National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for water level stabilize

  1. Seepage flow-stability analysis of the riverbank of Saigon river due to river water level fluctuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oya, A; Hiraoka, N; Fujimoto, M; Fukagawa, R

    2015-01-01

    The Saigon River, which flows through the center of Ho Chi Minh City, is of critical importance for the development of the city as forms as the main water supply and drainage channel for the city. In recent years, riverbank erosion and failures have become more frequent along the Saigon River, causing flooding and damage to infrastructures near the river. A field investigation and numerical study has been undertaken by our research group to identify factors affecting the riverbank failure. In this paper, field investigation results obtained from multiple investigation points on the Saigon River are presented, followed by a comprehensive coupled finite element analysis of riverbank stability when subjected to river water level fluctuations. The river water level fluctuation has been identified as one of the main factors affecting the riverbank failure, i.e. removal of the balancing hydraulic forces acting on the riverbank during water drawdown.

  2. Hurricane jeanne Preliminary Water Levels Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane jeanne Preliminary Water Levels Report Tide Gauges within the Path of Hurricane Jeanne-OPS Hurricane JEANNE Preliminary Report #12;SUMMARY CO-OPS Tide Gauge Data for Hurricane Jeanne NOAA's Center://tidesonline.nos.noaa.gov). Storm surge is the observed water level minus the predicted water level referred to MLLW. Hurricane

  3. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Krishna, Coimbatore R. (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1986-01-01

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described.

  4. Stabilizing coal-water mixtures with Portland cement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Krishna, C.R.

    1984-10-17

    Coal-water mixes stabilized by the addition of Portland cement which may additionally contain retarding carbohydrates, or borax are described. 1 tab.

  5. Investigating step-pool sequence stability Kevin A. Waters1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curran, Joanna C.

    Investigating step-pool sequence stability Kevin A. Waters1 and Joanna Crowe Curran1 Received 22 during a flow event. Citation: Waters, K. A., and J. C. Curran (2012), Investigating step-pool sequence

  6. Hurricane IVAN Preliminary Water Levels Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane IVAN Preliminary Water Levels Report *For the purpose of timely release, data contained and Services #12;CO-OPS Water Level Data for Hurricane IVAN NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic and in the Gulf of Mexico. During the hurricane season (June through November) CO-OPS personnel actively maintain

  7. June, 2003 Journal of Vector Ecology 31 Nuisance chironomids in waste water stabilization ponds: monitoring and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inbar, Moshe

    June, 2003 Journal of Vector Ecology 31 Nuisance chironomids in waste water stabilization ponds from waste water stabilization ponds in central Israel created severe nuisance to nearby residents

  8. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jiyun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    The Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor (SCWR) is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure (25MPa) and high temperature (500°C average core exit). The high coolant temperature as it leaves the ...

  9. Stability of stainless-steel nanoparticle and water mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, You Young; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2014-11-28

    as little surfactant as possible to investigate the heat transfer mechanism between metallic nanoparticles, so adding SDBS with mass ratio of 0.5 is better; cationic surfactants is known not to work well in high pH solutions; and it is easier to use... water with pH control and surfactant additions. It is clear that both ?-potential and absorbance (sedimentation) measurements are important in measuring the stability of nanoparticle-fluids. Dispersion via ultrasonic vibration was used to induce...

  10. Stability of Thermohaline circulation with respect to fresh water release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajay Patwardhan; Vivek Tewary

    2008-05-16

    The relatively warm climate found in the North- Western Europe is due to the gulf stream that circulates warm saline water from southern latitudes to Europe. In North Atlantic ocean the stream gives out a large amount of heat, cools down and sinks to the bottom to complete the Thermohaline circulation. There is considerable debate on the stability of the stream to inputs of fresh water from the melting ice in Greenland and Arctic. The circulation, being switched off, will have massive impact on the climate of Europe. Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) has warned of this danger in its recent report. Our aim is to model the Thermohaline circulation at the point where it sinks in the North-Atlantic. We create a two dimensional discrete map modeling the salinity gradient and vertical velocity of the stream. We look for how a perturbation in the form of fresh water release can destabilise the circulation by pushing the velocity below a certain threshold.

  11. NOAA Water Level and Meteorological Data Report HURRICANE SANDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Water Level and Meteorological Data Report HURRICANE SANDY Silver Spring, Maryland January 24 Report HURRICANE SANDY Colleen Fanelli, Paul Fanelli, David Wolcott January 24, 2013 noaa National, Richard Edwing #12;NOAA NOS Hurricane Sandy Water Level & Meteorological Data Report 1 Table of Contents

  12. STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisen, Michael

    STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN (RISK LEVEL 1) for BUILDING 90 USER TEST BED FACILITY.G., GEOLOGIST/QSD (530) 222-4339 SWPPP Preparation Date: JUNE 10, 2012 #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan) 222-4339 Name and Title Telephone Number #12;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan Building 90 User

  13. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  14. c2 2 Water-Hydroxyl Layer on Cu(110): AWetting Layer Stabilized by Bjerrum Defects Matthew Forster,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    cð2 Â 2Þ Water-Hydroxyl Layer on Cu(110): AWetting Layer Stabilized by Bjerrum Defects Matthew the composition and stability of mixed water-hydroxyl layers is a key step in describing wetting and how surfaces, structures containing an excess of water over hydroxyl are stabilized on Cu (110) by forming a distorted

  15. The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability Andrew P, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905 Small inorganic particles strongly enhance water-crude oil emulsion accompanies crude oil during its recovery from a reservoir. Additional water might also be added to aid

  16. Noise Decomposition in Boiling Water Reactors with Application to Stability Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    Noise Decomposition in Boiling Water Reactors with Application to Stability Monitoring J. Karlsson in boiling water reactor (BWR) noise measure- ments, based on flux factorization techniques (i.e., using reactors4 or flux oscillations in boiling water reactors5,6 ~BWRs!. In these cases the different modes have

  17. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Kang, Doohee (Macungie, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases.

  18. Process for preparing a stabilized coal-water slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, E.N.; Kang, D.

    1987-06-23

    A process is described for preparing a stabilized coal particle suspension which includes the steps of providing an aqueous media substantially free of coal oxidizing constituents, reducing, in a nonoxidizing atmosphere, the particle size of the coal to be suspended to a size sufficiently small to permit suspension thereof in the aqueous media and admixing the coal of reduced particle size with the aqueous media to release into the aqueous media coal stabilizing constituents indigenous to and carried by the reduced coal particles in order to form a stabilized coal particle suspension. The coal stabilizing constituents are effective in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to maintain the coal particle suspension at essentially a neutral or alkaline pH. The coal is ground in a nonoxidizing atmosphere such as an inert gaseous atmosphere to reduce the coal to a sufficient particle size and is admixed with an aqueous media that has been purged of oxygen and acid-forming gases. 2 figs.

  19. Autocatalytic and cooperatively-stabilized dissociation of water on a stepped platinum surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donadio, Davide; Site, Luigi Delle; 10.1021/ja308899g

    2012-01-01

    Water-metal interfaces are ubiquitous and play a key role in many chemical processes, from catalysis to corrosion. Whereas water adlayers on atomically flat transition metal surfaces have been investigated in depth, little is known about the chemistry of water on stepped surfaces, commonly occurring in realistic situations. Using first-principles simulations we study the adsorption of water on a stepped platinum surface. We find that water adsorbs preferentially at the step edge, forming linear clusters or chains, stabilized by the cooperative effect of chemical bonds with the substrate and hydrogen bonds. In contrast with flat Pt, at steps water molecules dissociate forming mixed hydroxyl/water structures, through an autocatalytic mechanism promoted by hydrogen bonding. Nuclear quantum effects contribute to stabilize partially dissociated cluster and chains. Together with the recently demonstrated attitude of water chains adsorbed on stepped Pt surfaces to transfer protons via thermally activated hopping, th...

  20. Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water-dimensional surface waves generated by an applied steadily moving localized pressure distribution over water of finite is ignored, and has applications for the modelling of waves generated by ships. The flow parameters

  1. A New Application of Potassium Nitrate as an Environmentally Friendly Clay Stabilizer in Water-Based Drilling Fluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Jing

    2015-04-15

    The application of potassium chloride (KCl) as a temporary clay stabilizing additive in water-based drilling fluids is problematic in chloride-sensitive formations. However, failure to utilize clay stabilization leads to additional costs to drilling...

  2. Stability of additive-free water-in-oil emulsions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jos Zwanikken; Joost de Graaf; Markus Bier; René van Roij

    2008-10-09

    We calculate ion distributions near a planar oil-water interface within non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory, taking into account the Born self-energy of the ions in the two media. For unequal self-energies of cations and anions, a spontaneous charge separation is found such that the water and oil phase become oppositely charged, in slabs with a typical thickness of the Debye screening length in the two media. From the analytical solutions, the corresponding interfacial charge density and the contribution to the interfacial tension is derived, together with an estimate for the Yukawa-potential between two spherical water droplets in oil. The parameter regime is explored where the plasma coupling parameter exceeds the crystallization threshold, i.e. where the droplets are expected to form crystalline structures due to a strong Yukawa repulsion, as recently observed experimentally. Extensions of the theory that we discuss briefly include numerical calculations on spherical water droplets in oil, and analytical calculations of the linear PB-equation for a finite oil-water interfacial width.

  3. Dynamic Stability and Thermodynamic Characterization in an Enzymatic Reaction at the Single Molecule Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moisés Santillán

    2011-05-27

    In this work we study, at the single molecular level, the thermodynamic and dynamic characteristics of an enzymatic reaction comprising a rate limiting step. We investigate how the stability of the enzyme-state stationary probability distribution, the reaction velocity, and its efficiency of energy conversion depend on the system parameters. We employ in this study a recently introduced formalism for performing a multiscale thermodynamic analysis in continuous-time discrete-state stochastic systems.

  4. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  5. Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen,*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Dual gas and oil dispersions in water: production and stability of foamulsion Anniina Salonen cosmetic and food products (such as whipped cream) or in oil recovery processes. Depending on the a of oil droplets and gas bubbles and show that the oil can have two very different roles, either

  6. Improving Great Lakes Regional Operational Water Budget and Water Level Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratory, 2 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, 3 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit Corps of Engineers (USACE, Detroit District). The USACE (in partnership with colleagues from Environment Protocol The USACE (Detroit District) develops operational water level projections for the Great Lakes

  7. Fermi level stabilization and band edge energies in Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detert, Douglas M.; Tom, Kyle B.; Dubon, Oscar D. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Battaglia, Corsin; Javey, Ali [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Denlinger, Jonathan D. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lim, Sunnie H. N. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Anders, André [Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Yu, Kin M.; Walukiewicz, Wladek [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    We have measured the band edge energies of Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O thin films as a function of composition by three independent techniques: we determine the Fermi level stabilization energy by pinning the Fermi level with ion irradiation, measure the binding energy of valence band states and core levels by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and probe shifts in the conduction band and valence band density of states using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy, respectively. The three techniques find consensus in explaining the origin of compositional trends in the optical-bandgap narrowing upon Cd incorporation in wurtzite ZnO and widening upon Zn incorporation in rocksalt CdO. The conduction band minimum is found to be stationary for both wurtzite and rocksalt alloys, and a significant upward rise of the valence band maximum accounts for the majority of these observed bandgap changes. Given these band alignments, alloy disorder scattering is found to play a negligible role in decreasing the electron mobility for all alloys. These band alignment details, combined with the unique optical and electrical properties of the two phase regimes, make CdZnO alloys attractive candidates for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications.

  8. Estimation of Recharge to the Middle Trinity Aquifer of Central Texas Using Water-Level Fluctuations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jennings, Marshall; Chad, Thomas; Burch, John; Creutzburg, Brian; Lambert, Lance

    2001-01-01

    .............8 Figure 5. Water Level and Rainfall, Hays County, 57-56-710, 1999-2000..........24 Figure 6. Water Level and Rainfall, Hays County, 57-64-705, 1999-2000..........25 Figure 7. Water Level and Rainfall, Blanco County, 57-53-305, 1999-2000 ......30... Figure 8. Water Level and Rainfall, Blanco County, 57-53-614, 1999-2000 ......31 Figure 9. Water Level and Rainfall, Comal County, 68-13-806, 1999-2000 .......32 Figure 10. Water Level and Rainfall, Comal County, 68-06-709, 1999-2000 .......33 Figure 11...

  9. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report...

  10. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Getting Warmer: Solar Water Heaters Grade Levels: 6 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    water heaters use energy from the sun to heat water. The water heater is made up of a collector and a storage tank. In the collector, energy from the sun is absorbed the rubber tubing in the collector

  12. NOAA NOS CO-OPS Hurricane Wilma Preliminary Report Hurricane Wilma Preliminary Water Levels Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA NOS CO-OPS Hurricane Wilma Preliminary Report Hurricane Wilma Preliminary Water Levels Report;NOAA NOS CO-OPS Hurricane Wilma Preliminary Report Page 2 of 11 SUMMARY Water level stations operated-OPS) recorded elevated water levels during the landfall of Hurricane WILMA from Fort Myers, FL to Trident Pier

  13. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viorel Badescu; Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2007-07-21

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with hydrogeology and some hydromancy. We estimate its cost at 1 billion dollars - about 0.01 per sent of the USA 2007 Gross Domestic Product.

  14. FCourse: Learn to Swim Level 6: Personal Water Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hemmers, Oliver

    flip turn o Backstroke flip o Butterfly Turn o Breaststroke Turn Tread water, kicking only, in deep float in deep water (5 minutes) Demonstrate a back float in deep water (5 minutes) Demonstrate survival, swimming at least 50 yards of each stroke. 2. Jump into deep water, perform a survival float for 5 minutes

  15. Loss of pressurizer water level during station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griggs, D.P.; Riggs, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Station blackout is the loss of all alternating current (ac) power to both the essential and nonessential electrical buses in a nuclear power plant. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed a requirement that all plants be capable of maintaining adequate core cooling during station blackout events lasting a specified duration. The NRC has also suggested acceptable specified durations of four or eight hours, depending on individual plant susceptibility to blackout events. In a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the occurrence of a station blackout event results in the functional loss of many plant components, including main feedwater, reactor coolant pumps, the emergency core cooling system, and pressurizer heaters and spray. Nevertheless, PWRs have the capability of removing decay heat for some period of time using steam-driven auxiliary feedwater pumps and the natural-circulation capability of the primary system. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the early response of a PWR to station blackout conditions. In particular, the effect of primary coolant shrinkage and inventory loss on pressurizer level is examined to gain insight into the operational and analytical issues associated with the proposed station blackout coping requirement.

