang Chung; Ki-Bong Han

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Raman scattering of polycrystalline 3C-SiC film deposited on AlN buffer layer by using CVD with HMDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the Raman scattering characteristics of poly (polycrystalline) 3C-SiC thin films deposited on AlN buffer layer by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) using hexamethyldisilane (MHDS) and carrier gases (Ar+H"2). The ... Keywords: AlN, HMDS, Poly 3C-SiC, Raman scattering

Gwiy-Sang Chung; Kang-San Kim

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Observation and simulation of hard x ray photoelectron diffraction to determine polarity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films with rotation domains  

SciTech Connect

X ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns of polar zinc oxide (ZnO) surfaces were investigated experimentally using hard x rays and monochromatized Cr K{alpha} radiation and theoretically using a cluster model approach and a dynamical Bloch wave approach. We focused on photoelectrons emitted from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2} and O 1s orbitals in the analysis. The obtained XPD patterns for the (0001) and (0001) surfaces of a ZnO single crystal were distinct for a given emitter and polarity. Polarity determination of c-axis-textured polycrystalline ZnO thin films was also achieved with the concept of XPD, even though the in-plane orientation of the columnar ZnO grains was random.

Williams, Jesse R.; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); NIMS Saint-Gobain Research Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Pis, Igor [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8 18000 (Czech Republic); Kobata, Masaaki [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Winkelmann, Aimo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Keisuke [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Photovoltaic mechanisms in polycrystalline thin film silicon solar cells. Final report, 30 June 1979-29 June 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were: (1) to develop appropriate measurement techniques to facilitate a quantitative study of the electrical activity of structural defects and at a grain boundary (G.B.) in terms of generation-recombination, barrier height, and G.B. conductivity; (2) to characterize G.B.s in terms of physical properties such as angle of misfit and local stress, and to correlate them with the electrical activity; (3) to determine the influence of solar cell processing on the electrical behavior of structural defects and G.B.s; and (4) to evaluate polycrystalline solar cell performance based on the above study, and to compare it with the experimentally measured performance. Progress is reported in detail. (WHK)

Sopori, B.L.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Carrier mobility measurement across a single grain boundary in polycrystalline silicon using an organic gate thin-film transistor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we developed a measurement method for field-effect-carrier mobility across a single grain boundary in polycrystalline Si (poly Si) used for solar cell production by using an organic gate field-effect transistor (FET). To prevent precipitation and the diffusion of impurities affecting the electronic characteristics of the grain boundary, all the processing temperatures during FET fabrication were held below 150 deg. C. From the grain boundary, the field-effect mobility was measured at around 21.4 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 297 K, and the temperature dependence of the field-effect mobility suggested the presence of a potential barrier of 0.22 eV at the boundary. The technique presented here is applicable for the monitoring of carrier conduction characteristics at the grain boundary in poly Si used for the production of solar cells.

Hashimoto, Masaki; Kanomata, Kensaku; Momiyama, Katsuaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirose, Fumihiko

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

250

Electron Drift-Mobility Measurements in Polycrystalline CuIn 1-xGaxSe2 Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report photocarrier time-of-flight measurements of electron drift mobilities for the p-type CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films incorporated in solar cells. The electron mobilities range from 0.02 to 0.05 cm{sup 2}/Vs and are weakly temperature-dependent from 100-300 K. These values are lower than the range of electron Hall mobilities (2-1100 cm{sup 2}/Vs) reported for n-type polycrystalline thin films and single crystals. We propose that the electron drift mobilities are properties of disorder-induced mobility edges and discuss how this disorder could increase cell efficiencies.

Dinca, S. A.; Schiff, E. A.; Shafarman, W. N.; Egaas, B.; Noufi, R.; Young, D. L.

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

251

Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2  

SciTech Connect

Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at grain boundaries for given grain boundary properties. More validation of the model capability in polycrystalline is underway.

Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous operation under DPF regeneration events. During the second stage of HD testing, the ULSD lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.5% to 0.8%, while for B20, lube-oil dilution levels fell from 1.6% to 1.0%, but the fuel in the oil was 36% biodiesel. For the LD vehicle tests, the frequency of DPF regeneration events was observed to be the same for both ULSD and B20. No significant difference between the two fuels' estimated soot loading was detected by the engine control unit (ECU), although a 23% slower rate of increase in differential pressure across DPF was observed with B20. It appears that the ECU estimated soot loading is based on the engine map, not taking advantage of the lower engine-out particulate matter from the use of biodiesel. After 4,000 miles of LD vehicle operation with ULSD, fuel dilution in the lube-oil samples showed total dilution levels of 4.1% diesel. After 4,000 miles of operation with B20, total fuel in oil dilution levels were 6.7% consisting of 3.6% diesel fuel and 3.1% biodiesel. Extrapolation to the 10,000-mile oil drain interval with B20 suggests that the total fuel content in the oil could reach 12%, compared to 5% for operation on ULSD. Analysis of the oil samples also included measurement of total acid number, total base number, viscosity, soot, metals and wear scar; however, little difference in these parameters was noted.

He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

Compere, A L [ORNL; Griffith, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

Bansal, Dinesh G [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Bo [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Mordukhovich, Gregory [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Smolenski, Donald [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

257

Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne?s research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based mater

Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

Spatially-Resolved Studies of Grain-Boundary Effects in Polycrystalline Solar Cells Using Micro-Photoluminescence and Near-Field Microscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopies combined with diffraction-limited and sub- diffraction-limited spatial resolution are achieved via micro-photoluminescence (m-PL) and near-field microscopy (NSOM). These methods are used to examine the photo-response of individual grain boundaries in thin-film, polycrystalline solar cells at room and cryogenic temperatures. A systematic m-PL study of the effect of CdCl2-treatment on recombination in CdTe/CdS solar cell structures of varying thickness directly reveals the grain-boundary and surface passivation action of this important post-growth processing step. We achieve 50nm (l/10) spatial resolution in near-field Optical Beam Induced Current imaging (n-OBIC) of polycrystalline silicon solar cells using NSOM, at varying stages of silicon nitride grain-boundary passivation, and measure lateral variations in photo-response of CdTe/CdS solar cells with subwavelength spatial resolution.

Smith, S.; Dhere, R.; Gessert, T.; Stradins, P.; Mascarenhas, A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

The effect of Sn on the reactions of n-hexane and cyclohexane over polycrystalline Pt foils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The modification of the catalytic properties of a polycrystalline platinum foil by the addition of tin was studied by the reactions of n-hexane and cyclohexane in excess H{sub 2}. The reactions were studied at 13.3 kPa of n-hexane, 450 kPa of H{sub 2} and 740 K, and 6.7 kPa of cyclohexane, 450 kPa of H{sub 2} and 573 K. The Pt-Sn catalyst was characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy and by temperature-programmed desorption of CO before and after the reactions. The sites that bind CO most strongly on the Pt foil also have the highest initial turnover rate and are the first ones to be poisoned by carbon deposits from hydrocarbon reactions or by sulfur when a sulfur-containing compound (thiophene) is present in the feed. The addition of tin can block these sites preferentially, thus decreasing the undesirable high initial hydrogenolysis rate of platinum catalysts in reforming reactions and eliminating the need for presulfiding the catalyst. Also, tin suppressed the hydrogenolysis reaction preferentially to the isomerization and cyclization reactions thus increasing the selectivities to isomerization and cyclization. The amount of carbon deposited was smaller on tin containing platinum catalysts during the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and n-hexane.

Fujikawa, T.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Somorjai, G.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Doped, porous iron oxide films and their optical functions and anodic photocurrents for solar water splitting  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication and morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characterization of doped iron oxide films is presented. The complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient of polycrystalline films are determined through measurement and modeling of spectral transmission and reflection data using appropriate dispersion relations. Photoelectrochemical characterization for water photo-oxidation reveals that the conversion efficiencies of electrodes are strongly influenced by substrate temperature during their oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. These results are discussed in terms of the films' morphological features and the known optoelectronic limitations of iron oxide films for application in solar water splitting devices.

Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Mao, Samuel S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Turbid water Clear water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

Jaffe, Jules

262

Device physics of thin-film polycrystalline cells and modules: Phase 1 annual report: February 1998--January 1999  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work done by Colorado State University (CSU) during Phase 1 of this subcontract. CSU researchers continued to make basic measurements on CI(G)S and CdTe solar cells fabricated at different labs, to quantitatively deduce the loss mechanisms in these cells, and to make appropriate comparisons that illuminate where progress is being made. Cells evaluated included the new record CIGS cell, CIS cells made with and without CdS, and those made by electrodeposition and electroless growth from solution. Work on the role of impurities focused on sodium in CIS. Cells with varying amounts of sodium added during CIS deposition were fabricated at NREL using four types of substrates. The best performance was achieved with 10{sup {minus}2}--10{sup {minus}1} at% sodium, and the relative merits of proposed mechanisms for the sodium effect were compared. Researchers also worked on the construction and testing of a fine-focused laser-beam apparatus to measure local variations in polycrystalline cell performance. A 1{micro}m spot was achieved, spatial reproducibility in one and two dimensions is less than 1 {micro}m, and photocurrent is reliably measured when the 1{micro}m spot is reduced as low as 1-sun in intensity. In elevated-temperature stress tests, typical CdTe cells held at 100 C under illumination and normal resistive loads for extended periods of time were generally very stable; but those held under reverse or large forward bias and those contacted using larger amounts of copper were somewhat less stable. CdTe cell modeling produced reasonable fits to experimental data, including variations in back-contact barriers. A major challenge being addressed is the photovoltaic response of a single simple-geometry crystallite with realistic grain boundaries.

Sites, J. R.

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

263

Device Physics of Thin-Film Polycrystalline Cells and Modules; Final Subcontract Report; 6 December 1993-15 March 1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed under this subcontract by Colorado State University (CSU). The results of the subcontract effort included progress in understanding CdTe and Cu(In1-xGax)Se2-based solar cells, in developing additional measurement and analysis techniques at the module level, and in strengthening collaboration within the thin-film polycrystalline solar-cell community. A major part of the CdTe work consisted of elevated-temperature stress tests to determine fabrication and operation conditions that minimize the possibility of long-term performance changes. Other CdTe studies included analysis of the back-contact junction, complete photon accounting, and the tradeoff with thin CdS between photocurrent gain and voltage loss. The Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 studies included work on the role of sodium in enhancing performance, the conditions under which conduction-band offsets affect cell performance, the transient effects of cycling between light and dark conditions, and detailed analysis of several individual series of cells. One aspect of thin-film module analysis has been addressing the differences in approach needed for relatively large individual cells made without grids. Most work, however, focused on analysis of laser-scanning data, including defect signatures, photocurrent/shunting separation, and the effects of forward bias or high-intensity light. Collaborations with other laboratories continued on an individual basis, and starting in 1994, collaboration was through the national R&D photovoltaic teams. CSU has been heavily involved in the structure and logistics of both the CdTe and CIS teams, as well as making frequent technical contributions in both areas.

Sites, J. R. (Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado)

1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

264

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Pharmaceutical Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Water treatment process for water for injection (WFI)...deionization WFI production Evaporation still or vapor compression...

266

Water Snakes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER SNAKES Contrary to popular belief, the Water Moccasin commonly known as the...

267

Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211-3029 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Physical models of thin film polycrystalline solar cells based on measured grain-boundary and electronic-parameter properties. Final report, September 18, 1978-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The research has sought the following: to identify and characterize the basic photovoltaic mechanisms that govern the conversion efficiency of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells; to experimentally determine the electronic parameters related to these photovoltaic mechanisms; and to relate these mechanisms and parameters to the conversion efficiency through theoretical physical models developed for engineering design. These objectives are all intimately related. The emphasis of the work has been on polysilicon, although it is building a foundation of understanding useful for similar research in the future on other thin-film materials. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Lindholm, F.A.; Fossum, J.G.; Holloway, P.A.; Neugroschel, A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity and record sheets for hands-on learning experiences. This curriculum is intended for students in about 4th to 8th grades.

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Polycrystalline Multiscale Plasticity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 6, 2013 ... Measurements are carried out at the Advanced Photon Source; analysis uses high performance computing to extract micron scale resolution ...

271

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

274

Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Nature Bulletin No. 408-A February 27, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation GROUND WATER We take...

276

Water Dogs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NA Question: I'd like to know about the water dogs and their life cycle? Replies: Water dog, or mud puppy, is a common name for a type of salamander that never develops lungs, but...

277

Tribological and microstructural investigation of the PM200 series of self-lubricating composites. [NiCo-Cr[sub 3]C[sub 2]-Ag(Au)-BaF[sub 2]-CaF[sub 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This master's thesis describes an investigation of the effects of processing and compositional variations on the tribological, microstructural, and compressive strength characteristics of PM212. PM212 is a self-lubricating composite, comprised of a wear-resistant metal bonded (NiCo) chromium carbide matrix, containing the solid lubricants barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic and silver. Several alternate composites were formulated which had lubricant and matrix variations. Processing variations included sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIPping). Pin-on-disk tests were used to screen the alternates for friction and wear properties. Several of the chromium carbide-based self-lubricating composites exhibited low friction and wear in sliding against a nickel-based superalloy. One specific composition contained gold in place of silver to minimize the potential reactivity of the composite with possible environmental contaminants such as sulfur. This formulation also resulted in a composite with good tribological properties. Results indicate that several of these composites have potential use as sliding bearing and seal materials in operation from 25[degrees]C to temperatures as high as 900[degrees]C. The good tribological performance by several different composites showed that the composition of PM212 can be altered without dramatically affecting performance.

Bogdanski, M.S.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Water Bugs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

279

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Slatton, Clint

280

Fuels and Lubricants Subcommittee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... State Fuel Quality Laws for Ethanol Blended Gasoline changes to promote and protect but not impede e10 presented" by Marathon Petroleum Co. ...

2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Novel Lubricant Additives  

"The History and Mechanisms of ZDDP," Tribology Letters, 17(2004) 469-489. 3. ... scar. Lower, the base oil alone leaves a much scarred surface which is also

282

Lubricated boride surfaces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ultralow friction properties available through the annealation and subsequent cooling of various boron-containing substrates, articles and/or components.

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Bindal, Cuma (Sakarya, TR); Fenske, G. R. (Downers Grove, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Lubricant Toxicity (Ref 12)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...E.O. Bennett, The Biology of Metalworking Fluids, Lubr. Eng., Vol 28 (No. 7), 1972, p 237â??247...

284

Reusing Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

285

Structural, optical and magnetic properties of polycrystalline BaTi{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Polycrystalline BaTi{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics have been prepared by conventional solid-state reaction. Their structural, optical and magnetic properties are then studied by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering (RS) and absorption spectrometers, and a physical properties measurement system. Detailed analyses of XRD patterns and RS spectra reveal the phase separation of the tetragonal-hexagonal structure at a threshold concentration of x = 0.005. The increase in the Fe-doping content (x) leads to development of the hexagonal phase. Magnetic measurements prove that many BaTi{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 3} samples exhibit the room-temperature ferromagnetic order, excepting the samples with x = 0.02-0.06. The ferromagnetism depends strongly on concentration of Fe impurities. The nature of this ferromagnetism is discussed by means of the results of structural analyses and optical absorption spectra.

Dang, N. V. [Faculty of Physics, College of Science, Thai Nguyen University, Thai Nguyen (Viet Nam); Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Thanh, T. D.; Hong, L. V.; Lam, V. D. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, The-Long [BK-21 Physics Program and Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at {approx}35% of surface coverage, {theta}, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when {theta} = 35% and the second step at {theta} = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

Rozenblat, A. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Haimson, S. [Material Science Program, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Shacham-Diamand, Y. [Department of Physical Electronics, Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Horvitz, D. [Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd., Qiryat-Gat 82109 (Israel)

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

287

Water Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning EUEC Energy & Environment Conference 2008, EPS,1292008 2 * Water Scarcity Seen Dampening Case...

288

Water and Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water in swimming pool Water and Energy The water and energy technology research focuses on improving the efficiency of energy and water use in water delivery, supply and...

289

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

290

Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Technical activities report: Heat, water, and mechanical studies  

SciTech Connect

Topics in the heat studies section include: front and rear face reflector shields at the C-pile; process tube channel thermocouples; water temperature limits for horizontal rods; slug temperature and thermal conductivity calculations; maximum slug-end cap temperature; boiling consideration studies; scram time limit for Panellit alarm; heat transfer test; slug stresses; thermal insulation of bottom tube row at C-pile; flow tests; present pile enrichment; electric analog; and measurement of thermal contact resistance. Topics in the water studies section include: 100-D flow laboratory; process water studies; fundamental studies on film formation; coatings on tip-offs; can difference tests; slug jacket abrasion at high flow rates; corrosion studies; front tube dummy slugs; metallographic examination of tubes from H-pile; fifty-tube mock-up; induction heating facility; operational procedures and standards; vertical safety rod dropping time tests; recirculation; and power recovery. Mechanical development studies include: effect of Sphincter seal and lubricant VSR drop time; slug damage; slug bubble tester; P-13 removal; chemical slug stripper; effect of process tube rib spacing and width; ink facility installation; charging and discharging machines; process tube creep; flapper nozzle assembly test; test of single gun barrel assembly; pigtail fixture test; horizontal rod gland seal test; function test of C-pile; and intermediate test of Ball 3-X and VSR systems.

