National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water lubricated polycrystalline

  1. US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component)- The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    US Synthetic Corp (TRL 4 Component) - The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings for use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

  2. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  3. Water-based lubricants for metalworking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, D.S.; Jain, V.K.

    1997-05-01

    Metalworking fluids currently constitute 17% of the total US industrial lubricant market. Market forces favor semisynthetic and synthetic formulations because they are more economical, and trends differ substantially from those of other lubricant markets as demand patterns shift. Lubricant manufacturers continue to reduce the use of mineral oil as a component in their formulations because synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are more cost-effective. The introduction of new engineering materials also has increased the demand for tailor-made lubricants in industrial applications. Synthetic and semisynthetic formulations are favored for cutting and metalworking applications because they perform better than the existing commercial product does. The literature strongly supports the development of environmentally friendly synthetic and semisynthetic metalworking lubricants that have longer useful lives, therefore decreasing the amount of fluid for disposal. Future lubricant formulations will focus on environmental issues, process compatibility, and worker health and safety. Biological control of fluids, in use and in disposal, will also draw attention.

  4. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

    2001-08-08

    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses

  5. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, D.D.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  6. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  7. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, ...

  8. Tethered Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Lynden

    2010-09-15

    We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical studies of interfacial friction, relaxation dynamics, and thermodynamics of polymer chains tethered to points, planes, and particles. A key result from our tribology studies using lateral force microscopy (LFM) measurements of polydisperse brushes of linear and branched chains densely grafted to planar substrates is that there are exceedingly low friction coefficients for these systems. Specific project achievements include: (1) Synthesis of three-tiered lubricant films containing controlled amounts of free and pendent PDMS chains, and investigated the effect of their molecular weight and volume fraction on interfacial friction. (2.) Detailed studies of a family of hairy particles termed nanoscale organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) and demonstration of their use as lubricants.

  9. Ecotoxicological study of used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, P.K.; Chan, W.L.; Wang, J.; Wong, C.K.

    1995-12-31

    Used lubricating oil is more toxic than crude oil and fuel oil since it contains comparatively high levels of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No detail toxicological study has been conducted to evaluate the hazards of used lubricating oil to the environment. This study reports a battery of bioassays using bacteria (Microtox test and Mutatox test), algae, amphipod and shrimp larvae to determine the toxicity of water soluble fraction of used lubricating oil. The results will be used to formulate a complete and extensive ecotoxicological assessment of the impacts of used lubricating oil on aquatic environment.

  10. Lubricants for CFC alternates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spauschus, H.O.

    1995-12-01

    With the recent development and introduction of environmentally preferred refrigerants as substitutes for HCFC`s, a number of new classes of companion compressor lubricants also have been offered. In contrast to the former compressor lubricants which were derived from petroleum based stocks, the new lubricants are synthetic products, initially designed to provide miscibilities and solubilities similar to the CFC/mineral oil predecessors. Rather than review the classes of lubricants being evaluated and used for different types of refrigeration machinery, this paper will address longer term benefits and challenges related to the introduction of synthetic compressor lubricants such as polyesters, polyolesters, polyalkalene glycols and polycarbonates. Within these families of synthetic fluids, large selections of chemical structures are available, each with unique physical and chemical properties. Of course all of the lubricants must meet general requirements of compressor oils with respect to flammability, pour point, volatility, toxicity, etc., but beyond these minimum requirements, there are technical options for tailoring lubricant structures to optimize certain lubricant (and thus lubricant/refrigerant) properties such as vapor pressure, solubility, viscosity, viscosity index, miscibility, moisture absorption, additive response and biodegradability. Basic studies to predict lubricant/refrigerant mixture properties based on chemical structure of the components are recommended. A number of practical challenges in the selection and application of new lubricants and new working fluids will be discussed including standards for bench screening tests and compressor tests, guidelines for lubricant handling during recovery and servicing of equipment and the potential for reprocessing compressor lubricants.

  11. Engine lubricating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurio, N.; Yoshimi, H.

    1988-08-23

    This patent describes an engine lubricating system in which a measured amount of lubricating oil is supplied to the combustion chamber of an engine by a metering oil pump so that a larger amount of lubricating oil is supplied to the combustion chamber when the engine load is heavy than when the engine load is light, characterized by having a lubricating oil supply rate correction means which non-linearly increases the amount of the lubricating oil supplied to the combustion chamber with respect to engine r.p.m. so that the amount of oil supplied per unit engine revolution is greater at high engine speed than at low engine speed.

  12. DIESEL FUEL LUBRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The diesel fuel injector and pump systems contain many sliding interfaces that rely for lubrication upon the fuels. The combination of the poor fuel lubricity and extremely tight geometric clearance between the plunger and bore makes the diesel fuel injector vulnerable to scuffing damage that severely limits the engine life. In order to meet the upcoming stricter diesel emission regulations and higher engine efficiency requirements, further fuel refinements that will result in even lower fuel lubricity due to the removal of essential lubricating compounds, more stringent operation conditions, and tighter geometric clearances are needed. These are expected to increase the scuffing and wear vulnerability of the diesel fuel injection and pump systems. In this chapter, two approaches are discussed to address this issue: (1) increasing fuel lubricity by introducing effective lubricity additives or alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, and (2) improving the fuel injector scuffing-resistance by using advanced materials and/or surface engineering processes. The developing status of the fuel modification approach is reviewed to cover topics including fuel lubricity origins, lubricity improvers, alternative fuels, and standard fuel lubricity tests. The discussion of the materials approach is focused on the methodology development for detection of the onset of scuffing and evaluation of the material scuffing characteristics.

  13. Engine Lubricants: Trends and Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This overview discusses how lubricant developers, lubricant marketers, and OEMs are working with the engine community to overcome performance challenges worldwide.

  14. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  15. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  16. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  17. Friction, Wear, and Lubrication Technologies | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Erck Ali Erdemir Osman Eryilmaz Aaron Greco Projects Lubricants Advanced lubrication approaches that integrate fuel-efficient lubricants, low-friction materials and coatings...

  18. Methods to improve lubricity of fuels and lubricants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2009-06-16

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  19. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  20. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  1. Method for reclaiming waste lubricating oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A method for purifying and reclaiming used lubricating oils containing additives such as detergents, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, extreme pressure agents and the like and other solid and liquid contaminants by preferably first vacuum distilling the used oil to remove water and low-boiling contaminants, and treating the dried oil with a solvent mixture of butanol, isopropanol and methylethyl ketone which causes the separation of a layer of sludge containing contaminants, unspent additives and oxidation products. After solvent recovery, the desludged oil is then subjected to conventional lubricating oil refining steps such as distillation followed by decolorization and deodorization.

  2. Fluid lubricated bearing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.; Menke, John R.

    1976-01-01

    1. A support for a loaded rotatable shaft comprising in combination on a housing having a fluid-tight cavity encasing an end portion of said shaft, a thrust bearing near the open end of said cavity for supporting the axial thrust of said shaft, said thrust bearing comprising a thrust plate mounted in said housing and a thrust collar mounted on said shaft, said thrust plate having a central opening the peripheral portion of which is hermetically sealed to said housing at the open end of said cavity, and means for supplying a fluid lubricant to said thrust bearing, said thrust bearing having a lubricant-conducting path connecting said lubricant supplying means with the space between said thrust plate and collar intermediate the peripheries thereof, the surfaces of said plate and collar being constructed and arranged to inhibit radial flow of lubricant and, on rotation of said thrust collar, to draw lubricant through said path between the bearing surfaces and to increase the pressure therebetween and in said cavity and thereby exert a supporting force on said end portion of said shaft.

  3. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The film describes the parts of diesel lubricating and cooling systems and how they work in relation to each other.

  4. Diesel lubrication and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The film describes the parts of diesel lubricating and cooling systems and how they work in relation to each other.

  5. Lubrication with boric acid additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2000-01-01

    Self-lubricating resin compositions including a boric acid additive and a synthetic polymer including those thermoset materials.

  6. Fluid lubricated bearing construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John R.; Boorse, Henry A.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A fluid lubricated thrust bearing assembly comprising, in combination, a first bearing member having a plain bearing surface, a second bearing member having a bearing surface confronting the bearing surface of said first bearing member and provided with at least one spiral groove extending inwardly from the periphery of said second bearing member, one of said bearing members having an axial fluid-tight well, a source of fluid lubricant adjacent to the periphery of said second bearing member, and means for relatively rotating said bearing members to cause said lubricant to be drawn through said groove and to flow between said bearing surfaces, whereby a sufficient pressure is built up between said bearing surfaces and in said well to tend to separate said bearing surfaces.

  7. Polycrystalline semiconductor processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Scituate, MA); Haggerty, John S. (Lincoln, MA); Danforth, Stephen C. (Winchester, MA)

    1983-01-01

    A process for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by imgingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step.

  8. Polycrystalline semiconductor processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

    1983-04-05

    A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

  9. Metal working lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andress, H.J.; Davis, R.H.; Schick, J.W.

    1981-08-11

    A lubricant concentrate for use in metal processing comprises a sulfur compound such as a sulfurized olefin or sulfurized mineral oil and an ester prepared from a fatty acid having 12 to 40 carbon atoms or the dimer thereof or a polyalkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride and a hydroxyl-containing amine.

  10. Lubricant selection criteria and the tribological system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauer, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    Before the proper lubricant selection can be made, the tribological system must be identified to its fullest extent. This system includes the type of motion, speeds, temperatures, loads and the environment that is specific to the application. Once these parameters are identified, lubrication engineers or tribo-engineers can use their knowledge of the different lubricant chemistries to make a lubricant selection that will optimize the performance of the application. In addition to lubricant chemistry knowledge, the lubrication engineer also must analyze the application based on the identified tribological system. This analysis includes such topics as speed factors, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, extreme pressure lubrication, emergency lubrication and various special application requirements.

  11. Lubricant characterization by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.D.; Cui, S.T.; Cummings, P.T.; Cochran, H.D.

    1997-12-01

    The authors have reported the calculation of the kinematic viscosity index of squalane from nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. This represents the first accurate quantitative prediction of this measure of lubricant performance by molecular simulation. Using the same general alkane potential model, this computational approach offers the possibility of predicting the performance of potential lubricants prior to synthesis. Consequently, molecular simulation is poised to become an important tool for future lubricant development.

  12. Fuel & Lubricant Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vtpn06flstork2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D Overview of Fuels Technologies...

  13. Separate lubricating system for marine propulsion device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, K.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a lubricating system for a two-cycle internal combustion engine. This system consists of a relatively large remotely positioned lubricant storage tank a relatively small lubricant delivery tank positioned in proximity to the engine for delivering lubricant to its lubricating system and means responsive to the level of lubricant in the delivery tank for transferring lubricant to maintain a predetermined level of lubricant in the delivery tank. The improvement consists of means for providing a warning signal when the level of lubricant in the storage tank falls below a predetermined amount. The means for providing the warning signal operate further to discontinue the transfer of lubricant from the storage tank to the delivery tank. There also is a manual override for operating the means for transferring lubricant from the storage tank to the delivery tank under operator control even when the warning signal has been activated.

  14. Antioxidants and stabilizers for lubricants and fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of antioxidants and stabilizers used in lubricants and fuels. The synthesis, stability, degradation, and storage life of lubricant and fuel additives are discussed. Additives used in jet engine, turbine, natural-gas, and coal-water fuels are examined. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Bench test results showed that compared with fully-formulated engine oils, selected low-viscosity ionic liquids, used as neat lubricants or basestock, produced significantly lower friction and engine wear

  16. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Koliwad, Krishna M.; Daud, Taher

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  17. Weldability of polycrystalline aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasching, A.A.; Edwards, G.R.; David, S.A.

    1993-07-01

    Iron aluminide alloy FA-129 is susceptible to cold cracking during gas-tungsten arc (GTA) welding. Cracking occurs by brittle fracture in the fusion zone, which has been attributed to excessive grain growth during solidification, in concert with environmental embrittlement. Previous work has shown that iron aluminide can be susceptible to environmental embrittlement when tested in the presence of water vapor. The suggested mechanism is similar to that observed in aluminum alloys: the reaction of water molecules with freshly exposed aluminum atoms at the crack tip results in the formation of high activity atomic hydrogen, which diffuses into the metal and causes embrittlement. This phenomenon occurs only when the metal is stressed, and therefore, is a dynamic embrittlement phenomenon. The same effect was not seen in experiments conducted in the presence of hydrogen gas. To further investigate this embrittlement problem and its effect on welding, GTA welds were conducted in atmospheres of varying amounts of water vapor on base material of varying grain sizes. The varying base material grain sizes were chosen because fusion zone grain size depends, to an extent, on the grain size of the base material. For example, a fine-grained base material should produce a finer grained fusion zone that a coarse-grained base material would. The results of the investigation are presented within this paper.

  18. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugger, Michael T.; Ohlhausen, James A.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2011-12-06

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  19. 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels & Lubricants Technologies 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research activities ...

  20. Influence of rheological properties of a lubricant on power consumption and heat transfer in a hydrostatic lubricating layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yablonskii, V.O.; Tyabin, N.V.; Yashchuk, V.M.

    1995-06-01

    The influence of rheological properties of lubricants on power consumption for pumping the lubricant in a hydrostatic lubricating layer and heat transfer of the lubricant with the supporting surfaces of a bearing is studied.

  1. Engine lubrication circuit including two pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, William H.

    2006-10-03

    A lubrication pump coupled to the engine is sized such that the it can supply the engine with a predetermined flow volume as soon as the engine reaches a peak torque engine speed. In engines that operate predominately at speeds above the peak torque engine speed, the lubrication pump is often producing lubrication fluid in excess of the predetermined flow volume that is bypassed back to a lubrication fluid source. This arguably results in wasted power. In order to more efficiently lubricate an engine, a lubrication circuit includes a lubrication pump and a variable delivery pump. The lubrication pump is operably coupled to the engine, and the variable delivery pump is in communication with a pump output controller that is operable to vary a lubrication fluid output from the variable delivery pump as a function of at least one of engine speed and lubrication flow volume or system pressure. Thus, the lubrication pump can be sized to produce the predetermined flow volume at a speed range at which the engine predominately operates while the variable delivery pump can supplement lubrication fluid delivery from the lubrication pump at engine speeds below the predominant engine speed range.

  2. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  3. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  4. Method For Testing Properties Of Corrosive Lubricants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohi, James; De La Cruz, Jose L.; Lacey, Paul I.

    2006-01-03

    A method of testing corrosive lubricating media using a wear testing apparatus without a mechanical seal. The wear testing apparatus and methods are effective for testing volatile corrosive lubricating media under pressure and at high temperatures.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants Research and Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Lubricants Research and Development Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants Research and Development Investigating technologies such as lubricants that will improve the efficiency of today's vehicles is essential, as most vehicles are on the road for more than 15 years before they are retired. The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development (R&D) on lubricants that can improve the efficiency of vehicles with internal combustion engines.

  6. Tethered Lubricants for Small Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynden A. Archer

    2006-01-09

    The objective of this research project is two-fold. First, to fundamentally understand friction and relaxation dynamics of polymer chains near surfaces; and second, to develop novel self-lubricated substrates suitable for MEMS devices. During the three-year performance period of this study the PI and his students have shown using theory and experiments that systematic introduction of disorder into tethered lubricant coatings (e.g. by using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) mixtures or SAMs with nonlinear, branched architectures) can be used to significantly reduce the friction coefficient of a surface. They have also developed a simple procedure based on dielectric spectroscopy for quantifying the effect of surface disorder on molecular relaxation in lubricant coatings. Details of research accomplishments in each area of the project are described in the body of the report.

  7. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: ...

  8. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  9. USDOE Top-of-Rail Lubricant Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohumad F. Alzoubi; George R. Fenske; Robert A. Erck; Amrit S. Boparai

    2002-02-01

    Lubrication of wheel/rail systems has been recognized for the last two decades as a very important issue for railroads. Energy savings and less friction and wear can be realized if a lubricant can be used at the wheel/rail interface. On the other hand, adverse influences are seen in operating and wear conditions if improper or excessive lubrication is used. Also, inefficiencies in lubrication need to be avoided for economic and environmental reasons. The top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant concept was developed by Texaco Corporation to lubricate wheels and rails effectively and efficiently. Tranergy Corporation has been developing its SENTRAEN 2000{trademark} lubrication system for the last ten years, and this revolutionary new high-tech on-board rail lubrication system promises to dramatically improve the energy efficiency, performance, safety, and track environment of railroads. The system is fully computer-controlled and ensures that all of the lubricant is consumed as the end of the train passes. Lubricant quantity dispensed is a function of grade, speed, curve, and axle load. Tranergy also has its LA4000{trademark} wheel and rail simulator, a lubrication and traction testing apparatus. The primary task of this project was collecting and analyzing the volatile and semivolatile compounds produced as the lubricant was used. The volatile organic compounds were collected by Carbotrap cartridges and analyzed by adsorption and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The semivolatile fraction was obtained by collecting liquid that dripped from the test wheel. The collected material was also analyzed by GC/MS. Both of these analyses were qualitative. The results indicated that in the volatile fraction, the only compounds on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund List of Analytes detected were contaminants either in the room air or from other potential contamination sources in the laboratory. Similarly, in the semivolatile fraction none of the detected

  10. Synthesis of new high performance lubricants and solid lubricants. Progress report, April 1992--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagow, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    Synthesis and testing was begun on a number of new classes of lubricants: perfluoropolyethers (branching effects), perfluoromethylene oxide ethers, chlorine-substituted fluorocarbon polyethers, fluorine-containing branched ether lubricants, glycerine- based perfluoropolyesters, perfluoro epoxy ether chains, etc.

  11. Process for producing biodiesel, lubricants, and fuel and lubricant additives in a critical fluid medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Fox, Robert V.

    2005-05-03

    A process for producing alkyl esters useful in biofuels and lubricants by transesterifying glyceride- or esterifying free fatty acid-containing substances in a single critical phase medium is disclosed. The critical phase medium provides increased reaction rates, decreases the loss of catalyst or catalyst activity and improves the overall yield of desired product. The process involves the steps of dissolving an input glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with an alcohol or water into a critical fluid medium; reacting the glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substance with the alcohol or water input over either a solid or liquid acidic or basic catalyst and sequentially separating the products from each other and from the critical fluid medium, which critical fluid medium can then be recycled back in the process. The process significantly reduces the cost of producing additives or alternatives to automotive fuels and lubricants utilizing inexpensive glyceride- or free fatty acid-containing substances, such as animal fats, vegetable oils, rendered fats, and restaurant grease.

  12. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  13. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office: Lubricants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are retired, investigating technologies that will improve today's vehicles is essential. ... supports research on lubricants that can improve the efficiency of internal combustion ...

  15. Low Reactivity SI Engine Lubricant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results showed that lubricant improvement allowed up to 4 degree improvement in spark advance at knock limited conditions resulting in potentially over 3 percent indicated efficiency improvement

  16. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Oil Dilution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Heavy-duty engine and light-duty vehicle experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for lubricant dilution by fuel during DPF regeneration events.

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - Renewable Fuels and Lubricants...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory Photo of a heavy-duty truck being driven on a chassis ... prototype engines, and hybrid powertrains for next-generation vehicle technologies. ...

  18. Lubrication Systems Market : Mining & Mineral Processing Industry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Groeneveld Groep B.V., SKF AB, Bijur Delimon, Castrol-Lubecon, Changzhou Huali Hydraulic Lubrication Equipment Co., Ltd., Changhua Chen Ying Oil Machine Co., Ltd., Equipment...

  19. Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in Engines Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in ...

  20. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Extensive chemical and physical characterization ...

  1. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Vehicle Technologies ...

  2. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field Prev Next Title: Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field ...

  3. Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components Friction Modeling for Lubricated Engine and Drivetrain Components 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs...

  4. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticle-Based Lubrication Additives PDF icon nanoparticulate-basedlubricati...

  5. The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects ...

  6. EERE Success Story - Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Story - Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives Demonstrate Improved Fuel Economy EERE Success Story - Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives Demonstrate Improved Fuel ...

  7. Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. No abstract ...

  8. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition Title: Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition ...

  9. Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and Engine Wear Impact of Biodiesel on Ash Emissions and Lubricant Properties Affecting Fuel Economy and ...

  10. Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion ...

  11. FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROGRESS REPORT FOR FUEL & LUBRICANT TECHNOLOGIES Energy Ef ciency and Renewable Energy Vehicle Technologies Of ce Approved by Kevin Stork Team Leader, Fuel & Lubricant ...

  12. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  13. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE Project) Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project Lung Toxicity and ...

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Lubricant and Additive Effects on Engine Friction ...

  15. Fuel and Lubricant Effects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Lubricant Effects Fuel and Lubricant Effects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ft001_bunting_2011_o.pdf (671.62 KB) More Documents & Publications APBF Effects on Combustion APBF Effects on Combustion Response of Oil Sands Derived Fuels in Diesel HCCI Operation

  16. Aging model for solid lubricants used in weapon stronglinks: tribological performance and hardware review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, M.T.; Peebles, D.E.; Sorroche, E.H.; Varga, K.S.; Bryan, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    The solid lubricant used most extensively in strong links throughout the enduring stockpile contains MoS{sub 2}, which is known to react with oxygen and water vapor resulting in a change in the material`s friction and wear behavior. The authors have examined the frictional behavior of this lubricant as a function of oxidation, in support of efforts to quantify the impact of changes in the material on the dynamic behavior of the MC2969 strong link. Their results show that the friction response of oxidized lubricant is strongly influenced by the amount of burnishing performed on the lubricant after deposition. Low levels of burnish leave a thick film, of which only the near surface degrades during oxidation. Rapid wear of the oxidized material leaves a surface whose properties are the same as non-oxidized material. Higher levels of burnish leave a thinner film of lubricant such that the entire film may be oxidized. The friction coefficient on this surface reaches a steady state value greater than that of non oxidized material. In addition to these fundamental differences in steady state behavior, they have shown that the initial friction coefficient on oxidized surfaces is related to the amount of sulfide converted to sulfate, regardless of the oxidation conditions used. Measurements on parts returned from the stockpile show that the friction behavior of aged hardware is consistent with the behavior observed on controlled substrates containing thin lubricant films.

  17. Offshore Lubricants Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Offshore Lubricants Market Size Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  18. Offshore Lubricants Market Forecast | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Offshore Lubricants Market Forecast Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  19. Global Offshore Lubricants Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Offshore Lubricants Market Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  20. Offshore Lubricants Market Analysis | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Offshore Lubricants Market Analysis Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  1. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  2. Thin film deposition behavior of lubricants as a function of temperature - Lubricant stability maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus, E.E.; Wang, J.C.; Duda, J.L. )

    1992-07-01

    The relative rates of evaporation and oxidative or thermal decomposition in lubricants are investigated experimentally at elevated temperatures. Thin films of lubricant are exposed to air at high temperatures, and attention is given to the amount of solid deposit rendered and the amount of evaporated material. The effects of volatility, oxidative stability, and thermal stability are assessed with the help of stability maps for liquid lubricants. The concept of fluid-stability maps based on deposit formation as a function of temperature is shown to be effective. At 200-425 C lubricant deposit formation in the presence of air is a function of lubricant volatility, oxidation rate, the rate of thermal degradation, and the effect of the bearing surface. Some materials are listed that can mitigate the effects of oxidation on lubricant performance which can be used for a range of aerospace applications. 16 refs.

  3. Orientation imaging microscopy of polycrystalline sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, M.P.; Kolbeinsson, I.; Newman, J.; Woodfield, T.; Sato, T.

    2010-04-15

    A novel preparation technique is described that makes possible grain size analysis of polycrystalline NaCl using orientation imaging microscopy via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The preparation methodology is specifically developed to overcome difficulties in preparing microporous NaCl for microscopy. The grain size and crystallographic texture of polycrystalline NaCl samples, prepared via solution pressure and sintered in the range of 650-780 deg. C, were able to be measured successfully with EBSD. The limitations of the preparation technique for EBSD analysis of NaCl are also discussed.

  4. Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet Vehicles Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet Vehicles Reviews recent studies on potential for low-viscosity lubricants and low-friction surfaces and additives to reduce fuel consumption, and impact of such approaches on other critical lubricant metrics deer11_fenske.pdf (1.68 MB) More Documents & Publications Lubricants Activities Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review

  5. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two

  6. Performance requirements and case histories for a specialized industrial gear lubricant for use in underground coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    The recent release of a new gear lubricant specification by an original equipment manufacturer from the mining industry is an indication that the need for a new specification is recognized in other segments of the mining industry. unfortunately, this new specification appears too ambitious in at least one of it`s performance requirements and not ambitious enough in some of it`s other requirements. This new specification requires that the lubricant be able to emulsify 50% (by volume) water for at least 24 hours. It is technically difficult to achieve this goal and at the same time retain some of the other properties that are essential to the success of a specialized lubricant for underground mining applications. The ability to maintain excellent anti-wear and extreme pressure performance even when water and solid contamination is present is one such property. This effort to incorporate contamination tolerance into a gear lubricant specification should be applauded but it also needs to be recognized that any new gear lubricant specification that attempts to do so should be based on and evolved from existing specialized gear lubricants. A review of the data presented leads to the conclusion that there needs to be a better benchmark available to insure that the enclosed gear lubricants used in underground mining will provide the best service possible. It is more than a matter of upgrading the US Steel 224 lubricant specification. A new enclosed gear lubricant benchmark specification which deals with the important contamination issues that are found in the mining environment is needed.

  7. Advanced lubrication systems and materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, S.

    1998-05-07

    This report described the work conducted at the National Institute of Standards and Technology under an interagency agreement signed in September 1992 between DOE and NIST for 5 years. The interagency agreement envisions continual funding from DOE to support the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine technologies in terms of lubrication, friction, and wear control encountered in the development of advanced transportation technologies. However, in 1994, the DOE office of transportation technologies was reorganized and the tribology program was dissolved. The work at NIST therefore continued at a low level without further funding from DOE. The work continued to support transportation technologies in the development of fuel efficient, low emission engine development. Under this program, significant progress has been made in advancing the state of the art of lubrication technology for advanced engine research and development. Some of the highlights are: (1) developed an advanced high temperature liquid lubricant capable of sustaining high temperatures in a prototype heat engine; (2) developed a novel liquid lubricant which potentially could lower the emission of heavy duty diesel engines; (3) developed lubricant chemistries for ceramics used in the heat engines; (4) developed application maps for ceramic lubricant chemistry combinations for design purpose; and (5) developed novel test methods to screen lubricant chemistries for automotive air-conditioning compressors lubricated by R-134a (Freon substitute). Most of these findings have been reported to the DOE program office through Argonne National Laboratory who manages the overall program. A list of those reports and a copy of the report submitted to the Argonne National Laboratory is attached in Appendix A. Additional reports have also been submitted separately to DOE program managers. These are attached in Appendix B.

  8. fuels and lubricants | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels and Lubricants The DOE Vehicle Technologies Office supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. Transportation fuels are anticipated to be produced from future refinery feedstocks that may increasingly be from non-conventional sources including, but not milted to, heavy crude, oil sands, shale oil, and coal, as well as

  9. Foaming characteristics of refigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D.Y.; Shah, D.O.; Jotshi, C.K.; Bhagwat, S.; Leung, M.; Gregory, A.

    1997-04-01

    The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry has moved to HFC refrigerants which have zero ozone depletion and low global warming potential due to regulations on CFC and HCFC refrigerants and concerns for the environment. The change in refrigerants has prompted the switch from mineral oil and alkylbenzene lubricants to polyolester-based lubricants. This change has also brought about a desire for lubricant, refrigerant and compressor manufacturers to understand the foaming properties of alternative refrigerant/ lubricant mixtures, as well as the mechanisms which affect these properties. The objectives of this investigation are to experimentally determine the foaming absorption and desorption rates of HFC and blended refrigerants in polyolester lubricant and to define the characteristics of the foam formed when the refrigerant leaves the refrigerant/ lubricant mixture after being exposed to a pressure drop. The refrigerants being examined include baseline refrigerants: CFC-12 (R-12) and HCFC-22 (R-22); alternative refrigerants: HFC-32 (R-32), R-125, R-134a, and R-143a; and blended refrigerants: R-404A, R-407C, and R-410A. The baseline refrigerants are tested with ISO 32 (Witco 3GS) and ISO 68 (4GS) mineral oils while the alternative and blended refrigerants are tested with two ISO 68 polyolesters (Witco SL68 and ICI RL68H).

  10. Lubricant analysis for gas turbine condition monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukas, M.; Anderson, D.P.

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of used lubricating oil is a fast-evolving technique for predictive maintenance with any closed-loop lubricating system such as those in gas and steam turbines, diesel and gasoline engines, transmissions, gearboxes, compressors, pumps, bearings, and hydraulic systems. Based on analysis of periodic oil samples, a laboratory diagnostic report is sent to the personnel responsible for the equipment to warn of any possible problem or to make a specific maintenance recommendation. The entire process, from sample taking to the diagnostic report, should take less than 48 hours to be effective. These reports, when combined with statistical analysis and trending, can provide an insight to management personnel on the effectiveness of the program, efficiency of the maintenance department, repair status of equipment, recurring problems, and even information on the performance of different lubricants. Condition monitoring by oil analysis can be broken down into two categories: debris monitoring to measure the trace quantities of wear particles carried by the lubricant away from the wearing surfaces and lubricant condition monitoring to determine whether the lubricant itself is fit for service based on physical and chemical tests.

  11. Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.

  12. Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.