  16. Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of gravity-capillary waves generated by a moving pressure disturbance in water of finite In previous work, we investigated two-dimensional steady gravity-capillary waves generated by a localized-capillary, depression wave, elevation wave, fKdV, stability 1 Introduction Two-dimensional surface waves generated

  17. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  18. Conductive methyl blue-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with excellent stability and solubility in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xiang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Tan, Shaozao, E-mail: shaozao@tom.com [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xie, Agui; Lin, Minsong; Liu, Yingliang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhang, Xiuju; Lin, Zhidan [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wu, Ting [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mai, Wenjie, E-mail: wenjiemai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Department of Physics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: MB-rGO was synthesized by making use of {pi} stacking and water-solubility of MB to assist the hydrazine mediated reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous solution. The resulting MB-rGO shows excellent solubility and stability in aqueous solution, and the electrical conductivity of MB-rGO is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of GO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methyl blue (MB) stacks onto the plane of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by strong {pi}-{pi} interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfo groups of MB prevent rGO from aggregating by electrostatic and steric repulsions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MB-functionalized rGO (MB-rGO) shows excellent solubility and stability in aqueous solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity of MB-rGO is almost two orders of magnitude larger than that of GO. -- Abstract: {pi} stacking and water-solubility of methyl blue (MB) are expected to facilitate the hydrazine mediated reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in aqueous environment. Our newly obtained MB-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (MB-rGO) exhibited excellent solubility and stability in water. The results showed that the MB molecules stacked non-covalently onto the basal plane of rGO while the sulfo groups of MB prevented the rGO from aggregation. In addition, the better electrical conductivity of MB-rGO than that of GO was analyzed. This novel conductive MB-rGO should have promising applications in diverse nanotechnological areas, such as electronic and optoelectronic devices, photovoltaics, sensors, and microfabrication.

  19. Stability of inverse bicontinuous cubic phases in lipid-water mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Schwarz; G. Gompper

    2000-09-02

    We investigate the stability of seven inverse bicontinuous cubic phases ($G$, $D$, $P$, $C(P)$, $S$, $I-WP$, $F-RD$) in lipid-water mixtures based on a curvature model of membranes. Lipid monolayers are described by parallel surfaces to triply periodic minimal surfaces. The phase behavior is determined by the distribution of the Gaussian curvature on the minimal surface and the porosity of each structure. Only $G$, $D$ and $P$ are found to be stable, and to coexist along a triple line. The calculated phase diagram agrees very well with experimental results for 2:1 lauric acid/DLPC.

  20. Chemical reactions at the single molecule level Two molecules may have greater stability as a complex or as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albert, Réka

    Chemical reactions at the single molecule level · Two molecules may have greater stability is the more favorable one · For two molecules to undergo a chemical reaction, they must encounter each other. · In a gaseous mixture of two molecular species the average probability that a reaction takes place is = (c dt

  1. Water Levels of the Great Lakes Who is Affected by Changing Lake Levels?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to businesses and residents, but water that runs off the land carries pesticides and nutrients with it. Water of 1986 affected many residents and businesses located along the rivers that provide water to the lakes and along the shoreline of the lakes themselves. In 1986, the Tittabawassee River basin, which eventually

  2. Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001): thermal stability and inhibition of dissociation by H2O-O bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mugarza, Aitor

    2009-01-01

    On the O(2x2) areas intact water monomers are still visible.Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001): thermal stabilityJapan. Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) Corresponding

  3. Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Bavel, C. H. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level C.H. M. van Bavel Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

  4. Title: Hydraulic modeling of a mixed water level control hydro-mechanical gate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Title: Hydraulic modeling of a mixed water level control hydro-mechanical gate Ludovic Cassan1 Abstract: The article describes the hydraulic functioning of a mixed water level control hydro- mechanical of the model to reproduce the functioning of this complex hydro-mechanical system. CE database Subject headings

  5. Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role of pH, and Soap : Acid Ratio#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Stabilization of Water-in-Oil Emulsions by Naphthenic Acids and Their Salts: Model Compounds, Role cyclic and branched aliphatic carboxylic acids, are interfacially active and adsorb at water­oil in petroleum production is the resulting stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions, which can cause problems

  6. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  7. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S. (Joliet, IL); Singh, Dileep (Westmont, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  8. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  9. Predicted impacts of future water level decline on monitoring wells using a ground-water model of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Freshley, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    A ground-water flow model was used to predict water level decline in selected wells in the operating areas (100, 200, 300, and 400 Areas) and the 600 Area. To predict future water levels, the unconfined aquifer system was stimulated with the two-dimensional version of a ground-water model of the Hanford Site, which is based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) Code in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software package. The model was developed using the assumption that artificial recharge to the unconfined aquifer system from Site operations was much greater than any natural recharge from precipitation or from the basalt aquifers below. However, artificial recharge is presently decreasing and projected to decrease even more in the future. Wells currently used for monitoring at the Hanford Site are beginning to go dry or are difficult to sample, and as the water table declines over the next 5 to 10 years, a larger number of wells is expected to be impacted. The water levels predicted by the ground-water model were compared with monitoring well completion intervals to determine which wells will become dry in the future. Predictions of wells that will go dry within the next 5 years have less uncertainty than predictions for wells that will become dry within 5 to 10 years. Each prediction is an estimate based on assumed future Hanford Site operating conditions and model assumptions.

  10. Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    the assumption that the densities of the two uids are di#11;erent and that the viscosity of the oil core is veryLevel Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes Hyeseon Shim July 31, 2000 Abstract We simulate the axisymmetric pipeline transportation of oil and water numerically under

  11. Analysis of temperatures and water levels in wells to estimatealluvial aquifer hydraulic conductivities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Grace W.; Jasperse, James; Seymour, Donald; Constantz, Jim

    2003-06-19

    Well water temperatures are often collected simultaneously with water levels; however, temperature data are generally considered only as a water quality parameter and are not utilized as an environmental tracer. In this paper, water levels and seasonal temperatures are used to estimate hydraulic conductivities in a stream-aquifer system. To demonstrate this method, temperatures and water levels are analyzed from six observation wells along an example study site, the Russian River in Sonoma County, California. The range in seasonal ground water temperatures in these wells varied from <0.28C in two wells to {approx}88C in the other four wells from June to October 2000. The temperature probes in the six wells are located at depths between 3.5 and 7.1 m relative to the river channel. Hydraulic conductivities are estimated by matching simulated ground water temperatures to the observed ground water temperatures. An anisotropy of 5 (horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity) generally gives the best fit to the observed temperatures. Estimated conductivities vary over an order of magnitude in the six locations analyzed. In some locations, a change in the observed temperature profile occurred during the study, most likely due to deposition of fine-grained sediment and organic matter plugging the streambed. A reasonable fit to this change in the temperature profile is obtained by decreasing the hydraulic conductivity in the simulations. This study demonstrates that seasonal ground water temperatures monitored in observation wells provide an effective means of estimating hydraulic conductivities in alluvial aquifers.

  12. Effect of Excess Electron and One Water Molecule on Relative Stability of the Canonical and Zwitterionic Tautomers of Glycine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2008-03-24

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The anionic and neutral complexes of glycine with water were studied at at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations. The most stable neutral complex has a relatively small dipole moment (1.74 D) and does not bind an electron. Other neutral complexes involve a polar conformer of canonical glycine and support dipole-bound anionic states. The most stable anion is characterized by an electron vertical detachment energy of 1576 cm?1, in excellent agreement with the experimental result of 1573 cm?1. The (Gly·H?O)? complex supports local minima, in which the zwitterionic glycine is stabilized by one water and one excess electron. They are, however, neither thermodynamically nor kinetically stable with respect to the dipole-bound states based on the canonical tautomers of glycine. The electron correlation contributions to excess electron binding energies are important, in particular, for nonzwitterionic complexes. Our results indicate that the condensation energies for Gly(0,?)+H?O?(Gly·H?O)(0,?) are larger than the adiabatic electron affinity of Gly·H?O. The above results imply that collisions of Gly? with H?O might effectively remove Gly? from the ion distribution. This might explain why formation of Gly? and (Gly·H?O)? is very sensitive to source conditions. We analyzed shifts in stretching mode frequencies that develop upon formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds and an excess electron attachment. The position of the main peak and a vibrational structure in the photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum of (Gly·H2O)? are well reproduced by our theoretical results.

  13. Existence and conditional energetic stability of three-dimensional fully localised solitary gravity-capillary water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris Buffoni; Mark D. Groves; Shu-Ming Sun; Erik Wahlén

    2011-08-09

    In this paper we show that the hydrodynamic problem for three-dimensional water waves with strong surface-tension effects admits a fully localised solitary wave which decays to the undisturbed state of the water in every horizontal direction. The proof is based upon the classical variational principle that a solitary wave of this type is a critical point of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed. We prove the existence of a minimiser of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed and small. The existence of a small-amplitude solitary wave is thus assured, and since the energy and momentum are both conserved quantities a standard argument may be used to establish the stability of the set of minimisers as a whole. `Stability' is however understood in a qualified sense due to the lack of a global well-posedness theory for three-dimensional water waves.

  14. Leachate concentrations from water leach and column leach tests on fly ash-stabilized soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bin-Shafique, S.; Benson, C.H.; Edil, T.B.; Hwang, K.

    2006-01-15

    Batch water leaching tests (WLTs) and column leaching tests (CLTs) were conducted on coal-combustion fly ashes, soil, and soil-fly ash mixtures to characterize leaching of Cd, Cr, Se, and Ag. The concentrations of these metals were also measured in the field at two sites where soft fine-grained soils were mechanically stabilized with fly ash. Concentrations in leachate from the WLTs on soil-fly ash mixtures are different from those on fly ash alone and cannot be accurately estimated based on linear dilution calculations using concentrations from WLTs on fly ash alone. The concentration varies nonlinearly with fly ash content due to the variation in pH with fly ash content. Leachate concentrations are low when the pH of the leachate or the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil is high. Initial concentrations from CLTs are higher than concentrations from WLTs due to differences in solid-liquid ratio, pH, and solid-liquid contact. However, both exhibit similar trends with fly ash content, leachate pH, and soil properties. Scaling factors can be applied to WLT concentrations (50 for Ag and Cd, 10 for Cr and Se) to estimate initial concentrations for CLTs. Concentrations in leachate collected from the field sites were generally similar or slightly lower than concentrations measured in CLTs on the same materials. Thus, CLTs appear to provide a good indication of conditions that occur in the field provided that the test conditions mimic the field conditions. In addition, initial concentrations in the field can be conservatively estimated from WLT concentrations using the aforementioned scaling factors provided that the pH of the infiltrating water is near neutral.

  15. Model-Free Based Water Level Control for Hydroelectric Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model-Free Based Water Level Control for Hydroelectric Power Plants Cédric JOIN Gérard ROBERT for hydroelectric run-of-the river power plants. To modulate power generation, a level trajectory is planned, the set-point is followed even in severe operating conditions. Keywords: Hydroelectric power plants

  16. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for groundwater management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model and provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral groundwater flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment (TSPA).

  17. Enhancement of thermal stability and water resistance in yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hyun Lee, Choong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have systematically investigated the material and electrical properties of yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) on Germanium (Ge). A significant improvement of both thermal stability and water resistance were demonstrated by Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack, compared to that of pure GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack. The excellent electrical properties of Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stacks with low D{sub it} were presented as well as enhancement of dielectric constant in Y-GeO{sub 2} layer, which is beneficial for further equivalent oxide thickness scaling of Ge gate stack. The improvement of thermal stability and water resistance are discussed both in terms of the Gibbs free energy lowering and network modification of Y-GeO{sub 2}.

  18. In Situ Stabilization of Inactive Low Level Waste Pipelines in the Melton Valley Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cange, J.; Cox, J. [Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Coye, St. [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., Niagara Falls, NY (United States); Skinner, R. [US DOE Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaw, K. [Restoration Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McGinley, S. [Pro2Serve, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Melton Valley watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contained an inactive waste pipeline system consisting of approximately 12 kilometers of buried waste pipelines and over 142 m{sup 3} in surface/subsurface appurtenances (e.g., vents, valve pits, pump vaults, etc.). Historically, the system was used to transport liquid low level and process waste between generator facilities in Melton Valley, storage and disposal sites in Melton Valley, and storage/treatment facilities in Bethel Valley. The selected remedy in the Melton Valley Record of Decision (ROD) for inactive pipelines was isolation, removal, or stabilization. Pipeline remediation activities began in the summer of 2005 and were completed in the spring of 2006. The task entailed an iterative process of selecting pipeline access points, excavating and exposing pipelines, performing tapping, draining and cutting activities, either installing fittings for grouting or plugging and capping the lines. Grouting was accomplished using paired access points, with one location serving as the grout injection point and the other as vent/drain and grout confirmation point. Grouting was conducted by pumping a cement-bentonite grout into the specially installed fittings and typically proceeded from a low point to a high point to ensure complete filling of the pipeline (i.e., no void space). The project successfully grouted a total of 8,454 meters (linear distance) of pipeline; another 3,573 meters of pipeline was stabilized through isolation. (authors)

  19. Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses in shallow intertidal basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses in shallow, and wind direction on water depth, fetch, and the resulting wave-generated shear stresses. We identify four. Wiberg (2009), Importance of wind conditions, fetch, and water levels on wave-generated shear stresses

  20. The contribution of tyrosine water=hydrogen bonds to protein stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bechert, Charles John

    2013-02-22

    The goal of this research was to determine how protein stability is affected when tyrosines form specific inter and/or intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the folded state. Our model protein, the enzyme RNase Sa, contains four Tyr residues believed...

  1. Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its...