Alexander, W.K.

1951-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

292

Water Boatman  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Boatman Water Boatman Name: Joshua Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a research on water boatman. I go through your web, I only find little information about it. Can you give me its habitat, its appearance, life cycles and communication between themselves and they defenses themselves? Replies: Find a good book in the library on insects, also on pond biology/ecology, as boatmen live in ponds and marshes. It should be easy to find. J.Elliott Try this web site: http://www.dnr.state.il.us/ctap.ctaphome.htm or http://www.dnr.state.il.us/nredu/nredpage.htm this is the state of Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources homepage and somewhere on there is a page called "bugpage". They have pictures and characteristics of aquatic insects there. good luck

293

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residentialgas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe PV solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 15 April 1993--14 April 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is an annual technical report on the Phase 2 of a three-year phased research program. The principal objective of the research project is to develop novel and low-cost processes for the fabrication of stable and efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells using reliable techniques amenable to scale-up for economic, large-scale manufacture. The aims are to develop a process for the non-toxic selenization so as to avoid the use of extremely toxic H{sub 2}Se in the fabrication of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells; to optimize selenization parameters; to develop a process for the fabrication of CdTe solar cells using Cd and Te layers sputtered from elemental targets; to develop an integrated process for promoting the interdiffusion between Cd/Te layers, CdTe phase formation, grain growth, type conversion, and junction formation; to improve adhesion; to minimize residual stresses; to improve the metallic back-contact; to improve the uniformity, stoichiometry, and morphology of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe thin films; and to improve the efficiency of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

Dhere, N.G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Physical models of thin film polycrystalline solar cells based on measured grain-boundary and electronic-parameter properties. Quarterly report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar cells fabricated on polycrystalline silicon, either bulk or thin-film, can potentially be cost-effective when used in terrestrial photovoltaic energy-conversion systems. To achieve this goal, the polysilicon cell efficiency must be increased considerably from its present values. A severe limitation to the cell efficiency is due to the grain boundaries and their influence on carrier recombination. To remove this limitation, an understanding of the fundamental physics underlying the effects of the grain boundaries on cell performance is helpful. This fundamental physics is discussed, and models are developed for recombination currents in polysilicon pn-junction solar cells. Several analytic approximations, suggested by physical insight, are used and checked ultimately for self-consistency with the results of the analysis. The models are defined such that their parameters can be related directly to measurements, and the models are hence useful in interpreting experimental results. They also can be used to study, in a systematic way, cell-design modifications to improve the efficiency, e.g., grain-boundary passivation techniques.

Lindholm, F.A.; Fossum, J.G.; Holloway, P.A.; Neugroschel, A.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 15, 1992--April 14, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objective of the research project is to develop processes for the fabrication of cadmium-telluride, CdTe, and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide, Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}, polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells using techniques that can be scaled-up for economic manufacture on a large scale. The aims are to fabricate CdTe solar cells using Cd and Te layers sputtered from elemental targets; to promote the interdiffusion between Cd/Te layers, CdTe phase formation, and grain growth; to utilize non-toxic selenization so as to avoid the use of extremely toxic H{sub 2}Se in the fabrication of Cu(In{sub l{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells; to optimize selenization parameters; to improve adhesion; to minimize residual stresses; to improve the uniformity, stoichiometry, and morphology of CdTe and Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films, and the efficiency of CdTe and Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} solar cells.

Dhere, N.G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 µL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2 % w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95 % confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5 % (2 % typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. 1.

Gustavo Pignalosa; Moisés Knochen; Noel Cabrera

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect on water and gas usage from cross-flow betweencontrols have on water and gas usage over a large number ofsystems, and their water and gas usage. Hourly schedules for

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Efficient Water Use & Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainability Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary...

300

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A white paper describing produced water from production ofCE, Veil JA. 2009. Produced Water Volumes and Managementunderground formations (produced water) are often extracted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California’s Water Conservation Standards for ResidentialCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council, 2006. http://http://www.nrdc.org/water/conservation/edrain/edrain.pdf

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Texas Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coil hot water storage tank, a backup instantaneous electric water heater, a hydronic fan coil unit for space heating, and an efficient plumbing manifold for domestic hot water...

303

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

304

Water Beetles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beetles Beetles Nature Bulletin No. 639-A April 29, 1961 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis Supt. of Conservation WATER BEETLES The world is full of beetles. They live everywhere except in the oceans and in the polar regions. There are more of them than any other kind of insect. A quarter of a million species are known and new ones are being discovered every year. Whether it is a microscopic mushroom beetle a hundredth of an inch long, or a giant six-inch Hercules beetle from South America, it can be recognized by its wings. The upper pair forms a hard shell curving like a shield over the thin folded lower wings and the abdomen. In flight, the upper pair is extended like the wings of an airplane and the lower two become buzzing propellers.

305

Water watch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &share some of the water-conservation techniques used at theWinter Squash Water Conservation Mulches will save water,

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

308

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &we share some of the water-conservation techniques used atWinter Squash Water Conservation Mulches will save water,

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

NIST: NIF - Water Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water Sensitivity. Neutrons are extremely sensitive to small amounts of water. To quantify and calibrate this sensitivity we ...

310

Conventional Storage Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for homes and buildings.

311

CX-005128: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

28: Categorical Exclusion Determination 28: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005128: Categorical Exclusion Determination The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings For use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 01/25/2011 Location(s): Orem, Utah Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office United States Synthetic Corporation is proposing to use federal funding to design, fabricate and test polycrystalline diamond (PCD) thrust bearings for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) systems. A key design element in most MHK strategies would be robust bearings, which can operate for extended periods of time in the harsh marine environments. The goal of the proposed project is to demonstrate how PCD thrust bearings would reduce the cost of

312

CX-005184: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

84: Categorical Exclusion Determination 84: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-005184: Categorical Exclusion Determination The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings For use in Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Machines CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 01/28/2011 Location(s): Orem, Utah Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office United States Synthetic Corporation is proposing to use federal funding to design, fabricate and test polycrystalline diamond (PCD) thrust bearings for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) systems. A key design element in most MHK strategies would be robust bearings, which can operate for extended periods of time in the harsh marine environments. The goal of the proposed project is to demonstrate how PCD thrust bearings would reduce the cost of

313

WATER AND GROWTH: FUTURE WATER SUPPLIES FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Reclaimed Water As people use water, a wastewater stream is produced. Once cleaned to acceptable standards and is available as reclaimed water. #12;20 New growth in central Arizona will produce significant quantities to return for wastewater treatment51 . Of the reclaimed water produced, 30% is assumed available to meet

Gelt, Joe

314

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Maria Cadeddu

315

Textured Polycrystalline Permanent Magnet Nanoflakes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... high electrical resistivity, which will reduce eddy current losses and improve motor efficiency. ... Combinatorial Search of Rare-Earth-Free Permanent Magnets

316

Partnering to Save Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partnering Partnering to Save Water Phill Consiglio Southern California Edison What We Are Going to Discuss * A Little Bit About Water * The Energy Cost of Water * Water Technologies * What We Have Done * Where We Are Going A Little Bit About Water *The Earth Has A Finite Supply Of Fresh Water. - Water Is Stored In Aquifers, Surface Waters And The Atmosphere - Sometimes Oceans Are Mistaken For Available Water, But The Amount Of Energy Needed To Convert Saline Water To Potable Water Is Prohibitive Today *This Has Created A Water Crisis Due To: - Inadequate Access To Safe Drinking Water For About 884 Million People - Inadequate Access To Water For Sanitation And Waste Disposal For 2.5 Billion People - Groundwater Overdrafting (Excessive Use) Leading To Diminished Agricultural Yields

317

Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2002 at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, December 2003 - contribution title:"Microdiffraction Study of Epitaxial Growth and Lattice Tilts in Oxide Films on Polycrystalline Metal Substrates"  

SciTech Connect

Texture, the preference for a particular crystallographic orientation in polycrystalline materials, plays an important role in controlling such diverse materials properties as corrosion resistance, recording density in magnetic media and electrical transport in superconductors [1]. Without texture, polycrystalline oxide superconductors contain many high-angle, weak-linked grain boundaries which reduce critical current densities by several orders of magnitude [2]. One approach for inducing texture in oxide superconductors has been the epitaxial growth of films on rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTS) [3]. In this approach, rolled Ni foils are recrystallized under conditions that lead to a high degree of biaxial {l_brace}001{r_brace}<100> cube texture. Subsequent deposition of epitaxial oxide buffer layers (typically CeO{sub 2} and YSZ as chemical barriers) and superconducting YBCO preserves the lattice alignment, eliminating high-angle boundaries and enabling high critical current densities, J{sub c} > 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}. Conventional x-ray diffraction using {omega}- and {phi}-scans typically shows macroscopic biaxial texture to within {approx}5{sup o}-10{sup o} FWHM for all layers, but does not describe the local microstructural features that control the materials properties. Understanding and controlling the local texture and microstructural evolution of processes associated with heteroepitaxial growth, differential thermal contraction and cracking remain significant challenges in this complex system [4], as well as in many other technologically important thin-film applications.