    1997-07-01

    Part one of this research provides manufacturers of components of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment with a useful list of lubricant additives, sources, functional properties and chemical species. The list in part one is comprised of domestic lubricant additive suppliers and the results of a literature search that was specifically targeted for additives reported to be useful in polyolester chemistry.

  13. Biocides for lubricant rancidity and biofouling prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passman, F.J.

    1997-10-01

    Lubricant systems provide a good environment for microbial communities. Growing most abundantly on surfaces, microbes can change lubricant performance properties by selectively depleting functional additives. Moreover, microbial metabolites can stimulate corrosion and induce invert emulsion formation. The keys to microbial contamination control are good industrial hygiene, monitoring and timely treatment. There are more than 30 USEPA registered metalworking fluid biocides. Each has an application where it provides cost-effective protection. Biocides should be selected based on performance in a particular coolant and system. Most often, biocides with limited solubility in non-polar solvents work better in lubricants. Bench tests provide a relatively inexpensive method for evaluating alternative treatments. Bench test data need to be confirmed through field evaluations. Bioresistant additives that have no obvious functionality other than replacing registered biocides should be considered with care. Properly used as one component of a complete lubricant system management program, data-driven biocide use can extend lubricant life dramatically, reduce downtime and create a healthier work environment.

  14. Smart Surface and Lubrication Engineering show Promise for Gearbox...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Then they applied a novel nano-lubricant designed to eliminate much of the materials and ... They also confirmed that the nano-colloidal lubricant additives physically and chemically ...

  15. Turbine engine lubricant foaming due to silicone basestock used in non-specification spline lubricant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centers, P.W.

    1995-05-01

    Dependent upon molecular weight and distribution, concentration, temperature, air flow, and test details or field application, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) may be neutral, profoamant or antifoamant in polyolesters. This understanding was critical in the solution of a turbine engine lubrication system foaming problem occurring at several military locations. Suspect turbine engine-accessory gearbox assembly materials gathered from several sites were evaluated. One non-specification PDMS-based spline lubricant caused copious foaming of the lubricant at less than ten parts-per-million concentration, while a specification polymethyl-phenylsiloxane (PMPS)-based lubricant required a concentration nearly 2000 times greater to generate equivalent foam. Use of the profoamant PDMS spline lubricant was then prohibited. Since prohibition, foaming of turbine engine lubricants used in the particular application has not been reported. PMPS impact on foaming of ester lubricants is similar to a much more viscous PDMS attributed to the reduced interaction of PMPS in esters due to pendant phenyl structure of PMPS absent in PDMS. These data provide significant additional insight and methodology to investigate foaming tendencies of partially miscible silicone-ester and other fluid systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuels & Lubricants Technologies 2014 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants Technologies Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research activities 2014_amr_05.pdf (2.87 MB) More Documents & Publications 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels Technologies 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants

  17. Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been developed by an ORNL-GM team as candidate lubricant additives with promising physical/chemical properties and potential multiple functionalities. deer12_qu.pdf (3.85 MB) More Documents & Publications Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency Vehicle

  18. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lubricants and Additives Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_qu.pdf (1002.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine Lubricants or Lubricant Additives

  19. Lubricants - Pathway to Improving Fuel Efficiency of Legacy Fleet...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Lubricants Activities Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DOEDOD Parasitic Energy Loss Collaboration DOEDOD Parasitic Energy Loss ...

  20. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  1. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shillingford, Cicely; MacCallum, Noah; Wong, Tak -Sing; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e.g., rain), and whenmore » exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. However we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.« less

  2. Fabrics coated with lubricated nanostructures display robust omniphobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillingford, C; MacCallum, N; Wong, TS; Kim, P; Aizenberg, J

    2013-12-11

    The development of a stain-resistant and pressure-stable textile is desirable for consumer and industrial applications alike, yet it remains a challenge that current technologies have been unable to fully address. Traditional superhydrophobic surfaces, inspired by the lotus plant, are characterized by two main components: hydrophobic chemical functionalization and surface roughness. While this approach produces water-resistant surfaces, these materials have critical weaknesses that hinder their practical utility, in particular as robust stain-free fabrics. For example, traditional superhydrophobic surfaces fail (i.e., become stained) when exposed to low-surface-tension liquids, under pressure when impacted by a high-velocity stream of water (e. g., rain), and when exposed to physical forces such as abrasion and twisting. We have recently introduced slippery lubricant-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS), a self-healing, pressure-tolerant and omniphobic surface, to address these issues. Herein we present the rational design and optimization of nanostructured lubricant-infused fabrics and demonstrate markedly improved performance over traditional superhydrophobic textile treatments: SLIPS-functionalized cotton and polyester fabrics exhibit decreased contact angle hysteresis and sliding angles, omni-repellent properties against various fluids including polar and nonpolar liquids, pressure tolerance and mechanical robustness, all of which are not readily achievable with the state-of-the-art superhydrophobic coatings.

  3. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  4. Research on Fuels & Lubricants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research on Fuels & Lubricants Research on Fuels & Lubricants 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Penn State University, Tribology Group, Chemical Engineering Dept. 2003_deer_perez.pdf (704.07 KB) More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

  5. FY2013 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    Annual progress report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies. The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies Program supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle manufacturers and users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  6. Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Truhan, Jr.,; John J. (Cookeville, TN) [Cookeville, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Blau, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

  7. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile

  8. Ultrafast optical control of magnetization dynamics in polycrystalline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bismuth doped iron garnet thin films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast optical control of magnetization dynamics in polycrystalline bismuth doped iron ...

  9. Elastic wave velocities in polycrystalline Mg[subscript 3]Al...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Elastic wave velocities in polycrystalline Mgsubscript 3Alsubscript 2Sisubscript 3Osubscript 12-pyrope garnet to 24 GPa and 1300 K Authors: Chantel, Julien ; ...

  10. Process for Polycrystalline film silicon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Tihu (Littleton, CO); Ciszek, Theodore F. (Evergreen, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for depositing polycrystalline silicon on substrates, including foreign substrates, occurs in a chamber at about atmospheric pressure, wherein a temperature gradient is formed, and both the atmospheric pressure and the temperature gradient are maintained throughout the process. Formation of a vapor barrier within the chamber that precludes exit of the constituent chemicals, which include silicon, iodine, silicon diiodide, and silicon tetraiodide. The deposition occurs beneath the vapor barrier. One embodiment of the process also includes the use of a blanketing gas that precludes the entrance of oxygen or other impurities. The process is capable of repetition without the need to reset the deposition zone conditions.

  11. Polycrystalline gamma plutonium's elastic moduli versus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline {sup 239}Pu in the {gamma} phase. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli were measured simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth, linear, and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. They calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519 K to 0.252 at 571 K. These measurements on extremely well characterized pure Pu are in agreement with other reported results where overlap occurs.

  12. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  13. Determination of the tribological fundamentals of solid lubricated ceramics. Volume 2. Appendices A through O. Final report, 9 Sep 85-16 Sep 89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardos, M.N.

    1991-09-01

    The goals, structure and highlights of a recently completed multiyear/multinational research program are described. The main driving force behind this effort was the aim to advance the technology base so engineers can design, build and operate solid lubricated ceramic tribocomponents in extreme environments. Specially designed friction and wear testers were employed to perform well-defined model experiments on single crystal and polycrystalline ceramics and solid lubricants. The research led to discoveries such as (1) a lubricious oxide with the shear strength of molybdenum disulfide in vacuum, (2) CVD diamond films with low friction and extraordinarily low wear, (3) intercalated graphites with high tribothermal resistance in vacuum and in air, and (4) a wear equation for silicon nitride ceramics.

  14. Reversible piezomagnetoelectric switching in bulk polycrystalline ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, T. Bennett, J.; Brown, A. P.; Wines, T.; Bell, A. J.; Comyn, T. P.; Smith, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in materials offer tremendous advantages in device functionality enabling technologies including advanced electronic memory, combining electronic speed, and efficiency with magnetic robustness. However, low cost polycrystalline ME materials are excluded from most commercial applications, operating only at cryogenic temperatures, impractically large electric/magnetic fields, or with low ME coefficients (1-100 mV/cm Oe). Despite this, the technological potential of single compound ME coupling has continued to drive research into multiferroics over the last two decades. Here we show that by manipulating the large induced atomic strain within the polycrystalline, room temperature multiferroic compound 0.7BiFeO{sub 3}–0.3PbTiO{sub 3}, we can induce a reversible, piezoelectric strain controlled ME effect. Employing an in situ neutron diffraction experiment, we have demonstrated that this piezomagnetoelectric effect manifests with an applied electric field >8 kV/mm at the onset of piezoelectric strain, engineered in to the compound by crystallographic phase mixing. This produces a remarkable intrinsic ME coefficient of 1276 mV/cm Oe, due to a strain driven modification to the oxygen sub-lattice, inducing an increase in magnetic moment per Fe{sup 3+} ion of +0.142 μ{sub B}. This work provides a framework for investigations into strain engineered nanostructures to realize low-cost ME devices designed from the atoms up, as well as contributing to the deeper understanding of single phase ME coupling mechanisms.

  15. Use of Lubricants in the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdin, W; Biltoft, P

    2006-07-06

    There are two principal concerns that govern the use of lubricants in NIF: (1) Airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs)--AMCs are known to seriously degrade the performance of sol-gel coated optics. AMCs are produced by the slow outgassing of residues (non-volatile residues or ''NVRs'') of high molecular weight compounds left on surfaces. Lubricants, particularly hydrocarbon lubricants, are a primary source of such NVRs. (2) Particulates--Particulates that accumulate on optical surfaces can cause permanent physical damage when exposed to high energy density laser light. Lubricant residues exposed to high energy density light will pyrolyze or decompose and produce carbon particulates. The NIF Approved Materials Database lists several lubricants that have been tested for use in NIF environments. Many of these lubricants were tested according to MELs 99-006 (oven outgassing test) or 99-007 (vacuum outgassing test). In these tests, the change in percent transmission of light through a sol-gel coated optic placed next to the sample under evaluation is used as the diagnostic. Samples that cause less than 0.1% change in optical transmission are deemed suitable for use inside beam enclosures. This testing, however, addresses only the concern associated with AMCs. To assess the issue of particle generation, a flashlamp or ''aerosol'' test is used. In this test a sample with residues is subjected to intense light from the main amplifier flashlamps. The number density of particles per unit volume is measure after each flash. A measurement of an average of fewer than 1000 particles >0.5{micro}m in diameter produced per square foot of exposed surface per flash for each of the last ten flashes in a series of 60 flashes of light is deemed to be acceptable for polymers. A measurement of an average of fewer than 100 particles >0.5{micro}m in diameter produced per square foot of exposed surface per flash for each of the last ten flashes in a series of 60 flashes of light is deemed to

  16. Ionic Liquids with Ammonium Cations as Lubricants or Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Truhan, Jr., John J

    2006-01-01

    Friction and wear are estimated to cost 6% of the US gross national product, or around $700 billion annually. A new class of more effective lubricants could lead to huge energy savings. Limited recent literature has suggested potential for using room-temperature ionic liquids as lubricants, however only a few out of millions (or more) of species have been evaluated. Recent ORNL work discovered a new category of ionic liquids with ammonium cations that have demonstrated promising lubricating properties as net lubricants or lubricant additives, particularly in lubricating difficult-to-lubricate metals like aluminum. More than 30% friction reduction has been observed on ammonium-based ionic liquids compared to conventional hydrocarbon oils. The inherent polarity of ionic liquids is believed to provide strong adhesion to contact surfaces and form a boundary lubricating film leading to friction and wear reductions. Other advantages of ionic liquids include (1) negligible volatility, (2) high thermal stability, (3) non-flammability, and (4) better intrinsic properties that eliminate the necessity of many expensive lubricant additives. With very flexible molecular structures, this new class of lubricants, particularly ammonium-based ionic liquids, can be tailored to fit a big variety of applications including but not limited to bearings, combustion engines, MEMS, and metal forming.

  17. Yieldably mounted lubricant control assemblies for piston rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijer, R.J.; Ziph, B. Godett, T.M.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes an engine having a housing comprising a cylinder within which a piston reciprocates and a piston rod extending from the piston through a bore which extends in the housing from the cylinder to a crankcase and a lubricant control assembly which is disposed within the bore in cooperative arrangement with the piston rod and functions to separate the cylinder from the crankcase while allowing the piston rod to reciprocate axially through a lubricant control portion of the lubricant control assembly which is in forceful contact around the piston rod, the improvement which comprises a compliant housing for mounting the lubricant control assembly on the engine housing. The compliant housing is operatively disposed between the engine housing and the lubricant control portion to allow the lubricant control portion to be radially displaced with respect to the bore and thereby comply with radial displacement of the reciprocating piston rod while maintaining substantially full effectiveness of the lubricant control portion acting on the piston rod. The lubricant control assembly consists of a tubular part, means attaching the tubular part to the compliant housing such that the tubular part can comply with radial displacement of the reciprocating piston rod, and force-applying means acting between the tubular part and the lubricant control portion for urging the lubricant control portion into forceful contact around the reciprocating piston rod.

  18. Helium Migration Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Guillaume; Desgardin, Pierre; Sauvage, Thierry; Barthe, Marie-France; Garcia, Philippe; Carlot, Gaelle

    2007-07-01

    This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO{sub 2} sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with {sup 3}He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the {sup 3}He(d,{alpha}){sup 1}H reaction. {sup 3}He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900 deg. C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects. (authors)

  19. Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University 2002_deer_perez.pdf (315.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable,

  20. Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions: | Department of Energy Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_plumley.pdf (398.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Unraveling DPF Degradation using Chemical

  1. Fuels & Lubricants R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Lubricants R&D Fuels & Lubricants R&D 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Plenary vtpn06_stork_ft_2011_o.pdf (239.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview of Fuels Technologies Overview of DOE Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D Overview of DOE Fuel Technologies R&D

  2. Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils Title Carbon-based tribofilms from lubricating oils Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Erdemir, A, Ramirez, G, Eryilmaz, O, Narayanan, B, Liao, Y, Kamath, G, Sankaranarayanan, SKRS Journal Nature Volume 536 Start Page 67 Pagination 5 Date Published 08/2016 Keywords mechanical engineering, mechanical properties, structural properties, synthesis and processing Abstract Moving mechanical interfaces are commonly lubricated

  3. 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fuels & Lubricants 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants Merit review of DOE Vehicle Technologies research activities 2013_amr_05.pdf (1.35 MB) More Documents & Publications 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels Technologies 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Fuel Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report

  4. A Novel Lubricant Formulation Strategy for 2% Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    demonstration of temporary shear thinning On Track 3. Nanoparticles in Lubricants and Characterization GoNo-go Decision: no severe wear Completion 4. Model-Assisted Optimal...

  5. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and ...

  6. High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    When used in industrial lubricants of all types, Biosynthetic's oils achieved superior performance in many critical performance areas, including pour point, viscosity index, flash ...

  7. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. ... The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that ...

  8. Large-Scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-Based Lubrication Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to design, develop, manufacture, and scale up boron-based nanoparticulate lubrication additives.

  9. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Under the test conditions used in this study, the strong base filter had a significant and ...

  10. The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts PDF icon 2005deerwhitacre.pdf More ...

  11. Examining Effects of Lubricant Composition in Engine Component...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LFEEE) in Modern Internal Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Engine Friction Reduction Through ...

  12. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil ...

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Novel Lubricant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    through Surface Modification (Agreement ID:23284) Project ID:18518 Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Can hard coatings and lubricant anti-wear additives work together?...

  14. Ionic Liquids as Lubricants or Additives - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Marketing SummaryNew ionic liquids invented at ORNL show great promise as lubricants for aluminum and steel in combustion engines, bearings, and microelectromechanical ...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded ...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded ...

  17. Polycrystalline GaAs solar cells on low-cost Silicon-Film{trademark} substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mauk, M.G.; Feyock, B.W.; Hall, R.B.; Cavanaugh, K.D.; Cotter, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The authors assess the potential of a low-cost, large-area Silicon-Film{trademark} sheet as a substrate for thin-film polycrystalline GaAs solar cells. Silicon-Film is a relatively inexpensive material on which large-grain (>2 mm) polycrystalline GaAs films can be formed. The GaAs epitaxial layers are grown by a simple close-spaced vapor transport (CSVT) technique using water vapor as a transport agent. A recrystallized Ge{sub 1{minus}x}Si{sub x} buffer layer between the GaAs epilayer and Silicon-Film substrate can facilitate growth of the GaAs. Selective epitaxy on patterned, oxide-masked substrates is effective in reducing thermal stress effects.

  18. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test

  19. Lubrication of polysilicon micromechanisms with self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, U.; Foster, J.D.; Habib, U.; Howe, R.T.; Maboudian, R.; Senft, D.C.; Dugger, M.T.

    1998-06-01

    Here, the authors report on the lubricating effects of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on MEMS by measuring static and dynamic friction with two polysilicon surface- micromachined devices. The first test structure is used to study friction between laterally sliding surfaces and with the second, friction between vertical sidewalls can be investigated. Both devices are SAM-coated following the sacrificial oxide etch and the microstructures emerge released and dry from the final water rinse. The coefficient of static friction, {mu}{sub s} was found to decrease from 2.1 {+-} 0.8 for the SiO{sub 2} coating to 0.11 {+-} 0.01 and 0.10 {+-} 0.01 for films derived from octadecyltrichloro-silane (OTS) and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl-trichlorosilane (FDTS). Both OTS and FDTS SAM-coated structures exhibit dynamic coefficients of friction, {mu}{sub d} of 0.08 {+-} 0.01. These values were found to be independent of the apparent contact area, and remain unchanged after 1 million impacts at 5.6 {micro}N (17 kPa), indicating that these SAMs continue to act as boundary lubricants despite repeated impacts. Measurements during sliding friction from the sidewall friction testing structure give comparable initial {mu}{sub d} values of 0.02 at a contact pressure of 84 MPa. After 15 million wear cycles, {mu}{sub d} was found to rise to 0.27. Wear of the contacting surfaces was examined by SEM. Standard deviations in the {mu} data for SAM treatments indicate uniform coating coverage.

  20. Polycrystalline silicon semiconducting material by nuclear transmutation doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleland, John W.; Westbrook, Russell D.; Wood, Richard F.; Young, Rosa T.

    1978-01-01

    A NTD semiconductor material comprising polycrystalline silicon having a mean grain size less than 1000 microns and containing phosphorus dispersed uniformly throughout the silicon rather than at the grain boundaries.

  1. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  2. Approach towards high efficiency polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sana, P.; Chen, Z.; Salami, J. )

    1992-12-01

    A combination of theoretical modelling, gettering and passivation, and cell fabrication is presented in this paper to provide guidelines for improving efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells. Theoretical modelling was performed to show that grain boundary barrier height decreases and carrier diffusion length increases with illumination level ([le]50 suns) in those polycrystalline materials where grain boundary dominates the recombination. Model calculations show that the efficiency spread due to grain boundary defect density ([ital N][sub [ital st

  3. Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on Metal Foil for PV Applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on Metal Foil for PV Applications Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Zheng, M., Yu, Z., Seok, T.J., Chen, Y-Z., Kapadia, R., Takei, K., Aloni, S., Ager, J.W., Wu, M., Chueh, Y-L., Javey, A. "High optical quality polycrystalline indium phosphide grown on metal substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Journal of Applied Physics 111,

  4. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: Nemeth, Bill ; Young, David L. ; Page, Matthew R. ; LaSalvia, Vincenzo ; Johnston, Steve ; Reedy, Robert ; Stradins, Paul Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247961 Report

  5. FY 2012 Progress Report for Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stork, Kevin

    2013-06-28

    Annual progress report of the Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supporting fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement.

  6. Dry film lubricant for difficult drawing applications of galvanized steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wakano, Shigeru; Sakane, Tadashi; Hirose, Yozou . Iron and Steel Research Lab.); Matsuda, Naomichi; Onodera, Show . Oleo Chemicals Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Press formability of metals sheets is considered to depend on surface lubricity, press forming condition and mechanical properties of the metal sheets. In Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coatings, surface lubricity is the most important property. This is because the low melting temperature and low hardness of the plated layer occasionally cause microscopic galling through deformation at the beads of dies which may, consequently, result in sheet breakage. Press formability of Zn and Zn-alloy plated steel sheets with heavy coating weight has been improved by the use of a high viscosity lubricant oil and a Fe-Zn alloy flash-plating on galvannealed steel. However, the use of high viscosity lubricant oils created problems with oil staining and removal before painting. An alloy flash plating results in appreciably higher production costs. This article describes the characteristics of a thin film dry lubricant, Super S-coat, as a new countermeasure, which will overcome these problems.

  7. Tribocharging phenomena in hard disk amorphous carbon coatings with and without perfluoropolyether lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van den Oetelaar, Ronald J.A.; Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Hung; Gui, Jing

    2000-08-01

    Scanning polarization force microscopy was used to study changes in surface potential (tribocharging) caused by the contact between a tungsten carbide tip and the amorphous carbon coating of a hard disk,both when bare and when covered with Zdol-TX lubricant. The surface potential change produced by tip contact decays with time at a rate that is strongly dependent on lubricant coverage, and on the presence of oxygen and water vapor in the environment. Two different charging mechanisms are proposed. One involves chemical modification of the surface by removal of oxygen bound to the surface. This gives rise to a potential change that decays with time. Another mechanism involves trapping of charge in states within the energy gap of the insulating carbon film. The potential change due to this trapped charge does not decay over periods much greater than 1 hour.

  8. Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-03-26

    A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

  9. Fullerene (C60) films for solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhushan, B.; Gupta, B.K.; Van Cleef, G.W.; Capp, C.E.; Coe, J.V. )

    1993-10-01

    The advent of techniques for producing gram quantities of a new form of stable, pure, solid carbon, designated as fullerene, opens a profusion of possibilities to be explored in many disciplines including tribology. Fullerenes take the form of hollow geodesic domes, which are formed from a network of pentagons and hexagons with covalently bonded carbon atoms. The C60 molecule has the highest possible symmetry (icosahedral) and assumes the shape of a soccer ball. At room temperature, fullerene molecules pack in an fcc lattice bonded with weak van der Waals attractions. Fullerenes can be dissolved in solvents such as toluene and benzene and are easily sublimed. The low surface energy, high chemical stability, spherical shape, weak intermolecular bonding, and high load bearing capacity of C60 molecules offer potential for various mechanical and tribological applications. This paper describes the crystal structure and properties of fullerenes and proposes a mechanism for self-lubricating action. Sublimed films of C60 have been produced and friction and wear performance of these films in various operating environments are the subject of this paper. The results of this study indicate that C60, owing to its unique crystal structure and bonding, may be a promising solid lubricant. 31 refs.

  10. Defect behavior of polycrystalline solar cell silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, D.K.; Park, S.H.; Hwang, I.G.; Mohr, J.B.; Hanly, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    The major objective of this study, conducted from October 1988 to September 1991, was to gain an understanding of the behavior of impurities in polycrystalline silicon and the influence of these impurities on solar cell efficiency. The authors studied edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) and cast poly-Si materials and solar cells. With EFG Si they concentrated on chromium-doped materials and cells to determine the role of Cr on solar cell performance. Cast poly-Si samples were not deliberately contaminated. Samples were characterized by cell efficiency, current-voltage, deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), surface photovoltage (SPV), open-circuit voltage decay, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. They find that Cr forms Cr-B pairs with boron at room temperature and these pairs dissociate into Cr{sub i}{sup +} and B{sup {minus}} during anneals at 210{degrees}C for 10 min. Following the anneal, Cr-B pairs reform at room temperature with a time constant of 230 h. Chromium forms CrSi{sub 2} precipitates in heavily contaminated regions and they find evidence of CrSi{sub 2} gettering, but a lack of chromium segregation or precipitation to grain boundaries and dislocations. Cr-B pairs have well defined DLTS peaks. However, DLTS spectra of other defects are not well defined, giving broad peaks indicative of defects with a range of energy levels in the band gap. In some high-stress, low-efficiency cast poly-Si they detect SiC precipitates, but not in low-stress, high-efficiency samples. SPV measurements result in nonlinear SPV curves in some materials that are likely due to varying optical absorption coefficients due to locally varying stress in the material.

  11. Compressible pressure compensator within closed lubricant volume of an earth boring apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxman, W. C.; Parker, L. J.

    1985-04-09

    A compressible pressure compensating member is disposed within a sealed lubricant volume enclosing a bearing and seal system of an earth boring apparatus. Lubricant is maintained within the volume by metal face seals so that both the bearing and the seal structure are lubricated thereby. As the lubricant expands, due to thermal expansion under use, the increased pressure is accommodated by compression of the compressible member so that no lubricant is expelled through the seals. When the lubricant cools and contracts, the compensator expands to maintain the lubricant volume at the initially filled level.

  12. Construction of High-Performance, Low-Cost Photoelectrodes with Controlled Polycrystalline Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyoung-Shin Choi

    2013-06-30

    The major goal of our research was to gain the ability in electrochemical synthesis to precisely control compositions and morphologies of various oxide-based polycrystalline photoelectrodes in order to establish the composition-morphology-photoelectrochemical property relationships while discovering highly efficient photoelectrode systems for use in solar energy conversion. Major achievements include: development of porous n-type BiVO{sub 4} photoanode for efficient and stable solar water oxidation; development of p-type CuFeO{sub 2} photocathode for solar hydrogen production; and junction studies on electrochemically fabricated p-n Cu{sub 2}O homojunction solar cells for efficiency enhancement.

  13. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, T.M.; Blau, P.J.; Lee, W.Y.; Bae, Y.W.

    1998-12-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350 and 850 C in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}N){sub 4}, MoF{sub 6}, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article. 1 fig.

  14. CVD method of forming self-lubricating composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lee, Woo Y. (Knoxville, TN); Bae, Yong W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An article having a multiphase composite lubricant coating of a hard refractory matrix phase of titanium nitride dispersed with particles of a solid lubricating phase of molybdenum disulfide is prepared by heating the article to temperatures between 350.degree. and 850.degree. C. in a reaction vessel at a reduced pressure and passing a gaseous mixture of Ti((CH.sub.3).sub.2 N).sub.4, MoF.sub.6, H.sub.2 S and NH.sub.3 over the heated article forming a multiphase composite lubricant coating on the article.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report The Fuel & Lubricant Technologies subprogram supports fuels and lubricants research and development (R&D) to provide vehicle users with cost-competitive options that enable high fuel economy with low emissions, and contribute to petroleum displacement. 2012_fuel_lubricant.pdf

  16. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  17. Lasing modes in polycrystalline and amorphous photonic structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jin-Kyu; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Rooks, Michael J.; Solomon, Glenn S.; Cao Hui

    2011-09-15

    We systematically studied the lasing characteristics in photonic polycrystalline and amorphous structures. 2D arrays of air holes were fabricated in a GaAs membrane. InAs quantum dots embedded in the membrane provide gain for lasing under optical pumping. The lasing modes are spatially localized, and blue shift as the structural order becomes short ranged. Our three-dimensional numerical simulations reveal that the out-of-plane leakage of the lasing mode dominates over the in-plane leakage. The lasing modes in a photonic polycrystalline move away from the center frequency of the photonic band gap to reduce the out-of-plane leakage. In a photonic amorphous structure, the short-range order improves optical confinement and enhances the quality factor of resonances. Understanding the behavior of photonic polycrystalline laser and amorphous laser opens the possibility of controlling lasing characteristic by varying the degree of structural order.

  18. Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next-Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants Ionic Liquids as Novel Engine ...

  19. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Extensive chemical and physical characterization performed on emissions from normal and high emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles to evaluate relative contributions of fuel and lubricating oil on tailpipe emissions.

  20. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (ReFUEL). ReFUEL is a world-class research and testing facility dedicated to future fuels and advanced heavy-duty vehicle research, located in Denver, Colorado.

  1. 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 2_amr_05.pdf (1.32 MB) More Documents & Publications 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels Technologies

  2. 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 1_amr_05.pdf (1.64 MB) More Documents & Publications 2010 DOE EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Merit Review - Fuels Technologies 2011 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Fuels & Lubricants

  3. Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-03-12

    An impurity reaction-diffusion model is applied to Cu defects and related intrinsic defects in polycrystalline CdTe for a better understanding of Cu’s role in the cell level reliability of CdTe PV devices. The simulation yields transient Cu distributions in polycrystalline CdTe during solar cell processing and stressing. Preliminary results for Cu migration using available diffusivity and solubility data show that Cu accumulates near the back contact, a phenomena that is commonly observed in devices after back-contact processing or stress conditions.