  2. THE EFFECT OF LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS ON SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Diane

    THE EFFECT OF LAKE ERIE WATER LEVEL VARIATIONS ON SEDIMENT RESUSPENSION A Thesis Presented regions of resuspension. In this study, areas of possible resuspension were examined for the heavily populated Cleveland, Ohio, region and for the entire lake. Areas of possible resuspension were identified

  3. Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kai

    2009-05-15

    . After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging...

  4. Spatial variability of sea level rise due to water impoundment behind dams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conrad, Clint

    dams Julia W. Fiedler1 and Clinton P. Conrad2 Received 29 March 2010; revised 12 May 2010; accepted 18 May 2010; published 19 June 2010. [1] Dams have impounded 10,800 km3 of water since 1900, reducing depresses the earth's surface near dams and elevates the geoid, which locally increases relative sea level

  5. Phase Behavior and Emulsion Stability of the Aot/Decane/ Water/NaCl System at Very Low Volume Fractions of Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yithanllili Bastidas; Lisset Hernaandez; Issarly Rivas; Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

    2014-10-09

    The stability of a ternary system composed of decane/water/Aerosol-OT and salt is revisited. Phase diagrams and emulsions similar in composition to those previously studied by Hofman and Stein [Hofman, 1991] were made. Ac- cording to our results, and contrary to the common experience, these systems exhibit a maximum of stability very close to the balance zone.

  6. Water availability at farm household level a case study in the Nyando district in South-Western Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water availability at farm household level ­ a case study in the Nyando district in South of Crop Production Ecology Uppsala 2011 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences #12;2 Water: Women collecting water in a well, Onjiko, Kenya. Photo: Erika Näslund Keywords: Water availability

  7. The Design and Evaluation of Prototype Eco-Feedback Displays for Fixture-Level Water Usage Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    The Design and Evaluation of Prototype Eco-Feedback Displays for Fixture-Level Water Usage Data ABSTRACT Few means currently exist for home occupants to learn about their water consumption: e.g., where water use occurs, whether such use is excessive and what steps can be taken to conserve. Emerging water

  8. Water Levels, Barrow, Alaska, NGEE Areas A, B, C and D for 2012, 2013, 2014, Final Version, 20150324

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    2015-06-08

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  9. Water Levels, Barrow, Alaska, NGEE Areas A, B, C and D for 2012, 2013, 2014, Final Version, 20150324

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Anna Liljedahl; Cathy Wilson

    Ice wedge polygonal tundra water levels were measured at a total of 45 locations representing polygon centers and troughs during three summers. Early season water levels, which were still affected by ice and snow, are represented by manual measurements only. Continuous (less than hourly) measurements followed through early fall (around mid-Sep). The data set contains inundation depth (cm), absolute water level and local ground surface elevation (masl).

  10. Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritz, E.J.; Hoffman, C.R.; Hergert, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical pretreatment of the water was utilized during this study. The treatment system was staged as follows: multimedia filtration, granular activated carbon adsorption, hollow tube ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membrane filtration. Various recovery rates and two RO membrane models were tested. Analytical measurements included total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), gross alpha ({alpha}) and gross beta ({beta}) activity, uranium isotopes {sup 233/234}U and {sup 238}U, plutonium {sup 239/240}Pu, and americium {sup 241}Am. Particle measurement between 1--150 microns ({mu}) included differential particle counts (DPC), and total particle counts (TPC) before and after treatment at various sampling points throughout the test. Performance testing showed this treatment system produced a high quality effluent in clarity and purity. Compared to raw water levels, TSS was reduced to below detection of 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and TDS reduced by 98%. Gross {alpha} was essentially removed 100%, and gross {beta} was reduced an average of 94%. Uranium activity was reduced by 99%. TPC between 1-150{mu} were reduced by an average 99.8% to less than 1,000 counts per milliliter (mL), similar in purity to a good drinking water treatment plant. Raw water levels of {sup 239/240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were below reliable quantitation limits and thus no removal efficiencies could be determined for these species.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in water, sediment and selected organisms of Galveston Bay, Texas: environmental levels and bioaccumulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stahl, Ralph Garner

    1980-01-01

    of PCBs and CHCPs Routes and Mechanisms of Transfer to the Environment Bioaccumulation by Organisms Toxicity to Organisms MATERIALS AND METHODS 6 11 23 28 33 Description of the Study Area Concentrations of Organic Pollutants Microbiological...-10%) 1268 (1. 5-40'4) 1262 (5-50%) 1260 (254 of oil) 1242 (5%) Environmental Levels of PCBs and CHCPs In 1965, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPW) began analyses of water, sediment anc organisms for chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides (CHCP...

  12. Water skin anomalies: density, elasticity, hydrophobicity, thermal stability, interface repulsivity, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-02-26

    Molecular undercoordination induced O:H-O bond relaxation and dual polarization dictates the supersolid behavior of water skins interacting with other substances such as flowing in nanochannels, dancing of water droplets, floating of insects. The BOLS-NEP notion unifies the Wenzel-Cassie-Baxter models and explains controllable transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity.

  13. A field investigation of the hydraulics and stability of Corpus Christi Water Exchange Pass, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFehr, Kenneth Jay

    1973-01-01

    inlet connecting the southeast corner of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas with the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the hydraulic characteristics of the inlet, (2) its response to various physical processes, and (3...) the nature of its stability. Field work included current measurements, collection and analysis of sediment samples, and measurements of tidal fluctuations in the inlet and Corpus Christi Bay. Hydrographic data was obtained from a concurrent hydrographic...

  14. A Nonparametric Instrumental Variable Approach to Estimating the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    ), as well as papers focusing specifically on air pollution (e.g., Bruvoll and Medin, 2003; Deacon and Norman for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Krishna P. Paudel1 , C.-Y. Cynthia Lin2 , Mahesh Pandit the Environmental Kuznets Curve for Water Pollutants at the Global Level Abstract We examine the relationship

  15. The 74-year water level record for Anvil Lake, a northern Wis-consin seepage lake, demonstrates pronounced, recurring highs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    The 74-year water level record for Anvil Lake, a northern Wis- consin seepage lake, demonstrates impacts on Wisconsin's water resources Carolyn Rumery Betz1 , Tim Asplund2 , and jim Hurley1 1 University Impacts, a copy of the full Water Resources Working Group report, and a PDF of this poster, go to wicci

  16. Pore-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation, and Permeability of Clastic Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SPE 109878 Pore-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation permeability from well- log calculations of porosity and irreducible water satura- tion. However, these models of compaction, cementation, and distribution of dispersed hydrated clay minerals. Irreducible water

  17. Use of compost filter bermsfor sediment trapping: primary focus on water quality and structural stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raut Desai, Aditya Babu

    2004-11-15

    Runoff from road construction and maintenance sites is responsible for erosion and deposition of sediments in the receiving water bodies. In addition to soil particles from erosion, runoff also transports other pollutants such as rubber, toxic...

  18. Stability analysis of the boiling water reactor : methods and advanced designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Rui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Density Wave Oscillations (DWOs) are known to be possible when a coolant undergoes considerable density reduction while passing through a heated channel. In the development of boiling water reactors (BWRs), there has been ...

  19. A detection-level hazardous waste ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the 200 areas low-level burial grounds and retrievable storage units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This plan defines the actions needed to achieve detection-level monitoring compliance at the Hanford Site 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Compliance will be achieved through characterization of the hydrogeology and monitoring of the ground water beneath the LLBG located in the Hanford Site 200 Areas. 13 refs., 20 figs.

  20. Dynamic Asphaltene-Resin Exchange at the Oil/Water Interface: Time-Dependent W/O Emulsion Stability for Asphaltene/Resin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    oil (W/O) emulsions continue to challenge the petroleum industry during crude oil production roles in stabilizing water-in-crude oil emulsions.3-10 They adsorb onto and accumulate at W/O interfaces of crude oil emulsions.11,12 Many research groups have studied extensively this subject for decades.13

  1. Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabeche, Dion Tunick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

  2. Chloride levels increase after 13 years of recycled water use in the Salinas Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platts, Belinda E; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-01-01

    Ayers RS, Westcot DW. 1985. Water Quality for Agri- culture.+ 2.4904 R² = 0.29738 Applied water Cl (meq/L) Engineering-of soil Cl on applied water Cl during study period. Grieve

  3. Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -west France. 98 samples were analysed from 63 stations (surface water and drinking water produced from surface. The removal rate of human pharmaceutical compounds at 11 water treatment units was also determined. Only caffeine proved to be resistant to drinking water treatment processes (with a minimum rate of 5%). Other

  4. Directional solvent for membrane-free water desalination-A molecular level study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Tengfei

    Development of desalination technologies has been identified as vital to fulfilling future water demand. In this paper, we use molecular simulation to demonstrate that decanoic acid can dissolve water but reject salt, and ...

  5. A water level relationship between consecutive gauge stations along Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel: a wavelet approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somoza, R D; Novo, E M L; Rennó, C D

    2013-01-01

    Gauge stations are distributed along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel to monitor water level changes over time. Those measurements help quantify both the water movement and its variability from one gauge station to the next downstream. The objective of this study is to detect changes in the water level relationship between consecutive gauge stations along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel, since 1980. To carry out the analyses, data spanning from 1980 to 2010 from three consecutive gauges (Tefe, Manaus and Obidos) were used to compute standardized daily anomalies. In particular for infra-annual periods it was possible to detect changes for the water level variability along the Solim\\~oes/Amazonas main channel, by applying the Morlet Wavelet Transformation (WT) and Wavelet Cross Coherence (WCC) methods. It was possible to quantify the waves amplitude for the WT infra-annual scaled-period and were quite similar to the three gauge stations denoting that the water level variability are related to the same ...

  6. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  7. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  8. Hurricane FRANCES Preliminary water Levels report *For the purpose of timely release, data contained within this report have undergone "limited"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane FRANCES Preliminary water Levels report *For the purpose of timely release, data for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services NOAA NOS CO-OPS Hurricane FRANCIS Preliminary Report #12 the hurricane season (June through November), CO-OPS personnel can trigger gauges for real-time monitoring

  9. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after low dose radiation exposure. Cells viability/cytotoxicity analysis data are currently being analyzed to determine how these endpoints are affected under our experimental conditions. The results from this study will be translatable to risk assessment for assigning limits to radiation workers, pre-dosing for more effective radiotherapy and the consequences of long duration space flight. The data from this study has been presented a various scientific meetings/workshops and a manuscript, containing the findings, is currently being prepared for publication. Due to unforeseen challenges in collecting the data and standardizing experimental procedures, the second and third aims have not been completed. However, attempts will be made, based on the availability of funds, to continue this project so that these aims can be satisfied.

  10. Evaporation from a reservoir with fluctuating water level: Correcting for limited fetch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    a significant impact on evaporation. Reservoirs with different water content will also differ in energy (heat area within the footprint of the ECS is of a dual nature, comprising the water surface and surrounding the reservoir energy balance closure and the agreement between measurements and models that primar- ily rely

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Western Lake Erie, Detroit River, and Lake St. Clair Water Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -- - --- Climate Change Impacts on Western Lake Erie, Detroit River, and Lake St. Clair WaterConditionsScenario 36 #12;#12;-- - ---- Climate Change Impacts on Western Lake Erie, Detroit River, and Lake St. Clair and frequenciesof Lake St. Clair,Detroit River, and western Lake Erie water levelsare computed

  12. The Quality of Our Nation's Waters Mercury in the Nation's Streams--Levels, Trends, and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment, visit http investments in assessing, managing, regulating, and conserving natural resources, such as water, minerals ecosystems depends on the availability of sound water-resources data and information to develop effective

  13. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of depressurization following nuclear testing. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for wells with anthropogenic trends can be large, ranging from several feet to hundreds of feet. Vertical water-level differences at 27 sites in Yucca Flat with multiple open intervals were compared. Large vertical differences were noted in volcanic rocks and in boreholes where water levels were affected by nuclear tests. Small vertical differences were noted within the carbonate-rock and valley-fill aquifers. Vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in volcanic rocks and from pre-Tertiary clastic rocks toward volcanic- or carbonate-rock units.

  14. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

  15. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  16. A Farm-Level Evaluation of Agricultural Profit and Ground Water Quality: Texas Seymour Aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chowdhury, Manzoor; Lacewell, Ronald D.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Ozuna, Teofilo Jr.; Benson, Verel W.; Harris, Billy L.; Dyke, Paul T.

    1994-01-01

    The Seymour Aquifer of north-central Texas is known to have elevated levels of nitrates. The design of economically sound policies for reducing agriculture's nitrate contribution to the aquifer suggests a need to evaluate alternative management...

  17. Hurricane Rita Preliminary Water Levels Report *For the purpose of timely release, data contained within this report have undergone a "limited" NOS Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurricane Rita Preliminary Water Levels Report *For the purpose of timely release, data contained water levels during the landfall of Hurricane RITA from Vaca Key, FL to Port Isabel, TX. Station of Storm Tide Anomoly is discounted. Hurricane RITA made landfall on 24 September 2005 at 2:38 CDT (7

  18. Environmental Levels Of 129I Present In Bovine Thyroid And Fresh Water In Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Carnellia, P. F. F.; Barbara, E. de; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Heimanna, D. M.; Zalazara, L.; Fernandez Niello, J.; La Gamma, A. M.; Wallner, A.

    2010-08-04

    Concentrations of {sup 129}I in bovine thyroid and fresh water samples coming from all over Argentina were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and total iodine present in samples by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Once we complete this study, it will be the first set of data of this kind from an extended region of the south American subcontinent.