Budai, J.D.

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

318

Advanced Photon Source Activity Report 2002 at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, December 2003 - contribution title:"Microdiffraction Study of Epitaxial Growth and Lattice Tilts in Oxide Films on Polycrystalline Metal Substrates"  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Texture, the preference for a particular crystallographic orientation in polycrystalline materials, plays an important role in controlling such diverse materials properties as corrosion resistance, recording density in magnetic media and electrical transport in superconductors [1]. Without texture, polycrystalline oxide superconductors contain many high-angle, weak-linked grain boundaries which reduce critical current densities by several orders of magnitude [2]. One approach for inducing texture in oxide superconductors has been the epitaxial growth of films on rolling-assisted biaxially-textured substrates (RABiTS) [3]. In this approach, rolled Ni foils are recrystallized under conditions that lead to a high degree of biaxial {l_brace}001{r_brace} cube texture. Subsequent deposition of epitaxial oxide buffer layers (typically CeO{sub 2} and YSZ as chemical barriers) and superconducting YBCO preserves the lattice alignment, eliminating high-angle boundaries and enabling high critical current densities, J{sub c} > 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}. Conventional x-ray diffraction using {omega}- and {phi}-scans typically shows macroscopic biaxial texture to within {approx}5{sup o}-10{sup o} FWHM for all layers, but does not describe the local microstructural features that control the materials properties. Understanding and controlling the local texture and microstructural evolution of processes associated with heteroepitaxial growth, differential thermal contraction and cracking remain significant challenges in this complex system [4], as well as in many other technologically important thin-film applications.

Budai, J.D.

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

319

Thermoelectric properties and impedance spectroscopy of polycrystalline samples of the beta-gallia rutile intergrowth, (Ga,In){sub 4}(Sn,Ti){sub 5}O{sub 16}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrystalline samples of Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{thermoelectric properties and electrical impedance. Using diffuse reflectance data and assuming a direct band gap, the band gap of the material ranges from 3.58 eV for y=0 to 3.74 eV for y=0.2. The dc conductivity decreased with increasing Ti content and was thermally activated, ranging from {thermoelectric materials. A comparison of dc conductivity and impedance data indicated a substantial ionic contribution for samples containing titanium. - Graphical abstract: The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{materials are broad-band n-type semiconductors with non-negligible ionic conduction for samples prepared with y>0. The thermoelectric figure of merit is much lower than desired for practical thermoelectric devices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{thermoelectric figure of merit for Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16} is lower than desired for practical thermoelectric devices.

Grover, Jeffrey; Arrasmith, Steven [Alfred University, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Edwards, Doreen D., E-mail: dedwards@alfred.edu [Alfred University, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 11 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 48 Multi-Family

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

322

Laboratory evaluation of the emulsifying characteristics of pumps. [Bilge and ballast water oily wastes  

SciTech Connect

The program was devoted to a laboratory investigation of the emulsifying characteristics of different pumps suitable for shipboard pumping of bilge and ballast water oily wastes. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters, such as oil type, input oil concentration, detergent, pump operating characteristics (pressure and flow rate), and salt versus fresh water, on emulsification. Tests were conducted on the Foster-Miller tests loop. No. 2 fuel oil, lubricating oil and No. 6 fuel oil were the oils tested at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10%. The oils were tested with and without the addition of 10% Gamlen D surfactant. The pumps used were a Parker Diaphragm pump, a Blackmer Sliding Vane pump, an Ingersoll Rand Centrifugal pump and a Deming Centrifugal pump. Pump pressure ranged from 10 to 60 psi and flow rate from 10 to 100 gpm. A total of 270 tests were conducted covering 198 different operating points, 108 concerning pump comparison, 54 concerning oil concentration and surfactant, and 45 concerning salt water.

Harvey, A.C.; Guzdar, A.R.; Fiswell, D.R.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Feature - WATER Tool Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Argonne National Laboratory recently released an open access online tool called WATER (Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources), which quantifies water footprint of fuel production stages from feedstock production to conversion process for biofuel with county, state, and regional level spatial resolution. WATER provides analysis on water consumption and its impact on water quality. It contains biofuel pathways for corn grain ethanol, soybean biodiesel, and cellulosic ethanol produced from corn stover and wheat straw. Perennial grass (Switchgrass and Miscanthus) and forest wood residue-based biofuel pathways are currently under development. The WATER tool enables users to conduct pathway comparison, scenario development, and regional specific feedstock analysis in supporting of biofuel industry development and planning. It is available at http://water.es.anl.gov/.

324

Tankless Demand Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as needed and without the use of a storage tank. They...

325

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of California’s Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Water, Water Everywhere: How Can We Understand It?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Science Afternoon. Water, Water Everywhere: How Can We Understand It? An exploration of water using physical models and computer simulation. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Water Rx - The Problem of Pharmaceuticals in Our Nation's Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN OUR NATION'S WATERS intake via drinking water wastherapeutic dose and intake via drinking water was 150,000

Leitman, Melanie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Drinking Water Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water, and the potential health effects of each contaminant regulated. People who use water from private sources such as wells can also use these standards as a guide in checking whether their water is safe.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

330

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Ultraviolet Water Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UV Ray of Hope for Safer Drinking Water. ... It is not, however, too soon for the American Water Works Association to express its appreciation. ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

332

NETL: Water - Energy Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Water - Energy Interface Innovations for Existing Plants Water - Energy Interface Previous Next...

333

Membranes for Clean Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membranes for Clean Water. Summary: ... Description: Impact. Access to affordable, clean water is vital to the nation's economic growth and security. ...

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

334

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

335

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water and wasted embodied energy. While 5% of California'senergy intensive (94). Water- inefficient fixtures and fittings (toilets, showerheads, urinals, faucets) represent both wasted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using virtual water (e.g. coffee produced in an environmentis produced in an environment in which it takes less water

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Wind Turbine Lubrication Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the rush to develop todays massive wind energy sites, more attention should be paid to the inevitable need to perform routine maintenance and develop practical means of assessing the condition of the components within the nacelles and other outside support equipment for the wind farms. Current operating models have not adequately established accurate assumptions or expectations on the unavailability of the windmills and the impact on lost generation. Contracts for purchase of their generation output...

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

338

Lubricants Refinery Stocks by Type  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Crude oil stocks in the ...

339

Coatings, Composites and Lubricants II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010... for the United Stated Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under contract DE-AC0494AL85000.

340

Lubricants Imports from Non OPEC  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Imports by Country of Origin ... and Gabon withdrew from OPEC in July 1996. Crude oil and petroleum products are reported by the PAD District of entry.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Mechanisms of mesothelial tissue lubrication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the pleural space, sliding between the lung and chest wall induces shear stress that could damage the delicate mesothelial cells covering the tissue surfaces. Normally, the pleural space, which is filled with fluid, is ...

Lin, Judy Li-Wen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

343

Research Addressing Power Plant Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Addressing Power Plant Water Management to Minimize Water Use while Providing Reliable Electricity Generation Water and Energy 2 Water and Energy are inextricably linked. Because...

344

Lawn Water Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties, management practices and watering techniques.

McAfee, James

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

345

WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fixtures Market Overview: Water Savings Potential forNew Jersey. American Water Works Association ResearchResidential End Uses of Water (REUWS). 1999. American Water

McNeil, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Energy Water Linkage: Projected Water Needs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 2004 Executive Summary Thermoelectric generation requires large volumes of water, primarily for cooling. An analysis was conducted to estimate the demand...

347

Service Water Piping Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the years 1988 and 1989, EPRI organized the Service Water Working Group (SWWG) to identify and help resolve the many issues surrounding service water (SW) systems in nuclear power plants. One issue identified by the SWWG was corrosion in service water piping systems. Interest in this issue resulted in the development of several technical reports: Guidelines for the Repair/Replacement Welding of Nuclear Service Water Systems, TR-100386; Guide for the Examination of Service Water System Piping, TR-10206...