  4. Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy | Department of Energy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy Characteristics and Effects of Lubricant Additive Chemistry and Exhaust Conditions on Diesel Particulate Filter Service Life and Vehicle Fuel Economy qAsh accumulation is a dynamic process … Ash first primarily accumulates along channel walls

  5. Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties | Department of Energy Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Correlations Between Metallic Lubricant Additive Species in the Ring Pack and Ash Emissions and Their Dependence on Crankcase Oil Properties Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel

  6. Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology Fuels and Lubricants to Support Advanced Diesel Engine Technology 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_baranescu.pdf (87.57 KB) More Documents & Publications New Diesel Feedstocks and Future Fuels Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuel Diesel Engine Challenges

  7. Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter | Department of Energy Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Minimizing Lubricant-Ash Requirement and Impact on Emission Aftertreatment Systems via an Oil Conditioning Filter Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of

  8. Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Durability in Engines | Department of Energy component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in Engines Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in Engines Development of active nanoparticle additive for lubricatns that will minimize sulfur and phosporous content in engine oil, and lower ash forming elements deer08_adhvaryu.pdf (2.72 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office:

  9. Lubricant wear particle analysis by filter patch extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    Lubricating Oil Analysis (LOA) has become an important part of a comprehensive Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program. However, knowing the condition of the lubricant alone does not provide a complete description of equipment reliability. Condition monitoring for equipment can be accomplished through Wear Particle Analysis (WPA). This usually involves separating suspended materials and wear products from the lubricant by magnetic (ferrographic) means. This paper will present a simple, low-cost, alternate method of particle acquisition called Filter Patch Extraction (FPE). This method removes solids, regardless of their composition, from the lubricant by vacuum filtration and deposits them onto a filter for microscopic examination similar to that of analytical ferrography. A large filter pore size retains suspended materials and permits rapid filtration of large volumes of lubricant thereby increasing the accuracy of the wear and cleanliness profile that can be established for a given machine. Qualitative trending of equipment wear and lubricant system cleanliness are easily performed with FPE. Equipment condition is determined by then characterizing the metal particles which are recovered. Examined filters are easily archived in filter holders for future reference. Equipment for FPE is inexpensive and readily available. The technique is field-portable, allowing WPA to be performed on-site, eliminating delays with remote laboratories while building customer participation and support. There are numerous advantages for using FPE in a machine condition monitoring program.

  10. Method to improve lubricity of low-sulfur diesel and gasoline fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali

    2004-08-31

    A method for providing lubricity in fuels and lubricants includes adding a boron compound to a fuel or lubricant to provide a boron-containing fuel or lubricant. The fuel or lubricant may contain a boron compound at a concentration between about 30 ppm and about 3,000 ppm and a sulfur concentration of less than about 500 ppm. A method of powering an engine to minimize wear, by burning a fuel containing boron compounds. The boron compounds include compound that provide boric acid and/or BO.sub.3 ions or monomers to the fuel or lubricant.

  11. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, Hans O.; Starr, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  12. CRC handbook of lubrication. Theory and practice of tribology: Volume II: Theory and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booser, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    This handbook covers the general area of lubrication and tribology in all its facets: friction, wear lubricants (liquid, solid, and gas), greases, lubrication principles, applications to various mechanisms, design principles of devices incorporating lubrication, maintenance, lubrication scheduling, and standardized tests; as well as environmental problems and conservation. The information contained in these two volumes will aid in achieving effective lubrication for control of friction and wear, and is another step to improve understanding of the complex factors involved in tribology. Both metric and English units are provided throughout both volumes.

  13. Current issues in natural gas lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reber, J.

    1997-10-01

    Because of the ability of natural gas to burn completely relatively easily, supplying excess oxygen to promote complete reactions is a viable alternative to catalysts. Hence, lean burn technology has a natural fit for this industry. Lube oil is not adversely affected by lean burn operation. There is a slight tendency to cause more oil nitration than oxidation, but the real difference is not significant. Operators may notice somewhat more varnish (caramel color) and less sludge (black) as a result. Because the fuel is burned more completely, there is less problem with fuel-derived oil contamination. Also because of the excess air in the combustion chamber, overall cylinder temperature is lower, causing less stress on the oil. Oil life is generally lengthened. One common misconception that lean burn engines require different lubricants may stem from a change at Waukesha Engine Division--Dresser Industries. Waukesha has changed its lube oil requirements for VHP 3521, 5115, 7042, 9390 GL turbocharged and lean burn model engines. The lube oil specification for these engines is 1% to 1.7% ash with the same 0.10% zinc maximum. This change is not because of the lean burn nature of these engines, rather it is because of drastically decreased lube oil consumption. With less oil consumption, less ash is carried to the critical exhaust valve seat area to prevent valve recession.

  14. Rotary seal with enhanced lubrication and contaminant flushing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie L.

    2000-01-01

    A resilient, ring shaped interference-type hydrodynamic rotary seal having waves on the lubricant side which provide increased film thickness and flushing action by creating contact pressure induced angulated restrictions formed by abrupt restrictive diverters. The angulated restrictions are defined by projecting ridges, corners at the trailing edge of the waves, or simply by use of a converging shape at the trailing edge of the waves which is more abrupt than the gently converging hydrodynamic inlet shape at the leading edge of the waves. The abrupt restrictive diverter performs two functions; a restricting function and a diverting function. The angulated restrictions cause a local film thickness restriction which produces a damming effect preventing a portion of the lubricant from leaking out of the dynamic sealing interface at the trailing edge of the wave, and results in a much thicker lubricant film thickness under the waves. This contributes to more film thickness in the remainder of the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment because film thickness tends to decay gradually rather than abruptly due to the relative stiffness of the seal material. Because of the angle of the abrupt restrictive diverter relative to the relative rotation direction, in conjunction with the restriction or damming effect, a strong diverting action is produced which pumps lubricant across the dynamic sealing interface toward the environment. The lubricant diversion is caused by the component of the rotational velocity tangent to the abrupt restrictive diverter. The component of rotational velocity normal to the abrupt restrictive diverter causes a portion of the lubricant film to be pumped past the abrupt restrictive diverter, thereby assuring adequate lubrication thereof.

  15. Development of a bench scale test to evaluate lubricants for use with methanol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, R.; Klaus, E.; Duda, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    In methanol-fueled diesel engines, the crankcase lubricant is used to lubricate both the engine and the fuel injector system. Crankcase lubricants including some designed for methanol-fueled engines are not completely compatible with the methanol fuel. In order to test the effect of methanol extraction on diesel engine lubricant performance, two extraction protocols were developed: one to simulate the fuel injector (1000 parts of methanol to one part of lubricant) and the other to simulate an extreme case of methanol contamination in the crank-case (one part of methanol to five parts of lubricant). The extracted samples of the lubricant were stripped to remove the methanol. The samples were then evaluated for changes in oxidative stability and lubricity. 12 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Lubricant additives, friend or foe: What the equipment design engineer needs to know

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nixon, H.P.; Zantopulos, H.

    1995-10-01

    Lubricant formulations and lubricant additives have been slanted heavily toward protecting gear concentrated contacts from galling and wear. Much of the performance differentiation of these lubricants has been dependent on highly accelerated standardized laboratory testing. The area of contact fatigue has played a less important role in shaping lubricant formulations, but new test results for several commercially available gear lubricants suggest this area warrants a closer examination. The performance effects of fully and partially additized lubricants were studied using standard bearing industry rolling contact fatigue and wear testing procedures for tapered roller bearings. These test results indicate significant detrimental effects to wear, and fatigue life performance can occur with some additized lubricant formulations. Observations of functional surfaces, before and after testing, are made and examined for several lubricant formulations. The implications of these findings for equipment applications are discussed, and suggestions are made for ways to minimize or avoid potential detrimental performance effects. 10 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the test conditions used in this study, the strong base filter had a significant and beneficial effect on the rate of oil degradation. The strong base filter reduced lubricant acidity by absorbing acidic contaminants in the lubricant

  18. Effects of Fuel Dilution with Biodiesel on Lubricant Acidity, Oxidation and Corrosion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In-cylinder fuel injection to produce rich exhaust for regeneration of lean NOx trap catalyst and diesel particulate filter results in substantial fuel dilution of lubricating oil cause changes of lubricating oil properties and scuffing of engine components.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Fuel and Lubricants subprogram in the Vehicle Technologies Office, as described on the Lubricants and Alternative Fuels pages. Past year's reports are listed on the Annual Progress Reports page.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies R&D Annual Progress Report This report describes the progress made on the research and development projects funded by the Fuel and Lubricants subprogram in the Vehicle Technologies Office in 2014, as described on the Lubricants and Alternative Fuels pages. Past year's reports are listed on the Annual Progress

  1. Ultrathin polycrystalline 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Zhang, Dongrong; Nikiforov, Gueorgui O.; Lee, Michael V.; Qi, Yabing; Joo Shin, Tae; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Han-Koo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2015-03-15

    Ultrathin (<6?nm) polycrystalline films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-P) are deposited with a two-step spin-coating process. The influence of spin-coating conditions on morphology of the resulting film was examined by atomic force microscopy. Film thickness and RMS surface roughness were in the range of 4.06.1 and 0.61.1?nm, respectively, except for small holes. Polycrystalline structure was confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements suggested that the plane through aromatic rings of TIPS-P molecules was perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  2. Lubricants and greases: Properties and evaluation. (Latest citations from FLUIDEX data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a variety of lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases. Topics include properties characterization, additives, rheological studies, and uses. Bearing and sea lubricants are discussed, and lubricant testing methods are described. Some attention is given to specific applications in industry. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Sliding contacts: Wear and lubrication. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning friction wear and the behavior and properties of sliding and sliding-roll contact lubricants. Topics include lubrication mechanism descriptions, failure reduction of mechanical components for specific contacts, and lubricant performance evaluations. Both electrical and mechanical contact applications are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Lubricants and greases: Properties and evaluation. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning a variety of lubricants, including synthetic oils and greases. Topics include properties characterization, additives, rheological studies, and uses. Bearing and gear lubricants are discussed, and lubricant testing methods are described. Some attention is given to specific applications in industry. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Physics of grain boundaries in polycrystalline photovoltaic semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yanfa Yin, Wan-Jian; Wu, Yelong; Shi, Tingting; Paudel, Naba R.; Li, Chen; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Wang, Zhiwei; Moseley, John; Guthrey, Harvey; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2015-03-21

    Thin-film solar cells based on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) and CdTe photovoltaic semiconductors have reached remarkable laboratory efficiencies. It is surprising that these thin-film polycrystalline solar cells can reach such high efficiencies despite containing a high density of grain boundaries (GBs), which would seem likely to be nonradiative recombination centers for photo-generated carriers. In this paper, we review our atomistic theoretical understanding of the physics of grain boundaries in CIGS and CdTe absorbers. We show that intrinsic GBs with dislocation cores exhibit deep gap states in both CIGS and CdTe. However, in each solar cell device, the GBs can be chemically modified to improve their photovoltaic properties. In CIGS cells, GBs are found to be Cu-rich and contain O impurities. Density-functional theory calculations reveal that such chemical changes within GBs can remove most of the unwanted gap states. In CdTe cells, GBs are found to contain a high concentration of Cl atoms. Cl atoms donate electrons, creating n-type GBs between p-type CdTe grains, forming local p-n-p junctions along GBs. This leads to enhanced current collections. Therefore, chemical modification of GBs allows for high efficiency polycrystalline CIGS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  6. Frictional anisotropy under boundary lubrication: effect of surface texture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajayi, O. O.; Erck, R. A.; Lorenzo-Martin, C.; Fenske, G. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-06-15

    The friction coefficient was measured under boundary lubrication with a ball-on-flat contact configuration in unidirectional sliding. The ball was smooth and hardened 52100 steel. Discs were made from case-carburized and hardened 4620, annealed 1080, and 1018 steels with directionally ground surfaces. A synthetic lubricant of stock polyalphaolefin was used for testing. During testing with each material, a frictional spike was observed whenever the ball slid parallel to the grinding ridge on the disc surface. The average friction coefficient for all tests was about 0.1, which is typical for the boundary lubrication regime. The magnitude of the frictional spikes, which reached as high as a friction coefficient of 0.25, and their persistence depended on the hardness of the disc surface. On the basis of elastohydrodynamic theory, coupled with the observation of severe plastic deformation on the ridges parallel to the sliding direction, the frictional spike could be due to localized plastic deformation on the disc surface at locations of minimal thickness for the lubricant fluid film. This hypothesis was further supported by lack of frictional spikes in tests using discs coated with a thin film of diamond-like carbon, in which plastic deformation is minimal.

  7. Fuel, lubricant and additive effects in combustion chamber deposit formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Homan, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    CCD causes octane requirement increase (ORI) and can potentially contributes to exhaust emissions and combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI). Experiments were conducted to identify the separate fuel, lubricant and additive contributions to the amount and composition of CCD. CCD originates from multiple sources. Gasoline hydrocarbon components, gasoline additives, engine lubricant, and atmospheric nitrogen contribute to CCD in different ways. With some fuels the engine lubricant is the main contributor to CCD and this is shown by the high ash level in the CCD. For other fuels CCD is predominantly organic. Significant amounts of nitrogen were found in the CCD even when the fuel and lubricant were nitrogen free. The pyrolysis reactivity of different CCDs was studied to gain an understanding about the transformations that potentially happen over longer times and lower temperatures on the combustion chamber walls. In all cases during mild pyrolysis (375{degrees}C) there was a substantial increase in the level of aromatic carbon and a decrease in the level of organic oxygen. The largest increases in the amount of aromatic carbon occurred for CCDs that were the least aromatic.

  8. Performance of MOV Stem Lubricants at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWall, Kevin George; Nitzel, Michael Everett; Watkins, John Clifford

    2001-07-01

    This paper documents the results of recent tests sponsored by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These tests address the effectiveness of the lubricant used on the threaded portion of the valve stem, where the stem nut turns on the stem. Recent testing indicates that an elevated temperature environment can lead to significant increases in the friction coefficient at the stem/stem-nut interface. Most valve actuator qualification tests are performed at room temperature. Similarly, in-service tests are run at ambient plant temperatures, usually 70 to 100°F. Since design conditions can lead to valve operating temperatures in the 200 to 300°F range, it is important to know whether a temperature-induced increase in friction at the stem/stem-nut interface will prevent the required operation of critical valves. Lubricant aging is another phenomenon that might have deleterious effects on the thrust output of a valve actuator. Laboratory experience and field experience both indicate that after long periods in elevated temperature environments, the lubricants may lose their lubrication qualities. The scope of the current test program includes testing of five different lubricants on four different valve stems. Pending completion of the testing, results of the tests conducted using two of the four stems are discussed. The test series included collection of baseline data at room temperature, single step temperature tests where the temperature of the test setup was elevated directly to 250°F, and step testing where the temperature was elevated in steps to 130, 190, and 250°F, then returned to 70°F. All greases tested showed evidence of physical change after elevated temperature tests. Except for one particular lubricant, all of the greases tested showed increased coefficients of friction at elevated temperatures. Numerous other preliminary conclusions are presented

  9. Nanoscale lubrication of ionic surfaces controlled via a strong electric field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Bocharova, Vera; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-27

    Frictional forces arise whenever objects around us are set in motion. Controlling them in a rational manner means gaining leverage over mechanical energy losses and wear. This paper presents a way of manipulating nanoscale friction by means of in situ lubrication and interfacial electrochemistry. Water lubricant is directionally condensed from the vapor phase at a moving metal-ionic crystal interface by a strong confined electric field, thereby allowing friction to be tuned up or down via an applied bias. The electric potential polarity and ionic solid solubility are shown to strongly influence friction between the atomic force microscope (AFM) tip andmore » salt surface. An increase in friction is associated with the AFM tip digging into the surface, whereas reducing friction does not influence its topography. No current flows during friction variation, which excludes Joule heating and associated electrical energy losses. Lastly, the demonstrated novel effect can be of significant technological importance for controlling friction in nano- and micro-electromechanical systems.« less

  10. Use of Textured Surfaces to Mitigate Sliding Friction and Wear of Lubricated and Non-Lubricated Contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2012-03-01

    If properly employed, the placement of three-dimensional feature patterns, also referred to as textures, on relatively-moving, load-bearing surfaces can be beneficial to their friction and wear characteristics. For example, geometric patterns can function as lubricant supply channels or depressions in which to trap debris. They can also alter lubricant flow in a manner that produces thicker load-bearing films locally. Considering the area occupied by solid areas and spaces, textures also change the load distribution on surfaces. At least ten different attributes of textures can be specified, and their combinations offer wide latitude in surface engineering. By employing directional machining and grinding procedures, texturing has been used on bearings and seals for well over a half century, and the size scales of texturing vary widely. This report summarizes past work on the texturing of load-bearing surfaces, including past research on laser surface dimpling of ceramics done at ORNL. Textured surfaces generally show most pronounced effects when they are used in conformal or nearly conformal contacts, like that in face seals. Combining textures with other forms of surface modification and lubrication methods can offer additional benefits in surface engineering for tribology. As the literature and past work at ORNL shows, texturing does not always provide benefits. Rather, the selected pattern and arrangement of features must be matched to characteristics of the proposed application, bearing materials, and lubricants.

  11. Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naseem, Hameed A.; Albarghouti, Marwan

    2007-04-10

    An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

  12. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-02-03

    A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

  13. Progress and issues in polycrystalline thin-film PV technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.; Roedern, B. von

    1996-05-01

    Substantial progress has occurred in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic technologies in the past 18 months. However, the transition to first-time manufacturing is still under way, and technical problems continue. This paper focuses on the promise and the problems of the copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride technologies, with an emphasis on continued R&D needs for the near-term transition to manufacturing and for next-generation improvements. In addition, it highlights the joint R&D efforts being performed in the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program.

  14. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langer, James S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman. The paper then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  15. Josephson tunnel junctions with chemically vapor deposited polycrystalline germanium barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.; Jillie, D.W.; Smith, L.N.; Phaneuf, L.E.; Potter, C.N.; Shaw, D.M.; Cukauskas, E.J.; Nisenoff, M.

    1984-03-01

    High quality Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated whose tunneling barrier is polycrystalline germanium chemically vapor deposited on a NbN base electrode and covered by a Nb counterelectrode. These junctions have excellent characteristics for device applications: values of V/sub m/ (the product of the critical current and the subgap resistance measured at 2 mV and 4.2 K) ranging between 35--48 mV, ideal threshold curves, a steep current rise at the gap voltage, and Josephson current densities from 100 to 1100 A/cm/sup 2/.

  16. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

    1998-02-03

    A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

  17. Self-lubricating carbon nanotube reinforced nickel matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scharf, T. W.; Neira, A.; Hwang, J. Y.; Banerjee, R.; Tiley, J.

    2009-07-01

    Nickel (Ni)--multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been processed in a monolithic form using the laser-engineered net shape (LENS) processing technique. Auger electron spectroscopy maps determined that the nanotubes were well dispersed and bonded in the nickel matrix and no interfacial chemical reaction products were determined in the as-synthesized composites. Mechanisms of solid lubrication have been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy spatial mapping of the worn surfaces to determine the formation of tribochemical products. The Ni-CNT composites exhibit a self-lubricating behavior, forming an in situ, low interfacial shear strength graphitic film during sliding, resulting in a decrease in friction coefficient compared to pure Ni.

  18. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-06

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  19. Polycrystalline ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide articles on biaxially textured substrates and methods for making same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Shin, Junsoo

    2015-03-31

    A polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface; at least one biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the substrate; and a biaxially textured ferroelectric or multiferroic oxide layer supported by the buffer layer. Methods for making polycrystalline ferroelectric and/or multiferroic oxide articles are also disclosed.

  20. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  1. Research into Oil-based Colloidal-Graphite Lubricants for Forging of Al-based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, A.; Petrov, P.; Petrov, M.

    2011-05-04

    The presented paper describes the topical problem in metal forging production. It deals with the choice of an optimal lubricant for forging of Al-based alloys. Within the scope of the paper, the properties of several oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricants were investigated. The physicochemical and technological properties of these lubricants are presented. It was found that physicochemical properties of lubricant compositions have an influence on friction coefficient value and quality of forgings.The ring compression method was used to estimate the friction coefficient value. Hydraulic press was used for the test. The comparative analysis of the investigated lubricants was carried out. The forging quality was estimated on the basis of production test. The practical recommendations were given to choose an optimal oil-based colloidal-graphite lubricant for isothermal forging of Al-based alloy.

  2. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  3. Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data.

  4. Overview of DOE Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D Overview of DOE Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ft000_stork_2010_o.pdf (473.14 KB) More Documents & Publications Overview of DOE Fuel Technologies R&D Overview of Fuels Technologies Fuels & Lubricants

  5. The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Lab 2002_deer_whitacre.pdf (355.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Lubricant Formulation and Consumption Effects on Diesel Exhaust Ash Emissions: Fuels for Advanced CIDI Engines and Fuel Cells: 2000 Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Fuel and Lubricant Technologies

  6. The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Viscosity Effects | Department of Energy Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects The Role of Lubricant Additives in Fuel Efficiency and Emission Reductions: Viscosity Effects Lubricants and thier delivery are subsystem whose design can affect overall system efficiency deer08_zink.pdf (371.2 KB) More Documents & Publications 3-D Printed Molds Hold Promise for Enhanced Wind Energy Manufacturing 3-D Printed Molds Hold Promise for Enhanced Wind

  7. Few-Layer Graphene as a Dry Lubricant | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contact interfaces. These factors facilitate shear and slow down oxidation (tribo-corrosion), thus drastically reduce wear. Functions as a dry lubricant, reducing wear...

  8. Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitacre, S. D.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the impact of lubricant formulation on the performance of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Adsorber Catalysts, including background/motivation for study, experimental design, and results.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Novel Lubricant Formulation Scheme for 2% Fuel Efficiency Improvement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Northwestern University at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and vehicle technologies office annual merit review and peer evaluation meeting about a novel lubricant...

  10. Offshore Lubricants to Exhibit 7.07% CAGR from 2014 to 2020 Due...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    segmented the global offshore lubricants market into gear oil, grease, engine oil, hydraulic oil, and others (such as circulating oil, turbine oil, and compressor oil). Among...

  11. Stress enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in polycrystalline titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsengiyumva, S.; Raji, A. T.; Rivière, J. P.; Britton, D. T.; Härting, M.

    2014-07-14

    An experimental investigation on the mutual influence of pre-existing residual stress and point defect following ion implantation is presented. The study has been carried out using polycrystalline titanium samples energetically implanted with krypton ions at different fluences. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the concentration profile of the injected krypton ions, while synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used for stress determination. Ion beam analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction stress profile measurements of the implanted titanium samples show a clear evidence of stress-enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in titanium. It is further observed that for the titanium samples implanted at low fluence, ion implantation modifies the pre-existing residual stress through the introduction of point and open volume defects. The stress fields resulting from the ion implantation act to drift the krypton inclusions towards the surface of titanium.

  12. Characterization of textured polycrystalline diamond by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeff, C.F.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M.; Floeter, A.; Zachai, R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is shown to be a useful and versatile technique for the detection and characterization of preferred orientation effects in polycrystalline diamond films. A nitrogen related center known as P1 is used for this purpose. The ESR signal coming from this center is composed of a central line and hyperfine satellite lines. It is found that crystallite disorientation causes a linewidth broadening of the satellite lines, which can thus be used to quantitatively characterize the diamond film texture. It is shown that the method is able to separate contributions of disorder induced by rotations of the crystallites around the growth direction from other contributions. The general conditions in which the method can be applied, and its applicability to other materials, are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Modeling Copper Diffusion in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-06

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystalline, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately

  14. Extracting Cu Diffusion Parameters in Polycrystalline CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Guo, Da; Dragica, Vasileska; Ringhofer, Christian

    2014-06-13

    It is well known that Cu plays an important role in CdTe solar cell performance as a dopant. In this work, a finite-difference method is developed and used to simulate Cu diffusion in CdTe solar cells. In the simulations, which are done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain, the CdTe is assumed to be polycrystal-line, with the individual grains separated by grain boundaries. When used to fit experimental Cu concentration data, bulk and grain boundary diffusion coefficients and activation energies for CdTe can be extracted. In the past, diffusion coefficients have been typically obtained by fitting data to simple functional forms of limited validity. By doing full simulations, the simplifying assumptions used in those analytical models are avoided and diffusion parameters can thus be determined more accurately.

  15. Ion implantation of erbium into polycrystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushakov, V. V. Klevkov, Yu. V.; Dravin, V. A.

    2015-05-15

    The specific features of the ion implantation of polycrystalline cadmium telluride with grains 20–1000 μm in dimensions are studied. The choice of erbium is motivated by the possibility of using rare-earth elements as luminescent “probes” in studies of the defect and impurity composition of materials and modification of the composition by various technological treatments. From the microphotoluminescence data, it is found that, with decreasing crystal-grain dimensions, the degree of radiation stability of the material is increased. Microphotoluminescence topography of the samples shows the efficiency of the rare-earth probe in detecting regions with higher impurity and defect concentrations, including regions of intergrain boundaries.

  16. Electronic properties of polycrystalline graphene under large local strain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning, E-mail: ntang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: bshen@pku.edu.cn; Duan, Junxi; Mei, Fuhong; Meng, Hu; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gao, Li [Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo, E-mail: ntang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: bshen@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China); Ge, Weikun, E-mail: ntang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: geweikun@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: bshen@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-06-16

    To explore the transport properties of polycrystalline graphene under large tensile strain, a strain device has been fabricated using piezocrystal to load local strain onto graphene, up to 22.5%. Ionic liquid gate whose capability of tuning carrier density being much higher than that of a solid gate is used to survey the transfer characteristics of the deformed graphene. The conductance of the Dirac point and field effect mobility of electrons and holes is found to decrease with increasing strain, which is attributed to the scattering of the graphene grain boundaries, the strain induced change of band structure, and defects. However, the transport gap is still not opened. Our study is helpful to evaluate the application of graphene in stretchable electronics.

  17. Status of High Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-02-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and our environment. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course. This work includes bringing thin-film cells and modules toward 25% and 20% efficiencies, respectively, and developing multijunction concentrator cells and modules able to convert more than one-third of the sun's energy to electricity (i.e., 33% efficiency). This paper will address recent accomplishments of the NREL in-house research effort involving polycrystalline thin-film tandems, as well as the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

  18. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of thin polycrystalline oxide samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, A.; Boussois, K.; Nait-Ali, B.; Smith, D. S.; Blanchart, P.

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports about the development of a modified laser-flash technique and relation to measure the in-plane thermal diffusivity of thin polycrystalline oxide samples. Thermal conductivity is then calculated with the product of diffusivity, specific heat and density. Design and operating features for evaluating in-plane thermal conductivities are described. The technique is advantageous as thin samples are not glued together to measure in-plane thermal conductivities like earlier methods reported in literature. The approach was employed to study anisotropic thermal conductivity in alumina sheet, textured kaolin ceramics and montmorillonite. Since it is rare to find in-plane thermal conductivity values for such anisotropic thin samples in literature, this technique offers a useful variant to existing techniques.

  19. Modeling Crack Propagation in Polycrystalline Microstructure Using Variational Multiscale Method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, S.; Sundararaghavan, V.

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation in a polycrystalline microstructure is analyzed using a novel multiscale model. The model includes an explicit microstructural representation at critical regions (stress concentrators such as notches and cracks) and a reduced order model that statistically captures the microstructure at regions far away from stress concentrations. Crack propagation is modeled in these critical regions using the variational multiscale method. In this approach, a discontinuous displacement field is added to elements that exceed the critical values of normal or tangential tractions during loading. Compared to traditional cohesive zone modeling approaches, the method does not require the use of any specialmore » interface elements in the microstructure and thus can model arbitrary crack paths. The capability of the method in predicting both intergranular and transgranular failure modes in an elastoplastic polycrystal is demonstrated under tensile and three-point bending loads.« less

  20. Radiation hardness of three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagomarsino, Stefano Sciortino, Silvio; Bellini, Marco; Corsi, Chiara; Cindro, Vladimir; Kanxheri, Keida; Servoli, Leonello; Morozzi, Arianna; Passeri, Daniele; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-05-11

    The three-dimensional concept in particle detection is based on the fabrication of columnar electrodes perpendicular to the surface of a solid state radiation sensor. It permits to improve the radiation resistance characteristics of a material by lowering the necessary bias voltage and shortening the charge carrier path inside the material. If applied to a long-recognized exceptionally radiation-hard material like diamond, this concept promises to pave the way to the realization of detectors of unprecedented performances. We fabricated conventional and three-dimensional polycrystalline diamond detectors, and tested them before and after neutron damage up to 1.2 ×10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}, 1 MeV-equivalent neutron fluence. We found that the signal collected by the three-dimensional detectors is up to three times higher than that of the conventional planar ones, at the highest neutron damage ever experimented.

  1. Atomistic simulations of the plasticity behavior of polycrystalline metals.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskes, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in computers and atomistic modeling have made the realistic simulation of materials behavior possible. Two decades ago, modeling of materials at the atomic level used simple pair potentials. These potentials did not provide an accurate description of the elastic properties of materials or of the formation of free surfaces, a phenomenon critical in the fracture process. This paper will review the evolution of the Embedded Atom Method (EAM), a modern theory of metallic cohesion that was developed to overcome the limitations of pair potentials. The EAM includes many body effects that are necessary to describe such processes as bond weakening (or strengthening) by impurities. We examine the effects of deformation on polycrystalline FCC metals. We perform simple shear molecular dynamics simulations using the EAM on nickel samples of -10000 atoms to study yield and work hardening. It is found that the deformation is always inhomogeneous when a grain boundary or free surface is present. The atomistic simulations reveal that dislocations nucleating at grain boundaries or free surfaces are critical to causing yielding in pristine material as observed in experiment. Detailed investigation shows that the grain boundaries are significantly weaker than the bulk material and yield at a lower stress. Even so, the yield stress of the polycrystalline samples with either low angle and high angle grain boundaries are found to be similar and only slightly lower than the yield stress of single crystals with the same characteristic dimensions. The local yield stress at the boundaries if found to be significantly less than the average yield stress.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Displacement Cascades in Single and Polycrystalline Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Jincheng

    2009-03-10

    Displacement cascades in zirconia have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Polycrystalline zirconia with nano-meter grains were created using Voronoi polyhedra construction and studied in comparison with single crystalline zirconia. The results show that displacement cascades with similar kinetic energy generated larger number of displaced atoms in polycrystalline than in the single crystal structure. The fraction of atoms with coordination number change was also higher in polycrystalline zirconia that was explained to be due to the diffusion of oxygen and relaxation at grain boundaries.