  19. Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Daniel

    1985-02-01

    Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River causes sporadic level fluctuations along the main stem Flathead River. Seasonal water level fluctuations and substantial habitat losses have occurred as a result of construction and operation of Kerr Dam, which regulates Flathead Lake. These fluctuations may impact goose populations through flooding or erosion of nesting and brood-rearing habitats, and increased susceptibility of nests and young to predation. The number, location, and success of goose nests were determined through pair surveys and nest searches. Counts of indicated pairs suggest there were 73-125 occupied nests in the study area; 44 were located in 1984. Twenty were island ground nests, 19 were tree nests, and 5 were on man-made structures. Hatching success was 76 percent. Sixty-one percent of all nests were in deciduous forest habitat; 87 percent were on riparian bench or island landforms. Seventy-four percent of all nests were within 5 m of the seasonal high water mark (HWM) and 85 percent of ground nests were 1 m or less above the HWM. Production, habitat use, and distribution of broods were documented through aerial, boat, ground, and observation tower surveys. 28 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  1. The NOAA Soo Locks PORTS provides real-time data for seven sites from Point Iroquois to DeTour Village. Water level and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for coastal development l Support for spill response and search and rescue l Monitoring climate change NOAA? Water enters the station house through a valve-controlled intake pipe into a `stilling' well (sump Lakes Long-Term Hydrographs, 1860-2012 Great Lakes water levels constitute one of the longest high

  2. Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - see, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used d13 C to assess carbon isotopeElevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction

  3. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  4. Thin power law film flow down an inclined plane: consistent shallow water models and stability under large scale perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive consistent shallow water equations for thin films of power law fluids down an incline. These models account for the streamwise diffusion of momentum which is important to describe accurately the full dynamic of the thin film flows when instabilities like roll-waves arise. These models are validated through a comparison with Orr Sommerfeld equations for large scale perturbations. We only consider laminar flow for which the boundary layer issued from the interaction of the flow with the bottom surface has an influence all over the transverse direction to the flow. In this case the concept itself of thin film and its relation with long wave asymptotic leads naturally to flow conditions around a uniform free surface Poiseuille flow. The apparent viscosity diverges at the free surface which, in turn, introduces a singularity in the formulation of the Orr-Sommerfeld equations and in the derivation of shallow water models. We remove this singularity by introducing a weaker formulation of Cauc...

  5. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Golomb; David Ryan; Eugene Barry

    2007-01-08

    Since the submission of our last Semi-annual Report, dated September 2006, the research objectives of this Co-operative Agreement shifted toward geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. In the period September 2006-February 2007, experiments were conducted in a High-Pressure Batch Reactor (HPBR) for creating emulsions of liquid carbon dioxide (/CO{sub 2})-in-water stabilized by fine particles for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Also, emulsions were created in water of a binary mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid hydrogen sulfide (/H{sub 2}S), called Acid Gas (AG). This leads to the possibility of safe disposal of AG in deep geologic formations, such as saline aquifers. The stabilizing particles included pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), unprocessed flyash, collected by an electrostatic precipitator at a local coal-fired power plant, and pulverized siderite (FeCO{sub 3}). Particle size ranged from submicron to a few micrometers. The first important finding is that /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S freely mix as a binary liquid without phase separation. The next finding is that the mixture of /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S can be emulsified in water using fine particles as emulsifying agents. Such emulsions are stable over prolonged periods, so it should not be a problem to inject an emulsion into subterranean formations. The advantage of injecting an emulsion into subterranean formations is that it is denser than the pure liquid, therefore it is likely to disperse in the bottom of the geologic formation, rather than buoying upward (called fingering). In such a fashion, the risk of the liquids escaping from the formation, and possibly re-emerging into the atmosphere, is minimized. This is especially important for H{sub 2}S, because it is a highly toxic gas. Furthermore, the emulsion may interact with the surrounding minerals, causing mineral trapping. This may lead to longer sequestration periods than injecting the pure liquids alone.

  6. A significant number of Iowa water treatment systems are dependent upon well-based water sources. Because of this, CIRAS efforts have been focused on the "Ground Water Levels" as reported by Iowa DNR. Currently, DNR officials are indicating that restricti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    A significant number of Iowa water treatment systems are dependent upon well-based water sources. Because of this, CIRAS efforts have been focused on the "Ground Water Levels" as reported by Iowa DNR. Currently, DNR officials are indicating that restrictions or loss of the water supply is not likely

  7. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: I. Along-channel Water Level Variations, Pacific Ocean to Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay, D. A.; Leffler, K.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Borde, Amy B.

    2014-06-07

    This two-part paper provides comprehensive time and frequency domain analyses and models of along-channel water level variations in the 234km-long Lower Columbia River and Estuary (LCRE) and documents the response of floodplain wetlands thereto. In Part I, power spectra, continuous wavelet transforms, and harmonic analyses are used to understand the influences of tides, river flow, upwelling and downwelling, and hydropower operations ("power-peaking") on the water level regime. Estuarine water levels are influenced primarily by astronomical tides and coastal processes, and secondarily by river flow. The importance of coastal and tidal influences decreases in the landward direction, and water levels are increasingly controlled by river flow variations at periods from ?1day to years. Water level records are only slightly non-stationary near the ocean, but become increasingly irregular upriver. Although astronomically forced tidal constituents decrease above the estuary, tidal fortnightly and overtide variations increase for 80-200km landward, both relative to major tidal constituents and in absolute terms.

  8. Systematic modulation and enhancement of CO{sub 2} : N{sub 2} selectivity and water stability in an isoreticular series of bio-MOF-11 analogues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tao; Chen, De-Li; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Kozlowski, Mark T.; Johnson, J. Karl; Rosi, Nathaniel L.

    2013-02-01

    An isoreticular series of cobalt-adeninate bio-MOFs (bio-MOFs 11-14) is reported. The pores of bio-MOFs 11-14 are decorated with acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate, respectively. The nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption properties of these materials are studied and compared. The isosteric heats of adsorption for CO{sub 2} are calculated, and the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities for each material are 10 determined. As the lengths of the aliphatic chains decorating the pores in bio-MOFs 11-14 increase, the BET surface areas decrease from 1148 m{sup 2}/g to 17 m{sup 2}/g while the CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivities predicted from ideal adsorbed solution theory at 1 bar and 273 K for a 10:90 CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} mixture range from 73:1 for bio-MOF-11 to 123:1 for bio-MOF-12 and finally to 107:1 for bio-MOF-13. At 298 K, the selectivities are 43:1 for bio-MOF-11, 52:1 for bio-MOF-12, and 40:1 for bio-MOF-13. Additionally, it is shown that 15 bio-MOF-14 exhibits a unique molecular sieving property that allows it to adsorb CO{sub 2} but not N{sub 2} at 273 and 298 K. Finally, the water stability of bio-MOFs 11-14 increases with increasing aliphatic chain length. Bio-MOF-14 exhibits no loss of crystallinity or porosity after soaking in water for one month.

  9. Water Levels of the Great Lakes Source: Living with the Lakes, U.S. Army COE; Great Lakes Commission, 1999.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and residents, but water that runs off the land carries pesticides and nutrients with it. Water quality affected many residents and businesses located along the rivers that provide water to the lakes and along the shoreline of the lakes themselves. In 1986, the Tittabawassee River basin, which eventually empties

  10. Protecting Our Water: Tracking Sources of Bacterial Contamination Numerous surface waterbodies in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Texas are classified as having high levels of fecal coliform bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution. coli and other fecal coliform bacteria do not provide information on whether the source of pollution of pollution need to be identified to implement effective pollution control strategies to improve water quality

  11. Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph M. Fenelon; Randell J. Laczniak; and Keith J. Halford

    2008-06-24

    Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types—volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in water-level altitudes within any single continuous aquifer range from a few hundred feet in a lower carbonate aquifer to just more than 1,100 feet in a volcanic aquifer. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly southward with minor eastward or westward deviations. Primary exceptions are westward flow in the northern part of the volcanic aquifer and eastward flow in the eastern part of the lower carbonate aquifer. Northward flow in the upper and lower carbonate aquifers in the northern part of the study area is possible but cannot be substantiated because data are lacking. Interflow between continuous aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form the regional ground-water flow system. The implications of these tributary flow paths in controlling transport away from the underground test areas at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain are discussed. The obvious data gaps contributing to uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers and development of water-level contours are identified and evaluated.

  12. Evaluation of pulse electric fields to reduce foodborne pathogen levels in scalder/chiller water during poultry processing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Bradley Curtis

    2009-05-15

    Poultry slaughtering encompasses a series of processing steps with the objective of harvesting the consumable meat. The scalding process consists of the submersion of carcasses in hot water tanks to facilitate the removal ...

  13. Watering the slums : how a utility and its street-level bureaucrats connected the poor in Bangalore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Genevieve

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation is about how urban water utilities behave and what makes them interested in serving the poor. The infrastructure literature tends to treat public service agencies as monolithic entities and to ignore the ...

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

  15. MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T A

    2010-04-22

    Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

  16. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  17. Necessary conditions for stabilization agreements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zili.; Jacoby, Henry D.

    The Climate Convention calls for stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper considers the issues that must be faced in formulating a plan to meet any such target, using a proposed CO2 level ...

  18. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  19. Defective fuel rod detection in operating pressurized water reactors during periods of continuously decreasing fuel rod integrity levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanker, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Periods of continuously decreasing levels of fuel rod integrity due to debris-induced cladding damage, vibration-induced fretting wear of the cladding, etc. cause difficulties in the assessment of fuel rod performance from coolant activity data. The calculational models currently in use for this purpose in nuclear power plants are not sufficiently capable of indicating cases in which they are invalid. This can mislead reactor operators by misinterpretation of the coolant activity data, especially in situations where fast reactions are necessary. A quick test of validity is suggested to check the applicability of the currently available calculational models for estimating the number and average size of fuel rod defects. This paper describes how to recognize immediately periods of continuously decreasing levels of fuel rod integrity in order to prevent complications in routine power plant maintenance as well as accident situations caused by more severe fuel rod degradation.

  20. Laser Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, John L.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Ye, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This book chapter covers the basics of the field of stabilizing lasers to optical frequency references such as optical cavities and molecular transitions via the application of servo control systems. These discussions are given with reference to the real-life frequency metrology experienced in Hall-Labs (now Ye-Labs), JILA, University of Colorado. The subjects covered include: the basics of control system stability, a discussion of both the theoretical and experimental limitations, an outline of optical cavity susceptibility to environmental noise, and a brief introduction to the use and limitations of molecular transitions as frequency references.

  1. Simplified 1-D Hydrodynamic and Salinity Transport Modeling of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Sea Level Rise and Water Diversion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleenor, William E.; Bombardelli, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Strategy. 2006a. Delta water operations. Appendix B. In: URSmemorandum, topical area: water analysis module (WAM).California Department of Water Resources. Available from:

  2. Adsorption of water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001): thermal stability and inhibition of dissociation by H2O-O bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko; Cabrera-Sanfelix, Pepa; Sanchez-Portal, Daniel; Arnau, Andres; Salmeron, Miquel

    2008-08-01

    The effect of preadsorbed oxygen on the subsequent adsorption and reactions of water on Ru(0001) has been studied using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and DFT calculations. Experiments were carried out for O coverages close to 0.25 ML. It was found that no dissociation of water takes place up to the desorption temperature of {approx}180-230 K. DFT calculations show that intact water on O(2x2)/Ru(0001) is {approx} 0.49 eV more stable than the dissociation products, H and OH, at their preferred fcc and top adsorption sites.

  3. Thermodynamic stability of actinide pyrochlore minerals in deep...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SCIENCE; HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES; PLUTONIUM; PYROCHLORE; STABILITY; THERMODYNAMICS; WASTE FORMS; RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL; BACKFILLING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE...

  4. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  5. Numerical simulation of the water bubble rising in a liquid column using the combination of level set and moving mesh methods in the collocated grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Water boils inside the BWRs. Although water in the nuclear industry, more than 90% power generated by nuclear is from water-cooled nuclear reactors either is in subcooled condition in the PWRs, the subcooled boiling occurs inside the reactor which makes the Departure

  6. Guide to using Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX v.1.1) for Removal of River Stage Effects from Well Water Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Spane, Frank A.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2010-09-01

    A software tool was created in Fiscal Year 2010 (FY11) that enables multiple-regression correction of well water levels for river-stage effects. This task was conducted as part of the Remediation Science and Technology project of CH2MHILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). This document contains an overview of the correction methodology and a user’s manual for Multiple Regression in Excel (MRCX) v.1.1. It also contains a step-by-step tutorial that shows users how to use MRCX to correct river effects in two different wells. This report is accompanied by an enclosed CD that contains the MRCX installer application and files used in the tutorial exercises.

  7. The Impact of Wind Development on County-Level Income and Employment: A Review of Methods and an Empirical Analysis (Fact Sheet). Wind And Water Power Program (WWPP).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    WIND AND WATER POWER PROGRAM The Impact of Wind Developmentmay be required. WIND AND WATER POWER PROGRAM Methods TheNREL). The U.S. DOE (Wind & Water Power Program) funded

  8. Stabilization of Layered Metal Oxides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stabilizing cations and anions (NH 4 ) 3 AlF 6 ; NH 4 PF 6 ; NH 4 BF 4 in water, methanol, etc molarity of solutions 2.5 x 10 -3 M pH 6.0 - 6.5 Composition used:...

  9. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  10. Chassis stabilization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claxton, Gerald L. (Fresno, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A stabilizing suspension system is provided for vehicles carrying telescopic booms or aerial work platforms having a fixed axle and a oscillating axle. Hydraulic cylinders are connected to each end of the oscillating axle, each cylinder being capable of extending and retracting. An off level sensor senses the angle of tilt of the chassis in both left and right directions and, when a predetermined threshold of tilt has been detected, the hydraulic cylinder on the downhill side of the chassis is locked against retracting, but is free to move in the downhill direction to allow the downhill wheel to remain in contact with the ground.

  11. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  12. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  13. What does stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations mean?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Reiner, David M.

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is applied to an exploration of the national emissions obligations that would be required to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at levels now under active ...

  14. Simplified 1-D Hydrodynamic and Salinity Transport Modeling of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Sea Level Rise and Water Diversion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleenor, William E.; Bombardelli, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    irrigation standard; (4) the Contra Costa Water District (CCWD) pump-irrigation standards). Delta as well as urban users at the CCWD pumps.

  15. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse(1985). Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs.

  16. Material Stabilization Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SPEER, D.R.

    1999-09-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Materials Stabilization project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This is the top-level definitive project management document that specifies the technical (work scope), schedule, and cost baselines to manager the execution of this project. It describes the organizational approach and roles/responsibilities to be implemented to execute the project. This plan is under configuration management and any deviations must be authorized by appropriate change control action. Materials stabilization is designated the responsibility to open and stabilize containers of plutonium metal, oxides, alloys, compounds, and sources. Each of these items is at least 30 weight percent plutonium/uranium. The output of this project will be containers of materials in a safe and stable form suitable for storage pending final packaging and/or transportation offsite. The corrosion products along with oxides and compounds will be stabilized via muffle furnaces to reduce the materials to high fired oxides.