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

TSINGHUA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ISSN 1007-0214 04/18 pp527-545  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be significantly effective on the final part specifications. Selection of a lubricant for hydroforming of a frame; friction; tribology; lubrication; material variation Introduction The automotive industry is the largest lubricants: borax-based, soap-based or polymer- based; b) Wet lubricants: oil-based, water-based; and c

Koç, Muammer

349

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

controls. This response applies to markets that have a demand for central water heating systems Distribution Systems Subtask 2.1 Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability systems in multifamily buildings. This market characterization study is helping HMG develop

351

Instantaneous gas water heater  

SciTech Connect

Hot water supply temperature is set by a temperature setting device in response to an instantaneous flow rate signal from a water flow rate sensor arranged in a water supply pipe and a feeding water temperature signal from a feeding water temperature sensor which are compared with a predetermined hot water supply temperature and calculated in a control unit. A proportional valve and other devices in a gas supply pipe are controlled in response to the result of the comparison and calculation to define a required volume of gas for ignition and heating. At the same time, a fan damper is controlled by a damper control device so as to adjust the volume of combustion air. A signal representing discharging hot water temperature from a discharging hot water temperature sensor arranged in a hot water feeding pipe is fed back to the control unit and calculated therein, and a valve in the hot water supply pipe is adjusted in response to the result of calculation to attain the desired hot water supply temperature. In order to prevent freezing in the system in winter season, a signal from a thermostat in the water feeding pipe is transmitted to a heater arranged in an air supply chamber so as to heat a heat exchanger pipe and, at the same time, heaters arranged in the water feeding pipe and the hot water supply pipe are also controlled to prevent freezing.

Tsutsui, O.; Kuwahara, H.; Murakami, Sh.; Yasunaga, Sh.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

352

HYDROSTATIC JOURNAL BEARING WATER TESTS CONDUCTED IN MODIFIED PK-A PUMP  

SciTech Connect

A hydrostatic journal bearing mounted near the impeller of an overhung vertical shaft centrifugal pump was subjected to water testing as a part of the molten salt lubrication investigation at ORNL. Three tests were performed with bearings having radial clearances of 0.003 in., 0.0075 in., and 0.005 in. The first journal and bearing (0.003 in. radial clearance) were found to be heavily scored after testing. Only faint localized scratches were found on tho second journal (0.0075 in. radial clearance) and these may have been caused by the many test starts and stops. Localized scratches, somewhat deeper than those on the second journal, were observed on the third journal, but no measurable wear had occurred from testing. An apparent inconsistency was noted in that at the same pump operating condition the bearing load as computed from pocket pressure data increased by a factor of 1.2 to 1.7 as bearing radial clearance was increased from 0.005 in. to 0.0075 in. The configuration of the submerged hydrostatic bearing used in these tests appears to be satisfactory for use as a lower journal bearing in this size and type of centrifugal pump, at least insofar as operation in water is concerned. (auth)

Gilkey, H.E.; Smith, P.G.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

ii Produced Water Pretreatment for Water Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal drilling and slickwater hydrofracturing have enabled shale gas to become a significant contributor to the United States ’ energy supply. Hydrofracturing typically requires 2MM – 6.5MM gallons of water per shale gas well. About 15-25 % of this water returns to the surface as “flowback ” within 30 days after hydrofracturing. “Produced water ” continues to flow at a much reduced rate, e.g. 2-10 bbl/day, for the life of the well. In addition to high salinity and hardness levels (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), much Marcellus produced water also contains significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), particularly radium. The near absence of disposal wells in Pennsylvania initially forced much of the produced water to be trucked into Ohio for disposal by deep-well injection (UIC). Currently up to 95 % of the

Principal Investigator; James M. Silva; James M. Silva; Hope Matis; William L. Kostedt Iv; Vicki Watkins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Energy-Water Overview  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Emerging Issues and Challenges Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and Transport * Treatment * Use conditioning * Surface and Ground water Water Consumption by Sector U.S. Freshwater Consumption, 100 Bgal/day Livestock 3.3% Thermoelectric 3.3% Commercial 1.2% Domestic 7.1% Industrial 3.3% Mining 1.2% Irrigation 80.6% Energy uses 27 percent of all non-agricultural fresh water

355

Water Management Planning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water efficiency water efficiency at Federal sites Background The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during fiscal year 2010. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y-12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements. The water-assessment team learned key lessons from the Y-12 assessment. Therefore, the aim of this document is to share these key lessons to help other large process-driven sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) and beyond develop a comprehensive

356

Water Management Planning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

water efficiency water efficiency at Federal sites Background The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during fiscal year 2010. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y-12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements. The water-assessment team learned key lessons from the Y-12 assessment. Therefore, the aim of this document is to share these key lessons to help other large process-driven sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) and beyond develop a comprehensive

357

Water | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Water Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 77.7 KiB)

358

Report on Produced Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. The cost of managing such a large volume of water is a key...

359

Boiling Water in Microwave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boiling Water in Microwave A 26-year old man decided to have a cup of coffee. He took a cup of water and put it in the microwave to heat it up (something that he had done numerous...

360

A gathering of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Walking on water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

Bush, John W. M.

362

Madrid Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comprehensive Assessment of Hot Water System Page 1 of 2 HOT WATER SYSTEM In general, the plumbing system in MAGIC BOX is designed to concentrate all devices, be they storage,...

363

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Needs breath. Adding compost to sandy soils helps thesoil retain water longer—the compost acts like a sponge,from applications of compost and other organic matter. For

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

365

Water Prism Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the design and implementation of Water Prism, a decision support system that evaluates alternative management plans to obtain water resource sustainability at the regional, watershed or local levels. It considers surface, ground and impoundment waters, and all water using sectors (industrial, agricultural, municipal, electric power and the environment). This report will be of value to environment, generation, and planning managers within power companies, government agencies, ...

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

366

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

History 4 Water Used For Fuel Production.. 4 Coal Production .. 6 Carbon Capture and Sequestration .. 7 Natural Gas

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydroelectricity for agriculture and hydroelectricity. Large volumes of waterElectricity Production Hydroelectricity The most common type

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

What's In My Water?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

You can learn about the quality of your water by sending a sample to a laboratory for analysis. This publication will help you understand the lab report by explaining the properties, components and contaminants often found in water. It describes the sources of water contaminants, problems that can be caused by those contaminants, suggestions for correcting problems, and the safe levels of each contaminant in water for household use, for irrigation and for livestock.

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Saving Water Saves Energy  

SciTech Connect

Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Energy-Water Nexus  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

Horak, W.

2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

372

Corrosion in Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion of chemical lead in industrial and domestic waters...ppm hardness 22 72 Yes Slow 6.35 0.25 Cooling tower water, oxygenated, from Lake Erie 16â??29 60â??85 Complete None 134.6 5.3 Los Angeles aqueduct water, treated with chlorine

373

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

374

Water treatment on wheels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design options and combinations of fixed and mobile demineralization equipment give power plant operators the flexibility to continually optimize their water treatment system to meet rapidly changing needs. The article classifies water treatment service contracts for demineralized water into four categories and presents associated design, economic and operational advantages to power plant designers, constructors, owners and operators. 1 tab.

Taylor, R.T.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

376

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water to remove them.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

377

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews the various options available: WET-DRY towers, or DRY-WET, or combination WET and DRY towers!

Adler, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

A NEW CAVITATION MODEL IN LUBRICATION: THE CASE OF TWOZONE CAVITATION GUSTAVO C. BUSCAGLIA, IONEL CIUPERCA, ERIC DALISSIER, AND MOHAMMED JAI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% - 50%) · Microsphere Coated Particle Fuel #12;History of Gas Reactors in US · Peach Bottom (40 MWe MWD/kg Disadvantages · Poor History in US · Little Helium Turbine Experience · US Technology Water Hatch Oil Refinery Hydrogen Production Desalinization Plant VHTR Characteristics - Temperatures > 900 C

Buscaglia, Gustavo C.

380

Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

75: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York) Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York) Eligibility...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 March 2013. (12) Water Conservation Master Plan; East Baywww.ebmud.com/for-customers/water-conservation- rebates-and-services/water-conservation-master-plan, accessed 15

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Water-Miscible (Water-Soluble) Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. If disposal is of no concern, phenolics can be used. The soaps, wetting agents, and couplers used as emulsifiers in water-miscible fluids reduce surface

383

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Water News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water News Water News Bioenergy Buildings Geothermal Government Energy Management Homes Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Advanced Manufacturing Solar Vehicles Water Wind Blog Archive Recent...