  3. Impact of graphene polycrystallinity on the performance of graphene field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimnez, David; Chaves, Ferney [Departament d'Enginyeria Electrnica, Escola d'Enginyeria, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra (Spain); Cummings, Aron W.; Van Tuan, Dinh [ICN2, Institut Catal de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Kotakoski, Jani [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Roche, Stephan [ICN2, Institut Catal de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); ICREA, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-01-27

    We have used a multi-scale physics-based model to predict how the grain size and different grain boundary morphologies of polycrystalline graphene will impact the performance metrics of graphene field-effect transistors. We show that polycrystallinity has a negative impact on the transconductance, which translates to a severe degradation of the maximum and cutoff frequencies. On the other hand, polycrystallinity has a positive impact on current saturation, and a negligible effect on the intrinsic gain. These results reveal the complex role played by graphene grain boundaries and can be used to guide the further development and optimization of graphene-based electronic devices.

  4. Measurement of solubility, viscosity, and density of R-410A refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of the refrigerant vapor/liquid lubricant equilibrium viscosity reduction of four polyolester lubricants, viscosity grades 32 and 68 ISO VG, with the refrigerant R-410A were taken between {minus}13 F and 257 F and up to 700 psia. A high and low miscibility grade polyolester was analyzed for each viscosity. The viscosity, density, and composition of the solubilized gas mixture in solution with the lubricant was obtained with constant gas vapor composition in the viscometer head space. This refrigerant has a very small temperature glide but is considered a zeotropic blend nonetheless. The fractionation data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. The isotherm for each temperature detailed the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-125 in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend (percent by weight) in the lubricant, and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt).

  5. Real-time determination of lubricant concentrations dissolved in alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology was developed and used to measure both polyolester lubricant concentrations in solution with R-134a and R-407C and mineral oils in solution with R-123. This method is unaffected by changes in pressure, temperature, refrigerant type, and lubricant type. The concentration of dissolved lubricant was measured in three alternative refrigerants with two different synthetic polyolesters and two different mineral oils over a temperature range of 68 F (20 C) to 140 F (60 C) and a concentration range of 0 to 6% w/w. The evaluation methods included density, viscosity, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurements of viscosity and density were performed on an oscillating body viscometer. Lubricant concentrations determined by HPLC compared favorably with the ASHRAE Standard 41.1 method (ASHRAE 1984). Circulating lubricant, miscible and immiscible, concentration in identical R-407C operating systems was also measured to demonstrate the practical application of the test method.

  6. On-Line Measurement of Lubricant Film Thickness Using Ultrasonic Reflection Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drinkwater, B.W.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Harper, P.

    2004-02-26

    The ultrasonic reflectivity of a lubricant layer between two solid bodies depends on the ultrasonic frequency, the acoustic properties of the liquid and solid, and the layer thickness. In this paper, ultrasonic reflectivity measurements are used as a method for determining the thickness of lubricating films in bearing systems. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned on the outside of a bearing shell such that the wave is focused on the lubricant film layer. For a particular lubricant film the reflected pulse is processed to give a reflection coefficient spectrum. The lubricant film thickness is then obtained from either the layer stiffness or the resonant frequency. The method has been validated using static fluid wedges and the elastohydrodynamic film formed between a ball sliding on a flat. Film thickness values in the range 50-500 nm were recorded which agreed well with theoretical film formation predictions.

  7. Distributions of methyl group rotational barriers in polycrystalline organic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckmann, Peter A. E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn; Conn, Kathleen G.; Division of Education and Human Services, Neumann University, One Neumann Drive, Aston, Pennsylvania 19014-1298 ; Mallory, Clelia W.; Department of Chemistry, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Ave., Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010-2899 ; Mallory, Frank B.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Rotkina, Lolita; Wang, Xianlong E-mail: wangxianlong@uestc.edu.cn

    2013-11-28

    We bring together solid state {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic structure calculations for two methyl substituted organic compounds to investigate methyl group (CH{sub 3}) rotational dynamics in the solid state. Methyl group rotational barrier heights are computed using electronic structure calculations, both in isolated molecules and in molecular clusters mimicking a perfect single crystal environment. The calculations are performed on suitable clusters built from the X-ray diffraction studies. These calculations allow for an estimate of the intramolecular and the intermolecular contributions to the barrier heights. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements, on the other hand, are performed with polycrystalline samples which have been investigated with scanning electron microscopy. The {sup 1}H relaxation measurements are best fitted with a distribution of activation energies for methyl group rotation and we propose, based on the scanning electron microscopy images, that this distribution arises from molecules near crystallite surfaces or near other crystal imperfections (vacancies, dislocations, etc.). An activation energy characterizing this distribution is compared with a barrier height determined from the electronic structure calculations and a consistent model for methyl group rotation is developed. The compounds are 1,6-dimethylphenanthrene and 1,8-dimethylphenanthrene and the methyl group barriers being discussed and compared are in the 212 kJ?mol{sup ?1} range.

  8. Processing of transparent polycrystalline AlON:Ce3+ scintillators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ching -Fong; Yang, Pin; King, Graham; Tegtmeier, Eric L.

    2015-10-23

    A new polycrystalline ceramic scintillator is reported for potential use in radiation detection and medical imaging applications. The goal was to develop cerium-activated aluminum oxynitride (AlON:Ce3+) ceramics, which can be produced using ceramic processes in comparison to the high-cost, low-yield single-crystal growth technique. A phase pure AlON:Ce3+ powder with cubic symmetry was successfully synthesized at high temperature under a reducing atmosphere to convert Ce4+ to Ce3+ in the solid solution. We explored two different activator concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 mol%). Fully dense and transparent AlON:Ce3+ ceramics were produced by a liquid-phase-assisted pressureless sintering. The crystal field splitting around the Ce3+more » activator in the AlON was comparable to the splitting induced by Br₋ and the Cl₋ ligands, which produced an emission spectrum perfectly matching the maximum quantum efficiency range of the photomultiplier tube for radiation detection. Both optical excitation and radiation ionizations in AlON:Ce3+ were demonstrated. Lastly, challenges and mechanisms related to the radioluminescence efficiency are discussed.« less

  9. Platinum-induced structural collapse in layered oxide polycrystalline films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianlin; Liu, Changhui; Huang, Haoliang; Fu, Zhengping; Peng, Ranran E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn; Zhai, Xiaofang; Lu, Yalin E-mail: yllu@ustc.edu.cn

    2015-03-30

    Effect of a platinum bottom electrode on the SrBi{sub 5}Fe{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 18} layered oxide polycrystalline films was systematically studied. The doped cobalt ions react with the platinum to form a secondary phase of PtCoO{sub 2}, which has a typical Delafossite structure with a weak antiferromagnetism and an exceptionally high in-plane electrical conductivity. Formation of PtCoO{sub 2} at the interface partially consumes the cobalt dopant and leads to the structural collapsing from 5 to 4 layers, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements. Considering the weak magnetic contribution from PtCoO{sub 2}, the observed ferromagnetism should be intrinsic of the Aurivillius compounds. Ferroelectric properties were also indicated by the piezoresponse force microscopy. In this work, the platinum induced secondary phase at the interface was observed, which has a strong impact on Aurivillius structural configuration and thus the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties.

  10. Properties of boron-doped thin films of polycrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merabet, Souad

    2013-12-16

    The properties of polycrystalline-silicon films deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition and doped heavily in situ boron-doped with concentration level of around 2×10{sup 20}cm{sup −3} has been studied. Their properties are analyzed using electrical and structural characterization means by four points probe resistivity measurements and X-ray diffraction spectra. The thermal-oxidation process are performed on sub-micron layers of 200nm/c-Si and 200nm/SiO{sub 2} deposited at temperatures T{sub d} ranged between 520°C and 605°C and thermally-oxidized in dry oxygen ambient at 945°C. Compared to the as-grown resistivity with silicon wafers is known to be in the following sequence <ρ{sub 200nm/c−Si}> < <ρ{sub 200nm/SiO2}> and <ρ{sub 520}> < <ρ{sub 605}>. The measure X-ray spectra is shown, that the Bragg peaks are marked according to the crystal orientation in the film deposited on bare substrates (poly/c-Si), for the second series of films deposited on bare oxidized substrates (poly/SiO{sub 2}) are clearly different.

  11. Method for production of free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, Richard J.; Ginley, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A process for producing a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film comprises growing a film of boron phosphide in a vertical growth apparatus on a metal substrate. The metal substrate has a coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from that of boron phosphide that the film separates cleanly from the substrate upon cooling thereof, and the substrate is preferably titanium. The invention also comprises a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film for use in electronic device fabrication.

  12. Free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film and method for production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baughman, R.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1982-09-09

    A process for producing a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film comprises growing a film of boron phosphide in a vertical growth apparatus on a metal substrate. The metal substrate has a coefficient of thermal expansion sufficiently different from that of boron phosphide that the film separates cleanly from the substrate upon cooling thereof, and the substrate is preferably titanium. The invention also comprises a free-standing polycrystalline boron phosphide film for use in electronic device fabrication.

  13. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: Research, Development, and Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.

    2002-05-01

    II-VI binary thin-film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and I-III-VI ternary thin-film solar cells based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) and related materials have been the subject of intense research and development in the past few years. Substantial progress has been made thus far in the area of materials research, device fabrication, and technology development, and numerous applications based on CdTe and CIS have been deployed worldwide. World record efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved by NREL scientists for a thin-film CdTe solar cell using a modified device structure. Also, NREL scientists achieved world-record efficiency of 21.1% for a thin-film CIGS solar cell under a 14X concentration and AM1.5 global spectrum. When measured under a AM1.5 direct spectrum, the efficiency increases to 21.5%. Pathways for achieving 25% efficiency for tandem polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are elucidated. R&D issues relating to CdTe and CIS are reported in this paper, such as contact stability and accelerated life testing in CdTe, and effects of moisture ingress in thin-film CIS devices. Substantial technology development is currently under way, with various groups reporting power module efficiencies in the range of 7.0% to 12.1% and power output of 40.0 to 92.5 W. A number of lessons learned during the scale-up activities of the technology development for fabrication of thin-film power modules are discussed. The major global players actively involved in the technology development and commercialization efforts using both rigid and flexible power modules are highlighted.

  14. System for lubrication of a brake air compressor associated with a turbocharged internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, J.C.

    1992-10-13

    This patent describes a system for use with a vehicle which includes a turbocharged internal combustion engine having a lubricating system wherein lubricating oil from an engine oil reservoir is circulated within the engine and also to and from an associated brake system air compressor which supplies compressed air for operation of the vehicle air braking system. This patent describes improvement in passing supercharged air to an oil crankcase of the air compressor to cause lubricating oil to drain therefrom and return to the engine oil reservoir.

  15. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  16. Nondestructive method and apparatus for imaging grains in curved surfaces of polycrystalline articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1995-05-23

    A nondestructive method, and associated apparatus, are provided for determining the grain flow of the grains in a convex curved, textured polycrystalline surface. The convex, curved surface of a polycrystalline article is aligned in a horizontal x-ray diffractometer and a monochromatic, converging x-ray beam is directed onto the curved surface of the polycrystalline article so that the converging x-ray beam is diffracted by crystallographic planes of the grains in the polycrystalline article. The diffracted x-ray beam is caused to pass through a set of horizontal, parallel slits to limit the height of the beam and thereafter. The linear intensity of the diffracted x-ray is measured, using a linear position sensitive proportional counter, as a function of position in a direction orthogonal to the counter so as to generate two dimensional data. An image of the grains in the curved surface of the polycrystalline article is provided based on the two-dimensional data. 7 Figs.

  17. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with electrical sheet insulation under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-11-01

    To determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of sheet insulation with alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit, sheet insulation was exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Most of the sheet insulation materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant at high temperature. This was attributed to incompatibility of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet was initially observed, but 2048 subsequent tests under extremely dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure.

  18. High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

  19. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  20. Development of high temperature solid lubricant coatings. Final report, 15 August 1997--14 August 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Keller, S.

    1999-01-29

    The primary research objective of this work was to develop a solid lubricant coating that can function over a broad temperature range. The approach investigated consisted of developing adaptive lubricant coating from materials that undergo chemical change with increasing temperature by reacting together and with the environment. To test this approach, UES and Cleveland State University have conducted experiments to form cesium oxythiotungstate, a high temperature lubricant, on Inconel 718 surface from composite coatings of cesium tungstate and tungsten sulfide. The coatings were deposited by RF sputtering and characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that sulfur escapes from the composite coating upon exposure to temperature above 5000C in air. Thus, the desired adaptive lubricant phase, cesium oxythiotungstate could not be formed. However, cesium oxythiotungstate phase has been found to form upon annealing at high temperature in vacuum. The friction coefficients of sputtered cesium oxythiotungstate and cesium tungstate coatings have been measured.

  1. EERE Success Story- Novel Engine Lubrication Anti-Wear Additives Demonstrate Improved Fuel Economy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working with General Motors, Lubrizol, and Shell to develop new additives for lubricants that could boost fuel economy by 2% compared to commercially...

  2. Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication Share Description Argonne scientists discovered a technique to create a layer of diamond-like carbon on the surfaces between moving parts. This could change the future of lubrication-potentially making engines more efficient, more reliable, and even greener (by reducing heavy metal additives needed in engine oils.) Duration 0:45 Topic Energy Energy efficiency Manufacturing Credit Argonne

  3. Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication Share Description Argonne scientists discovered a technique to create a layer of diamond-like carbon on the surfaces between moving parts. This could change the future of lubrication-potentially making engines more efficient, more reliable, and even greener (by reducing heavy metal additives needed in engine oils.) Duration 0:45 Credit Argonne National Laboratory Browse By - Any - General

  4. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory State-of-the-Art Fuel and Vehicle Testing The Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered vehicles and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such

  5. The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts | Department of Energy Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts The Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts 2005_deer_whitacre.pdf (230.37 KB) More Documents & Publications The Impact of Lubricant on Emissions from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project Diesel Aftertreatment Systems development

  6. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  7. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introducemore » sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.« less

  8. Lubricant-Infused Nanoparticulate Coatings Assembled by Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, S; Vogel, N; Howell, C; Vu, TL; Aizenberg, J

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. The LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  9. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  10. Thermal reactivity of mixtures of VDDT lubricant and simulated Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Panisko, F.E.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    To predict whether the Polywater G lubricant residue remaining in the velocity, density, and temperature tree (VDTT) and the waste in Tank 241-SY-101 (101SY) will be chemically compatible with wastes in 101SY when two VDTTs are removed from 101SY, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory measured the thermal reaction sensitivity of the lubricant residue. This residue is a simulated 101SY waste containing the organic surrogate trisodium hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate (Na{sub 3}HEDTA) and two simulated potential waste and lubricant residue mixtures containing 10 and 90 percent lubricant residue. These studies using accelerating rate calorimetry found that the residue did not react at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g mixture up to 190 degrees C with simulated 101SY waste containing Na{sub 3}HEDTA as the organic surrogate. Also, the dried lubricant residue did not decompose exothermically at a rate exceeding 0.1 J/min/g. Using guidelines used by the chemical industry, these results indicate that the lubricant residue should not react as a significant rate with the waste in 101SY when added to the waste at 60 degrees C or when the mixture cools to the waste`s temperature of 48 degrees C.

  11. Laser-induced short time scale thermal chemistry of perfluoropolyether lubricant films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, J.; Mate, C.J.; Poon, C.C.; Tam, A.C.

    1999-11-09

    The authors investigate the effect of heating a perfluoropolyether lubricant film in a localized area for relatively short time periods using laser irradiation versus conventional oven heating. These experiments help provide understanding on how flash temperatures generated at frictional contacts affect the thermal chemistry of lubricant films. In these experiments, a CO{sub 2} laser heats a 50 {micro}m wide area of a silicon wafer for time periods ranging from 0.1 to 60 s. The surface temperature within the heated area (up to 280 C in these experiments) is monitored with a second laser by measuring the change in reflectivity near the center of the heated area. A major difference observed for laser heating compared to oven heating is that the effective evaporation rate is orders of magnitude higher for laser heating. If the lubricant film is heated for sufficiently long enough time at high temperatures, the authors are able to observe thermal bonding of the lubricant via its alcohol end groups to the silicon oxide surface, followed by thermal decomposition of the lubricant molecules. After laser heating, the authors are able to observe the diffusion of lubricant back into the localized heated area using a combination of optical microscopy and imaging ellipsometry.

  12. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels--Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 1 Summary, July 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    The Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control project is a government/industry collaborative project to identify the optimal combinations of low-sulfur diesel fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet projected emission standards for the 2004-2010 time period. This summary describes the results of the first phase of the lubricants study investigating the impact on lubricant formulation on engine-out emissions.

  13. Examining Effects of Lubricant Composition in Engine Component Systems in Pursuit of Enhanced Efficiency under Environmental Constraints

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Four lubricant technical themes are presented that aim to work synergistically with advanced engine technologies to meet a goal of improving mechanical efficiency by 10 percent.

  14. Friction of different monolayer lubricants in MEMs interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpick, Robert W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Street, Mark D.; Ashurst, William Robert; Corwin, Alex David

    2006-01-01

    This report details results from our last year of work (FY2005) on friction in MEMS as funded by the Campaign 6 program for the Microscale Friction project. We have applied different monolayers to a sensitive MEMS friction tester called the nanotractor. The nanotractor is also a useful actuator that can travel {+-}100 {micro}m in 40 nm steps, and is being considered for several MEMS applications. With this tester, we can find static and dynamic coefficients of friction. We can also quantify deviations from Amontons' and Coulomb's friction laws. Because of the huge surface-to-volume ratio at the microscale, surface properties such as adhesion and friction can dominate device performance, and therefore such deviations are important to quantify and understand. We find that static and dynamic friction depend on the monolayer lubricant applied. The friction data can be modeled with a non-zero adhesion force, which represents a deviation from Amontons' Law. Further, we show preliminary data indicating that the adhesion force depends not only on the monolayer, but also on the normal load applied. Finally, we also observe slip deflections before the transition from static to dynamic friction, and find that they depend on the monolayer.

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Josephson tunnel junction with polycrystalline silicon, germanium or silicon-germanium alloy tunneling barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.

    1980-09-02

    A Josephson tunnel junction device having niobium nitride superconductive electrodes includes a polycrystalline semiconductor tunnelling barrier therebetween comprised of silicon, germanium or an alloy thereof preferably deposited on the lower superconductive electrodes by chemical vapor deposition. The barrier height of the junction is precisely controlled by precision doping of the semiconductor material.

  17. Ultratough, Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Diamond/Silicon Carbide Nanocomposites for Drill Bits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and produce in quantity novel superhard and ultratough thermally stable polycrystalline (TSP) diamond/SiC nanocomposites reinforced with SiC/C nanofibers for drill-bit applications and multiple industrial functions.

  18. MIL-L-87177 and CLT:X-10 Lubricants Improve Electrical Connector Fretting Corrosion Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AUKLAND,NEIL R.; HANLON,JAMES T.

    1999-10-12

    We have conducted a fretting research project using MIL-L-87177 and CLT: X-10 lubricants on Nano-miniature connectors. When they were fretted without lubricant, individual connectors first exceeded our 0.5 ohm failure criteria from 2,341 to 45,238 fretting cycles. With additional fretting, their contact resistance increased to more than 100,000 ohms. Unmodified MIL-L-87177 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to between 430,000 and over 20,000,000 fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 modified by addition of Teflon powder delayed first failure to beyond 5 million fretting cycles. Best results were obtained when Teflon was used and also when both the straight and modified lubricants were poured into and then out of the connector. CLT: X-10 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to beyond 55 million cycles in one test where a failure was actually observed and to beyond 20 million cycles in another that was terminated without failure. CLT: X-10 recovered an unlubricated connector driven deeply into failure, with six failed pins recovering immediately and four more recovering during an additional 420 thousand fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 was not able to recover a connector under similar conditions.

  19. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.; Waite, T.

    1995-01-12

    Motor materials were exposed to original refrigerants R-11, R-12, R-22 and R-502 in the presence of mineral oil for 500 hours. These same materials were then exposed to alternative refrigerants R-123, R-134a, R-407C (R-32/R-125/R-134a) and R-404A (R-125/R-143a/R-134a), respectively, in the presence of the appropriate lubricant for 500 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1,000 hours. These tests were conducted to determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials with the alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit. Motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concerns were embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet and sleeving insulations, and delamination and blistering of the Nomex sheet insulation in the R-22, R-502, and R-12. Embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure. Separation of the 475 varnish from metal surfaces in the R-123 was also a concern. The sheet and sleeving insulations were affected by the original refrigerant/mineral oil to a greater extent than by the alternative refrigerant and lubricant.

  20. Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures, Part II: Experimental comparison and verification of methods. Volume 2, In situ conductivity data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, R.

    1995-09-01

    Data are presented for the accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures.

  1. Testing of nuclear grade lubricants and their effects on A540 B24 and A193 B7 bolting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was performed on eleven commonly used lubricants by the nuclear power industry. The investigation included EDS analysis of the lubricants, notched-tensile constant extension rate testing of bolting materials with the lubricants, frictional testing of the lubricants and weight loss testing of a bonded solid film lubricant. The report generally concludes that there is a significant amount of variance in the mechanical properties of common bolting materials; that MoS/sub 2/ can hydrolyze to form H/sub 2/S at 100/sup 0/C and cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of bolting materials, and that the use of copper-containing lubricants can be potentially detrimental to high strength steels in an aqueous environment. Additionally, the testing of various lubricants disclosed that some lubricants contain potentially detrimental elements (e.g. S, Sb) which can promote SCC of the common bolting materials. One of the most significant findings of this report is the observation that both A193 B7 and A540 B24 bolting materials are susceptible to transgranular stress corrosion cracking in demineralized H/sub 2/O at 280/sup 0/C in notched tensile tests.

  2. Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with R-134a and polyolester lubricant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schooley, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    This report includes a broad list of processing fluids that are known to be used to manufacture air conditioning and refrigeration products. Sixty-four process fluids from this list were selected for compatibility studies with R-134a and ICI EMKARATE RL32H (32 ISO) polyolester lubricant. Solutions or suspensions of the process fluid residues in polyolester lubricant were heated for 14 days at 175{degrees}C (347{degrees}F) in evacuated sealed glass tubes containing only valve steel coupons. Miscibility tests were performed at 90 wt.% R-134a, 10 wt.% polyolester lubricant with process fluid residue contaminate and were scanned in 10{degrees}C (18{degrees}F) increments over a temperature range of ambient to -40{degrees}C (-40{degrees}F). Any sign of turbidity, haze formation or oil separation was considered the immiscibility point.

  3. Identification of tribological research and development needs for lubrication of advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehrenbacher, L.L.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    The continuous evolution of higher power density propulsion systems has always fueled the search for materials and lubricants with improved thermal and/or durability characteristics. Tribology of the upper cylinder region is the major technology roadblock in the path of the adiabatic diesel engine which has an energy reduction potential that exceeds that of all other engine development types. This tribology assessment resulted in the following major conclusions: a low friction and a low wear seal between the ring belt and cylinder bore are the most critical tribology functions in the diesel combustion chamber; development of solid lubrication systems will not satisfy the simultaneous low friction and low wear requirements in the upper cylinder area; development of separate upper cylinder liquid lubrication systems offers the most attractive design alternative for meeting the operational goals of future ''minimum cooled'' diesel engines.

  4. Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toops, Todd J.; Lance, Michael J.; Qu, Jun; Viola, Michael B; Lewis, Samuel Arthur; Leonard, Donovan N.; Edward W. Hagaman; Xie, Chao

    2016-04-04

    As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, an oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate ([P66614][DEHP]), is evaluated for its impact on three-way catalysts (TWC) and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are aged in different scenarios: neat gasoline (no-additive, or NA), gasoline+ZDDP, and gasoline+IL. The aged samples, along with the as received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperaturesmore » of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWCs increased by 30, 24, and 25 °C for NO, CO, and C3H6, respectively, compared to the no-additive case. Although the IL-aged TWC also increased in T50 for CO and C3H6, it was notably less than ZDDP, 7 and 9 °C, respectively. Additionally, the IL-aged samples had higher water-gas-shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. Characterization of the aged samples indicated the predominant presence of CePO4 in the ZDDP-aged TWC aged by ZDDP, while its formation was retarded in the case of IL where higher levels of AlPO4 is observed. Furthermore, the results in this work indicate that the phosphonium-phosphate IL potentially has less adverse impact on TWC than ZDDP.« less

  5. Spatial dependence of polycrystalline FTOs conductance analyzed by conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peixoto, Alexandre Pessoa; Costa, J. C. da

    2014-05-15

    Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) is a highly transparent, electrically conductive polycrystalline material frequently used as an electrode in organic solar cells and optical-electronic devices [12]. In this work a spatial analysis of the conductive behavior of FTO was carried out by Conductive-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM). Rare highly oriented grains sample give us an opportunity to analyze the top portion of polycrystalline FTO and compare with the border one. It is shown that the current flow essentially takes place through the polycrystalline edge at grain boundaries.

  6. Effects of temperature on desiccant catalysis of refrigerant and lubricant decomposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, N.D.T.

    1998-06-01

    Accelerated aging at high temperatures (149 C) for short aging times (28 days) is effective in screening the compatibility of different materials in refrigeration systems. However, in actual applications temperatures are usually lower and operating times much longer. Therefore plots to allow for interpolation or extrapolation of experimental data to actual operating conditions are needed. In the current study, aging of refrigerant/lubricant/desiccant/metal systems was conducted at five different temperatures, and for each temperature at four different aging times. The data collected from this study provided plots relating refrigerant or lubricant decomposition to aging time, aging temperature, and type of desiccant, which can be used for interpolation or extrapolation.

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume IV - pictures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  8. Development of high temperature liquid lubricants for low-heat rejection heavy duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiczynski, T.A.; Marolewski, T.A.

    1993-03-01

    Objective was to develop a liquid lubricant that will allow advanced diesel engines to operate at top ring reversal temperatures approaching 500 C and lubricant sump temperatures approaching 250 C. Base stock screening showed that aromatic esters and diesters has the lowest deposit level, compared to polyol esters, poly-alpha-olefins, or refined mineral oil of comparable viscosity. Classical aryl and alkyl ZDP antiwear additives are ineffective in reducing wear with aromatic esters; the phosphate ester was a much better antiwear additive, and polyol esters are more amenable to ZDP treatment. Zeolites and clays were evaluated for filtration.

  9. In situ measurement of the bonded film thickness of Z-Tetraol lubricant on magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Lei; Li Feng

    2010-10-15

    Currently, the bonded film thickness of perfluoropolyether lubricant on top of magnetic recording media is measured by a two-step process. First, the media disk has to be rinsed thoroughly using a fluorocarbon solvent (for instance, Vetrel) to remove the mobile lubricant. Second, the thickness of the remaining lubricant on the media surface which is regarded as the bonded lubricant thickness is then measured either by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. As the total lubricant thickness approaches single molecular dimension ({approx}10 A), current methods face tremendous challenge on the accuracy and sensitivity of the measurement. We studied the spectral characteristics responding to the lubricant bonding with the carbon overcoat by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra and proposed to use the peak area ratio (C{sub 3}H{sub 2}F/C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}) to characterize the bonded Z-Tetraol lubricant that produces a direct bonded lubricant thickness measurement without the need to remove the mobile lubricant with a solvent. After taking the background signal of disks prior to bonding by UV irradiation into account, this method becomes independent of the total lubricant thickness as well as shows good correlation linearity (R{sup 2{approx}}87%) with the current FTIR method for the ratio of C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}.

  10. Photonic-band-gap effects in two-dimensional polycrystalline and amorphous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jin-Kyu; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Schreck, Carl; Guy, Mikhael I.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui

    2010-11-15

    We study numerically the density of optical states (DOS) in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range positional order and observe a transition from polycrystalline to amorphous photonic systems. In polycrystals, photonic band gaps (PBGs) are formed within individual domains, which leads to a depletion of the DOS similar to that in periodic structures. In amorphous photonic media, the domain sizes are too small to form PBGs, thus the depletion of the DOS is weakened significantly. The critical domain size that separates the polycrystalline and amorphous regimes is determined by the attenuation length of Bragg scattering, which depends not only on the degree of positional order but also the refractive-index contrast of the photonic material. Even with relatively low-refractive-index contrast, we find that modest short-range positional order in photonic structures enhances light confinement via collective scattering and interference.

  11. Nucleation and growth of damage in polycrystalline aluminum under dynamic tensile loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, M. L.; Yao, Y.; Ran, X. X.; Ye, W.; Bie, B. X.; Fan, D.; Li, P.

    2015-03-15

    Plate-impact experiments were conducted to study the features and mechanisms of void nucleation and growth in the polycrystalline of pure aluminum under dynamic loading. Soft-recovered samples have been analyzed by metallographic microscopy, electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD), and synchrotron radiation x-ray tomography technology. It was found that most of the void nucleation in grains neared the boundaries of “weak-orientation” grains and grew toward the grain boundaries with fractured small grains around the boundaries. This was mainly caused by the accumulation and interaction of slip systems in the “weak-orientation” grains. In addition, the micro voids were nearly octahedron because the octahedral slip systems were formed by 8 slip planes in the polycrystalline of pure aluminum. The EBSD results are consistent with the three-dimensional structure observed by synchrotron radiation x-ray.