  17. Simplified 1-D Hydrodynamic and Salinity Transport Modeling of the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta: Sea Level Rise and Water Diversion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleenor, William E.; Bombardelli, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Comparing futures for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta. Sanflow data, 4th ed. Sacramento (CA): California Department ofWater Resources. 1995. Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta atlas.

  18. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  19. Characterization of Instrumental Phase Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Y. Kubo; T. R. Hunter; R. D. Christensen; P. I. Yamaguchi

    2007-04-17

    Atmospheric water vapor causes significant undesired phase fluctuations for the Submillimeter Array (SMA) interferometer, particularly in its highest frequency observing band of 690 GHz. One proposed solution to this atmospheric effect is to observe simultaneously at two separate frequency bands of 230 and 690 GHz. Although the phase fluctuations have a smaller magnitude at the lower frequency, they can be measured more accurately and on shorter timescales due to the greater sensitivity of the array to celestial point source calibrators at this frequency. In theory, we can measure the atmospheric phase fluctuations in the 230 GHz band, scale them appropriately with frequency, and apply them to the data in 690 band during the post-observation calibration process. The ultimate limit to this atmospheric phase calibration scheme will be set by the instrumental phase stability of the IF and LO systems. We describe the methodology and initial results of the phase stability characterization of the IF and LO systems.

  20. Laser stabilization using spectral hole burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Rippe; B. Julsgaard; A. Walther; S. Kröll

    2006-11-05

    We have frequency stabilized a Coherent CR699-21 dye laser to a transient spectral hole on the 606 nm transition in Pr^{+3}:Y_2SiO_5. A frequency stability of 1 kHz has been obtained on the 10 microsecond timescale together with a long-term frequency drift below 1 kHz/s. RF magnetic fields are used to repopulate the hyperfine levels allowing us to control the dynamics of the spectral hole. A detailed theory of the atomic response to laser frequency errors has been developed which allows us to design and optimize the laser stabilization feedback loop, and specifically we give a stability criterion that must be fulfilled in order to obtain very low drift rates. The laser stability is sufficient for performing quantum gate experiments in Pr^{+3}:Y_2SiO_5.

  1. The effects of sulfate fertilization and high levels of sulfate and salt drinking water on the growth and mineral status of ruminants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Kehe

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of sulfate (SO?²?) in forage and drinking water on the performance and mineral status of cattle and sheep. In Experiment 1, forty-eight late gestation crossbred cows were grazed on twelve 10...

  2. Development of a neural network model to nowcast/forecast the coastal water level anomalies on the entrance to Galveston Bay, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Young Joo

    2002-01-01

    observations for a total of 375 days during the winter season from 1998 to 2000 were used to quantify the relative importance of the remote and local forcing in Galveston Bay and Corpus Christi Bay, Texas. For both locations, the analysis showed that the water...

  3. Tug of War at Air-Water Interface: Understanding Lipid-Nanoparticle and Lipid-Protein Interaction Associated With Lung Surfactants at a Molecular Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Aishik

    2015-05-31

    Lung surfactants [LS] are a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that line the air-water interface in the alveoli of the lungs. They lower the work of breathing by reducing the surface tension and also form a line of ...

  4. RCRA facility stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The RCRA Facility Stabilization Initiative was developed as a means of implementing the Corrective Action Program`s management goals recommended by the RIS for stabilizing actual or imminent releases from solid waste management units that threaten human health and the environment. The overall goal of stabilization is to, as situations warrant, control or abate threats to human health and/or the environment from releases at RCRA facilities, and/or to prevent or minimize the further spread of contamination while long-term remedies are pursued. The Stabilization initiative is a management philosophy and should not be confused with stabilization technologies.

  5. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  6. Runoff Variability and Transboundary Water Management: An Assessment of Risk to Regional Agreements From Likely Climatic Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHATTERJEE, INDRANI

    2014-01-01

    change and the stability of water allocation agreements.change and the stability of water allocation agreements.Do nations go to war over water? Nature 458:282-283 Barret,

  7. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix B of Attachment 3: Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4: Water resources protection strategy, Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Attachment 3 Groundwater Hydrology Report describes the hydrogeology, water quality, and water resources at the processing site and Dry Flats disposal site. The Hydrological Services calculations contained in Appendix A of Attachment 3, are presented in a separate report. Attachment 4 Water Resources Protection Strategy describes how the remedial action will be in compliance with the proposed EPA groundwater standards.

  8. Predicting for thermodynamic instabilities in water/oil/surfactant microemulsions: A mesoscopic modelling approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duvail, Magali Zemb, Thomas; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Arleth, Lise

    2014-04-28

    The thermodynamics and structural properties of flexible and rigid nonionic water/oil/surfactant microemulsions have been investigated using a two level-cut Gaussian random field method based on the Helfrich formalism. Ternary stability diagrams and scattering spectra have been calculated for different surfactant rigidities and spontaneous curvatures. A more important contribution of the Gaussian elastic constants compared to the bending one is observed on the ternary stability diagrams. Furthermore, influence of the spontaneous curvature of the surfactant points out a displacement of the instability domains which corresponds to the difference between the spontaneous and effective curvatures. We enlighten that a continuous transition from a connected water in oil droplets to a frustrated locally lamellar (oil in water in oil droplets) microstructure is found to occur when increasing the temperature for an oil-rich microemulsion. This continuous transition translated in a shift in the scattering functions, points out that the phase inversion phenomenon occurs by a coalescence of the water droplets.

  9. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  10. Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna [Second University of Naples; Saurer, Matthias [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Cherubini, Paulo [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Califapietra, Carlo [University of Tuscia; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2013-01-01

    Elevated CO2 increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used 13C to assess carbon isotope discrimination ( 13C ci/ca) and changes in WUEi, while direct CO2 effects on stomatal conductance were explored using 18O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO2 increased 13C-derived WUEi on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting WUEi responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modeling elevated CO2 and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

  11. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove [sup 137]CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

  12. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  13. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  14. Variations on stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruben Minasian; Alessandro Tomasiello

    2002-05-07

    We explore the effects of non-abelian dynamics of D-branes on their stability and introduce Hitchin-like modifications to previously-known stability conditions. The relation to brane-antibrane systems is used in order to rewrite the equations in terms of superconnections and arrive at deformed vortex equations.

  15. Variations on stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minasian, R; Minasian, Ruben; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    We explore the effects of non-abelian dynamics of D-branes on their stability and introduce Hitchin-like modifications to previously-known stability conditions. The relation to brane-antibrane systems is used in order to rewrite the equations in terms of superconnections and arrive at deformed vortex equations.

  16. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lancaster, Henry D. (Orinda, CA); Fugitt, Jock A. (Berkeley, CA); Howard, Donald R. (Danville, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  17. Removal of Engineered Nanomaterials Through Conventional Water Treatment Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available SockStability of commercial metal oxide nanoparticles in water.Water Res. 2008, 42 (8-9), 2204-12. Crittenden, J. C. ;

  18. Remedial Action Plan and Site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Revision 1. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, geology report, Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report, Attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Slick Rock uranium mill tailings sites are located near the small community of Slick Rock, in San Miguel County, Colorado. There are two designated Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites at Slick Rock: the Union Carbide site and the North Continent site. Both sites are adjacent to the Dolores River. The sites contain former mill building concrete foundations, tailings piles, demolition debris, and areas contaminated by windblown and waterborne radioactive materials. The total estimated volume of contaminated materials is approximately 621,000 cubic yards (475,000 cubic meters). In addition to the contamination at the two processing site areas, 13 vicinity properties were contaminated. Contamination associated with the UC and NC sites has leached into ground water. Pursuant to the requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC {section}7901 et seq.), the proposed remedial action plan (RAP) will satisfy the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in 40 CFR Part 192 (60 FR 2854) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of the residual radioactive material (RRM) (tailings and other contaminated materials) at the disposal site at Burro Canyon. The requirements for control of the RRM (Subpart A) will be satisfied by the construction of an engineered disposal cell. The proposed remedial action will consist of relocating the uranium mill tailings, contaminated vicinity property materials, demolition debris, and windblown/weaterborne materials to a permanent repository at the Burro Canyon disposal site. The site is approximately 5 road mi (8 km) northeast of the mill sites on land recently transferred to the DOE by the Bureau of Land Management.

  19. Density functional theory study of the interaction of vinyl radical, ethyne, and ethene with benzene, aimed to define an affordable computational level to investigate stability trends in large van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maranzana, Andrea E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Giordana, Anna E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it Indarto, Antonius Tonachini, Glauco; Barone, Vincenzo E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Causà, Mauro E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it; Pavone, Michele E-mail: anna.giordana@hotmail.com E-mail: mauro.causa@unina.it

    2013-12-28

    Our purpose is to identify a computational level sufficiently dependable and affordable to assess trends in the interaction of a variety of radical or closed shell unsaturated hydro-carbons A adsorbed on soot platelet models B. These systems, of environmental interest, would unavoidably have rather large sizes, thus prompting to explore in this paper the performances of relatively low-level computational methods and compare them with higher-level reference results. To this end, the interaction of three complexes between non-polar species, vinyl radical, ethyne, or ethene (A) with benzene (B) is studied, since these species, involved themselves in growth processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot particles, are small enough to allow high-level reference calculations of the interaction energy ?E{sub AB}. Counterpoise-corrected interaction energies ?E{sub AB} are used at all stages. (1) Density Functional Theory (DFT) unconstrained optimizations of the A?B complexes are carried out, using the B3LYP-D, ?B97X-D, and M06-2X functionals, with six basis sets: 6-31G(d), 6-311 (2d,p), and 6-311++G(3df,3pd); aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ; N07T. (2) Then, unconstrained optimizations by Møller-Plesset second order Perturbation Theory (MP2), with each basis set, allow subsequent single point Coupled Cluster Singles Doubles and perturbative estimate of the Triples energy computations with the same basis sets [CCSD(T)//MP2]. (3) Based on an additivity assumption of (i) the estimated MP2 energy at the complete basis set limit [E{sub MP2/CBS}] and (ii) the higher-order correlation energy effects in passing from MP2 to CCSD(T) at the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, ?E{sub CC-MP}, a CCSD(T)/CBS estimate is obtained and taken as a computational energy reference. At DFT, variations in ?E{sub AB} with basis set are not large for the title molecules, and the three functionals perform rather satisfactorily even with rather small basis sets [6-31G(d) and N07T], exhibiting deviation from the computational reference of less than 1 kcal mol{sup ?1}. The zero-point vibrational energy corrected estimates ?(E{sub AB}+ZPE), obtained with the three functionals and the 6-31G(d) and N07T basis sets, are compared with experimental D{sub 0} measures, when available. In particular, this comparison is finally extended to the naphthalene and coronene dimers and to three ??? associations of different PAHs (R, made by 10, 16, or 24 C atoms) and P (80 C atoms)

  20. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Climate Stabilization: Framing Regional Options L A U R A S C reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut The call to cut global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by up to 80% below 2000 levels, which researchers

  1. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  2. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  3. Water, water everywhere,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    1 Water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink? An Inquiry-based unit investigating the journey of your drinking water from source to tap of drinking water will contain different contaminants, based on surrounding land uses (guided inquiry activity

  4. Water Resources Forests & Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Forests & Water More than half of the nation's freshwater supply originates on forestland. Healthy and sustainable forests can help ensure a continuous supply of clean and abundant water. Not only does forestland provide the cleanest water of any land use, it also helps absorb rainfall

  5. Tritium systems test assembly stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasen, W. G. (William G.); Michelotti, R. A. (Roy A.); Anast, K. R. (Kurt R.); Tesch, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium technology Research and Development (R&D) primarily for future fusion power reactors. The facility was conceived in mid 1970's, operations commenced in early 1980's, stabilization and deactivation began in 2000 and were completed in 2003. The facility will remain in a Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) mode until the Department of Energy (DOE) funds demolition of the facility, tentatively in 2009. A safe and stable end state was achieved by the TSTA Facility Stabilization Project (TFSP) in anticipation of long term S&M. At the start of the stabilization project, with an inventory of approximately 140 grams of tritium, the facility was designated a Hazard Category (HC) 2 Non-Reactor Nuclear facility as defined by US Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-1027-92 (1997). The TSTA facility comprises a laboratory area, supporting rooms, offices and associated laboratory space that included more than 20 major tritium handling systems. The project's focus was to reduce the tritium inventory by removing bulk tritium, tritiated water wastes, and tritium-contaminated high-inventory components. Any equipment that remained in the facility was stabilized in place. All of the gloveboxes and piping were rendered inoperative and vented to atmosphere. All equipment, and inventoried tritium contamination, remaining in the facility was left in a safe-and-stable state. The project used the End Points process as defined by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (web page http://www.em.doe.- gov/deact/epman.htmtlo) document and define the end state required for the stabilization of TSTA Facility. The End Points process added structure that was beneficial through virtually all phases of the project. At completion of the facility stabilization project the residual tritium inventory was approximately 3,000 curies, considerably less than the 1.6-gram threshold for a HC 3 facility. TSTA is now designated as a Radiological Facility. Innovative approaches were employed for characterization and removal of legacy wastes and high inventory components. Major accomplishments included: (1) Reduction of tritium inventory, elimination of chemical hazards, and identification and posting of remaining hazards. (2) Removal of legacy wastes. (3) Transferred equipment for reuse in other DOE projects, including some at other DOE facilities. (4) Transferred facility in a safe and stable condition to the S&M organization. The project successfully completed all project goals and the TSTA facility was transferred into S&M on August 1,2003. This project demonstrates the benefit of radiological inventory reduction and the removal of legacy wastes to achieve a safe and stable end state that protects workers and the environment pending eventual demolition of the facility.