385

The economic conception of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American City: municipal water supply investments. Ph. D.A . (2004). Boosting Water Productivity. In: Worldwatch1975). Issues in Village Water Supply. Washington, D . C ,

Hanemann, W. Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Planning Water Use in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the University of Maryland Water Policy Collaborative, 2006.FURTH ER READ ING California Department of Water Resources.California Water Plan Update 2005: A Framework for Action.

Eisenstein, William; Kondolf, G. Mathias

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

388

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 5: Public supply water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000.

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water...

390

Virginia Tech Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The team chose to use a water-to-water heat pump (WWHP) connected to an earth coupled heat exchanger to provide water heating. This system provides not only domestic hot water...

391

Water | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Home Water Power Forum Description: Forum for information related to the Water Power Gateway The Water Power Community Forum provides you with a way to engage with other...

392

Publicly Submitted White Papers - Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Water. Advanced ... Strategies; AQUEOUS PHASE MERCURY REMOVAL: Strategies for a Secure Future Water Supply; ...

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Suppressant:Water & Aqueous Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suppressant:Water & Aqueous Solutions. ... Reuther, JJ; 1991. Fine Water Sprays for Fire Protection: A Halon Replacement Option.. ...

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Solar Water Heating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

publication provides basic informa- publication provides basic informa- tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica- tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. Solar water heaters, sometimes called

395

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hydrogen absorption in epitaxial W/Nb(001) and polycrystalline Fe/Nb(110) multilayers studied in-situ by X-ray/neutron scattering techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be absorbed in large quantities by 100 {angstrom} thin Nb layers embedded in epitaxial W/Nb and polycrystalline Fe/Nb multilayers. The solubility and the hydrogen-induced structural changes of the host lattice are explored in-situ by small-angle neutron/X-ray reflectometry and high-angle diffraction. These measurements reveal for both systems that the relative out-of-plane expansion of the Nb layers is considerably larger than the relative increase of the Nb interplanar spacing indicating two distinctly different mechanisms of hydrogen absorption. In Fe/Nb multilayers, hydrogen expands the Nb interplanar spacing in a continuous way as function of the external pressure. In contrast, the Nb lattice expansion is discontinuous in epitaxial W/Nb multilayers: A jump in the Nb(002) Bragg reflection position occurs at a critical hydrogen pressure of 1 mbar. In-situ EXAFS spectroscopy also exhibits an irreversible expansion of the Nb lattice in the film plane for p{sub H{sub 2}}> 1 mbar. This can be regarded as a structural phase transition from an exclusively out-of-plane to a three-dimensionally expanded state at low and high hydrogen pressures, respectively.

Klose, F.; Rehm, C.; Fieber-Erdmann, M.; Holub-Krappe, E.; Bleif, H. J.; Sowers, H.; Goyette, R.; Troger, L.; Maletta, H.

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

397

Water | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

daylighting, passive solar and active solar. They also have an 80 gallon solar hot water heater. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A guide to...

398

Shield for Water Boiler  

SciTech Connect

Siimplified shielding calculations indicating the proposed design for the water boiler assembly will reduce the radiation at normal operaton to values well below those which are considered tolerable.

Balent, R.

1951-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

399

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Consumer Products: California Energy Commission PetitionCLOTHES_WASHERS.PDF> California Energy Commission. ApplianceMapTesting.lasso California Energy Commission, The Water

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Influence of Water Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...BP. Boffardi, Corrosion Inhibitors in the Water Treatment Industry, Corrosion: Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection, Vol 13A, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 2003, p 891â??906...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Cooling water distribution system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

ELDON water heater  

SciTech Connect

Experience with the installation of an ELDON water heater in the TLC Services, Inc. laundry facility is reported. Piping diagram and pictures are included. (MHR)

Wood, H.E.

1980-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies integrated with desalination systems. Renew.IC, Soldatos PG. 2008. Water desalination cost literature:review and assessment. Desalination 223(1–3): 448–56 107.

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil recovery involves the injection of large quantities ofbarrel of oil equivalent (2). Although large quantities ofvarying, quantities of often low-quality water (2, 32). Oil

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear plants use steam turbines, and cooling water asmajority is used for steam-driven turbines, which generatedelectricity using steam engines, gas turbines, or Stirling

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Salty Water Cerenkov Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The addition of certain solutes to a water Cerenkov detector will introduce new charge-current channels for the detection of $\

W. C. Haxton

1995-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

407

Wool and Water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Wool and Water is a creative work of 36 poems. This collection examines the relationship between the silent and vocal, between the pastoral and… (more)

Frederick, Kira

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Wool and water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Wool and Water is a creative work of 36 poems. This collection examines the relationship between the silent and vocal, between the pastoral and urban.… (more)

Frederick, Kira.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

UV Treated Water Dangers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

there are chances of developing cancer or such growth due to radiation on drinking water & it's continuous intake? What are other hazards that may cause problems for human...

410

Supplying Water Social Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Handbook of Engaged Learning Projects SUPPLYING OUR WATER NEEDS: Africa Project Summary Scenario Student Pages References Index SubjectContent Area: World CulturesSocial Studies...

411

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Test Procedure for Dishwashers, Federal Register, Vol. 68,e.g. , ,clothes washers or dishwashers that use less totalhes Washers Toilet s Dishwashers Figure 2a. Household Water

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

produced water into aging oil wells to help maximize oilpores until it reaches oil wells. This process can last forrock formations and reach oil wells. Using both processes,

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

OpenEI - Water  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for years 1989 through 2010 for UT at Austin; specifically, electricity usage (kWh), natural gas usage (Mcf), associated costs. Also provides water consumption for 2005...

414

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater...

415

Kinetic measurement and prediction of the hydrogen outgassing from the polycrystalline LiH/Li2O/LiOH system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to the exothermic reaction of lithium hydride (LiH) salt with water during transportation and handling, there is always a thin film of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) present on the LiH surface. In dry or vacuum storage, this thin LiOH film slowly decomposes. We have used temperature-programmed reaction/decomposition (TPR) in combination with the isoconversion method of thermal analysis to determine the outgassing kinetics of H{sub 2}O from pure LiOH and H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O from this thin LiOH film. H{sub 2} production via the reaction of LiH with LiOH, forming a lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) interlayer, is thermodynamically favored, with the rate of further reaction limited by diffusion through the Li{sub 2}O and the stability of the decomposing LiOH. Lithium hydroxide at the LiOH/vacuum interface also decomposes easily to Li{sub 2}O, releasing H{sub 2}O which subsequently reacts with LiH in a closed system to form H{sub 2}. At the onset of dry decomposition, where H{sub 2} is the predominant product, the activation energy for outgassing from a thin LiOH film is lower than that for bulk LiOH. However, as the reactions at the LiH/Li{sub 2}O/LiOH and at the LiOH/vacuum interfaces proceed, the overall activation energy barrier for the outgassing approaches that of bulk LiOH decomposition. The kinetics developed here predicts a hydrogen evolution profile in good agreement with hydrogen release observed during long term isothermal storage.

Dinh, L N; Grant, D M; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Siekhaus, W J; Balazs, B; Leckey, J H; Kirkpatrick, J; McLean II, W

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

Modeling 18° Water Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variability of 18° Water formation is investigated with an isopycnic-coordinate model of the North Atlantic. A 30-year spinup integration is used as a “control” experiment in which the upper water column in the Sargasso Sea is shown to be in ...

Robert Marsh; Adrian L. New

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Water Waves and Integrability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

Rossen I. Ivanov

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

420

Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them.

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nutrients are available. Blowdown - the water discharged from a boiler or cooling tower to dispose and explains the procedures the owner/operator intends to take to perform assessment monitoring. Attenuation procedures. Equipotential Line - a line in a two-dimensional ground-water flow field such that the total

Soerens, Thomas

422

Water, Land and People  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water, Land and People Water, Land and People Nature Bulletin No. 251 January 8, 1983 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER, LAND AND PEOPLE "Water, Land and People" is the title of a book which, like "Road to Survival", should be read by every American. Water, and its uses or control, has become a vital national problem. Some places, some years, we have too much of it and suffer disastrous floods. Elsewhere we have too little. In cities like New York and Los Angeles -- even in many inland towns -- and in the western lands which depend upon irrigation, the demand far exceeds the supply. Our Congress is beseeched for huge appropriations to provide flood control, navigation, electric power and irrigation.