  12. Integration of nonlinear dielectric barium strontium titanate with polycrystalline yttrium iron garnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Groves, J.R.; Arendt, P.; Fan, Y.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Foltyn, S.R.; Jiang, H.; Miranda, F.A.

    1999-03-01

    Biaxially oriented nonlinear dielectric Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films have been grown on polycrystalline ferrite yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrates. We use a structurally and chemically compatible MgO buffer to improve the crystallinity of the BST on polycrystalline YIG substrates, where the biaxially oriented MgO is deposited by an ion-beam assisted-deposition technique. The biaxially oriented BST has a dielectric loss of less than 0.01 and a capacitance tunability of greater than 25{percent} at a direct current bias voltage of 40 V at room temperature. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Solar cells utilizing pulsed-energy crystallized microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing multi-terminal devices such as solar cells wherein a pulsed high energy source is used to melt and crystallize amorphous silicon deposited on a substrate which is intolerant to high processing temperatures, whereby to amorphous silicon is converted into a microcrystalline/polycrystalline phase. Dopant and hydrogenization can be added during the fabrication process which provides for fabrication of extremely planar, ultra shallow contacts which results in reduction of non-current collecting contact volume. The use of the pulsed energy beams results in the ability to fabricate high efficiency microcrystalline/polycrystalline solar cells on the so-called low-temperature, inexpensive plastic substrates which are intolerant to high processing temperatures.

  14. Solar cells utilizing pulsed-energy crystallized microcrystalline/polycrystalline silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschmitter, J.L.; Sigmon, T.W.

    1995-10-10

    A process for producing multi-terminal devices such as solar cells wherein a pulsed high energy source is used to melt and crystallize amorphous silicon deposited on a substrate which is intolerant to high processing temperatures, whereby the amorphous silicon is converted into a microcrystalline/polycrystalline phase. Dopant and hydrogenation can be added during the fabrication process which provides for fabrication of extremely planar, ultra shallow contacts which results in reduction of non-current collecting contact volume. The use of the pulsed energy beams results in the ability to fabricate high efficiency microcrystalline/polycrystalline solar cells on the so-called low-temperature, inexpensive plastic substrates which are intolerant to high processing temperatures.

  15. Thin-film polycrystalline n-ZnO/p-CuO heterojunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisitski, O. L.; Kumekov, M. E.; Kumekov, S. E. Terukov, E. I.

    2009-06-15

    Results of X-ray diffraction and spectral-optical studies of n-ZnO and p-CuO films deposited by gas-discharge sputtering with subsequent annealing are presented. It is shown that, despite the difference in the crystal systems, the polycrystallinity of n-ZnO and p-CuO films enables fabrication of a heterojunction from this pair of materials.

  16. Thermal oxidation of polycrystalline and single crystalline aluminum nitride wafers (Prop 2003-054)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speakman, Scott A; Gu, Z; Edgar, J H; Blom, Douglas Allen; Perrin, J; Chaudhuri, J

    2006-10-01

    Two types of aluminum nitride (AlN) samples were oxidized in flowing oxygen between 900 C and 1150 C for up to 6 h - highly (0001) textured polycrystalline AlN wafers and low defect density AlN single crystals. The N-face consistently oxidized at a faster rate than the Al-face. At 900 C and 1000 C after 6 h, the oxide was 15% thicker on the N-face than on the Al-face of polycrystalline AlN. At 1100 C and 1150 C, the oxide was only 5% thicker on the N-face, as the rate-limiting step changed from kinetically-controlled to diffusion-controlled with the oxide thickness. A linear parabolic model was established for the thermal oxidation of polycrystalline AlN on both the Al- and N-face. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of a thicker crystalline oxide film on the N-face than on the Al-face, and established the crystallographic relationship between the oxide film and substrate. The oxidation of high-quality AlN single crystals resulted in a more uniform colored oxide layer compared to polycrystalline AlN. The aluminum oxide layer was crystalline with a rough AlN/oxide interface. The orientation relationship between AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was (0001) AlN//(10{bar 1}0) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (1{bar 1}00) AlN//(01{bar 1}2) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  17. Protected Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits For Hard Rock Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee Cardenas

    2000-10-31

    Two bits were designed. One bit was fabricated and tested at Terra-Tek's Drilling Research Laboratory. Fabrication of the second bit was not completed due to complications in fabrication and meeting scheduled test dates at the test facility. A conical bit was tested in a Carthage Marble (compressive strength 14,500 psi) and Sierra White Granite (compressive strength 28,200 psi). During the testing, Hydraulic Horsepower, Bit Weight, Rotation Rate, were varied for the Conical Bit, a Varel Tricone Bit and Varel PDC bit. The Conical Bi did cut rock at a reasonable rate in both rocks. Beneficial effects from the near and through cutter water nozzles were not evident in the marble due to test conditions and were not conclusive in the granite due to test conditions. At atmospheric drilling, the Conical Bit's penetration rate was as good as the standard PDC bit and better than the Tricone Bit. Torque requirements for the Conical Bit were higher than that required for the Standard Bits. Spudding the conical bit into the rock required some care to avoid overloading the nose cutters. The nose design should be evaluated to improve the bit's spudding characteristics.

  18. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  19. Oil-Soluble Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles as Effective Lubricant Additives for Friction and Wear Reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wright, Roger A. E.; Wang, Kewei; Qu, Jun; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-06

    Developments of high performance lubricants are driven by increasingly growing industrial demands and environmental concerns. We demonstrate oil-soluble polymer brush-grafted inorganic nanoparticles (hairy NPs) as highly effective lubricant additives for friction and wear reduction. A series of oil-miscible poly(lauryl methacrylate) brush-grafted silica and titania NPs were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Moreover, these hairy NPs showed exceptional stability in poly(alphaolefin) (PAO) base oil; no change in transparency was observed after being kept at -20, 22, and 100°C for ≥55 days. High-contact stress ball-on-flat reciprocating sliding tribological tests at 100°C showed that addition of 1 wt% of hairy NPsmore » into PAO led to significant reductions in coefficient of friction (up to ≈40%) and wear volume (up to ≈90%). The excellent lubricating properties of hairy NPs were further elucidated by the characterization of the tribofilm formed on the flat. These hairy NPs represent a new type of lubricating oil additives with high efficiency in friction and wear reduction.« less

  20. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a methodmore » for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.« less

  1. Accelerated aging of solid lubricants for the W76-1 TSL : effects of polymer outgassing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Wallace, William O.; Huffman, Elizabeth M.

    2006-09-01

    The behavior of MoS{sub 2} lubricants intended for the W76-1 TSL was evaluated after 17 and 82 thermal cycles, each lasting seven days and including a low temperature of -35 C and a high temperature of 93 C, in a sealed container containing organic materials. The MoS{sub 2} was applied by tumbling with MoS{sub 2} powder and steel pins (harperized), or by spraying with a resin binder (AS Mix). Surface composition measurements indicated an uptake of carbon and silicon on the lubricant surfaces after aging. Oxidation of the MoS{sub 2} on harperized coupons, where enough MoS{sub 2} was present at the surface to result in significant Mo and S concentrations, was found to be minimal for the thermal cycles in an atmosphere of primarily nitrogen. Bare steel surfaces showed a reduction in friction for exposed coupons compared to control coupons stored in nitrogen, at least for the initial cycles of sliding until the adsorbed contaminants were worn away. Lubricated surfaces showed no more than a ten percent increase in steady-state friction coefficient after exposure. Initial coefficient of friction was up to 250 percent higher than steady-state for AS Mix films on H950 coupons after 82 thermal cycles. However, the friction coefficient exhibited by lubricated coupons was never greater than 0.25, and more often less than 0.15, even after the accelerated aging exposures.

  2. Mechanical face seals: Lubrication and wear resistance. (Latest citations from FLUIDEX data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development and applications of mechanical face seals relative to antifriction behavior, improved materials, lubricant effects, and accelerated model wear tests. Performance evaluations in mining, gas turbine engines, and pumps are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M; Truhan, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

  4. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, David P.

    1985-01-01

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal.

  5. MIL-L-87177 Lubricant Bulletproofs Connectors Against Chemical and Fretting Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HANLON, JAMES T.; DE MARQUIS, VIRGINIA K.; TAYLOR, RONALD DEAN

    2002-05-01

    Electrical connectors corrode. Even our best SA and MC connectors finished with 50 to 100 microinches of gold over 50 to 100 microinches of nickel corrode. This work started because some, but not all, lots of connectors held in KC stores for a decade had been destroyed by pore corrosion (chemical corrosion). We have identified a MIL-L-87177 lubricant that absolutely stops chemical corrosion on SA connectors, even in the most severe environments. For commercial connectors which typically have thinner plating thicknesses, not only does the lubricant significantly retard effects of chemical corrosion, but also it greatly prolongs the fretting life. This report highlights the initial development history and use of the lubricant at Bell Labs and AT&T, and the Battelle studies and the USAF experience that lead to its deployment to stop dangerous connector corrosion on the F-16. We report the Sandia, HFM&T and Battelle development work, connector qualification, and material compatibility studies that demonstrate its usefulness and safety on JTA and WR systems. We will be applying MIL-L-87177 Connector Lubricant to all new connectors that go into KC stores. We recommend that it be applied to connectors on newly built cables and equipment as well as material that recycles through manufacturing locations from the field.

  6. Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishnan, Madhesan; Sacia, Eric R.; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gunbas, Gorkem; Gokhale, Amit A.; Scown, Corinne D.; Toste, F. Dean; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-06-08

    Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable renewable alternatives exist. Producing compounds for jet fuel and lubricant base oil applications often requires upgrading fermentation products, such as alcohols and ketones, to reach the appropriate molecular-weight range. Ketones possess both electrophilic and nucleophilic functionality, which allows them to be used as building blocks similar to alkenes and aromatics in a petroleum refining complex. Here, we develop a method for selectively upgrading biomass-derived alkyl methyl ketones with >95% yields into trimer condensates, which can then be hydrodeoxygenated in near-quantitative yields to give a new class of cycloalkane compounds. The basic chemistry developed here can be tailored for aviation fuels as well as lubricants by changing the production strategy. We demonstrate that a sugarcane biorefinery could use natural synergies between various routes to produce a mixture of lubricant base oils and jet fuels that achieve net life-cycle greenhouse gas savings of up to 80%.

  7. Gas-lubricated seal for sealing between a piston and a cylinder wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoult, D.P.

    1985-09-10

    A piston-cylinder seal uses gas for a lubricant and has a runner supported on a gapless structure and placed in the space between the piston and the cylinder wall. The runner is deformed elastically under the influence of the operating pressures to follow and compensate for variations in the piston-cylinder fit and maintain a seal. 4 figs.

  8. Simultaneous wireline operations from a floating rig with a subsea lubricator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopper, C.T. )

    1990-08-01

    In 1987, and extensive wireline program was completed on two subsea wells in the highlander field in the central North Sea with a subsea lubricator deployed from a drilling rig that was drilling and working over adjacent wells. This paper reports how working on two wells concurrently is a way to reduce the operating costs of a subsea development significantly.

  9. Lubricant oil production: The proper marriage of process and catalyst technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, G.L.; Suchanek, A.

    1996-12-01

    As the industry moves into the next millennium, higher product quality demands to meet the higher performance needs of modern engine technology and rising costs of traditional good quality lube crudes are driving lubricant base oil manufacturers to select hydroprocessing options versus traditional solvent refining techniques. This paper discusses how to properly select the best economic hydroprocessing technology necessary to produce high quality lubricant base oils and waxes. The economic success of such operations depends on the proper combination of process and catalyst technologies that maximizes yields of high quality products with minimum consumption of hydrogen resources and process utilities. This is particular true on the extreme end of the quality spectrum, namely, Very High Viscosity Index (VHVI) base oils and food grade white oils and waxes where there is no room for marginal product quality. Multiplicity of operations is also becoming more important as refiners try to upgrade their facilities with as little capital expense as possible, while at the same time, broaden their high valued product slate to recoup these expenses in the shortest possible payback period. Lyondell Licensing and Criterion Catalyst have put together an effective alliance based on years of development and commercial experience in both the process and catalyst areas to assist lubricant oil manufacturers in meeting these future challenges using as much existing equipment and infrastructure as is practical. Their experience will permit the proper fitting of the chemistry of hydroprocessing to make lubricant base oils to existing or new operations.

  10. Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions: November 28, 2006 - March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J. N.; Khalek, I. A.; Smith, L. R.; Fujita, E.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-10-01

    The Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project was a pilot investigation of how fuels and crankcase lubricants contribute to the formation of particulate matter (PM) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in vehicle exhaust. As limited vehicles were tested, results are not representative of the whole on-road fleet. Long-term effects were not investigated. Pairs of vehicles (one normal PM emitting, one high-PM emitting) from four categories were selected: light-duty (LD) gasoline cars, medium-duty (MD) diesel trucks, heavy-duty (HD) natural-gas-fueled buses, and HD diesel buses. HD vehicles procured did not exhibit higher PM emissions, and thus were labeled high mileage (HM). Fuels evaluated were non-ethanol gasoline (E0), 10 percent ethanol (E10), conventional low-sulfur TxLED diesel, 20% biodiesel (B20), and natural gas. Temperature effects (20 degrees F, 72 degrees F) were evaluated on LD and MD vehicles. Lubricating oil vintage effects (fresh and aged) were evaluated on all vehicles. LD and MD vehicles were operated on a dynamometer over the California Unified Driving Cycle, while HD vehicles followed the Heavy Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule. Regulated and unregulated emissions were measured. Chemical markers from the unregulated emissions measurements and a tracer were utilized to estimate the lubricant contribution to PM.

  11. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  12. Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Effects of lubricant additive chemistries and exhaust conditions on ash properties affecting diesel particulate filter performance. Comparison of ash characteristics such as packing density and elemental composition in field and laboratory aged DPFs.

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibria for an R134a/lubricant mixture: Measurements and equation-of-state modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, M.L.; Holcomb, C.D.; Outcalt, S.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    The authors measured bubble point pressures and coexisting liquid densities for two mixtures of R-134a and a polyolester (POE) lubricant. The mass fraction of the lubricant was approximately 9% and 12%, and the temperature ranged from 280 K to 355 K. The authors used the Elliott, Suresh, and Donohue (ESD) equation of state to model the bubble point pressure data. The bubble point pressures were represented with an average absolute deviation of 2.5%. A binary interaction parameter reduced the deviation to 1.4%. The authors also applied the ESD model to other R-134a/POE lubricant data in the literature. As the concentration of the lubricant increased, the performance of the model deteriorated markedly. However, the use of a single binary interaction parameter reduced the deviations significantly.

  14. Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels -- Diesel Emissions Control Project (APBF-DEC): Lubricants Project, Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second phase of a lubricants project, which investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on diesel vehicle emissions and the performance of a nitrogen oxide adsorber catalyst (NAC).

  15. Combined impurity gettering and defect passivation in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verhoef, L.A.; Michiels, P.; Sinke, W.C. ); Denisse, C.M.M.; Hendriks, M. ); van Zolingen, R.J.C. )

    1990-12-17

    Polycrystalline silicon wafers have been subjected to annealing (700 {degree}C, 1 h) and to a hydrogen plasma (350 {degree}C, 30 min) during the processing of solar cells. The annealing treatment enhances the bulk minority-carrier recombination lifetime by 19%, presumably by impurity gettering. The plasma treatment improves the lifetime by 26%; hydrogen passivation accounts for at least 2/3 of this improvement. Gettering and passivation are found to be complementary: application of both treatments results in a 43% increase in lifetime compared to standard.

  16. Surface segregation effects in electrocatalysis: Kinetics ofoxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-11-01

    Effects of surface segregation on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied on a polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy in acid electrolyte using ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface sensitive probes and the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) method. Preparation, modification and characterization of alloy surfaces were done in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Depending on the preparation method, two different surface compositions of the Pt3Ni alloy are produced: a sputtered surface with 75 % Pt and an annealed surface (950 K ) with 100 % Pt. The latter surface is designated as the 'Pt-skin' structure, and is a consequence of surface segregation, i.e., replacement of Ni with Pt atoms in the first few atomic layers. Definitive surface compositions were established by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). The cyclic voltammetry of the 'Pt-skin' surface as well as the pseudocapacitance in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential region is similar to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Activities of ORR on Pt3Ni alloy surfaces were compared to polycrystalline Pt in 0.1M HClO4 electrolyte for the observed temperature range of 293 < T < 333 K. The order of activities at 333 K was: 'Pt-skin' > Pt3Ni (75% Pt) > Pt with the maximum catalytic enhancement obtained for the 'Pt-skin' being 4 times that for pure Pt. Catalytic improvement of the ORR on Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces was assigned to the inhibition of Pt-OHad formation (on Pt sites) versus polycrystalline Pt. Production of H2O2 on both surfaces were similar compared to the pure Pt. Kinetic analyses of RRDE data confirmed that kinetic parameters for the ORR on the Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces are the same as on pure Pt: reaction order, m=1, two identical Tafel slopes, activation energy, {approx} 21-25 kJ/mol. Therefore the reaction mechanism on both Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces is the same as one proposed for pure Pt i.e. 4e{sup -} reduction pathway.

  17. Electrical conductivity of polycrystalline AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ doped with silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1985-02-01

    Direct current conductivity was measured for polycrystalline AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ doped with silicon, which is found to act as a single donor, the donor level lying approx. = 165 kJ/mol (approx. =1.7 eV) below the conduction band. Silicon in excess of the solubility limit (approx. =220 ppm at 1500/sup 0/C, 300 ppm at 1600/sup 0/C) is present as a glassy aluminosilicate second phase. Silicon dissolved in AI/sub 2/O/sub 3/ tends to segregate at grain boundaries.

  18. Direct evidence of detwinning in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys during deformation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Z. H.; Lin Peng, R.; Johansson, S.; Oliver, E. C.; Ren, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Liu, Y. D.; Deng, J. N.; Zuo, L.; Brown, D. E.; Northwestern Univ., China; Linkoping Univ.; Rutherford Appleton Lab.; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2008-01-01

    In situ time-of-flight neutron diffraction and high-energy x-ray diffraction techniques were used to reveal the preferred reselection of martensite variants through a detwinning process in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys under uniaxial compressive stress. The variant reorientation via detwinning during loading can be explained by considering the influence of external stress on the grain/variant orientation-dependent distortion energy. These direct observations of detwinning provide a good understanding of the deformation mechanisms in shape memory alloys.

  19. Non-Newtonian temperature and pressure effects of a lubricant slurry in a rotating hydrostatic step bearing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.; Finn, W.E.; Dareing, D.W. |

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the pressure and temperature effects of graphite powder lubricant when added to a Newtonian carrier fluid and applied in a rotating hydrostatic step bearing. Temperature and pressure profiles were determined both analytically and experimentally. The rheological behavior of the non-Newtonian lubricant was modeled using a power law model previously shown to approximate experimental data for this fluid. Ethylene glycol was used as the Newtonian lubricant, providing a check on the test apparatus and a base line for comparison with the non-Newtonian graphite slurry. Data revealed a temperature increase with bearing rotational speed for both fluids and compared favorably with the mathematical predictions. A significantly higher temperature rise was seen in the non- Newtonian lubricant due to the higher shear rates. The pressure profile was not directly dependent on bearing rotational speed in the mathematical model, but experimental data demonstrated a reduction in pressure at higher rotation speeds. This loss was greater for the non-Newtonian lubricant and attributed to temperature dependence of power law constants. It was concluded that the effects of operating speed and temperature on a non-Newtonian lubricant should be considered as well as their greater load-carrying capacity.

  20. Lubricant return comparison of naphthenic and polyol ester oils in R-134a household refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mineral oils and polyol esters as possible lubricant options for domestic refrigeration applications employing R-134a as the heat exchange fluid. A performance comparison, based on data presented, is made between the mineral oils and polyol esters evaluated. To more closely examine lubricant return with N-70 and R-134a and ensure that the oil is not contributing to any deterioration in efficiency due to its accumulation in evaporators, a special test unit was designed with a difficult oil return configuration and its performance carefully monitored. Oil return with a hydrofluorocarbon-miscible polyol ester, R-133-O was also evaluated in this setup and its performance results compared to those obtained with the naphthenic refrigeration oil.

  1. Reliability of excess-flow check-valves in turbine lubrication systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dundas, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Reliability studies on excess-flow check valves installed in a gas turbine lubrication system for prevention of spray fires subsequent to fracture or separation of lube lines were conducted. Fault-tree analyses are presented for the case of failure of a valve to close when called upon by separation of a downstream line, as well as for the case of accidental closure during normal operation, leading to interruption of lubricating oil flow to a bearing. The probabilities of either of these occurrences are evaluated. The results of a statistical analysis of accidental closure of excess-flow check valves in commercial airplanes in the period 1986--91 are also given, as well as a summary of reliability studies on the use of these valves in residential gas installations, conducted under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute.

  2. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70× higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  3. Synergistic Effects Between Phosphonium-Alkylphosphate Ionic Liquids and Zinc Dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) as Lubricant Additives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qu, Jun; Barnhill, William C.; Luo, Huimin; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Leonard, Donovan N.; Landauer, Alexander K.; Kheireddin, Bassem; Gao, Hong; Papke, Brian L; Dai, Sheng

    2015-07-14

    Unique synergistic effects between phosphonium-alkylphosphate ionic liquids and zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) are discovered when used together as lubricant additives, resulting in significant friction and wear reduction along with distinct tribofilm composition and mechanical properties. The synergism is attributed to the 30-70 higher-than-nominal concentrations of hypothetical new compounds (via anion exchange between IL and ZDDP) on the fluid surface/interface.

  4. Overview of DOE Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stork, Team Leader Fuel Technologies & Technology Deployment Subprogram Vehicle Technologies Program Vehicle Technologies Program Mission To develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable America to use less petroleum. --EERE Strategic Plan, October 2002-- Overview of DOE Fuel & Lubricant Technologies R&D Presented at the 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review June 2010 The Federal

  5. Ionic Liquids as Engine Lubricant Additives, Impact on Emission Control Catalysts, and Compatibility with Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ionic Liquids as Engine Lubricant Additives, Impact on Emission Control Catalysts, and Compatibility with Coatings Project ID: FT014 ORNL: Jun Qu, Todd Toops, Huimin Luo, Brian West, Harry Meyer, Donovan Leonard, William Barnhill, Yan Zhou, and William Brookshear Shell: Bassem Kheireddin and Hong Gao DOE HQ Program Manager: Kevin Stork 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review, June 8, 2016 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy This presentation does not

  6. Post Irradiation Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Solid Lubricants to Support Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; Persinger, Justin A.; Khorsandi, Behrooz; Blue, Thomas E.

    2007-01-30

    The development of a nuclear power system for space missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter or a lunar outpost, requires substantially more compact reactor design than conventional terrestrial systems. In order to minimize shielding requirements and hence system weight, the radiation tolerance of component materials within the power conversion and heat rejection systems must be defined. Two classes of coatings, thermal control paints and solid lubricants, were identified as material systems for which limited radiation hardness information was available. Screening studies were designed to explore candidate coatings under a predominately fast neutron spectrum. The Ohio State Research Reactor Facility staff performed irradiation in a well characterized, mixed energy spectrum and performed post irradiation analysis of representative coatings for thermal control and solid lubricant applications. Thermal control paints were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1013 to 1015 n/cm2. No optical degradation was noted although some adhesive degradation was found at higher fluence levels. Solid lubricant coatings were evaluated for 1 MeV equivalent fluences from 1015 to 1016 n/cm2 with coating adhesion and flexibility used for post irradiation evaluation screening. The exposures studied did not lead to obvious property degradation indicating the coatings would have survived the radiation environment for the previously proposed Jupiter mission. The results are also applicable to space power development programs such as fission surface power for future lunar and Mars missions.

  7. Oil-Miscible and Non-Corrosive Phosphonium Ionic Liquids as Candidate Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Bo; Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been receiving considerable attention from the lubricants industry as potential friction and wear-reducing additives, but their solubility in oils is an issue. Unlike most ionic liquids that are insoluble in non-polar hydrocarbon oils, this study reports phosphonium-based ILs (PP-ILs) that are fully miscible with both mineral oil-based and synthetic lubricants. Both the cation and anion in quaternary structures, long alkyl chains, and capability of pairing the cation and the anion via a H-O bond are hypothesized to improve the compatibility between ions and neutral oil molecules. The measured viscosities of the oil-IL blends agree well with the Refutas equation that is for solutions containing multiple components. High thermal stability and non-corrosiveness were observed for the PP-ILs. Effective friction reduction and anti-wear functionality have been demonstrated in tribological tests when adding 5 wt% of a PP-IL into a base oil, suggesting potential applications for using the oil-miscible PP-ILs as lubricant additives.

  8. Effects of star-shape poly(alkyl methacrylate) arm uniformity on lubricant properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Qu, Jun; Erck, Robert; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Zhou, Yan

    2016-03-29

    Star-shaped poly(alkyl methacrylate)s (PAMAs) were prepared and blended into an additive-free engine oil to assess the structure property relationship between macromolecular structure and lubricant performance. These additives were designed with a comparable number of repeating units per arm and the number of arms was varied between 3 and 6. Well-defined star-shaped PAMAs were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) via a core-first strategy from multi-functional headgroups. Observations of the polymer-oil blends suggest that stars with less than four arms are favorable as a viscosity index improver (VII), and molecular weight dominates viscosity-related effects over other structural features. Star-shaped PAMAs,more » as oil additives, effectively reduce the friction coefficient in both mixed and boundary lubrication regime. Several analogs outperformed commercial VIIs in both viscosity and friction performance. Furthermore, increased wear rates were observed for these star-shaped PAMAs in the boundary lubrication regime suggesting pressure-sensitive conformations may exist.« less

  9. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  10. Progress in High-Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandem Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications. The goal is that PV will contribute significantly to the U.S. and world energy supply and environmental enhancement in the 21st century. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course, to accelerate and enhance their impact in the marketplace. To accomplish this, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices. This paper will describe progress of the subcontractor and in-house R&D on critical pathways for a PV technology having a high potential to reach cost-competitiveness goals: 25%-efficient, low-cost polycrystalline thin-film tandems for large-area, flat-plate modules.

  11. A thermal desorption spectroscopy study of hydrogen trapping in polycrystalline α-uranium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lillard, R. S.; Forsyth, R. T.

    2015-03-14

    The kinetics of hydrogen desorption from polycrystalline α-uranium (α-U) was examined using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The goal was to identify the major trap sites for hydrogen and their associated trap energies. In polycrystalline α-U six TDS adsorption peaks were observed at temperatures of 521 K, 556 K, 607 K, 681 K, 793 K and 905 K. In addition, the desorption was determined to be second order based on peak shape. The position of the first three peaks was consistent with desorption from UH3. To identify the trap site corresponding to the high temperature peaks the data were compared tomore » a plastically deformed sample and a high purity single crystal sample. The plastically deformed sample allowed the identification of trapping at dislocations while the single crystal sample allow for the identification of high angle boundaries and impurities. Thus, with respect to the desorption energy associated with each peak, values between 12.9 and 26.5 kJ/mole were measured.« less

  12. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C.; Vecchio, K. S.; Huskins, E. L.; Casem, D. T.; Gruner, S. M.; Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T.; Woll, A. R.; Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T.; Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J.

    2014-09-15

    We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup −1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (∼40 μs) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.

  13. A thermal desorption spectroscopy study of hydrogen trapping in polycrystalline ?-uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillard, R. S.; Forsyth, R. T.

    2015-03-14

    The kinetics of hydrogen desorption from polycrystalline ?-uranium (?-U) was examined using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The goal was to identify the major trap sites for hydrogen and their associated trap energies. In polycrystalline ?-U six TDS adsorption peaks were observed at temperatures of 521 K, 556 K, 607 K, 681 K, 793 K and 905 K. In addition, the desorption was determined to be second order based on peak shape. The position of the first three peaks was consistent with desorption from UH3. To identify the trap site corresponding to the high temperature peaks the data were compared to a plastically deformed sample and a high purity single crystal sample. The plastically deformed sample allowed the identification of trapping at dislocations while the single crystal sample allow for the identification of high angle boundaries and impurities. Thus, with respect to the desorption energy associated with each peak, values between 12.9 and 26.5 kJ/mole were measured.

  14. Reduction of Fermi level pinning and recombination at polycrystalline CdTe surfaces by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonds, Brian J.; Kheraj, Vipul; Palekis, Vasilios; Ferekides, Christos; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2015-06-14

    Laser processing of polycrystalline CdTe is a promising approach that could potentially increase module manufacturing throughput while reducing capital expenditure costs. For these benefits to be realized, the basic effects of laser irradiation on CdTe must be ascertained. In this study, we utilize surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) to investigate the changes to the electronic properties of the surface of polycrystalline CdTe solar cell stacks induced by continuous-wave laser annealing. The experimental data explained within a model consisting of two space charge regions, one at the CdTe/air interface and one at the CdTe/CdS junction, are used to interpret our SPS results. The frequency dependence and phase spectra of the SPS signal are also discussed. To support the SPS findings, low-temperature spectrally-resolved photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence were also measured. The data show that a modest laser treatment of 250 W/cm{sup 2} with a dwell time of 20 s is sufficient to reduce the effects of Fermi level pinning at the surface due to surface defects.

  15. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fcc and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.