  6. Plugging Abandoned Water Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2002-02-28

    is abandoned without proper plugging, upward flow of salty water from the deeper aquifer may cause contamination of the shallow, fresh water aquifer. Also, any pollu- tants that occur in one zone can migrate to another zone through a well. Unplugged abandoned... wells may deplete pres- sure within an aquifer. Pressure in artesian aquifers decreases as water discharges at land surface or to less pressurized aquifers. Eventually a drop in pres- sure causes flowing wells to stop flowing and the water level...

  7. Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    1998-10-20

    A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

  8. Stability of dendritic arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, J.A. ); Langer, J.S. )

    1990-09-15

    We propose an approximate method for studying steady-state properties and linear stability of the dendritic arrays that are formed in directional solidification of alloys. Our analysis is valid at high growth rates where the primary spacing between dendrites is larger than the velocity-dependent solutal diffusion length. We compute a neutral stability boundary and find that, in the situations where we expect our results to be valid, the experimental data of Somboonsuk, Mason, and Trivedi (Metall. Trans. A 15A, 967 (1984)) lie in the stable region, well away from the boundary.

  9. Thermodynamic Stability of Nanobubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phil Attard

    2015-03-15

    The observed stability of nanobubbles contradicts the well-known result in classical nucleation theory, that the critical radius is both microscopic and thermodynamically unstable. Here nanoscopic stability is shown to be the combined result of two non-classical mechanisms. It is shown that the surface tension decreases with increasing supersaturation, and that this gives a nanoscopic critical radius. Whilst neither a free spherical bubble nor a hemispherical bubble mobile on an hydrophobic surface are stable, it is shown that an immobilized hemispherical bubble with a pinned contact rim is stable and that the total entropy is a maximum at the critical radius.

  10. Stabilized PV system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L. (Piedmont, CA)

    2002-12-17

    A stabilized PV system comprises an array of photovoltaic (PV) assemblies mounted to a support surface. Each PV assembly comprises a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the support surface. The array of modules is circumscribed by a continuous, belt-like perimeter assembly. Cross strapping, extending above, below or through the array, or some combination of above, below and through the array, secures a first position along the perimeter assembly to at least a second position along the perimeter assembly thereby stabilizing the array against wind uplift forces. The first and second positions may be on opposite sides on the array.

  11. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  12. Integration of Nutrient and Water Recycling for Sustainable Algal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    water-recovery methods. Characterize the development, structure, and stability of microbial communities in algal systems. Perform economic and life cycle assessments...

  13. Solid low-level radioactive waste radiation stability studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Arnold Andre?

    1989-01-01

    MANAGEMENT . . . Historical background Characteristics of radioactive wastes Classification of radioactive wastes Disposal methodology and criteria Handling and storage of radioactive wastes SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTES Historical background... Characteristics of the solidified wastes Storage and handling of solid radioactive wastes Shipment of solid radioactive wastes Solidification of waste solutions MATERIALS AND METHODS Ion-exchange methods. High integrity containers (HIC). . tv tx 15 15...

  14. Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jungbae; Grate, Jay W.; Wang, Ping

    2006-02-02

    The last decade has witnessed notable breakthroughs in nanotechnology with development of various nanostructured materials such as mesoporous materials and nanoparticles. These nanostructures have been used as a host for enzyme immobilization via various approaches, such as enzyme adsorption, covalent attachment, enzyme encapsulation, and sophisticated combinations of methods. This review discusses the stabilization mechanisms behind these diverse approaches; such as confinement, pore size and volume, charge interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and multipoint attachment. In addition, we will introduce recent rigorous approaches to improve the enzyme stability in these nanostructures or develop new nanostructures for the enzyme stabilization. Especially, we will introduce our recent invention of a nanostructure, called single enzyme nanoparticles (SENs). In the form of SENs, each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a nanometer scale network, resulting in stabilization of enzyme activity without any serious limitation for the substrate transfer from solution to the active site. SENs can be further immobilized into mesoporous silica with a large surface area, providing a hierarchical approach for stable, immobilized enzyme systems for various applications, such as bioconversion, bioremediation, and biosensors.

  15. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  16. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  17. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  18. Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings 12-30 annually for each 10F...

  19. Surface-stabilized gold nanocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Yan, Wenfu (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst includes a solid support having stabilizing surfaces for supporting gold nanoparticles, and a plurality of gold nanoparticles having an average particle size of less than 8 nm disposed on the stabilizing surfaces. The surface-stabilized gold nanocatalyst provides enhanced stability, such as at high temperature under oxygen containing environments. In one embodiment, the solid support is a multi-layer support comprising at least a first layer having a second layer providing the stabilizing surfaces disposed thereon, the first and second layer being chemically distinct.

  20. Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers for improved oil recovery: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, K.C. [Petroleum Recovery Inst., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-11-01

    Water-soluble hydrophobically associating polymers are reviewed with particular emphasis on their application in improved oil recovery (IOR). These polymers are very similar to conventional water-soluble polymers used in IOR, except that they have a small number of hydrophobic groups incorporated into the polymer backbone. At levels of incorporation of less than 1 mol%, these hydrophobic groups can significantly change polymer performance. These polymers have potential for use in mobility control, drilling fluids and profile modification. This review includes synthesis, characterization, stability, rheology and flow in porous media of associating polymers in IOR are also examined. 100 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Stealthy Deception Attacks on Water SCADA Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Fei

    Stealthy Deception Attacks on Water SCADA Systems Saurabh Amin1 Xavier Litrico2 Alexandre M. Bayen1 The Gignac Water SCADA System Modeling of Cascade Canal Pools Attacks on PI Control Limits on Stability and Detectability #12;Recapitulation from last year The Gignac Water SCADA System Modeling of Cascade Canal Pools

  2. Pickering emulsions stabilized by oppositely charged colloids: stability and pattern formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sam David Christdoss Pushpam; Madivala G. Basavaraj; Ethayaraja Mani

    2015-10-20

    Binary mixture of oppositely charged of colloids can be used to stabilize water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions. A Monte Carlo simulation study to address the effect of charge ratio of colloids on the stability of Pickering emulsions is presented. The colloidal particles at the interface are modeled as aligned dipolar hard spheres, with attractive interactions between unlike-charged and repulsive interaction between like-charged particles. The optimum composition (fraction of positively charged particles) required for the stabilization corresponds to a minimum in the interaction energy per particle. In addition, for each charge ratio, there is a range of compositions where emulsions can be stabilized. The structural arrangement of particles or the pattern formation at the emulsion interface is strongly influenced by the charge ratio. We find well-mixed isotropic, square and hexagonal arrangement of particles on emulsion surface for different compositions at a given charge ratio. Distribution of coordination numbers is calculated to characterize structural features. The simulation study is useful for rational design of Pickering emulsifications wherein oppositely charged colloids are used, and for the control of pattern formation that can be useful for the synthesis of colloidosomes and porous-shells derived from thereof.

  3. The stability of enrofloxacin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodge, Meagan A

    2013-02-22

    Scholarships Texas ABcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for 1997-1998 UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS PROGRAM Approved as to style and content by: Dawn Boothe Department of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology Susanna Finnell..., Executive Director Honors Programs and Academic Scholarships Fellows Group: Biology ABSTRACT The Stability of Enrofloxacin Meagan Dodge, (Dr. Dawn Boothe) University Undergraduate Fellow, 1997-1998, Texas ARM University, Department of Veterinary...

  4. Value of Irrigation Water with Alternative Input Prices, Product Prices and Yield Levels: Texas Coastal Bend, Cross Timbers, Deep East, Edwards Aquifer, El Paso, Gulf Coast, Lower South Central, Rolling Plains, Trans Pecos and Winter Garden Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, J. M.; Lacewell, R. D.; Beattie, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    Agriculture is a major income generating sector of the Texas economy. Irrigated agriculture is an important part of Texas agriculture and an "adequate" water supply is important in maintaining a viable agriculture. Irrigation water is important both...

  5. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  6. Optical and structural stability of blue SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Komatsu, Keiji; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ohshio, Shigeo; Toda, Ikumi; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2013-08-15

    Chemical stability of 6-coodinated SrO is a fundamental problem when this is used for various applications. In this study, optical and chemical stabilities of 8-coordinated SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor were investigated. SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was synthesized from thermal treatment of SrO:Eu powder located on a single crystalline MgO at 1500° C under reduction atmosphere. Obtained 8-coordinated SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor exhibit strong blue luminescence and chemical stability in distilled water for 3 days. Our findings prove that obtained 8-coordinated SrO:Eu{sup 2+} possesses relative optical and chemical stabilities in water. - Graphical abstract: Obtained 8-coordinated SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor exhibit strong blue luminescence in distilled water. Highlights: • We investigated optical and chemical stabilities of 8-coordinated SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor in water. • Obtained 8-coordinated SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor exhibit strong blue luminescence and chemical stability in distilled water for 3 days. • We found that the 8-coodrodinated SrO crystal structure changed to SrCO{sub 3} crystal structure after the 5 days immersion. • The obtained SrO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor possesses high chemical stability under water, compared with commercial (6-coordinated) SrO.

  7. Ceramic membranes with enhanced thermal stability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ); Bischoff, Brian L. (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    A method of creating a ceramic membrane with enhanced thermal stability is disclosed. The method involves combining quantities of a first metal alkoxide with a second metal, the quantities selected to give a preselected metal ratio in the resultant membrane. A limited amount of water and acid is added to the combination and stirred until a colloidal suspension is formed. The colloid is dried to a gel, and the gel is fired at a temperature greater than approximately 400.degree. C. The porosity and surface area of ceramic membranes formed by this method are not adversely affected by this high temperature firing.

  8. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report, Attachment 4, Water resources protection strategy: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health and environmental protection regulations to correct and prevent groundwater contamination resulting from processing activities at inactive uranium milling sites (40 CFR 192). The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 designated responsibility to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for assessing the inactive uranium milling sites. The DOE has determined that each assessment shall include information on site characterization, a description of the proposed action, and a summary of the water resources protection strategy that describes how the proposed action will comply with the EPA groundwater protection standards. To achieve compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards, the US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes that supplemental standards be applied at the Dry Flats disposal site because of Class III (limited use) groundwater in the uppermost aquifer (the basal sandstone of the Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation) based on low yield. The proposed remedial action will ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  9. Investigating Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity...

  10. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  11. Theory and modelling of nanocarbon phase stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The transformation of nanodiamonds into carbon-onions (and vice versa) has been observed experimentally and has been modeled computationally at various levels of sophistication. Also, several analytical theories have been derived to describe the size, temperature and pressure dependence of this phase transition. However, in most cases a pure carbon-onion or nanodiamond is not the final product. More often than not an intermediary is formed, known as a bucky-diamond, with a diamond-like core encased in an onion-like shell. This has prompted a number of studies investigating the relative stability of nanodiamonds, bucky-diamonds, carbon-onions and fullerenes, in various size regimes. Presented here is a review outlining results of numerous theoretical studies examining the phase diagrams and phase stability of carbon nanoparticles, to clarify the complicated relationship between fullerenic and diamond structures at the nanoscale.

  12. Stability Charts for Uniform Slopes Radoslaw L. Michalowski, F.ASCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

    that leads to a strict lower bound on stability number c/ H or an upper bound on the safety factor. Charts are presented for slopes subjected to pore water pressure and also for those exposed to seismic analysis; Limit states; Failures; Graphic methods. Introduction Stability assessments of earth slopes

  13. Antioxidants and stabilizers for lubricants and fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, manufacture, and evaluation of antioxidants and stabilizers used in lubricants and fuels. The synthesis, stability, degradation, and storage life of lubricant and fuel additives are discussed. Additives used in jet engine, turbine, natural-gas, and coal-water fuels are examined. (Contains a minimum of 129 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    that are radioactive. The most common radionu- clides in drinking water are radium, radon and uranium. Most of the radionuclides in drinking water occur nat- urally at very low levels and are not considered a pub- lic health concern. However, radionuclides can also...-rays, can pass through the human body and are best shielded by dense materials such as lead or thick concrete. levels no higher than 4,000 pCi/L. Because about 1/10,000th of radon in water transfers to air, this would contribute about 0.4 pCi/L of radon...

  15. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According ...

  16. Relationship Between Freshwater Resources, Socio-Cultural Dynamics, and Geopolitical Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Aaron

    resources is largely dependent upon an array of regional physical geography characteristics3.2 Relationship Between Freshwater Resources, Socio-Cultural Dynamics, and Geopolitical Stability. Aaron T. Wolf Professor of Geography Oregon State University Introduction Water security

  17. Stability conditions of diatomic molecules in Heisenbergs picture: inspired from the stability theory of lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahanpanah, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational motion equations of both homo and hetero-nuclei diatomic molecules are here derived for the first time. A diatomic molecule is first considered as a one dimensional quantum mechanics oscillator. The second and third-order Hamiltonian operators are then formed by substituting the number operator for the quantum number in the corresponding vibrational energy eigenvalues. The expectation values of relative position and linear momentum operators of two oscillating atoms are calculated by solving Heisenbergs equations of motion. Subsequently, the expectation values of potential and kinetics energy operators are evaluated in all different vibrational levels of Morse potential. On the other hand, the stability theory of optical oscillators (lasers) is exploited to determine the stability conditions of an oscillating diatomic molecule.It is peculiarly turned out that the diatomic molecules are exactly dissociated at the energy level in which their equations of motion become unstable. We also determine...

  18. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Appendix A of Attachment 3, Calculations: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report consists primarily of calculations for ground water flow and hydraulic conductivity as part of the Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization program.

  19. Laser controlled flame stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Matthew E. (Huntsville, AL)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus is provided for initiating and stabilizing fuel combustion in applications such as gas turbine electrical power generating engines and jet turbine engines where it is desired to burn lean fuel/air mixtures which produce lower amounts of NO.sub.x. A laser induced spark is propagated at a distance from the fuel nozzle with the laser ignitor being remotely located from the high temperature environment of the combustion chamber. A laser initiating spark generated by focusing high peak power laser light to a sufficiently tight laser spot within the fuel to cause the ionization of air and fuel into a plasma is unobtrusive to the flow dynamics of the combustion chamber of a fuel injector, thereby facilitating whatever advantage can be taken of flow dynamics in the design of the fuel injector.