423

Water Efficiency Program Prioritization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Program Efficiency Program Prioritization Federal Energy Management Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy January 2009 Will Lintner (william.lintner@ee.doe.gov) Federal Energy Management The Goal - EO 13423 Beginning in 2008, Federal agencies must reduce water consumption intensity through life- effective measures, relative to the baseline of the agency's water consumption in fiscal year 2007 by 2 percent annually through the end of FY 2015 or 16 percent by the end of FY 2015. 2 Water Use Intensit ty (gal/sqft) Federal Sector Glide-Path to Meeting WUI Reduction Goal 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 FY 07 FY 08 FY 09 FY 10 FY 11 FY 12 FY 13 FY 14 FY 15 Total Federal sector FY07 WUI Glide-Path for meeting WUI reduction goal (16%) 3 Next Steps * Compile Water Data FY 2008. The baseline for water

424

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON WATER INTAKE, FOOD INTAKE, AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE ALBINO RAT*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1961, Dubos and Schaedler (1) reported a reduction in water intake in animals treated with bacterial endotoxin. Mice were raised in a pathogen-free environment and subsequently tested with one of several toxins. Alteration in daily water intake was found to occur at doses well below the LDs0. Because of the long-standing interest in this laboratory in drive states, their behavioral consequences, and physiological basis (2), this property of endotoxin was explored in the albino rat. Our animals were not raised in a pathogen-free environment. Using fairly large doses of toxin, we were able to confirm the findings of Dubos and Schaedler, and, in addition, demonstrate a profound toxin effect on food intake and body temperature. Using behavioral and physiological techniques, we made exploratory studies of resistance and sensitization to toxin and of its possible site of action. Materials and Methods Animals.--AU the animals were male Sprague-Dawley albino rats, 90 to 120 days old, weighing 300 gm or more. They were housed in individual wire cages in a temperature-controlled room, and were fed Purina lab chow and tap water. Water intakes were measured by making water bottles available for 30 minutes every day and weighing the bottles before and after consumption. After several "familiarization " days the rats would drink a fairly standard amount each day. Food intake was measured by weighing the food in the cages every 24 hours, the food being continuously available. Animals on food-intake measurement were given water ad lib and those on water-intake measurement were given food ad lib. Temperatures were taken with an ordinary rectal thermometer, lubricated and inserted almost its entire length. The animals showed no unusual distress and tolerated the procedure day after day. Thermometers were left in place 3 to 5 minutes and then read. Thermometem that dropped out were replaced for 3 additional minutes. A paper towel on the cage floor facilitated recovery of lost thermometers. Toxin.--A eommerdally prepared lipopolysaccharide extract of Eschericlda coli was used

E. Holmes; Neal; E. Miller, Ph.D.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Optimization of Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chilled water systems are one of the major energy consumers in industrial, commercial, and institutional complexes. The centralization of chilled water systems presents numerous advantages, including simplified controls, reduced installation capacity due to diversity, and consolidated maintenance and operation. Centrally chilled water systems present potential energy and cost savings in the following areas: • Chilled water reset. • Condenser water reset. • Chiller sequencing. • Chilled water storage. • Variable chilled water pumping. The feasibility aspect of the above items will be discussed in this paper.

Gidwani, B. N.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines – Revision 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art water chemistry programs reduce equipment corrosion and enhance steam generator reliability. A committee of industry experts prepared these revised "Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines" to incorporate the latest field and laboratory data on secondary system corrosion and performance issues. Pressurized water reactor (PWR) operators can use these guidelines to update their secondary water chemistry programs.

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

428

Recent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN TRANSFERS Recent years have produced increased interest in the transfer of water and waterRecent California Water Transfers: Emerging Options in Water Management by Jay R. Lund Associate for Environmental and Water Resources Engineering DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING University

Lund, Jay R.

429

WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The politics of water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

Postel, S.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

Brookhaven's Drinking-Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality The Lab's finished drinking water is produced with pride by the staff of BNL's Water Treatment Facility Home Groundwater Consumer Confidence Reports Water Treatment Process Resources Tap Water Recommendations Water Cooler Cleaning Additional Resources Brookhaven Lab Drinking Water Brookhaven produces its own drinking water for all employees, facility-users, guests, residents, and visitors on site at its Water Treatment Facility (WTF). BNL's drinking water is pumped from groundwater by five active wells and processed at the WTF which can handle up to 6 million gallons per day. The "finished" water is sent to the Lab's two storage towers and then distributed around the site via 45 miles of pipeline. To ensure that Brookhaven's water meets all applicable local, state, and

433

Water Sampling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Sampling Water Sampling Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Water Sampling Details Activities (51) Areas (45) Regions (5) NEPA(2) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Field Sampling Parent Exploration Technique: Field Sampling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Water composition and source of fluids Thermal: Water temperature Dictionary.png Water Sampling: Water sampling is done to characterize the chemical, thermal, or hydrological properties of a surface or subsurface aqueous system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Water sampling is done to characterize the geothermal system under investigation. A geothermal water typically has a unique chemical signature

434

Wind/Water Nexus  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

Not Available

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE  

SciTech Connect

A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

Finkel, M.P.

1964-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Green Systems Solar Hot Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green Systems Solar Hot Water Heating the Building Co-generation: Heat Recovery System: Solar Thermal Panels (Trex enclosure) Hot Water Storage Tank (TS-5; basement) Hot Water Heaters (HW-1,2; basement) Pre-heats water so water heaters don't need to use as much energy Gas-powered, high efficiency

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

437

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) Burbank Water and Power - Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500 Provider Rebates Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one solar water heater per year per property. Applicants must provide access to their residence for a pre-inspection to verify the existing use of an electric water heater. Customers must comply with all code and permit requirements. More

438

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US DOE). Energy Sources: Bioenergy. http://www.energy.gov/comparison of algae to other bioenergy feedstocks. Environ.The water footprint of bioenergy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Optimization of Cooling Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems.

Matson, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Report on Produced Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 2009 Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices Page 3 Table of Contents Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ 7 Chapter 1 - Introduction ............................................................................................................. 11 1.1 Purpose .......................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 Background ................................................................................................................... 11 1.3 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 11

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water from production of crude oil, natural gas, and coaleach gallon (3.79 liters) of crude oil. When combined withto refine each gallon of crude oil, between 3.6 and 7.0

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Solar hot water heater  

SciTech Connect

A solar hot water heater includes an insulated box having one or more hot water storage tanks contained inside and further having a lid which may be opened to permit solar radiation to heat a supply of water contained within the one or more hot water storage tanks. A heat-actuated control unit is mounted on an external portion of the box, such control unit having a single pole double throw thermostat which selectively activates an electric winch gear motor to either open or close the box lid. The control unit operates to open the lid to a predetermined position when exposed to the sun's rays, and further operates to immediately close the lid in response to any sudden drop in temperature, such as might occur during a rainstorm, clouds moving in front of the sun, or the like.

Melvin, H.A.

1982-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

443

Water Treatment Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to see the operation than have us explain it. Basically, most treatment plants remove the solid material and use living organisms and chlorine to clean up the water. Steve Sample...

444

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

past 15 years, nine solar thermal power plants, with a totala) colocating thermal power plants that use seawater forWater used in thermal electric power plants is extracted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

446

UV water disinfector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

opportunities at U.S. nuclear power plants. U.S. Dep. EnergyAlthough coal and nuclear power plants tend to supply baseis difficult to develop nuclear power plants in water-scarce

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US Dep. Energy, Washington, DC. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/Alliance Save Energy, Washington, DC. http://watergy.org/of Energy and Water. US DOE, Washington, DC. http://

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Storm Water Detention Pond  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

allow water to meander through them. * Amend soil on the banks of the drainages with a compost-based soil builder. * Plant or stake the channel with with appropriate vegetation...

450

Contaminating Fresh Waters (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is illegal to discharge any dyestuff, coal tar, oil, sawdust, poison, or deleterious substances into any fresh running waters in Florida in quantities sufficient to injure, stupefy, or kill fish...

451

Makeshift cold water aquarium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Hi- I am a student teacher in the Seattle area. As a hobby, I scuba dive in the icy waters of Puget Sound. I would love to set...

452

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil, natural gas, and coal bed methane. Argonne Natl. Lab. ,gallons of water (31). Coal-bed methane, the availability ofnatural gas production. Coal-bed methane produces large, but

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

September 2004 Water Sampling  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

was not identified at many groundwater locations. 18. Was the presence or absence of ice in the cooler documented at every sample location? Yes 19. Were water levels measured...

454

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Office of Legacy Management Weldon Spring Site Air and Water Monitoring 32008 This fact sheet provides information at Weldon Spring, Missouri. This site is managed by the U.S....