  16. Average intragranular misorientation trends in polycrystalline materials predicted by a viscoplastic self-consistent approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.; Zecevic, Miroslav; Knezevic, Marko; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-12-15

    Here, this work presents estimations of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates in polycrystalline materials, obtained by means of the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model. These fluctuations give a tensorial measure of the trend of misorientation developing inside each single crystal grain representing a polycrystalline aggregate. We first report details of the algorithm implemented in the VPSC code to estimate these fluctuations, which are then validated by comparison with corresponding full-field calculations. Next, we present predictions of average intragranular fluctuations of lattice rotation rates for cubic aggregates, which are rationalized by comparison with experimental evidence on annealing textures of fccmore » and bcc polycrystals deformed in tension and compression, respectively, as well as with measured intragranular misorientation distributions in a Cu polycrystal deformed in tension. The orientation-dependent and micromechanically-based estimations of intragranular misorientations that can be derived from the present implementation are necessary to formulate sound sub-models for the prediction of quantitatively accurate deformation textures, grain fragmentation, and recrystallization textures using the VPSC approach.« less

  17. Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Franklin N.; Neugroschel, Arnost

    1984-02-14

    A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

  18. Heat transfer of R-134a in single-tube spray evaporation including lubricant effects and enhanced surface results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Huebsch, W.W.; Pate, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Single-tube spray evaporation experimental tests were conducted in order to evaluate the average wall heat transfer coefficients for seven different commercially available tubes. Liquid film supply rates were held constant in order to evaluate the effects of the enhancement on shell-side heat transfer under similar conditions. Because the spray evaporation phenomenon is so different from pool boiling, both condensation-type and evaporation-type enhanced surfaces were evaluated. A comparison of the results for all of the tubes showed that the enhanced condensation surfaces performed better than the enhanced boiling surfaces. In addition, the 26-fpi surface tested marginally better than the 40-fpi surface. Small concentrations of a polyol-ester lubricant cause a foaming effect that increases the heat transfer performance. This tendency was seen with both 32-cs and 68-cs polyol-ester oils. The 68-cs lubricant was tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 with the W-40 fpi and Tu-Cii surfaces. Results with this lubricant show the performance continues to increase through the 3% concentration for most of the heat flux range tested At the upper end of the range tested, the 1.0% mass fraction yielded the best performance. The 32-cs lubricant generated trends similar to those of the 68-cs lubricant. Lubricant concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were evaluated with plain, W-40 fpi, and Tu-Cii surfaces. The 2.0% concentration, not the 1.0 %, generated the best performance at the highest heat flux tested. This difference must be attributed to the difference in the lubricant viscosity.

  19. Synthesis of monodispersed ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and their tribology properties as lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Shaohua; Zhang, Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Qiang; Cao, Bingqiang

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► The preparation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was realized by hydrothermal method. ► After surface modification, ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of narrow size distribution can disperse in lubricating oil stably. ► The modified ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives exhibit good tribology properties. -- Abstract: Monodispersed spherical zinc aluminate spinel (ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were synthesized via a solvothermal method and modified by oleic acid in cyclohexanol solution. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared spectrum (IR). The dispersion ability of nanoparticles in lubricant oil was measured with optical absorbance spectrum. The results show that the modified nanoparticles are nearly monodispersed and can stably disperse in lubricant oil. The tribological properties of the ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as an additive in lubricant oil were evaluated with four-ball test and thrust-ring test. For comparison, ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles as additive in lubricant oil were also tested respectively. The results show that ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibit better tribology properties in terms of anti-wear and anti-friction than ZnO or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The anti-friction and anti-wear mechanisms were discussed and the lubricating effect of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be attributed to nano-bearings effect and tribo-sintering mechanism.

  20. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Quarterly MCLR Program technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. This report summarizes the research conducted during the third quarter of calendar year 1995 on the following projects: Thermophysical properties of HCFC alternatives; Compatibility of manufacturing process fluids with HFC refrigerants and ester lubricants; Compatibility of motor materials used in air-conditioning for retrofits with alternative refrigerants and lubricants; Compatibility of lubricant additives with HFC refrigerants and synthetic lubricants; Products of motor burnouts; Accelerated test methods for predicting the life of motor materials exposed to refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Investigation of flushing and clean-out methods; Investigation into the fractionation of refrigerant blends; Lean flammability limits as a fundamental refrigerant property; Effect of selected contaminants in AC and R equipment; Study of foaming characteristics; Study of lubricant circulation in systems; Evaluation of HFC-245ca for commercial use in low pressure chillers; Infrared analysis of refrigerant mixtures; Refrigerant database; Refrigerant toxicity survey; Thermophysical properties of HFC-32, HFC-123, HCFC-124 and HFC-125; Thermophysical properties of HFC-143a and HFC-152a; Theoretical evaluations of R-22 alternative fluids; Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals; Miscibility of lubricants with refrigerants; Viscosity, solubility and density measurements of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures; Electrohydrodynamic enhancement of pool and in-tube boiling of alternative refrigerants; Accelerated screening methods; and more.

  1. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Sheldon, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  2. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe sub 2 photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  3. First-principles study of roles of Cu and Cl in polycrystalline CdTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ji -Hui; Yin, Wan -Jian; Park, Ji -Sang; Metzger, Wyatt; Wei, Su -Huai

    2016-01-25

    In this study, Cu and Cl treatments are important processes to achieve high efficiency polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells, thus it will be beneficial to understand the roles they play in both bulk CdTe and CdTe grain boundaries (GBs). Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study Cu and Cl-related defects in bulk CdTe. We find that Cl has only a limited effect on improving p-type doping and too much Cl can induce deep traps in bulk CdTe, whereas Cu can enhance ptype doping of bulk CdTe. In the presence of GBs, we find that, in general, Cl and Cu willmore » prefer to stay at GBs, especially for those with Te-Te wrong bonds, in agreement with experimental observations.« less

  4. Tension-compression-tension tertiary twins in coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium at room temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-07

    Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.

  5. Broadening of optical transitions in polycrystalline CdS and CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jian; Chen Jie; Collins, R. W.

    2010-11-01

    The dielectric functions {epsilon} of polycrystalline CdS and CdTe thin films sputter deposited onto Si wafers were measured from 0.75 to 6.5 eV by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Differences in {epsilon} due to processing variations are well understood using an excited carrier scattering model. For each sample, a carrier mean free path {lambda} is defined that is found to be inversely proportional to the broadening of each of the band structure critical points (CPs) deduced from {epsilon}. The rate at which broadening occurs with {lambda}{sup -1} is different for each CP, enabling a carrier group speed {upsilon}{sub g} to be identified for the CP. With the database for {upsilon}{sub g}, {epsilon} can be analyzed to evaluate the quality of materials used in CdS/CdTe photovoltaic heterojunctions.

  6. Large area polycrystalline diamond films as high current photocathodes for linear induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shurter, R.P.; Moir, D.C.; Devlin, D.J.; Springer, R.W.

    1997-08-01

    Investigations are underway at Los Alamos to develop a new generation of high current, low source temperature photo cathodes able to operate in vacuum environments with pressures above 10e-6 torr without poisoning or degradation of emission properties. Polycrystalline diamond films are emerging as the ideal material for these photocathodes. Robustness, high quantum efficiency and high thermal conductivity are fundamental necessary attributes that are found in diamond. The high electron/hole mobility in the boron doped diamond lattice and the ability to create a negative electron affinity surface through downward band bending allow for high current density emission with quantum efficiencies of 0.5% when illuminated by a ArF laser. We report the results to date toward the development of a four kiloampere photocathode with a source temperature below 5eV for the DARHT linear induction Accelerator

  7. Efficiency considerations for polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Itoh, Y.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of grain boundaries upon the efficiency of polycrystalline GaAs thin-film solar cells is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated on a simple model where grain boundaries act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in the solar cell's active layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. An effective diffusion length is expressed in terms of grain size, allowing the calculation of short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment. The fabrication of thin-film GaAs solar cells with an efficiency greater than 18% appears to be possible if the grain size in the thin-film GaAs layer with thickness of 3 ..mu..m is larger than 1000 ..mu..m.

  8. A Numerical Algorithm for the Solution of a Phase-Field Model of Polycrystalline Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorr, M R; Fattebert, J; Wickett, M E; Belak, J F; Turchi, P A

    2008-12-04

    We describe an algorithm for the numerical solution of a phase-field model (PFM) of microstructure evolution in polycrystalline materials. The PFM system of equations includes a local order parameter, a quaternion representation of local orientation and a species composition parameter. The algorithm is based on the implicit integration of a semidiscretization of the PFM system using a backward difference formula (BDF) temporal discretization combined with a Newton-Krylov algorithm to solve the nonlinear system at each time step. The BDF algorithm is combined with a coordinate projection method to maintain quaternion unit length, which is related to an important solution invariant. A key element of the Newton-Krylov algorithm is the selection of a preconditioner to accelerate the convergence of the Generalized Minimum Residual algorithm used to solve the Jacobian linear system in each Newton step. Results are presented for the application of the algorithm to 2D and 3D examples.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline In4Se3 and In4Te3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xun; Cho, Jung Y; Salvador, James R.; Yang, Jihui; Wang, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    High thermoelectric performance of a single crystal layered compound In{sub 4}Se{sub 3} was reported recently. We present here an electrical and thermal transport property study over a wide temperature range for polycrystalline samples of In{sub 4}Se{sub 3} and In{sub 4}Te{sub 3}. Our data demonstrate that these materials are lightly doped semiconductors, leading to large thermopower and resistivity. Very low thermal conductivity, below 1 W/m K, is observed. The power factors for In{sub 4}Se{sub 3} and In{sub 4}Te{sub 3} are much smaller when compared with state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. This combined with the very low thermal conductivity results in the maximum ZT value of less than 0.6 at 700 K for In{sub 4}Se{sub 3}.

  10. Simulations of in situ x-ray diffraction from uniaxially compressed highly textured polycrystalline targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGonegle, David Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Milathianaki, Despina; Remington, Bruce A.

    2015-08-14

    A growing number of shock compression experiments, especially those involving laser compression, are taking advantage of in situ x-ray diffraction as a tool to interrogate structure and microstructure evolution. Although these experiments are becoming increasingly sophisticated, there has been little work on exploiting the textured nature of polycrystalline targets to gain information on sample response. Here, we describe how to generate simulated x-ray diffraction patterns from materials with an arbitrary texture function subject to a general deformation gradient. We will present simulations of Debye-Scherrer x-ray diffraction from highly textured polycrystalline targets that have been subjected to uniaxial compression, as may occur under planar shock conditions. In particular, we study samples with a fibre texture, and find that the azimuthal dependence of the diffraction patterns contains information that, in principle, affords discrimination between a number of similar shock-deformation mechanisms. For certain cases, we compare our method with results obtained by taking the Fourier transform of the atomic positions calculated by classical molecular dynamics simulations. Illustrative results are presented for the shock-induced α–ϵ phase transition in iron, the α–ω transition in titanium and deformation due to twinning in tantalum that is initially preferentially textured along [001] and [011]. The simulations are relevant to experiments that can now be performed using 4th generation light sources, where single-shot x-ray diffraction patterns from crystals compressed via laser-ablation can be obtained on timescales shorter than a phonon period.

  11. A comparison of the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of R-134a-lubricant mixtures in different diameter smooth tubes and micro-fin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    The average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation and condensation are reported for mixtures of R-134a and an ester lubricant in tubes of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the R-134a-lubricant mixtures in these tubes and determine the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube. The performance benefits of the tubes with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter are compared to those of smaller tubes with 9.52 mm (3/8 in.) outer diameter. The lubricant used was a 169 SUS penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The lubricant concentration was varied from 0--5.1% in the mixture. The average heat transfer coefficients in the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) micro-fin tube were 50--150% higher than those for the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) smooth tube, while pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 5% to 50% higher than in the smooth tube. The addition of lubricant degraded the average heat transfer coefficients in all cases except during evaporation at low lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops were always increased with the addition of lubricant. The experimental results also indicate that tube diameter has some effect on the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube over that of the smooth tube.

  12. Recovery Act : Near-Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Thin Films on Polycrystalline, Flexible Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Selvamanickam; Alex Freundlich

    2010-11-29

    III-V photovoltaics have exhibited efficiencies above 40%, but have found only a limited use because of the high cost of single crystal substrates. At the other end of the spectrum, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film solar cells offer the advantage of low-cost fabrication, but have not yielded high efficiencies. Our program is based on single-crystalline-like thin film photovoltaics on polycrystalline substrates using biaxially-textured templates made by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD). MgO templates made by IBAD on flexible metal substrate have been successfully used for epitaxial growth of germanium films. In spite of a 4.5% lattice mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Ge was achieved on CeO2 that was grown on IBAD MgO template. Room temperature optical bandgap of the Ge films was identified at 0.67 eV indicating minimal residual strain. Refraction index and extinction coefficient values of the Ge films were found to match well with that measured from a reference Ge single crystal. GaAs has been successfully grown epitaxially on Ge on metal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. RHEED patterns indicate self annihilation of antiphase boundaries and the growth of a single domain GaAs. The GaAs is found to exhibit strong photoluminescence signal and, an existence of a relatively narrow (FWHM~20 meV) band-edge excitons measured in this film indicates a good optoelectronic quality of deposited GaAs. While excellent epitaxial growth has been achieved in GaAs on flexible metal substrates, the defect density of the films as measured by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and etch pit experiments showed a high value of 5 * 10^8 per cm^2. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy of the multilayer architecture showed concentration of threading dislocations near the germanium-ceria interface. The defect density was found decrease as the Ge films were made thicker. The defects appear to originate from the MgO layer presumably because of large lattice mismatches

  13. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

  14. Lubricating bacteria model for the growth of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Shengli; Zhang Lei; Liang Run; Zhang Erhu; Liu Yachao; Zhao Shumin

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we study the morphological transition of bacterial colonies exposed to ultraviolet radiation by modifying the bacteria model proposed by Delprato et al. Our model considers four factors: the lubricant fluid generated by bacterial colonies, a chemotaxis initiated by the ultraviolet radiation, the intensity of the ultraviolet radiation, and the bacteria's two-stage destruction rate with given radiation intensities. Using this modified model, we simulate the ringlike pattern formation of the bacterial colony exposed to uniform ultraviolet radiation. The following is shown. (1) Without the UV radiation the colony forms a disklike pattern and reaches a constant front velocity. (2) After the radiation is switched on, the bacterial population migrates to the edge of the colony and forms a ringlike pattern. As the intensity of the UV radiation is increased the ring forms faster and the outer velocity of the colony decreases. (3) For higher radiation intensities the total population decreases, while for lower intensities the total population increases initially at a small rate and then decreases. (4) After the UV radiation is switched off, the bacterial population grows both outward as well as into the inner region, and the colony's outer front velocity recovers to a constant value. All these results agree well with the experimental observations [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 158102 (2001)]. Along with the chemotaxis, we find that lubricant fluid and the two-stage destruction rate are critical to the dynamics of the growth of the bacterial colony when exposed to UV radiation, and these were not previously considered.

  15. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vogel, Nicolas; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Hatton, Benjamin; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show howmore » this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.« less

  16. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell and module manufacturing technology improvements. Annual subcontract report, 1 December 1993--30 November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work performed under a 3-y contract to advance Solarex`s cast polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology, reduce module production cost, increase module performance, and expand Solarex`s commercial production capacities. Specific objectives are to reduce manufacturing cost for polycrstalline silicon PV modules to less than $1.20/W and to increase manufacturing capacity by a factor of 3. Solarex is working on casting, wire saws, cell process, module assembly, frameless module development, and automated cell handling.

  17. Processing of transparent polycrystalline AlON:Ce3+ scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ching -Fong; Yang, Pin; King, Graham; Tegtmeier, Eric L.

    2015-10-23

    A new polycrystalline ceramic scintillator is reported for potential use in radiation detection and medical imaging applications. The goal was to develop cerium-activated aluminum oxynitride (AlON:Ce3+) ceramics, which can be produced using ceramic processes in comparison to the high-cost, low-yield single-crystal growth technique. A phase pure AlON:Ce3+ powder with cubic symmetry was successfully synthesized at high temperature under a reducing atmosphere to convert Ce4+ to Ce3+ in the solid solution. We explored two different activator concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 mol%). Fully dense and transparent AlON:Ce3+ ceramics were produced by a liquid-phase-assisted pressureless sintering. The crystal field splitting around the Ce3+ activator in the AlON was comparable to the splitting induced by Br₋ and the Cl₋ ligands, which produced an emission spectrum perfectly matching the maximum quantum efficiency range of the photomultiplier tube for radiation detection. Both optical excitation and radiation ionizations in AlON:Ce3+ were demonstrated. Lastly, challenges and mechanisms related to the radioluminescence efficiency are discussed.

  18. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  19. Near-infrared light absorption by polycrystalline SiSn alloys grown on insulating layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurosawa, Masashi; Kato, Motohiro; Yamaha, Takashi; Taoka, Noriyuki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2015-04-27

    High-Sn-content SiSn alloys are strongly desired for the next-generation near-infrared optoelectronics. A polycrystalline growth study has been conducted on amorphous SiSn layers with a Sn-content of 2%30% deposited on either a substrate of SiO{sub 2} or SiN. Incorporating 30% Sn into Si permits the crystallization of the amorphous layers at annealing temperatures below the melting point of Sn (231.9?C). Composition analyses indicate that approximately 20% of the Sn atoms are substituted into the Si lattice after solid-phase crystallization at 150220?C for 5?h. Correspondingly, the optical absorption edge is red-shifted from 1.12?eV (Si) to 0.83?eV (Si{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} (x???0.18??0.04)), and the difference between the indirect and direct band gap is significantly reduced from 3.1?eV (Si) to 0.22?eV (Si{sub 1?x}Sn{sub x} (x???0.18??0.04)). These results suggest that with higher substitutional Sn content the SiSn alloys could become a direct band-gap material, which would provide benefits for Si photonics.

  20. Tension-compression-tension tertiary twins in coarse-grained polycrystalline pure magnesium at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Qin; Jiang, Yanyao; Wang, Jian

    2015-04-07

    Using electron backscatter diffraction, the microstructural features of tension–compression–tension (T–C–T) tertiary twins are studied in coarse-grained pure polycrystalline magnesium subjected to monotonic compression along the extrusion direction in ambient air. T–C–T tertiary twins are developed due to the formation of a compression–tension double twin inside a primary tension twin. All the observed T–C–T twin variants are of TiCjTj type. TiCi+1Ti+1 (or TiCi–1Ti–1) variants are observed more frequently than TiCi+2Ti+2 (or TiCi–2Ti–2) variants. Moreover, the number of tertiary twin lamellae increases with the applied compressive strain.

  1. ToF-SIMS study of polycrystalline uranium after exposure to deuterium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrall, P; Price, D; Nelson, A; Siekhaus, W; Nelson, E; Wu, K J; Stratman, M; McLean, B

    2006-01-19

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is employed to examine specific features observed on a polycrystalline depleted uranium sample after exposure to high purity D{sub 2} gas. The ToF-SIMS investigation, being the first of its kind on uranium, investigates a site where the deuterated form of uranium hydride (UD{sub 3}) is clearly observed to have broken through the thin, air-formed oxide. Density functional theory calculations have been performed, which confirm the stability of, and also assign structural geometries to, the various uranium containing fragments observed with SIMS. An inclusion site was also investigated using ToF-SIMS, and these data suggest that the edges of such inclusions exhibit increased D ion, and hence H ion, diffusion when compared to the surrounding surface oxide. These results offer support to the previously published hypotheses that inclusion sites on uranium surfaces exhibit an increased probability to form hydride sites under H{sub 2} exposure.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of large-grain solid-phase crystallized polycrystalline silicon thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Avishek, E-mail: avishek.kumar@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: dalapatig@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Law, Felix; Widenborg, Per I. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Dalapati, Goutam K., E-mail: avishek.kumar@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: dalapatig@imre.a-star.edu.sg; Subramanian, Gomathy S.; Tan, Hui R. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, Block E3A, #06-01, Singapore 117574 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2014-11-01

    n-type polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films with very large grains, exceeding 30??m in width, and with high Hall mobility of about 71.5?cm{sup 2}/V s are successfully prepared by the solid-phase crystallization technique on glass through the control of the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio. The effect of this gas flow ratio on the electronic and structural quality of the n-type poly-Si thin film is systematically investigated using Hall effect measurements, Raman microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. The poly-Si grains are found to be randomly oriented, whereby the average area weighted grain size is found to increase from 4.3 to 18??m with increase of the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio. The stress in the poly-Si thin films is found to increase above 900?MPa when the PH{sub 3} (2% in H{sub 2})/SiH{sub 4} gas flow ratio is increased from 0.025 to 0.45. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark field-scanning tunneling microscopy, and EBSD are used to identify the defects and dislocations caused by the stress in the fabricated poly-Si films.

  3. Electric-field-induced local and mesoscale structural changes in polycrystalline dielectrics and ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usher, Tedi -Marie; Levin, Igor; Daniels, John E.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the atomic-scale response of dielectrics/ferroelectrics to electric fields is central to their functionality. Here we introduce an in situ characterization method that reveals changes in the local atomic structure in polycrystalline materials under fields. The method employs atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs), determined from X-ray total scattering that depends on orientation relative to the applied field, to probe structural changes over length scales from sub-Ångstrom to several nanometres. The PDF is sensitive to local ionic displacements and their short-range order, a key uniqueness relative to other techniques. The method is applied to representative ferroelectrics, BaTiO3 and Na½Bi½TiO3, and dielectric SrTiO3. For Na½Bi½TiO3, the results reveal an abrupt field-induced monoclinic to rhombohedral phase transition, accompanied by ordering of the local Bi displacements and reorientation of the nanoscale ferroelectric domains. For BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, the local/nanoscale structural changes observed in the PDFs are dominated by piezoelectric lattice strain and ionic polarizability, respectively.

  4. Electric-field-induced local and mesoscale structural changes in polycrystalline dielectrics and ferroelectrics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Usher, Tedi -Marie; Levin, Igor; Daniels, John E.; Jones, Jacob L.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the atomic-scale response of dielectrics/ferroelectrics to electric fields is central to their functionality. Here we introduce an in situ characterization method that reveals changes in the local atomic structure in polycrystalline materials under fields. The method employs atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs), determined from X-ray total scattering that depends on orientation relative to the applied field, to probe structural changes over length scales from sub-Ångstrom to several nanometres. The PDF is sensitive to local ionic displacements and their short-range order, a key uniqueness relative to other techniques. The method is applied to representative ferroelectrics, BaTiO3 and Na½Bi½TiO3,more » and dielectric SrTiO3. For Na½Bi½TiO3, the results reveal an abrupt field-induced monoclinic to rhombohedral phase transition, accompanied by ordering of the local Bi displacements and reorientation of the nanoscale ferroelectric domains. For BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, the local/nanoscale structural changes observed in the PDFs are dominated by piezoelectric lattice strain and ionic polarizability, respectively.« less

  5. Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with phononic crystal nanopatterning for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Kage, Yuta; Mller, David; Moser, Dominik; Paul, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Electrical and thermal properties of polycrystalline Si thin films with two-dimensional phononic patterning were investigated at room temperature. Electrical and thermal conductivities for the phononic crystal nanostructures with a variety of radii of the circular holes were measured to systematically investigate the impact of the nanopatterning. The concept of phonon-glass and electron-crystal is valid in the investigated electron and phonon transport systems with the neck size of 80?nm. The thermal conductivity is more sensitive than the electrical conductivity to the nanopatterning due to the longer mean free path of the thermal phonons than that of the charge carriers. The values of the figure of merit ZT were 0.065 and 0.035, and the enhancement factors were 2 and 4 for the p-doped and n-doped phononic crystals compared to the unpatterned thin films, respectively, when the characteristic size of the phononic crystal nanostructure is below 100?nm. The greater enhancement factor of ZT for the n-doped sample seems to result from the strong phonon scattering by heavy phosphorus atoms at the grain boundaries.

  6. Study of fractionation of refrigerant blends in contact with lubricants and measurement of the solubility, density, and viscosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Falconi, E.A.

    1999-07-01

    The fractionation of two refrigerant blends was studied using the gas equilibrium method. The amount of fractionation was measured by maintaining a constant composition of the refrigerant gas vapor over the lubricant, which was equal in composition to the liquid refrigerant gas blend introduced into the viscometer. Specifically, the concentration of the dissolved refrigerant gas in the lubricant ranges from 0.6% to 78% by weight in the specified temperature range of {minus}25 C to 125 C and within the highest test pressure of 500 psia (3.45 MPa). The polyolester chosen for this study was a 32 ISO VG complex branched acid pentaerythritol product. Smoothed graphical data presented were obtained from individual isothermal measurements. These individual isothermal measurement temperatures detail the composition of the equilibrium gas fractionation of R-32 and R-134a in the lubricant, mixed vapor pressure, concentration of the total mixed blend as percent by weight in the lubricant and viscosity in centipoise (cP) and centistokes (cSt). The raw data are presented in a smoothed graphical form based on a fixed vapor composition.

  7. Effect of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance of R-134a and R-22 in tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Pate, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance. Tests were conducted with refrigerant R-134a and triangular-pitch tube bundles made from enhanced-condensation, enhanced-boiling, low-finned, and plain-surface tubes. A 340-SUS polyol-ester (POE) oil was used for the R-134a testing because this lubricant is being integrated into industry for use with this refrigerant. Refrigerant was sprayed onto the tube bundles with low-pressure-drop, wide-angle nozzles located directly above the bundle. Collector testing was conducted with both R-134a and R-22 to determine the percentage of refrigerant contacting the tue bundle. It was found that small concentrations of the polyol-ester lubricant yielded significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of R-134a. The shell-side heat transfer coefficient was more dependent on lubricant concentration than on film-feed supply rate within the range of the respective parameters evaluated in this study. As expected, pure R-22 results show higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with pure R-134a at the same saturation temperature of 2.0 C (35.6 F).

  8. Anti-Wear Performance and Mechanism of an Oil-Miscible Ionic Liquid as a Lubricant Additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Bansal, Dinesh G; Yu, Bo; Howe, Jane Y; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Li, Huaqing; Blau, Peter Julian; Bunting, Bruce G; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2012-01-01

    An ionic liquid (IL) trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate has been investigated as a potential anti-wear lubricant additive. Unlike most other ILs that have very low solubility in non-polar fluids, this IL is fully miscible with various hydrocarbon oils. In addition, it is thermally stable up to 347 oC, showed no corrosive attack to cast iron in ambient environment, and has excellent wettability on solid surfaces (e.g., contact angle on cast iron <8o). Most importantly, this phosphonium-based IL has demonstrated effective anti-scuffing and anti-wear characteristics when blended with lubricating oils. For example, a 5 wt.% addition into a synthetic base oil eliminated the scuffing failure experienced by the neat oil and, as a result, reduced the friction coefficient by 60% and the wear rate by three orders of magnitude. A synergistic effect on wear protection was observed with the current anti-wear additive when added into a fully-formulated engine oil. Nanostructure examination and composition analysis revealed a tribo-boundary film and subsurface plastic deformation zone for the metallic surface lubricated by the IL-containing lubricants. This protective boundary film is believed to be responsible for the IL s anti-scuffing and anti-wear functionality.

  9. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  10. Lubricating system for thermal medium delivery parts in a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Cooling steam delivery tubes extend axially along the outer rim of a gas turbine rotor for supplying cooling steam to and returning spent cooling steam from the turbine buckets. Because of the high friction forces at the interface of the tubes and supporting elements due to rotor rotation, a low coefficient of friction coating is provided at the interface of the tubes and support elements. On each surface, a first coating of a cobalt-based alloy is sprayed onto the surface at high temperature. A portion of the first coating is machined off to provide a smooth, hard surface. A second ceramic-based solid film lubricant is sprayed onto the first coating. By reducing the resistance to axial displacement of the tubes relative to the supporting elements due to thermal expansion, the service life of the tubes is substantially extended.

  11. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Daniel; Max, Mankin N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-06-12

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 #2;°C are rare. Most stateof- the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 °#2;C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

  12. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, D; Mankin, MN; Belisle, RA; Wong, TS; Aizenberg, J

    2013-06-10

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 degrees C are rare. Most state-of-the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 degrees C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000. (C) 2013 Author(s).

  13. Effects of self-assembled monolayer and PFPE lubricant on wear characteristics of flat silicon tips.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H. J.; Jang, C. E.; Kim, D. E.; Kim, Y. K.; Choa, S. H.; Hong, S.; Materials Science Division; Yonsei Univ.; Samsung Adv. Inst. Science and Technology; Seoul National Univ. of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The effects of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricant on the wear characteristics of flat silicon tips were investigated. The wear test consisted of sliding the silicon tips fabricated on a flat silicon specimen against SAM and PFPE (Z-tetraol) coated silicon (100) wafer. The tips were slid at a low speed for about 15 km under an applied load of 39.2 {micro}N. The wear volume of the tip was obtained by measuring the tip profile using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). It was found that the coatings were effective in reducing the wear of the tips by an order of magnitude from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7}.

  14. Effect of hydroprocessing on lubricant base stock composition and product performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galiano-Roth, A.S.; Page, N.M.