  20. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBNL collected water and waste water tariffs in Californiastate. Current water and waste water tariffs for these areaswas based on water and waste water tariffs in California

  1. Regional terrestrial water storage change and evapotranspiration from terrestrial and atmospheric water balance computations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Famiglietti, J. S

    2008-01-01

    the asymmetric response of aquifer water level to droughtsand floods in Illinois, Water Resour. Res. , Groisman, P.model to estimate the water balance of the Arkansas-Red

  2. Water and Waste Water Tariffs for New Residential Construction in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Diane; Lutz, James

    2006-01-01

    and Waste Water Tariffs for New Residential Construction inand Waste Water Tariffs for New Residential Construction inwaste water tariffs in California cities and counties where there is a high level of new residential construction.

  3. Evaluation of Hot Water Wash Parameters to Achieve Maximum Effectiveness in Reducing Levels of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and coliforms/Escherichia coli on Beef Carcass Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Melissa A.

    2010-07-14

    This study measured and compared different temperatures and dwell times of hot water treatment on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on beef carcass surfaces. Two different types of beef ...

  4. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert B. Best; Cayla Miller; Jeetain Mittal

    2015-03-12

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, re- cent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated {\\alpha}-helices. However all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimen- tal pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure- dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experi- ment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water, relative to non-helical structures with both the water models, but the total system volume for helical conformations is higher than non-helical conformations with TIP3P water at low to intermediate pressures, in contrast to TIP4P/2005 water. Our results further emphasize the importance of using an accurate water model to study protein folding under conditions away from standard temperature and pressure.

  5. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachhuber, F.; School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland ; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.; Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Auckland, Auckland

    2013-12-07

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn{sub 2} (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb{sub 2}, and the NiAs{sub 2} types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB{sub 2} structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases.

  6. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  7. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coenenberg, E.T. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations.

  8. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  9. Vibration Stabilization of a Mechanical Model of a X-Band Linear Collider Final Focus Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frisch, Josef; Chang, Allison; Decker, Valentin; Doyle, Eric; Eriksson, Leif; Hendrickson, Linda; Himel, Thomas; Markiewicz, Thomas; Partridge, Richard; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2006-09-28

    The small beam sizes at the interaction point of a X-band linear collider require mechanical stabilization of the final focus magnets at the nanometer level. While passive systems provide adequate performance at many potential sites, active mechanical stabilization is useful if the natural or cultural ground vibration is higher than expected. A mechanical model of a room temperature linear collider final focus magnet has been constructed and actively stabilized with an accelerometer based system.

  10. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1995. Water data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1996-05-01

    Water resources data for the 1995 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 65 gaging stations; stage only for 40 gaging stations and 6 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 23 gage stations) and 76 wells; and water levels for 217 observation wells. Also included are data for 113 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  11. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1994. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1993-30 September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    Water resources data for the 1994 water year for Louisiana consists of records for stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage only for 45 gaging stations and 6 lakes; water quality for 51 surface-water stations (including 24 gage stations) and 84 wells; and water levels for 209 observations wells. Also included are data for 115 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements.

  12. Drop deposition on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis: Liquid-bridge stability and breakup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Akbari; Reghan J. Hill

    2015-07-23

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on a surface with contact-angle hysteresis under zero-gravity conditions. Theoretical predictions of the stability limits are validated by experimental measurements. Experiments are conducted in a water-methanol-silicon oil system where the gravity force is offset by buoyancy. We highlight cases where stability is lost during the transition from a pinned-pinned to pinned-free interface when the receding contact angle is approached---rather than a critical state, indicating that the breakup length is not always associated with the static maximum-length stability limit. We demonstrate that the dynamic contact angle controls the contact-line radius following stability loss, and that interface evolution following stability loss can increase the dispensed-drop size if the contact angle is fixed.

  13. Characterization and stabilization of arsenic in water treatment residuals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wee, Hun Young

    2004-11-15

    to be underestimated by the toxicity characteristic leaching test (TCLP) due to the pH of the leachates being favorable for As(V) adsorption. Competitive desorption of arsenic with phosphate was significant because phosphate tends to compete with As(V) on the surface...

  14. A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.TheoryTuesday, August 10, 20102016 News BelowAsked toUSC-Aiken,A NewA NewPath to|A

  15. Nationwide water availability data for energy-water modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Zemlick, Katie M.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this effort is to explore where the availability of water could be a limiting factor in the siting of new electric power generation. To support this analysis, water availability is mapped at the county level for the conterminous United States (3109 counties). Five water sources are individually considered, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water (western U.S. only), municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped is projected growth in non-thermoelectric consumptive water demand to 2035. Finally, the water availability metrics are accompanied by estimated costs associated with utilizing that particular supply of water. Ultimately these data sets are being developed for use in the National Renewable Energy Laboratories' (NREL) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, designed to investigate the likely deployment of new energy installations in the U.S., subject to a number of constraints, particularly water.

  16. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  17. Bandgap Engineering of 1-Dimensional Nitride and Oxynitride Materials for Solar Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen Generation from Water Using Solar Energy.E. A. ; Lewis, N. S. Solar Water Splitting Cells. Chem RevWafer-Level Photocatalytic Water Splitting on Gan Nanowire

  18. Stabilization and Global Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarofim, Marcus C.

    Academic and political debates over long-run climate policy often invoke “stabilization” of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), but only rarely are non-CO2 greenhouse gases addressed explicitly. Even ...

  19. Soil stabilization using oil-shale solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Archeological Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Oil-shale solid wastes are evaluated for use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in durability and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern oil shale appears to be feasible for soil stabilization only if limestone is added during combustion. Testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented and the mechanisms of spent-shale cementation are discussed.

  20. Landslide Stability: Role of Rainfall-Induced, Laterally Propagating, Pore-Pressure Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landslide Stability: Role of Rainfall-Induced, Laterally Propagating, Pore-Pressure Waves GEORGE R: Translational Landslide, Hydrogeology, Rainfall, Pore Pressure, Johnson Creek, Oregon ABSTRACT The Johnson Creek pore-water pressure in the basal shear zone in the form of pulses of water pressure traveling laterally

  1. Quantum stabilizer codes and beyond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2008-10-10

    Dissertation by PRADEEP KIRAN SARVEPALLI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2008 Major Subject: Computer Science QUANTUM STABILIZER CODES... Committee Members, Donald K. Friesen Jennifer L. Welch Scott L. Miller Head of Department, Valerie E. Taylor August 2008 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Quantum Stabilizer Codes and Beyond. (August 2008) Pradeep Kiran Sarvepalli, B.Tech., Indian...

  2. Water Content Determination of Rubber Stoppers Utilized for Sealing Lyophilized Pharmaceutical Products: Assessment of Two Karl Fischer Titration Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voth, Laura Marie

    2013-08-31

    In the pharmaceutical industry, the success of a new drug product is strongly impacted by the stability of the drug formulation. For many formulations, stability is governed by the drug product's water content, thus the ...

  3. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  4. Water resources data for Louisiana, water year 1996. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1995-30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, C.R.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    The report contains records for water discharge at 64 gaging stations; stage only for 41 gaging stations and 5 lakes; water quality for 38 surface-water stations (including 22 gage stations) and 100 wells; and water levels for 235 observation wells. Also included are data for 117 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations.

  5. Water Order Profiles on Phospholipid/Cholesterol Membrane Bilayer Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Paul

    Water Order Profiles on Phospholipid/Cholesterol Membrane Bilayer Surfaces DAVID ROBINSON,1 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). Abstract: Water is pivotal in the stabilization of macromolecular biological structures, although the dynamic en- semble structure of water near to molecular

  6. Nanoemulsion stability: experimental evaluation of the flocculation rate from turbidity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem Rahn-Chique; Antonio M. Puertas; Manuel S. Romero-Cano; Clara Rojas; German Urbina-Villalba

    2012-05-21

    The coalescence of liquid drops induces a higher level of complexity compared to the classical studies about the aggregation of solid spheres. Yet, it is commonly believed that most findings on solid dispersions are directly applicable to liquid mixtures. Here, the state of the art in the evaluation of the flocculation rate of these two systems is reviewed. Special emphasis is made on the differences between suspensions and emulsions. In the case of suspensions, the stability ratio is commonly evaluated from the initial slope of the absorbance as a function of time under diffusive and reactive conditions. Puertas and de las Nieves (1997) developed a theoretical approach that allows the determination of the flocculation rate from the variation of the turbidity of a sample as a function of time. Here, suitable modifications of the experimental procedure and the referred theoretical approach are implemented in order to calculate the values of the stability ratio and the flocculation rate corresponding to a dodecane-in-water nanoemulsion stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Four analytical expressions of the turbidity are tested, basically differing in the optical cross section of the aggregates formed. The first two models consider the processes of: a) aggregation (as described by Smoluchowski) and b) the instantaneous coalescence upon flocculation. The other two models account for the simultaneous occurrence of flocculation and coalescence. The latter reproduce the temporal variation of the turbidity in all cases studied (380 \\leq [NaCl] \\leq 600 mM), providing a method of appraisal of the flocculation rate in nanoemulsions.

  7. Simple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    combinations of oil and water contents. The #12;reflection responses (S11) of the pipe with water level rangingSimple Microwave Method for Detecting Water Holdup Sheikh S. I., Alqurashi K. Y., Ragheb H to determine the water holdup of a near horizontal oil carrying pipeline. This technique is particularly useful

  8. MTP-Presentation "Drinking Water Security"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    MTP- Presentation "Drinking Water Security" A Conceptual Framework for Policy Assessment tool of Rural Drinking Water Supply Schemes at Taluka level Under Guidance of Prof. Milind A. Sohoni Presented with respect to drinking water. 2. To assess prime source of drinking water during monsoon and non

  9. Adsorption, desorption, and stabilization of arsenic on aluminum substituted ferrihydrite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masue, Yoko

    2006-04-12

    Because of As toxicity, the complexity of its chemistry, and the recent lowering of the maximum contaminant level of As in municipal drinking water, there has been considerable interest for improved methods to remove As ...

  10. Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-11-18

    : Perchlorate Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Rebecca H. Melton, Extension Assistant, Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University System Michael F. Hare, Senior Natural Resources Specialist, Pesticide Programs Division... concluded that present perchlorate envi- ronmental exposures levels do not appear to pro- duce harmful effects. Regulatory agencies and other groups are now trying to determine a safe level of perchlorate in water. Following recommendations in the NRC (2005...

  11. Hydration water dynamics and instigation of protein structuralrelaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-09-01

    Until a critical hydration level is reached, proteins do not function. This critical level of hydration is analogous to a similar lack of protein function observed for temperatures below a dynamical temperature range of 180-220K that also is connected to the dynamics of protein surface water. Restoration of some enzymatic activity is observed in partially hydrated protein powders, sometimes corresponding to less than a single hydration layer on the protein surface, which indicates that the dynamical and structural properties of the surface water is intimately connected to protein stability and function. Many elegant studies using both experiment and simulation have contributed important information about protein hydration structure and timescales. The molecular mechanism of the solvent motion that is required to instigate the protein structural relaxation above a critical hydration level or transition temperature has yet to be determined. In this work we use experimental quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate hydration water dynamics near a greatly simplified protein system. We consider the hydration water dynamics near the completely deuterated N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA) solute, a hydrophobic amino acid side chain attached to a polar blocked polypeptide backbone, as a function of concentration between 0.5M-2.0M under ambient conditions. We note that roughly 50-60% of a folded protein's surface is equally distributed between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains, domains whose lengths are on the order of a few water diameters, that justify our study of hydration dynamics of this simple model protein system. The QENS experiment was performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research, using the disk chopper time of flight spectrometer (DCS). In order to separate the translational and rotational components in the spectra, two sets of experiments were carried out using different incident neutron wavelengths of 7.5{angstrom} and 5.5{angstrom} to give two different time resolutions. All the spectra have been measure at room temperature. The spectra were corrected for the sample holder contribution and normalized using the vanadium standard. The resulting data were analyzed with DAVE programs (http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/dave/). The AMBER force field and SPCE water model were used for modeling the NALMA solute and water, respectively. For the analysis of the water dynamics in the NALMA aqueous solutions, we performed simulations of a dispersed solute configuration consistent with our previous structural analysis, where we had primarily focused on the structural organization of these peptide solutions and their connection to protein folding. Further details of the QENS experiment and molecular dynamics simulations are reported elsewhere.

  12. Stability conditions of diatomic molecules in Heisenbergs picture: inspired from the stability theory of lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafar Jahanpanah; Mohsen Esmaeilzadeh

    2015-08-29

    The vibrational motion equations of both homo and hetero-nuclei diatomic molecules are here derived for the first time. A diatomic molecule is first considered as a one dimensional quantum mechanics oscillator. The second and third-order Hamiltonian operators are then formed by substituting the number operator for the quantum number in the corresponding vibrational energy eigenvalues. The expectation values of relative position and linear momentum operators of two oscillating atoms are calculated by solving Heisenbergs equations of motion. Subsequently, the expectation values of potential and kinetics energy operators are evaluated in all different vibrational levels of Morse potential. On the other hand, the stability theory of optical oscillators (lasers) is exploited to determine the stability conditions of an oscillating diatomic molecule.It is peculiarly turned out that the diatomic molecules are exactly dissociated at the energy level in which their equations of motion become unstable. We also determine the minimum oscillation frequency (cut-off frequency) of a diatomic molecule at the dissociation level of Morse potential. At the end, the energy conservation is illustrated for the vibrational motion of a diatomic molecule.

  13. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO{sub 3} and is contaminated by low levels of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable.