455

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alluvial Aquifer, that has resulted from oil and gas operations in the area, particularly in south, discharge from poultry and hog plants, and leaky landfills, among others. Saline water intrusion and near

Soerens, Thomas

456

Water Heater Safety FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from 30 gallons to 80 gallons in a variety of fuel sources (gas, electric, liquid propane). We also offer a wide selection of Rheem gas and electric tankless water heaters....

457

Water | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Renewables » Water Renewables » Water Water EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation cost-competitive with traditional sources of energy. EERE plays a key role in advancing America's "all of the above" energy strategy, leading a large network of researchers and other partners to deliver innovative technologies that will make renewable electricity generation cost-competitive with traditional sources of energy. Image of a buoy used for creating electricity from waves on the water. An american flag is attached to the top of the yellow buoy. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) leads the growing global effort to

458

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas Gas Technology Institute (GTI) will develop a membrane separation technology to recover water...

459

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Innovative Water Reuse and Recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is being performed in this program area to develop advanced technologies to reuse power plant cooling water and associated waste heat and to investigate methods to recover water...

460

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities - EPRI The objective of this project is evaluation and development of the use of produced water...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

462

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Cooling Water Intake Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The types of cooling water systems to be evaluated are: Wet Cooling Tower - The condenser is cooled with water recirculated to a mechanical draft cooling tower. Because there...

463

The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In an effort to conserve water, drought-proof operating plants and control costs, the critical relationship of water and energy is clearly exposed. Five years of effort has transpired into countless studies, more than 100 projects and a clear understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent high probability areas for water conservation and value capture. These are not the only areas to reduce water management infrastructure and environmental footprint but they represent areas with the high potential for efforts to return bottom line value.

Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thornton@tess-inc.com ABSTRACT In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. Bias...

465

September 2004 Water Sampling  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

3 3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites November 2013 LMS/SRE/SRW/S0913 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-September 2013, Slick Rock, Colorado November 2013 RIN 13095593 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Slick Rock East and West, Colorado, Processing Sites, Sample Location Map .............................5 Data Assessment Summary ..............................................................................................................7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification Checklist .............................................................9

466

September 2004 Water Sampling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2013 LMS/TUB/S00813 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy DVP-August 2013, Tuba City, Arizona November 2013 RIN 13085553 Page i Contents Sampling Event Summary ...............................................................................................................1 Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site, Sample Location Map ..............................................................7 Data Assessment Summary ..............................................................................................................9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification Checklist ...........................................................11

467

Water softening process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention involves an improved process for softening hard water which comprises selectively precipitaing CaCO.sub.3 to form a thin layer thereof, increasing the pH of said water to precipitate magnesium as magnesium hydroxide and then filtering the resultant slurry through said layer. The CaCO.sub.3 layer serves as a thin permeable layer which has particularly useful application in cross-flow filtration applications.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Thomas, David G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Water Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling: Cooling: Water cooling is commonly defined as a method of using water as a heat conduction to remove heat from an object, machine, or other substance by passing cold water over or through it. In energy generation, water cooling is typically used to cool steam back into water so it can be used again in the generation process. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Water Cooling Typical water cooled condenser used for condensing steam Water or liquid cooling is the most efficient cooling method and requires the smallest footprint when cold water is readily available. When used in power generation the steam/vapor that exits the turbine is condensed back into water and reused by means of a heat exchanger. Water cooling requires a water resource that is cold enough to bring steam, typically

470

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right...

471

FEMP-Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet details solar water heating and how to use the sun to heat domestic water in any climate. Document explains how solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment.

472

Clean Water Legacy Act (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act provides authority, direction, and resources to achieve and maintain water quality standards for groundwater and surface waters by implementing the federal Clean Water Act as well as...

473

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Demands Using Alternative Water Supplies: Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Demands Using Alternative Water Supplies: Power Demand Options in Regions of Water Stress and Future Carbon Management Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting a regional modeling assessment of non-traditional water sources for use in thermoelectric power plants. The assessment includes the development of a model to characterize water quantity and quality from several sources of non-traditional water, initially focused within the Southeastern United States. The project includes four primary tasks: (1) identify water sources, needs, and treatment options; (2) assess and model non-traditional water quantity and quality; (3) identify and characterize water treatment options including an assessment of cost; and (4) develop a framework of metrics, processes, and modeling aspects that can be applied to other regions of the United States.

474

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Internet-Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at Coal-Fired Power Plants Internet-Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at Coal-Fired Power Plants GIS Catalog Graphic Arthur Langhus Layne, LLC will create an internet-based, geographic information system (GIS) catalog of non-traditional sources of cooling water for coal-fired power plants. The project will develop data to identify the availability of oil and gas produced water, abandoned coal mine water, industrial waste water, and low-quality ground water. By pairing non-traditional water sources to power plant water needs, the research will allow power plants that are affected by water shortages to continue to operate at full-capacity without adversely affecting local communities or the environment. The nationwide catalog will identify the location, water withdrawal, and

475

Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UrbanLab is Sarah Dunn + Martin Felsen, with Lee Greenberg,Growing Water Martin Felsen and Sarah Dunn The Growing Water

Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Reading Comprehension - The Water Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

three phases that water can be found in are atom, molecule, compound solids, liquids, and gas . During condensation precipitation evaporation , water turns...

477

How Water Molecules are Connected  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science (Dec. 17, 2004) * *Online subscription needed. How Water Molecules are Connected Water may be the most important molecule on Earth, but our understanding of its properties...

478

Conservation of Water Resources (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The State Water Control Board is responsible for formulating and implementing a comprehensive water use policy for the Commonwealth of Virginia. Implemented by the Department of Environmental...

479

Disinfecting Water after a Disaster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains how to disinfect water after a flood, as well as where to find water in an emergency when supplies are limited.

Dozier, Monty; Schoessow, Courtney

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

480

NREL: Water Power Research - Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search More Search Options Site Map Printable Version Projects NREL's water power R&D projects support industry efforts to develop and deploy cost-effective water power...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water lubricated polycrystalline" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and residential customers for the purchase of solar water heaters and solar photovoltaic systems. These rebates are available for...

482

Water Heaters | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heaters Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Water Heaters Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWaterHeaters&oldid267202...

483

Soil and Water Conservation (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Indiana Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts is an association of the 92 soil and water conservation districts, each representing one of the 92 Indiana counties.

484

System for treating produced water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

485

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fluid Metrology Calibration Services - Water Flow. Water Flow Calibrations 18020C. ... NIST provides calibration services for water flow meters. ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

486

Pressurized Water Reactor Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines - Revision 7  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art water chemistry programs reduce equipment corrosion and enhance steam generator reliability. A committee of industry experts prepared these revised PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines to incorporate the latest field and laboratory data on secondary system corrosion and performance issues. Pressurized water reactor (PWR) operators can use these guidelines to update their secondary water chemistry programs.

2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

487

Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas) Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of...

488

Colorado Ground Water Commission | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Commission Jump to: navigation, search Name Colorado Ground Water Commission Place Colorado Website http:water.state.co.usgroun References Colorado Ground Water Commission...

489

Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas) Regulations Establishing Water Quality Standards for Surface Water of the State of Arkansas (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Home Weatherization Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting

490

Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri) Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri) Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Water Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Missouri Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for water withdrawal and diversion from the Department of Natural Resources. Additionally, no major

491

Water Transport Exploratory Studies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploratory Studies Exploratory Studies Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies 2007 kickoff meeting February 13-14, 2007 DOE Forrestal Building Rod Borup Mukundan Rangachary, Bryan Pivovar, Yu Seung Kim, John Davey, David Wood, Tom Springer, Muhammad Arif , Ken Chen, Simon Cleghorn, Will Johnson, Karren More, Peter Wilde, Tom Zawodzinski Los Alamos National Lab This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Objectives * Develop understanding of water transport in PEM Fuel Cells (non-design-specific) * Evaluate structural and surface properties of materials affecting water transport and performance * Develop (enable) new components and operating methods * Accurately model water transport within the fuel cell * Develop a better understanding of the effects of

492

Alternate Water Supply System  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Alternate Water Supply Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Office of Legacy Management DOE M/1570 2008 - -L Work Performed Under DOE Contract No. for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management Office of Legacy Management U.S. Department of Energy This page intentionally left blank DOE-LM/1570-2008 Alternate Water Supply System Flushing Report Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site January 2008 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado This page intentionally left blank

493

Energy and Water Act  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Acquisition Letter 2004-02 - FY 2004 Le2islation Provisions (dated March 1.2004) Acquisition Letter 2004-02 - FY 2004 Le2islation Provisions (dated March 1.2004) En