    1994-08-01

    Conventional lubricant base stock manufacture via solvent refining involves the physical separation of lube molecules while hydroprocessing changes the chemical structures of these molecules. Sulfur, nitrogen, and aromatic compounds are reduced to very low levels, compared to conventional refining. These changes in composition naturally affect product performance. Lube oil oxidation stability is increased but inferior solvency characteristics are apparent. This paper summarizes the effect of hydroprocessing unit configuration (one vs. two stage), hydrogen pressure, and hydrotreating temperature on lube base stock composition (sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics). Base stock aromatic composition, as evaluated by ultraviolet spectroscopy, is related to lube oil oxidation stability in a phenol-based antioxidant formulation. Solvency problems observed for the formulated products can be improved with additive modifications. 8 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Scuffing initiation in metals sliding against copper under non-lubricated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalchenko, A M; Blau, Peter Julian; Qu, Jun; Danyluk, S

    2011-01-01

    Metallic components in sliding contact are sometimes subjected to high-loads with little or no lubrication. Such starved conditions can lead to a phenomenon called scuffing. Various definitions exist for this term, but in the present case, three criteria were used to signal its onset: changes in friction, vibrations, and noise, coupled with surface examination. On this basis, scuffing initiation was determined for seven technically pure metals (Al, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, Cu) and stainless steel, all rubbing against Cu. A flat-ended pin-on-disk test configuration was used with normal loads of 1-3 N, and with step-wise increases in sliding speed from 0.16 to 2.56 m/s. Al was only weakly resistant to scuffing, presumably due to its solubility in Cu, its high ductility and its relatively low elastic modulus. Niobium provided satisfactory sliding behavior at low speeds and loads, presumably due to protective oxides; however, it scuffed at higher loads when the oxide broke through. Stainless steel, Mo, and Ta had higher friction coefficients than Al and Nb, presumably because the relatively high strengths of the former prevented severe wear even when their oxide films failed. Like Al, Ti scuffs on Cu, probably because of its high relative solubility; however, Ti's higher elastic modulus resists the more severe forms of surface damage than does Al. Of all the materials slid against Cu, W displayed the least scuffing, even under maximum speed and load. Tungsten's negligible solubility in Cu may have reduced its adhesion, and W's high elastic modulus resisted shear-deformation, even at high frictional heating. Self-mated Cu couple scuffed when the speed was increased. The oxides on the Cu surface serve as solid lubricant avoiding scuffing at lower speeds.

  16. CX-005184: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings For use in Marine Hydrokinetic Energy MachinesCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 01/28/2011Location(s): Orem, UtahOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  17. CX-005128: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Development of Open, Water Lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond Thrust Bearings For use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy MachinesCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 01/25/2011Location(s): Orem, UtahOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  18. Surface and mechanical properties of transparent polycrystalline YAG fabricated by SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmero, P.; Bonelli, B.; Fantozzi, G.; Spina, G.; Bonnefont, G.; Montanaro, L.; Chevalier, J.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ultrasonication as effective, un-polluting dispersion route for YAG powders. • Annealing in the 700–900 °C range to increase the transparency. • Oxygen vacancies more crucial on the transmittance than C contamination. • SPS reliable method for transparent and ultra-fine polycrystalline YAG. • Very high hardness (16.5–17 GPa) for the fully dense, fine materials. - Abstract: YAG powder was synthesised by reverse-strike co-precipitation, calcined at 1000 °C and dispersed by either ball-milling with α-alumina (BM{sub A}) or zirconia (BMz) spheres or by ultrasonication (US). All the dispersed powders were consolidated by SPS to nearly theoretical density, but only the US powder gave rise to a transparent material (transmittance of about 60% at 600 nm, 1 mm thickness), characterised by an ultra-fine microstructure (average size of 330 nm). In the BM materials, Raman spectroscopy allowed to evidence some phonon vibrational shifts due to secondary phases deriving from pollution by the milling media, not detectable by XRD because present in small amounts. The transmittance of the as-sintered US sample was further increased by annealing in air at 900 °C; this was assigned to the restoration of some oxygen vacancies created in the reducing environment of the SPS chamber, as evidenced by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Finally, US samples sintered in the 1250–1400 °C were submitted to a basic mechanical characterisation, showing a very good hardness, in spite of a moderate fracture toughness, especially for the fully dense and fine-grained materials sintered at 1300–1350 °C.

  19. Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refreigerant-lubricant mixtures. Part II: Experimental comparison and verification of methods. Final report, volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, R.

    1995-09-01

    The research reported herein was performed to develop an accelerated screening method for determining the chemical and thermal stabilities of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The developed screening method was designed to be safe and to produce accelerated stability rankings that are in agreement with the rankings determined by the current test, Sealed Glass Tube Method to Test the Chemical Stability of Material for Use Within Refrigerant Systems, ANSI/ASHRAE Method 97-1989. The accelerated screening test developed was designed to be independent of refrigerant and lubricant compositions and to be used with a wide variety of construction materials. The studied refrigerants included CFC-11, CFC-12, HCFC-22, HFC-134a, and HFC-32/HFC-134a (zeotrope 30:70 by weight). The studied lubricants were selected from the chemical classes of mineral oil, alkylbenzene oil, polyglycols, and polyolesters. The work reported herein was performed in three phases. In the first phase, previously identified thermal analytical techniques were evaluated for development into an accelerated screening method for refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The identified thermal analytical techniques used in situ measurements of color, temperature, or conductivity to monitor the degradation of the heated refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The identified thermal analytical techniques also used catalysts such as ferric fluoride to accelerate the degradation of the heated refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. The thermal analytical technique employing in situ conductivity measurements was determined to be the most suitable for development into an accelerated screening method.

  20. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  1. Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next-Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    information Ionic Liquids as Anti-Wear Additives for Next- Generation Low-Viscosity Fuel-Efficient Engine Lubricants Project ID: FT014 ORNL: Jun Qu, Peter Blau (retired), Huimin Luo, Sheng Dai, Todd Toops, Brian West, and Bruce Bunting (retired) GM: Michael Viola, Gregory Mordukhovich (left GM), and Donald Smolenski (retired) DOE Management Team: Steve Goguen, Kevin Stork and Steve Przesmitzki 2014 DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review, June 19, 2014 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for

  2. Phosphonium-Organophosphate Ionic Liquids as Lubricant Additives: Effects of Cation Structure on Physicochemical and Tribological Characteristics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barnhill, William C.; Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M.; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Papke, Brian L.

    2014-11-17

    In our previous work we suggest great potential for a phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) as an antiwear lubricant additive. In this study, a set of five ILs were carefully designed and synthesized, with identical organophosphate anions but dissimilar phosphonium cations, to allow systematic investigation of the effects of cation alkyl chain length and symmetry on physicochemical and tribological properties. Symmetric cations with shorter alkyl chains seem to increase the density and thermal stability due to closer packing. On the other hand, either higher cation symmetry or longer alkyl moieties induce a higher viscosity, though the viscosity index is dependent moremore » on molecular mass than on symmetry. While a larger cation size generally increases an IL’s solubility in nonpolar hydrocarbon oils, six-carbon seems to be the critical minimum alkyl chain length for high oil miscibility. Both the two ILs, that are mutually oil miscible, have demonstrated promising lubricating performance at 1.04% treat rate, though the symmetric-cation IL moderately outperformed the asymmetric-cation IL. Moreover, characterizations on the tribofilm formed by the best-performing symmetric-cation IL revealed the film thickness, nanostructure, and chemical composition. Our results provide fundamental insights for future molecular design in developing oil-soluble ILs as lubricant additives.« less

  3. Enhanced open voltage of BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film by surface modification of organolead halide perovskite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Pengjun; Bian, Liang; Xu, Jinbao Chang, Aimin; Wang, Lei

    2014-07-07

    Inorganic-organolead halide perovskite CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} modified BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film has been established. The composite photoelectrode presents much larger open voltage and several magnitudes superior photoelectric conversion performance in comparison to the ordinary BiFeO{sub 3} polycrystalline film. The I-V curve shows that the short-circuit current (J{sub sc}) is 1.74?mAcm{sup ?2} and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) is 1.62?V, the device's photon to current efficiency is over 1%. The large open voltage and high photovoltaic efficiency is believed to attributed to the spontaneous polarization of composite perovskite induced by BiFeO{sub 3} lattice and modified reduced work function of the modified BiFeO{sub 3} surface. Our results clearly show that the present BiFeO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} planar device is capable to generate a large voltage in macro scale under visible light, leading an approach to further applications on photodetectors and optoelectronic switch.

  4. Near single-crystalline, high-carrier-mobility silicon thin film on a polycrystalline/amorphous substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Matias, Vladimir; Choi, Woong

    2009-10-27

    A template article including a base substrate including: (i) a base material selected from the group consisting of polycrystalline substrates and amorphous substrates, and (ii) at least one layer of a differing material upon the surface of the base material; and, a buffer material layer upon the base substrate, the buffer material layer characterized by: (a) low chemical reactivity with the base substrate, (b) stability at temperatures up to at least about 800.degree. C. under low vacuum conditions, and (c) a lattice crystal structure adapted for subsequent deposition of a semiconductor material; is provided, together with a semiconductor article including a base substrate including: (i) a base material selected from the group consisting of polycrystalline substrates and amorphous substrates, and (ii) at least one layer of a differing material upon the surface of the base material; and, a buffer material layer upon the base substrate, the buffer material layer characterized by: (a) low chemical reactivity with the base substrate, (b) stability at temperatures up to at least about 800.degree. C. under low vacuum conditions, and (c) a lattice crystal structure adapted for subsequent deposition of a semiconductor material, and, a top-layer of semiconductor material upon the buffer material layer.

  5. Growth mechanism of polycrystalline silicon films from hydrogen-diluted SiCl{sub 4} at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Xuanying; Lin Kuixun; Huang Chuajun; Yu Yunpeng; Luo Yilin; Yu Chuying; Huang Rui

    2005-08-01

    The growth process of polycrystalline silicon films fabricated at 200 deg. C by radio-frequency glow discharge plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition technique from hydrogen-diluted SiCl{sub 4} has been investigated. We analyze the changes of crystallinity and crystalline grain size with the depth from the top surface of the film through studying the depth profiles of the Raman spectra. The results show that the top surface is composed of silicon nanometer crystalline grains and the clustered amorphous silicon. The component of crystalline phase increases with the increase in depth. Moreover, the film crystallization structure depends strongly on the power. On the other hand, it is almost independent of the substrate temperature and the annealing temperature. Comparing with the growth processes of polycrystalline silicon films from hydrogen-diluted SiH{sub 4}, it is considered that the formation of nanometer size grains occurs in the gas phase reaction process at the initial stage of film growth, while the grain growth is largely governed by the surface reaction process where in the chlorine element plays an important role.

  6. Synthesis of polycrystalline Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires with excellent ammonium perchlorate catalytic decomposition property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hai; Lv, Baoliang; Wu, Dong; Xu, Yao

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires with excellent ammonium perchlorate catalytic decomposition property were synthesized via a methanamide-assisted hydrolysis and subsequent dissolution–recrystallization process in the presence of methanamide. - Abstract: Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires, with the length of tens of micrometers and the width of several hundred nanometers, were produced by a hydrothermal treatment and a post-anneal process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result showed that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires belong to cubic crystal system. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis indicated that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires, composed by single crystalline nanoparticles, were of polycrystalline nature. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, methanamide-assisted hydrolysis and subsequent dissolution–recrystallization process were used to explain the precursors' formation process of the polycrystalline Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires. The TGA experiments showed that the as-obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires can catalyze the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) effectively.

  7. Tribological properties of self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Eryong; Gao, Yimin; Bai, Yaping; Yi, Gewen; Wang, Wenzhen; Zeng, Zhixiang; Jia, Junhong

    2014-11-15

    Silver vanadate (AgVO{sub 3}) nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and self-lubricating NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The composition and microstructure of NiAl/Mo-based composites were characterized and the tribological properties were investigated from room temperature to 900 C. The results showed that NiAl/Mo-based composites were consisted of nanocrystalline B2 ordered NiAl matrix, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase. The appearance of metallic Ag and vanadium oxide phase can be attributed to the decomposition of AgVO{sub 3} during sintering. Wear testing results confirmed that NiAl/Mo-based composites have excellent tribological properties over a wide temperature range. For example, the friction coefficient and wear rate of NiAl/Mo-based composites containing AgVO{sub 3} were significantly lower than the composites containing only metallic Mo or AgVO{sub 3} lubricant when the temperature is above 300 C, which can be attributed to the synergistic lubricating action of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3} lubricants. Furthermore, Raman results indicated that the composition on the worn surface of NiAl-based composites was self-adjusted after wear testing at different temperatures. For example, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} lubricants were responsible for the improvement of tribological properties at 500 C, AgVO{sub 3}, Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and molybdate for 700 C, and AgVO{sub 3} and molybdate for 900 C of NiAl-based composites with the addition of metallic Mo and AgVO{sub 3}. - Highlights: NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical alloying and sintering. AgVO{sub 3} decomposed to metallic Ag and vanadium oxide during the sintering process. NiAl/Mo-AgVO{sub 3} exhibited superior tribological properties at a board temperature range. Phase composition on the worn surface was varied with temperatures. Self-adjusted action was responsible

  8. Ionic liquids composed of phosphonium cations and organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate as lubricant antiwear additives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yan; Dyck, Jeffrey; Graham, Todd; Luo, Huimin; Leonard, Donovan N.; Qu, Jun

    2014-10-20

    Oil-soluble phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been reported as potential ashless lubricant additives. This study is to expand the IL chemistry envelope and to achieve fundamental correlations between the ion structures and ILs’ physiochemical and tribological properties. Here we present eight ILs containing two different phosphonium cations and seven different anions from three groups: organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate. The oil solubility of ILs seems largely governed by the IL molecule size and structure complexity. When used as oil additives, the ranking of effectiveness in wear protection for the anions are: organophosphate > carboxylate > sulfonate. All selected ILs outperformedmore » a commercial ashless anti-wear additive. Surface characterization from the top and the cross-section revealed the nanostructures and compositions of the tribo-films formed by the ILs. Some fundamental insights were achieved: branched and long alkyls improve the IL’s oil solubility, anions of a phosphonium-phosphate IL contribute most phosphorus in the tribofilm, and carboxylate anions, though free of P, S, N, or halogen, can promote the formation of an anti-wear tribofilm.« less

  9. Generation of defects in model lubricant monolayers and their contribution to energy dissipation in friction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmeron, Miquel

    2000-06-15

    The structural, mechanical (friction) and spectroscopic properties of model lubricant films made of self-assembled and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers on quartz, mica and gold have been investigated with atomic force microscopy, surface forces apparatus and sum frequency generation. In these films, the molecules tend to form densely packed structures, with the alkane chains mostly vertical and parallel to each other. The SFG results suggest that under moderate pressures of a few tens of MPa, the methyl end group of the alkane chains is rotated to accommodate a terminal gauche distortion. The molecule,however, retains its upright close packed structure with a lattice periodicity when ordered, which can be resolved by AFM. At pressures above 0.1 GPa, changes in the form of collective molecular tilts take place that lower the height of the monolayer. Only certain angles of tilt are allowed that are explained by the interlocking of methylene units in neighboring chains. The discrete angular tilts are accompanied by increases in friction. A model based on the van derWaals attractive energy between chains is used to explain the stability of the films and to estimate the cohesive energy changes during tilt and, from that, the increases in friction force.

  10. Cold starting capabilities of petroleum and syntehetic lubricants in heavy-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margeson, M.A.; Belmesch, B.J. )

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to compare the cold weather starting ability of diesel engines lubricated with SAE 15W-40 petroleum and SAE 5W-30 synthetic motor oil. Laboratory bench tests were used to compare rhelogical features such as borderline pumping temperature and cold cranking simulator profiles. A cold box provided a well controlled environment in which cranking and starting studies were carried out on the two oils in a turbocharged diesel engine. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic exhibited higher cranking speeds, lower starter amperage draw and immediate oil pressure readings when compared to the SAE l5W-40 petroleum. The SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil was safely started at {minus} l0 {sup 0}F oil temperature without auxiliary heaters. The comparative cylinder turbocharged diesel engines representing conditions commonly found in the commercial and off-highway sectors, These studies indicate that combining high capacity cold cranking amperage batteries, high pressure ether aid injection, and SAE 5W-30 synthetic oil resulted in a system that safely starts diesel engines down to actual oil temperatures of at least {minus} 10 {sup 0}F.

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of residual solvents in lubricating oils and waxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.

    1983-10-01

    A direct gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of residual solvents is described, using tert-butylbenzene as an internal standard. The lube oils and waxes were prevented from contaminating the chromatographic column by injecting the samples directly into a precolumn containing a silicone stationary phase. The samples of lube oils and waxes were injected directly into the chromatographic column containing another stationary phase, 1,2,3-tris(2-cyanoethoxy)propane. (The waxy samples were dissolved in a light neutral oil). With proper operating conditions, analysis time was 7 min. The procedure has been applied in the control of a lube oil dewaxing plant; the chromatographic column showed no sign of deterioration after 1 h when the precolumn was removed. Known amounts of toluene and methylethyl ketone were added to the solvent-free lubricating oils and wax, and these mixtures were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the procedure. Precision and accuracy of these data are comparable to those of methods previously described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  12. Rolling contact fatigue in high vacuum using ion plated nickel-copper-silver solid lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2011-01-15

    Ion plated, nickel-copper-silver coated steel ball bearings that were tested in rolling contact fatigue (RCF) experiments in high vacuum are presented in this article. ANSI T5 ball bearings were coated with approximately 10 nm of nickel-copper followed by 100 nm of silver using a dc ion plating process. The balls were then tested for RCF in vacuum in the 10{sup -7} Torr range at 130 Hz rotational speed and at 4.1 GPa Hertzian contact stress. The significance of this work is in the extension of RCF testing to an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application using silver as a lubricant instead of oil. The effects of pressure and voltage on the ion plating process were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and RCF life testing in UHV. Test results with a ball size of 5/16 in. in UHV show that deposition at voltages greater than 2.5 kV shortens the RCF life and introduces a unique failure mode. Voltage and pressure fluctuations during the deposition process result in significant thickness monitor measurement errors as well. A regulator control scheme that minimizes the process pressure overshoot is also simulated.

  13. Probing the molecular design of hyper-branched aryl polyesters towards lubricant applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Erck, Robert; Qu, Jun; Bays, J. Timothy; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-01-05

    We report novel polymeric materials that may be used as viscosity index improvers (VII) for lubricant applications. Our efforts included probing the comb-burst hyper-branched aryl polyester architecture for beneficial viscosity and friction behavior when utilized as an additive in a group I oil. The monomer was designed as to undergo polymerization via polycondensation within the architectural construct (AB2), typical of hyperbranched polymers. The monomer design was comprised of aliphatic arms (12 or 16 methylenes) to provide the necessary lipophilicity to achieve solubility in a non-polar medium. Once polymerized, via catalyst and heat, the surface alcohols were functionalized with fatty acidsmore » (lauric and palmitic). Controlling the aliphatic nature of the internal arms and peripheral end-groups provided four unique flexible polymer designs. Changing the reaction time and concentration provided opportunities to investigate the influence of molecular weight and branching density on oil-solubility, viscosity, and friction. Oil-solubility was found to decrease with fewer internal carbons, but the number of internal carbons appears to have little influence on the bulk solution viscosity. Increased branching and degree of polymerization, and thus molecular weight, were found to reduce the solubility of these systems in the base oil. At concentrations of 2 wt % in a group I base oil, these polymer additives demonstrated improved viscosity index and reduced friction coefficient, validating the basic approach.« less

  14. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  15. Ionic liquids composed of phosphonium cations and organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate as lubricant antiwear additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yan; Dyck, Jeffrey; Graham, Todd; Luo, Huimin; Leonard, Donovan N.; Qu, Jun

    2014-10-20

    Oil-soluble phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) have recently been reported as potential ashless lubricant additives. This study is to expand the IL chemistry envelope and to achieve fundamental correlations between the ion structures and ILs’ physiochemical and tribological properties. Here we present eight ILs containing two different phosphonium cations and seven different anions from three groups: organophosphate, carboxylate, and sulfonate. The oil solubility of ILs seems largely governed by the IL molecule size and structure complexity. When used as oil additives, the ranking of effectiveness in wear protection for the anions are: organophosphate > carboxylate > sulfonate. All selected ILs outperformed a commercial ashless anti-wear additive. Surface characterization from the top and the cross-section revealed the nanostructures and compositions of the tribo-films formed by the ILs. Some fundamental insights were achieved: branched and long alkyls improve the IL’s oil solubility, anions of a phosphonium-phosphate IL contribute most phosphorus in the tribofilm, and carboxylate anions, though free of P, S, N, or halogen, can promote the formation of an anti-wear tribofilm.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of water interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Q.

    1994-12-01

    The second order nonlinear optical processes of second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are powerful and versatile tools for studying all kinds of surfaces. They possess unusual surface sensitivity due to the symmetry properties of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The technique of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (SFG) is particularly attractive because it offers a viable way to do vibrational spectroscopy on any surfaces accessible to light with submonolayer sensitivity. In this thesis, the author applies SFG to study a number of important water interfaces. At the air/water interface, hydrophobic solid/water and liquid/water interfaces, it was found that approximately 25% of surface water molecules have one of their hydrogen pointing away from the liquid water. The large number of unsatisfied hydrogen bonds contributes significantly to the large interfacial energy of the hydrophobic surfaces. At the hydrophilic fused quartz/water interface and a fatty acid monolayer covered water surface, the structure and orientation of surface water molecules are controlled by the hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the surface OH groups and the electrostatic interaction with the surface field from the ionization of surface groups. A change of pH value in the bulk water can significantly change the relative importance of the two interactions and cause a drastic change in orientation of the surface water molecules. SFG has also been applied to study the tribological response of some model lubricant films. Monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films were found to disorder orientationaly under mildly high pressure and recover promptly upon removal of the applied pressure.

  17. Observation and modeling of polycrystalline grain formation in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burr, Geoffrey W.; Tchoulfian, Pierre; Topuria, Teya; Nyffeler, Clemens; Virwani, Kumar; Padilla, Alvaro; Shelby, Robert M.; Eskandari, Mona; Jackson, Bryan; Lee, Bong-Sub

    2012-05-15

    The relationship between the polycrystalline nature of phase change materials (such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}) and the intermediate resistance states of phase change memory (PCM) devices has not been widely studied. A full understanding of such states will require knowledge of how polycrystalline grains form, how they interact with each other at various temperatures, and how the differing electrical (and thermal) characteristics within the grains and at their boundaries combine through percolation to produce the externally observed electrical (and thermal) characteristics of a PCM device. We address the first of these tasks (and introduce a vehicle for the second) by studying the formation of fcc polycrystalline grains from the as-deposited amorphous state in undoped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. We perform ex situ transmission electron microscopy membrane experiments and then match these observations against numerical simulation. Ramped-anneal experiments show that the temperature ramp-rate strongly influences the median grain size. By truncating such ramped-anneal experiments at various peak temperatures, we convincingly demonstrate that the temperature range over which these grains are established is quite narrow. Subsequent annealing at elevated temperature appears to change these established distributions of grain sizes only slightly. Our numerical simulator--which models nuclei formation through classical nucleation theory and then tracks the subsequent time- and temperature-dependent growth of these grains--can match these experimental observations of initial grain distributions and crystallization temperature both qualitatively and quantitatively. These simulations show that the particular narrow temperature range over which crystallization occurs shifts as a function of temperature ramp-rate, which allows us to quantify the lower portions of the time-temperature-transformation map for Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}. Future experiments and extensions of

  18. One-Dimensional Reaction-Diffusion Simulation of Cu Migration in Polycrystalline CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Da; Akis, Richard; Brinkman, Daniel; Sankin, Igor; Fang, Tian; Vasileska, Dragica; Ringhofer, Christain

    2014-06-13

    In this work, we report on developing 1D reaction-diffusion solver to understand the kinetics of p-type doping formation in CdTe absorbers and to shine some light on underlying causes of metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cell has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport and Poisson equation. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of Cu diffusion anneal time showing pronounced effect the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results suggest strong potential of the approach in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic device.

  19. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at

  20. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    1997-01-01

    Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

  1. Structure-Property Relationships of Polymer Brushes in Restricted Geometries and their Utilization as Ultra-Low Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, Tonya Lynn; Faller, Roland

    2015-09-28

    Though polymer films are widely used to modify or tailor the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of interfaces in both solid and liquid systems, the rational design of interface- or surface-active polymer modifiers has been hampered by a lack of information about the behavior and structure-property relationships of this class of molecules. This is especially true for systems in which the role of the polymer is to modify the interaction between two solid surfaces in intimate contact and under load, to cause them to be mechanically coupled (e.g. to promote adhesion and wetting) or to minimize their interaction (e.g. lubrication, colloidal stabilization, etc.). Detailed structural information on these systems has largely been precluded by the many difficulties and challenges associated with direct experimental measurements of polymer structure in these geometries. As a result, many practitioners have been forced to employ indirect measurements or rely wholly on theoretical modeling. This has resulted in an incomplete understanding of the structure-property relationships, which are relied upon for the rational design of improved polymer modifiers. Over the course of this current research program, we made direct measurements of the structure of polymers at the interface between two solid surfaces under confinement and elucidated the fundamental physics behind these phenomena using atomistic and coarse grained simulations. The research has potential to lead to new lubricants and wear reducing agents to improve efficiency.

  2. Influence of steel type on the propensity for tribochemical wear in boundary lubrication with a wind turbine gear oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Ryan D.; Doll, Gary L.; Hager, C H; Howe, Jane Y

    2010-01-01

    Tribochemical wear may occur at the interface between a surface and a lubricant as a result of chemical and mechanical interactions in a tribological contact. Understanding the onset of tribochemical wear damage on component surfaces requires the use of high resolution techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, two steel types, case carburized AISI 3310 and through-hardened AISI 52100, were wear tested using a ball-on-disk rolling/sliding contact tribometer in fully formulated commercial wind turbine gearbox oil under boundary lubrication conditions with 10% slip. With the exception of steel type, all other test conditions were held constant. Conventional tribofilm analysis in the wear tracks was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and no significant composition differences were detected in the tribofilms for the different steel disk types. However, TEM analysis revealed significant tribochemical wear differences between the two steel types at multiple length scales, from the near-surface material microstructure (depth < 500 nm) to the tribofilm nanostructure. Nanometer-scale interfacial cracking and surface particle detachment was observed for the AISI 52100 case, whereas the tribofilm/substrate interface was abrupt and undamaged for the AISI 3310 case. Differences in tribofilm structure, including the location and orientation of MoS{sub 2} single sheet inclusions, were observed as a function of steel type as well. It is suggested that the tribochemical wear modes observed in these experiments may be origins of macroscopic surface-initiated damage such as micropitting in bearings and gears.

  3. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Darby J.

    2014-05-08

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of neat-pressed polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial die-pressed specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of thermal

  4. Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems. Volume 1: Description of technical effort and results; Final technical report, March 1995--April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.; Pandy, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this program was to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to determine lubricant circulation characteristics of new HFC/POE pairs and HFC/mineral oil pairs in a representative central residential HVAC system and to compare their behavior with the traditional HCFC-22/mineral oil (refrigerant/lubricant) pair. A dynamic test facility was designed and built to conduct the experimental efforts. This facility provided a unique capability to visually and physically measure oil circulation rates, on-line, in operating systems. A unique on-line ultraviolet-based measurement device was used to obtain detailed data on the rate and level of lubricant oil circulated within the operating heat pump system. The experimental and analytical data developed during the program are presented as a function of vapor velocity, refrigerant/lubricant viscosity, system features and equipment. Both visual observations and instrumentation were used to understand ``worst case`` oil circulation situations. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 contains a complete description of the program scope, objective, test results summary, conclusions, description of test facility and recommendations for future effort. Volume 2 contains all of the program test data essentially as taken from the laboratory dynamic test facility during the sequence of runs.

  5. In-tube heat transfer and pressure drop of R-134a and ester lubricant mixtures in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube. Part 1: Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1994-12-31

    In-tube heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation are reported for mixtures of refrigerant R-134a and a penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The ester lubricant was tested at viscosities of 169 SUS and 369 SUS over a lubricant concentration range of 0% to 5% in both a smooth tube and a micro-fine tube. The average saturation temperature used was 1 C (33.8 F). Measurements were taken for the refrigerant-lubricant mixture over a mass flux range of 85 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (62,700 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) to 375 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (276,640 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) in test tubes with an outer diameter of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). Heat transfer coefficients during evaporation increased at low concentrations of the 169-SUS ester lubricant and then dropped off at high lubricant concentrations in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube. The higher viscosity 369-SUS lubricant decreased the heat transfer coefficients in both tubes over the range of lubricant concentrations tested. Pressure drops during evaporation increased in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube with the addition of ester lubricant of either viscosity. The heat transfer coefficients for the micro-fin tube were 100% to 50% higher than those for the smooth tube, with the higher values occurring at low mass fluxes. Pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 10% to 20% higher than those in the smooth tube.

  6. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; El-Awady, Jaafar A.

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mgmore » stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.« less

  7. Structural and optical properties of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} polycrystalline thin film alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, J. H.; Shafarman, W. N.; Birkmire, R. W.; McCandless, B. E.

    2014-06-14

    The structural and optical properties of pentenary alloy (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} polycrystalline thin films were characterized over the entire compositional range at a fixed (Cu + Ag)/(In + Ga) ratio. Films deposited at 550 °C on bare and molybdenum coated soda-lime glass by elemental co-evaporation in a single-stage process with constant incident fluxes exhibit single phase chalcopyrite structure, corresponding to 122 spacegroup (I-42d) over the entire compositional space. Unit cell refinement of the diffraction patterns show that increasing Ag substitution for Cu, the refined a{sub o} lattice constant, (Ag,Cu)-Se bond length, and anion displacement increase in accordance with the theoretical model proposed by Jaffe, Wei, and Zunger. However, the refined c{sub o} lattice constant and (In,Ga)-Se bond length deviated from theoretical expectations for films with mid-range Ag and Ga compositions and are attributed to influences from crystallographic bond chain ordering or cation electronegativity. The optical band gap, derived from transmission and reflection measurements, widened with increasing Ag and Ga content, due to influences from anion displacement and cation electronegativity, as expected from theoretical considerations for pseudo-binary chalcopyrite compounds.

  8. Biodiesel Impact on Engine Lubricant Dilution During Active Regeneration of Aftertreatment Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, X.; Williams, A.; Christensen, E.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R.

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) to compare lube oil dilution levels and lubricant properties for systems using late in-cylinder fuel injection for aftertreatment regeneration. Lube oil dilution was measured by gas chromatography (GC) following ASTM method D3524 to measure diesel content, by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry following a modified ASTM method D7371 to measure biodiesel content, and by a newly developed back-flush GC method that simultaneously measures both diesel and biodiesel. Heavy-duty (HD) engine testing was conducted on a 2008 6.7L Cummins ISB equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particle filter (DPF). Stage one of engine testing consisted of 10 consecutive repeats of a forced DPF regeneration event. This continuous operation with late in-cylinder fuel injection served as a method to accelerate lube-oil dilution. Stage two consisted of 16 hours of normal engine operation over a transient test cycle, which created an opportunity for any accumulated fuel in the oil sump to evaporate. Light duty (LD) vehicle testing was conducted on a 2010 VW Jetta equipped with DOC, DPF and a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). Vehicle testing comprised approximately 4,000 miles of operation on a mileage-accumulation dynamometer (MAD) using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Highway Fuel Economy Cycle because of the relatively low engine oil and exhaust temperatures, and high DPF regeneration frequency of this cycle relative to other cycles examined. Comparison of the lube oil dilution analysis methods suggests that D3524 does not measure dilution by biodiesel. The new back-flush GC method provided analysis for both diesel and biodiesel, in a shorter time and with lower detection limit. Thus all lube oil dilution results in this paper are based on this method. Analysis of the HD lube-oil samples showed only 1.5% to 1.6% fuel dilution for both fuels during continuous

  9. Influence of lubricant oil on heat transfer performance of refrigerant flow boiling inside small diameter tubes. Part II: Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Wenjian; Ding, Guoliang; Hu, Haitao; Wang, Kaijian

    2007-10-15

    The predictive ability of the available state-of-the-art heat transfer correlations of refrigerant-oil mixture is evaluated with the present experiment data of small tubes with inside diameter of 6.34 mm and 2.50 mm. Most of these correlations can be used to predict the heat transfer coefficient of 6.34 mm tube, but none of them can predict heat transfer coefficient of 2.50 mm tube satisfactorily. A new correlation of two-phase heat transfer multiplier with local properties of refrigerant-oil mixture is developed. This correlation approaches the actual physical mechanism of flow boiling heat transfer of refrigerant-oil mixture and can reflect the actual co-existing conditions of refrigerant and lubricant oil. More than 90% of the experiment data of both test tubes have less than {+-}20% deviation from the prediction values of the new correlations. (author)

  10. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIBOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 1-BENZYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AS NEAT LUBRICANT AND OIL ADDITIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Dinesh G; Qu, Jun; Yu, Bo; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bunting, Bruce G; Blau, Peter Julian; Mordukhovich, Gregory; Smolenski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Selected physical and chemical properties and tribological data for a newly-developed, imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL) are presented. The IL is soluble in the SAE 5W-30 oil up to a certain weight percentage, and is as a promising candidate for use in lubrication applications, either in its neat version or as an oil additive. Characterization of the IL included dynamic viscosity at different temperatures, corrosion effects on cast iron cylinder liners, and thermal stability analysis. The tribological performance was evaluated using a reciprocating ring-on-liner test arrangement. When used in neat version this IL demonstrated friction coefficient comparable to a fully formulated engine oil, and when used as an oil additive it produced less wear.

  12. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  13. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  14. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangopadhyay, Arup; McWatt, D. G.; Zdrodowski, R. J.; Liu, Zak; Elie, Larry; Simko, S. J.; Erdemir, Ali; Ramirez, Giovanni; Cuthbert, J.; Hock, E. D.

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal

  15. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI were investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.

  16. The contribution of lubricant to the formation of particulate matter with reactivity controlled compression ignition in light-duty diesel engines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Storey, John Morse; Curran, Scott; Dempsey, Adam B.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur; Reitz, Rolf; Walker, N. Ryan; Wright, Chris

    2014-12-25

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) has been shown in single- and multi-cylinder engine research to achieve high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low NOX and soot emissions. The nature of the particulate matter (PM) produced by RCCI operation has been shown in recent research to be different than that of conventional diesel combustion and even diesel low-temperature combustion. Previous research has shown that the PM from RCCI operation contains a large amount of organic material that is volatile and semi-volatile. However, it is unclear if the organic compounds are stemming from fuel or lubricant oil. The PM emissions from dual-fuel RCCI weremore » investigated in this study using two engine platforms, with an emphasis on the potential contribution of lubricant. Both engine platforms used the same base General Motors (GM) 1.9-L diesel engine geometry. The first study was conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with primary reference fuels (PRFs), n-heptane, and iso-octane. The second study was conducted on a four-cylinder GM 1.9-L ZDTH engine which was modified with a port fuel injection (PFI) system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. Multi-cylinder RCCI experiments were run with PFI gasoline and direct injection of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) mixed with gasoline at 5 % EHN by volume. In addition, comparison cases of conventional diesel combustion (CDC) were performed. Particulate size distributions were measured, and PM filter samples were collected for analysis of lube oil components. Triplicate PM filter samples (i.e., three individual filter samples) for both gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS; organic) analysis and X-ray fluorescence (XRF; metals) were obtained at each operating point and queued for analysis of both organic species and lubricant metals. Here, the results give a clear indication that lubricants do not contribute significantly to the formation of RCCI PM.« less

  17. In-situ neutron diffraction study of martensitic variant redistribution in polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga alloy under cyclic thermo-mechanical treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zongbin; Zou, Naifu; Zhao, Xiang; Zuo, Liang E-mail: yudong.zhang@univ-lorraine.fr; Zhang, Yudong E-mail: yudong.zhang@univ-lorraine.fr; Esling, Claude; Gan, Weimin

    2014-07-14

    The influences of uniaxial compressive stress on martensitic transformation were studied on a polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga bulk alloy prepared by directional solidification. Based upon the integrated in-situ neutron diffraction measurements, direct experimental evidence was obtained on the variant redistribution of seven-layered modulated (7M) martensite, triggered by external uniaxial compression during martensitic transformation. Large anisotropic lattice strain, induced by the cyclic thermo-mechanical treatment, has led to the microstructure modification by forming martensitic variants with a strong 〈0 1 0〉{sub 7M} preferential orientation along the loading axis. As a result, the saturation of magnetization became easier to be reached.

  18. Temperature dependence of helium-implantation-induced lattice swelling in polycrystalline tungsten: X-ray micro-diffraction and Eigenstrain modelling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    de Broglie, I.; Beck, C. E.; Liu, W.; Hofmann, Felix

    2015-05-30

    Using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction and Eigenstrain analysis the distribution of lattice swelling near grain boundaries in helium-implanted polycrystalline tungsten is quantified. Samples heat-treated at up to 1473 K after implantation show less uniform lattice swelling that varies significantly from grain to grain compared to as-implanted samples. An increase in lattice swelling is found in the vicinity of some grain boundaries, even at depths beyond the implanted layer. As a result, these findings are discussed in terms of the evolution of helium-ion-implantation-induced defects.

  19. Low-activation-energy conduction in polycrystalline. cap alpha. -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ doped with Si and Na

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1985-02-01

    Polycrystalline Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ containing a glassy aluminosilicate second phase displays a low-activation-energy conductivity when Na is present. The conductivity is ionic in nature at high oxygen pressure and electronic at low oxygen pressure and is attributed to the migration of Na/sup +/ ions and electrons through the second phase present at triple junctions. A smaller lowactivation-energy conductivity is found in the absence of sodium, but in that case the low-activation-energy branch has different properties. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/:Na without silicon has no lowtemperature low-activation-energy branch.

  20. Polycrystalline thin film cadmium telluride solar cells fabricated by electrodeposition. Annual technical report, 20 March 1995--19 March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trefny, J.U.; Mao, D.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop improved processes for fabricating CdTe/CdS polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Researchers used electrodeposition to form CdTe; electrodeposition is a non-vacuum, low-cost technique that is attractive for economic, large-scale production. During the past year, research and development efforts focused on several steps that are most critical to the fabricating high-efficiency CdTe solar cells. These include the optimization of the CdTe electrodeposition process, the effect of pretreatment of CdS substrates, the post-deposition annealing of CdTe, and back-contact formation using Cu-doped ZnTe. Systematic investigations of these processing steps have led to a better understanding and improved performance of the CdTe-based cells. Researchers studied the structural properties of chemical-bath-deposited CdS thin films and their growth mechanisms by investigating CdS samples prepared at different deposition times; investigated the effect of CdCl{sub 2} treatment of CdS films on the photovoltaic performance of CdTe solar cells; studied Cu-doped ZnTe as a promising material for forming stable, low-resistance contacts to the p-type CdTe; and investigated the effect of CdTe and CdS thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the resulting cells. As a result of their systematic investigation and optimization of the processing conditions, researchers improved the efficiency of CdTe/CdS cells using ZnTe back-contact and electrodeposited CdTe. The best CdTe/CdS cell exhibited a V{sub oc} of 0.778 V, a J{sub sc} of 22.4 mA/cm{sup 2}, a FF of 74%, and an efficiency of 12.9% (verified at NREL). In terms of individual parameters, researchers obtained a V{sub oc} over 0.8 V and a FF of 76% on other cells.

  1. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface ...

  2. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  3. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3??} ceramics originating from nonuniform distribution of Pr dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; He, Jian; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2014-05-12

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement (>70% at 500?C) in the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics employing a novel synthesis strategy which led to the highest ever reported values of PF among doped polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3}. It was found that the formation of Pr-rich grain boundary regions gives rise to an enhancement in carrier mobility. In this Letter, we investigate the electronic and thermal transport in Sr{sub 1?x}Pr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics in order to determine the optimum doping concentration and to evaluate the overall thermoelectric performance. Simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity in these samples resulted in more than 30% improvement in the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values. Maximum ZT value of 0.35 was obtained at 500?C.

  4. Large-Scale PV Module Manufacturing Using Ultra-Thin Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 1 April 2002--28 February 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Narayanan, M.

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of this program were to continue advances of BP Solar polycrystalline silicon manufacturing technology. The Program included work in the following areas. (1) Efforts in the casting area to increase ingot size, improve ingot material quality, and improve handling of silicon feedstock as it is loaded into the casting stations. (2) Developing wire saws to slice 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers on 290-..mu..m-centers. (3) Developing equipment for demounting and subsequent handling of very thin silicon wafers. (4) Developing cell processes using 100-..mu..m-thick silicon wafers that produce encapsulated cells with efficiencies of at least 15.4% at an overall yield exceeding 95%. (5) Expanding existing in-line manufacturing data reporting systems to provide active process control. (6) Establishing a 50-MW (annual nominal capacity) green-field Mega-plant factory model template based on this new thin polycrystalline silicon technology. (7) Facilitating an increase in the silicon feedstock industry's production capacity for lower-cost solar-grade silicon feedstock..

  5. New insights on the synthesis and electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3−δ}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; Darroudi, Taghi; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2015-02-07

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement in the electronic and thermoelectric properties of bulk polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics via praseodymium doping. This improvement was originated from the simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity, which was contributed to the non-uniform distribution of Pr dopants. In order to further understand the underlying mechanism, we herein investigate the role of praseodymium doping source (Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} versus Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11}) on the synthesis and electronic transport in Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics. It was observed that the high-temperature electronic transport properties are independent of the choice of praseodymium doping source for samples prepared following our synthesis strategy. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to estimate the maximum achievable power factor and the corresponding optimal carrier concentration. The result suggests the possibility of further improvement of the power factor. This study should shed some light on the superior electronic transport in bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics and provide new insight on further improvement of the thermoelectric power factor.

  6. The local environment of cobalt in amorphous, polycrystalline and epitaxial anatase TiO{sub 2}:Co films produced by cobalt ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yildirim, O.; Cornelius, S.; Hübner, R.; Potzger, K.; Smekhova, A.; Zykov, G.; Gan'shina, E. A.; Granovsky, A. B.; Bähtz, C.

    2015-05-14

    Amorphous, polycrystalline anatase and epitaxial anatase TiO{sub 2} films have been implanted with 5 at. % Co{sup +}. The magnetic and structural properties of different microstructures of TiO{sub 2}:Co, along with the local coordination of the implanted Co atoms within the host lattice are investigated. In amorphous TiO{sub 2}:Co film, Co atoms are in the (II) oxidation state with a complex coordination and exhibit a paramagnetic response. However, for the TiO{sub 2}:Co epitaxial and polycrystalline anatase films, Co atoms have a distorted octahedral (II) oxygen coordination assigned to a substitutional environment with traces of metallic Co clusters, which gives a rise to a superparamagnetic behavior. Despite the incorporation of the implanted atoms into the host lattice, high temperature ferromagnetism is absent in the films. On the other hand, it is found that the concentration and size of the implantation-induced nanoclusters and the magnetic properties of TiO{sub 2}:Co films have a strong dependency on the initial microstructure of TiO{sub 2}. Consequently, metallic nanocluster formation within ion implantation prepared transition metal doped TiO{sub 2} can be suppressed by tuning the film microstructure.

  7. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  8. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Water Security HomeTag:Water Security Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) ...

  9. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  10. Oxygen Diffusion Enables Anti-Wear Boundary Film Formation on Titanium Surfaces in Zinc-Dialkyl-Dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-Containing Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a wear reduction by up to six orders of magnitude for Ti-6Al-4V alloy when treated by an oxygen diffusion (OD) process and subsequently tested in a zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-containing lubricant. In addition to case hardening, it is discovered that OD enables the formation of an anti-wear boundary film on the titanium surface. Transmission electron microscopy and surface chemical analyses revealed that this boundary film has a two-layer structure comprising an amorphous oxide interlayer and a ZDDP-based top film with complex compounds.

  11. water scarcity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  12. water savings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  13. water infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  14. Water Demand

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  15. drinking water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drinking water - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  16. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

  17. Water Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership ...ate.mcmordie@pnnl.gov * Francis Wheeler - Water Savers, LLC * fwheeler@watersaversllc.com ...

  18. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  19. Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Security - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  20. Annealing effect on the magnetic induced austenite transformation in polycrystalline freestanding Ni-Co-Mn-In films produced by co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crouïgneau, G.; Porcar, L.; Pairis, S.; Mossang, E.; Eyraud, E.; Bourgault, D.; Courtois, P.

    2015-01-21

    Ni-Co-Mn-In freestanding films, with a magneto-structural transformation at room temperature were successfully produced by co-sputtering and post-annealing methods leading to film composition mastering. For a post-annealing temperature of 700 °C, the phase transformation occurs slightly above room temperature, with a twisted martensitic microstructure phase observed at 300 K by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Magnetization measurements on a polycrystalline film showed a phase transformation from a weakly magnetic martensite to a magnetic austenite phase. Moreover, an inverse magnetocaloric effect with an entropy variation of 4 J/kg K under 5 T was also measured. A simple magneto-actuation experiment based on the magnetic induced austenite transformation was also successfully completed. The possibility to insert such films in microsystems is clearly demonstrated in this work.

  1. Role of polycrystallinity in CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 April 1990--31 March 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sites, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    The polycrystalline nature of thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells continues to be a major factor in several individual losses that limit overall cell efficiency. This report describes progress in the quantitative separation of these losses, including both measurement and analysis procedures. It also applies these techniques to several individual cells to help document the overall progress with CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} cells. Notably, CdTe cells from Photon Energy have reduced window photocurrent losses to 1 mA/Cm{sup 2}; those from the University of South Florida have achieved a maximum power voltage of 693 mV; and CuInSe{sub 2} cells from International Solar Electric Technology have shown a hole density as high as 7 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, implying a significant reduction in compensation. 9 refs.

  2. The relationship between structural evolution and electrical percolation of the initial stages of tungsten chemical vapor deposition on polycrystalline TiN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozenblat, A.; Haimson, S.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Horvitz, D.

    2012-01-16

    This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310 deg. C, percolation effect is formed at {approx}35% of surface coverage, {theta}, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310 deg. C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when {theta} = 35% and the second step at {theta} = 85%. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision.

  3. Boundary Layer Lubrication

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  4. Boundary Layer Lubrication Mechanisms

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  5. Boundary Layer Lubrication Mechanisms

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  6. Fuel & Lubricant Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Lubricated boride surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, A.; Bindal, C.; Fenske, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    Ultralow friction properties are available through the annealation and subsequent cooling of various boron-containing substrates, articles and/or components. 16 figs.

  8. Lubricated boride surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali; Bindal, Cuma; Fenske, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Ultralow friction properties available through the annealation and subsequent cooling of various boron-containing substrates, articles and/or components.

  9. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into ...

  10. Water Summit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    host Water Summit March 21, 2016 Los Alamos watershed research among featured projects LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 21, 2016-On Tuesday, March 22, 2016-World Water Day-the ...

  11. Reusing Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into...

  12. Studies of the viscoelastic properties of water confined between surfaces of specified chemical nature.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Moore, Nathan W.; Feibelman, Peter J.

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes the work completed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 10-0973 of the same title. Understanding the molecular origin of the no-slip boundary condition remains vitally important for understanding molecular transport in biological, environmental and energy-related processes, with broad technological implications. Moreover, the viscoelastic properties of fluids in nanoconfinement or near surfaces are not well-understood. We have critically reviewed progress in this area, evaluated key experimental and theoretical methods, and made unique and important discoveries addressing these and related scientific questions. Thematically, the discoveries include insight into the orientation of water molecules on metal surfaces, the premelting of ice, the nucleation of water and alcohol vapors between surface asperities and the lubricity of these molecules when confined inside nanopores, the influence of water nucleation on adhesion to salts and silicates, and the growth and superplasticity of NaCl nanowires.

  13. Power-dependent microwave properties of superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} films on buffered polycrystalline substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A.T.; Arendt, P.N.; Foltyn, S.R.; Groves, J.R.; Jia, Q.X.; Peterson, E.J.; Bulaevskii, L.; Maley, M.P.; Reagor, D.W.

    1997-06-01

    We have studied the microwave properties of 0.4 {mu}m thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) films on polycrystalline substrates with ion-beam-assisted-deposited yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers using a parallel-plate resonator technique at 10 GHz. The YBCO films with similar in-plane texture grown on both forsterite and Ni-based alloy substrates show similar microwave properties. We measure low-power surface resistance R{sub s} values of about 0.5 m{Omega} at 76 K and 0.15 m{Omega} at 4 K for films with an in-plane mosaic spread of about 7{degree}. Single-tone power-dependence measurements show that the surface resistance and the surface reactance increase linearly and by the same amount with increasing microwave field level. At intermediate power levels, the intermodulation measurements show odd-order intermodulation products that increase quadratically with two-tone input power. These results indicate a hysteretic vortex penetration mechanism in the weak links as the most plausible source of the observed nonlinearities in these films. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} thin films on polycrystalline ferrite for magnetically tunable microwave components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Arendt, P.; Foltyn, S.R.; Roper, J.M.; Groves, J.R.; Coulter, J.Y.; Li, Y.Q.; Dionne, G.F.

    1998-04-01

    Superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) thin films with a surface resistance of 0.86 m{Omega} at 10 GHz and 76 K have been grown on polycrystalline ferrite yttrium iron garnet (YIG) substrates. The chemical and structural mismatches between YBCO and YIG are solved by using a double buffer layer of biaxially oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and CeO{sub 2}, where YSZ is deposited by an ion-beam-assisted-deposition technique. The YBCO films are {ital c} axis oriented with an in-plane mosaic spread [full width at half maximum of an x-ray {phi}-scan on (103) reflection] of less than 8{degree}. The films have a superconductive transition temperature above 88 K with a transition width less than 0.3 K, giving a critical current density above 10{sup 6}A/cm{sup 2} in self field at 75 K. At 75 K in an external magnetic field of 1 T perpendicular to the film surface, the films maintain a critical current density over 2{times}10{sup 5}A/cm{sup 2}. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  16. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  17. Water pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

  18. WATER TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  19. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  20. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zweiacker, K.; McKeown, J. T.; Liu, C.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H.; Wiezorek, J. M. K.

    2016-08-04

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of themore » metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ~1.3 m s–1 to ~2.5 m s–1 during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s–1 have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. As a result, using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.« less

  1. Ellipsometry characterization of polycrystalline ZnO layers with the modeling of carrier concentration gradient: Effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sago, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Kuramochi, Hideto; Iigusa, Hitoshi; Utsumi, Kentaro

    2014-04-07

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied to study the effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture on the carrier transport properties of Al-doped ZnO layers fabricated by dc and rf magnetron sputtering. In the SE analysis, the variation in the free carrier absorption toward the growth direction, induced by the ZnO grain growth on foreign substrates, has been modeled explicitly by adopting a multilayer model in which the optical carrier concentration (N{sub opt}) varies continuously with a constant optical mobility (?{sub opt}). The effect of the grain boundary has been studied by comparing ?{sub opt} with Hall mobility (?{sub Hall}). The change in ?{sub Hall}/?{sub opt} indicates a sharp structural transition of the ZnO polycrystalline layer at a thickness of d???500?nm, which correlates very well with the structure confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In particular, below the transition thickness, the formation of the high density grain boundary leads to the reduction in the ?{sub Hall}/?{sub opt} ratio as well as N{sub opt}. As a result, we find that the thickness dependence of the carrier transport properties is almost completely governed by the grain boundary formation. On the other hand, when the ZnO layer is exposed to wet air at 85?C, ?{sub Hall} reduces drastically with a minor variation of ?{sub opt} due to the enhanced grain boundary scattering. We have also characterized textured ZnO:Al layers prepared by HCl wet etching by SE. The analysis revealed that the near-surface carrier concentration increases slightly after the etching. We demonstrate that the SE technique can be applied to distinguish various rough textured structures (size???1??m) of the ZnO layers prepared by the HCl etching.

  2. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

  3. The tribology of PS212 coatings and PM212 composites for the lubrication of titanium 6A1-4V components of a Stirling engine space power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sliney, H.E.; Dellacorte, C.; Lukaszewicz, V. |

    1995-07-01

    The Stirling space power machine incorporates a linear alternator to generate electrical power. The alternator is a reciprocating device that is driven by a solar or nuclear-powered Stirling engine. The power piston and cylinder are made of titanium 6A1-4V (Ti6-4) alloy, and are designed to be lubricated by a hydrodynamically-generated gas film. Rubbing occurs during starts and stops and there is a possibility of an occasional high speed rub. Since titanium is known to have a severe galling tendency in sliding contacts, a `backup,` self-lubricating coating on the cylinder and/or the piston is needed. This report describes the results of a research program to study the lubrication of Ti6-4 with the following chromium carbide based materials: plasma-sprayed PS212 coatings and sintered PM212 counterfaces. Program objectives are to achieve adherent coatings on Ti6-4 and to measure the friction and wear characteristics of the following sliding combinations under conditions simulative of the Stirling-driven space power linear alternator: Ti6-4/Ti6-4 baseline, Ti6-4/PS212 coated Ti6-4, and Ps212 coated Ti6-4/PM212

  4. Process for recovering uranium from waste hydrocarbon oils containing the same. [Uranium contaminated lubricating oils from gaseous diffusion compressors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, M.C.; Getz, P.A.; Hickman, J.E.; Payne, L.D.

    1982-06-29

    The invention is a process for the recovery of uranium from uranium-bearing hydrocarbon oils containing carboxylic acid as a degradation product. In one aspect, the invention comprises providing an emulsion of water and the oil, heating the same to a temperature effecting conversion of the emulsion to an organic phase and to an acidic aqueous phase containing uranium carboxylate, and recovering the uranium from the aqueous phase. The process is effective, simple and comparatively inexpensive. It avoids the use of toxic reagents and the formation of undesirable intermediates.

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Static Water Level Data ...

  6. Synthesis of magnesium borate (Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanowires, growth mechanism and their lubricating properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Yi; Yang Haibin Fu Wuyou; Qiao Liang; Chang Lianxia; Chen Jiuju; Zhu Hongyang; Li Minghui; Zou Guangtian

    2008-08-04

    Large quantities of single crystalline magnesium borate nanowires of the form Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5} with typical diameter about 120-180 nm and length about 0.2 mm have been successfully synthesized by a new and simple method of heating the mixed tablet of Mg(BO{sub 2}){sub 2} and graphite directly in vacuum at 1200 deg. C for 1 h. The products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and selected area electron diffraction. The process of the nucleation and the growth of nanowires have been analyzed by VS mechanism. The results of the lubricating properties show that the friction coefficient of the oil is significantly decreased by the addition of Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires. Our results indicate that the new method we use is effective in synthesis of Mg{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires and the nanowires can be used as additive to antiwear nanodevices.

  7. WATER CONSERVATION PLAN

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Average water consumers can save thousands of gallons of water per year by being aware of ... program on the water distribution systems to include water saving replacement parts. ...

  8. PROJECT MANGEMENT PLAN EXAMPLES

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... SNM hold up evaluation. Sample oil lubricants for radioactive contamination. Sample water ... Lubricating oils are present on components and equipment reservoirs. Room 146A contains ...

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Salmon, Mississippi, Site, Water Sampling Location Map .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data ...

  11. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........1 Water Sampling Locations at the Rulison, .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  12. Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forecasting Water Quality & Biodiversity March 25, 2015 Cross-cutting Sustainability ... that measure feedstock production, water quality, water quantity, and biodiversity. ...

  13. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy ...

  14. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  15. Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water electrolysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Photosynthetic water oxidation versus photovoltaic water ...

  16. High strain in polycrystalline Ni{sub 48.8}Mn{sub 31.4}Ga{sub 19.8} Heusler alloys under overlapped static and oscillating magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanher, D. Z.; Pereira, J. R. D.; Cótica, L. F.; Santos, I. A.; Gotardo, R. A. M.; Viana, D. S. F.; Garcia, D.; Eiras, J. A.

    2014-09-21

    Martensitic polycrystalline Ni{sub 48.8}Mn{sub 31.4}Ga{sub 19.8} Heusler alloys, with a stacking period of 14 atomic planes at room temperature, were innovatively processed by combining high-energy ball milling and powder metallurgy. Bulk samples were mechanically coupled to a piezoelectric material in a parallel configuration, and the mechanical deformation of the studied system due to the twin's variant motion was investigated under overlapped static and oscillating magnetic fields. A reversible and high mechanical deformation is observed when the frequency of the oscillating magnetic field is tuned with the natural vibration frequency of this system. In this condition, a linear deformation as a function of the static magnetic field amplitude occurs in the ±4 kOe range, and a mechanical deformation of 2% at 10 kOe is observed.

  17. Waters LANL Protects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waters LANL Protects Waters LANL Protects LANL watersheds source in the Jemez Mountains and end at the Rio Grande.

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Slick Rock, Colorado, Processing Sites .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Green River, Utah, Disposal Site August 2014 LMSGRN.........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and May 2014 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2014 LMSRBLS00514 .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site November 2014 LMS.........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Data Durango Processing Site Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static ...

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Natural Gas Analysis Data ...

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Hydrographs Time-Concentration ...

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Hydrograph Time-Concentration ...

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMS.........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  9. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Time-Concentration Graph ...

  10. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2015 LMSMNT.........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  11. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static Water Level Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

  12. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Static Water Level Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

  13. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site .........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  14. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Rio Blanco, Colorado, Site October 2015 LMSRBLS00515 .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  15. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site May 2015 LMSRULS00115 Available .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  16. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site December 2013 .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  17. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Produced Water Sampling at the Rulison, Colorado, Site January 2016 LMSRULS00915 .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  18. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  19. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    July 2015 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  20. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site July 2014 LMSMNT.........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  1. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    3 Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January 2014 LMSMNTS01013 This .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  2. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Naturita, Colorado Processing Site October 2013 LMSNAP.........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  3. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    4 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Gunnison, Colorado, Processing Site .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  4. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Surface Water Sampling at the Tuba City, Arizona, Disposal Site November 2013 LMSTUB.........9 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  5. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    5 Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monticello, Utah, Processing Site January .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ...

  6. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........3 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Time-Concentration Graphs ...

  7. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........7 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static ...

  8. September 2004 Water Sampling

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .........5 Water Sampling Field Activities Verification ... Groundwater Quality Data Surface Water Quality Data Equipment Blank Data Static ...

  9. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  10. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  11. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaokang, E-mail: xiaokang.huang@tqs.com; Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold [TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc., 500 W Renner Road, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12??m{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  12. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  13. Lubricants Activities | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Engine Friction Reduction Technologies DOEDOD Parasitic Energy Loss Collaboration Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: ...

  14. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  15. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  16. Bioenergy Impacts … Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    biofuel production on water quality and quantity, and determine which biofuel crops are best suited to different geographic locations. Biofuel research is enabling wise water use

  17. water for energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  18. water service provider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  19. energy-water interdependency

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  20. "smart water" infrastructure

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