  14. U31: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Electronic Stability Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrolino, Joseph; Spezia, Tony; Arant, Michael; Delorenzis, Damon; LaClair, Tim J; Lim, Alvin; Pape, Doug

    2011-01-01

    A team led by NTRCI is working to improve the roll and yaw stability of heavy duty combination trucks through developing stability algorithms, assembling demonstration hardware, and investigating robust wireless communication. Modern electronic stability control (ESC) products automatically slow a vehicle rounding a corner too quickly or apply individual brakes when necessary to improve the steering characteristics of a vehicle. Air brake systems in North America provide no electronic communication between a tractor and semitrailer, limiting the degree to which control systems can be optimized. Prior research has demonstrated stability improvements where dynamic measurements and control commands are communicated between units of a vehicle. Three related activities were undertaken: (1) Develop an algorithm for the optimum yaw and roll control of a combination vehicle. Vehicle state parameters needed to control the vehicle and the proper brake response were determined. An integrated stability control for the tractor and semitrailer requires communication between the two units. Dynamic models were used to assess the algorithm. (2) Implement the ESC algorithm in the laboratory. Hardware components suitable for the harsh environment for measurement, sensor-to-controller communication, and semitrailer-to-tractor communication and brake actuation were specified and assembled as a working system. The goal was to collect the needed vehicle state information, transmit the information to the ESC system, and then actuate the brakes in response to controller commands. (3) Develop a wireless network with the data rate and reliability necessary to communicate dynamic signals for a vehicle stability control system. Adaptive connectivity-aware, multi-hop routing was selected because it can perform in the harsh environment where packet collisions and fading often will exist. The protocol is to give high priority to urgent messages.

  15. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nutt, Gerald L. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1991-01-01

    The stability of porous solid high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, is enhanced by reducing the sensitivity to shock initiation of a reaction that leads to detonation. The pores of the explosive down to a certain size are filled under pressure with a stable, low melt temperature material in liquid form, and the combined material is cooled so the pore filling material solidifies. The stability can be increased to progressively higher levels by filling smaller pores. The pore filling material can be removed, at least partially, by reheating above its melt temperature and drained off so that the explosive is once more suitable for detonation.

  16. Meeting the mandate for clean water : an evaluation of privately managed U.S. water and wastewater systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freund, Evan Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Reliable provision of clean and safe drinking water is critical for public health, economic stability and growth in the United States. Due to a combination of financial, regulatory and operational challenges, however, it ...

  17. An Integrated Low Level Heat Recovery System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra, A. V., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large amount of low level thermal energy is lost to air or water in a typical petroleum refinery. This paper discusses a complex integrated low level heat recovery system that is being engineered for installation in a large petroleum refinery...

  18. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies are used for agriculture, natural resources, salt water intrusion protection, drinking water, industry

  19. Water Quality Guide for Livestock and Poultry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    1998-09-30

    This publication discusses some of the most common contaminants in the drinking water of livestock and poultry. A table lists the Maximum Contaminant Level of some harmful substances.

  20. HDAC3 regulates stability of estrogen receptor ? mRNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oie, Shohei; Matsuzaki, Kazuya; Yokoyama, Wataru; Murayama, Akiko; Yanagisawa, Junn

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ? HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ER? mRNA in MCF-7 cells. ? HDAC3 is involved in maintaining ER? mRNA stability in MCF-7 cells. ? ER? mRNA instability by knockdown of HDAC3 reduces the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ER?-positive MCF-7 cells. ? HDAC3 specific inhibitor will be one of new drugs for ER?-positive breast cancers. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. HDAC inhibitors have been demonstrated to down-regulate ER? expression in ER?-positive breast cancer cell lines, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we showed that HDAC inhibitors decrease the stability of ER? mRNA, and that knockdown of HDAC3 decreases the stability of ER? mRNA and suppresses estrogen-dependent proliferation of ER?-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In the Oncomine database, expression levels of HDAC3 in ER?-positive tumors are higher than those in ER?-negative tumors, thus suggesting that HDAC3 is necessary for ER? mRNA stability, and is involved in the estrogen-dependent proliferation of ER?-positive tumors.

  1. Water Resource Economics An Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    of Agricultural Economics and Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College comprehensive coverage of water economics at a level both accessible to senior undergraduates while still accessible for all of these students. I highly recommend this to be an indispensable source book for water

  2. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  3. Water at interface with proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giancarlo Franzese; Valentino Bianco; Svilen Iskrov

    2010-12-07

    Water is essential for the activity of proteins. However, the effect of the properties of water on the behavior of proteins is only partially understood. Recently, several experiments have investigated the relation between the dynamics of the hydration water and the dynamics of protein. These works have generated a large amount of data whose interpretation is debated. New experiments measure the dynamics of water at low temperature on the surface of proteins, finding a qualitative change (crossover) that might be related to the slowing down and stop of the protein's activity (protein glass transition), possibly relevant for the safe preservation of organic material at low temperature. To better understand the experimental data several scenarios have been discussed. Here, we review these experiments and discuss their interpretations in relation with the anomalous properties of water. We summarize the results for the thermodynamics and dynamics of supercooled water at an interface. We consider also the effect of water on protein stability, making a step in the direction of understanding, by means of Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical calculations, how the interplay of water cooperativity and hydrogen bonds interfacial strengthening affects the protein cold denaturation.

  4. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  5. STABILITY OF WASTE CONTAINMENT FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    placement or regrading, (v) typical landfilling, and (vi) final closure. After identifying the potential containment facilities. These failures include landfill liner and cover systems and involve both natural recirculation, lateral and vertical expansions, and interim or temporary slopes on the stability of landfills

  6. Stability of Molten Core Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock; Wendell Hintze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document a literature and data search for data and information pertaining to the stability of nuclear reactor molten core materials. This includes data and analysis from TMI-2 fuel and INL’s LOFT (Loss of Fluid Test) reactor project and other sources.

  7. Material stabilization characterization management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GIBSON, M.W.

    1999-08-31

    This document presents overall direction for characterization needs during stabilization of SNM at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Technical issues for needed data and equipment are identified. Information on material categories and links to vulnerabilities are given. Comparison data on the material categories is discussed to assist in assessing the relative risks and desired processing priority.

  8. Basis Document for Sludge Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILKINS, N.E.

    2000-04-03

    Vault personnel have begun a program of radiographing plutonium metal cans. Metal that appears to be corroded will be processed through the furnaces in Glovebox HC-21C. The fire suppression system activation temperature will be deleted because it is not maintained by PFP Stabilization.

  9. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  10. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  11. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-03-12

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

  12. Associations among Plankton Abundance, Water Quality And Sediment Quality In The San Francisco Bay: Nitrogen And Phosphorus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritsch, Monica

    2011-01-01

    2. Comparison of water pollution (estimated by phosphate andsediment pollution, water pollution, and plankton abundancea connection between water pollution levels and plankton

  13. Computerized Waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    supply diversions, several hydroelectric plants and numerous environ- mental instream flow requirements. Each of these active permits is included in the datasets. Besides the commission using the WAM/WRAP modeling system in water rights permiting... actions be consistent with relevant regional plans. River authorities, water districts and other water management organizations are beginning to use the WRAP model in operational planning studies to optimize operations of their facilities...

  14. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to stabilize the 105N Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces-to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin is a reinforced unlined concrete structure 150 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 24 feet deep. The basin is segregated into seven areas sharing a common pool of water; the Discharge/Viewing (``D``) Pit, the fuel segregation pit (including a water tunnel that connects the ``D`` pit and segregation pit), two storage basins designated as North Basin and South Basin, two cask load-out pits, and a fuel examination area. The North Basin floor is entirely covered and the South Basin is partly covered by a modular array of cubicles formed by boron concrete posts and boron concrete panels.

  15. Note on the stability of viscous roll-waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, Blake; Noble, Pascal; Rodrigues, L Miguel; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The viscous shallow water equations with bottom drag are used to study the stability of roll-waves. In [17], the authors provided a set of spectral assumptions under which periodic wave trains of rather general viscous conservation laws were proved to be nonlinearly stable. Here, we focus on the spectral stability of viscous roll-waves and give a {\\it complete} description of the set of stable roll-waves from their onset at Froude number $\\approx 2$ up to the infinite-Froude limit. This paper is a physically oriented companion paper that extracts the physically relevant content from the rather long and technical paper [6]. We formulate stability results at the onset of the hydrodynamic instability and provide numerical results for intermediate and large Froude numbers. In particular, stable roll-waves at onset have asymptotically large periods whereas there are no stable roll-waves for large Froude numbers. Moreover, the stability region in parameter space for intermediate Froude numbers seems to be governed ...

  16. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  17. On the Stability of Cylindrical Tangential Discontinuity, Generation and Damping of Helical Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ershkovich, A I

    2015-01-01

    Stability of cylindrical interface between two ideal incompressible fluids, including the magnetic field, surface tension and gravitational field is studied in linear approximation. We found that helical waves arising both in plasma comet tails and on the vertical cylindrical water jet in the air are described by the same dispersion equation where the comet tail magnetic field plays the same stabilizing role as surface tension for water jet. Hence they represent the same phenomenon of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Thus helical waves in comet tails and astrophysical jets may be simulated in the laboratory. The resonance nature of the Kelvin- instability damping is demonstrated.

  18. Plasma stability in a dipole magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simakov, Andrei N., 1974-

    2001-01-01

    The MHD and kinetic stability of an axially symmetric plasma, confined by a poloidal magnetic field with closed lines, is considered. In such a system the stabilizing effects of plasma compression and magnetic field ...

  19. Structural stability of the Weeks Island oil repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preece, D.S.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1994-06-01

    A 3-D finite element analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the SPR upper and lower oil storage levels at Weeks Island. The mechanical analysis predicted stresses and strains from which pillar stability was inferred using a fracture criterion developed from previous testing of Weeks Island salt. This analysis simulated the sequential mining of the two levels and subsequent oil fill of the mine. The predicted subsidence rates compare well to those measured over the past few years. Predicted failure mechanisms agree with observations made at the time the mine was being modified for oil storage. The modeling technique employed here treats an infinite array of pillars and is a reasonable representation of the behavior at the center of the mine. This analysis predicts that the lower level pillars, at the center of the mine, have fractured and their stability at this time is questionable. Localized pillar fracturing is predicted and implies that the mine is entering a phase of continual time dependent deterioration. Continued and expanded monitoring of the facility and development of methods to assess and predict its behavior are more important now than ever.

  20. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  1. Soil Stabilization Methods with Potential for Application at the Nevada National Security Site: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shillito, Rose; Fenstermaker, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear testing at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) has resulted in large areas of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Much of the radionuclide contamination is found at or near the soil surface, and due to the dry climate setting, and the long half-life of radioactive isotopes, soil erosion poses a long-term health risk at the NNSS. The objective of this literature review is to present a survey of current stabilization methods used for minimizing soil erosion, both by water and wind. The review focuses on in situ uses of fundamental chemical and physical mechanisms for soil stabilization. A basic overview of the physical and chemical properties of soil is also presented to provide a basis for assessing stabilization methods. Some criteria for stabilization evaluation are identified based on previous studies at the NNSS. Although no specific recommendations are presented as no stabilization method, alone or in combination, will be appropriate in all circumstances, discussions of past and current stabilization procedures and specific soil tests that may aid in current or future soil stabilization activities at the NNSS are presented. However, not all Soils Corrective Action Sites (CASs) or Corrective Action Units (CAUs) will require stabilization of surficial radionuclide-contaminated soils. Each Soils CAS or CAU should be evaluated for site-specific conditions to determine if soil stabilization is necessary or practical for a given specific site closure alternative. If stabilization is necessary, then a determination will be made as to which stabilization technique is the most appropriate for that specific site.

  2. Geometric conditions for robust stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapellat, Herve?

    1987-01-01

    ) Michael T. Lo gnecker (Member) Jo W. Howze (Head of Department) December 1987 ABSTRACT Ceometric Conditions for Robust Stability (Decenrber 1987) Herve Chapellat, B. S. , E. N. S. T. (Paris) Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. S. P. Bhsttacharyya.... Georghiades and M. T. Longnecker for their comments and for taking time in reviewing this thesis. Finally, I wish to express deep gratitude to my former school in Paris, the Ecole ?ationale Supericure des Telecornrnurdcations (E. lV. S. T. ), that allosved...

  3. Radial stability in stratified stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira, Jonas P

    2015-01-01

    We formulate within a generalized distributional approach the treatment of the stability against radial perturbations for both neutral and charged stratified stars in Newtonian and Einstein's gravity. We obtain from this approach the boundary conditions connecting two any phases within a star and underline its relevance for realistic models of compact stars with phase transitions, owing to the modification of the star's set of eigenmodes with respect to the continuous case.

  4. Radial stability in stratified stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas P. Pereira; Jorge A. Rueda

    2015-01-12

    We formulate within a generalized distributional approach the treatment of the stability against radial perturbations for both neutral and charged stratified stars in Newtonian and Einstein's gravity. We obtain from this approach the boundary conditions connecting two any phases within a star and underline its relevance for realistic models of compact stars with phase transitions, owing to the modification of the star's set of eigenmodes with respect to the continuous case.

  5. A Stability of LCLS Linac Modulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, F.-J.; Krasnykh, A.; Morris, B.; Nguyen, M.; /SLAC

    2012-06-13

    Information concerning to a stability of LCLS RF linac modulators is allocated in this paper. In general a 'pulse-to-pulse' modulator stability (and RF phase as well) is acceptable for the LCLS commission and FEL programs. Further modulator stability improvements are possible and approaches are discussed based on our experimental results.

  6. Stabilization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C.3 SpecialSponsor GuidelinesPlasma Physics and Error

  7. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  8. Investigations in Ceramicrete Stabilization of Hanford Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A. S.; Antink, A.; Maloney, M. D.; Thomson, G. H.

    2003-02-26

    This paper provides a summary of investigations done on feasibility of using Ceramicrete technology to stabilize high level salt waste streams typical of Hanford and other sites. We used two non-radioactive simulants that covered the range of properties from low activity to high level liquids and sludges. One represented tank supernate, containing Cr, Pb, and Ag as the major hazardous metals, and Cs as the fission products; the other, a waste sludge, contained Cd, Cr, Ag, Ni, and Ba as the major hazardous contaminants, and Cs, and Tc as the fission products.

  9. LLaannggeerrhhaannss LLaabb PPrroottooccoollss WaterChemistryTargetRanges.docx 6/19/14 Page 1 of 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    H Up. Decrease by adding pH Minus or baking soda. Stabilize by water change. Water temp Measure from the tank. Ammonia (ppm) Measure by using test solutions (see instruction booklets). Near 0

  10. A proposal for climate stability on H2-greenhouse planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbot, Dorian S

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial planet in an orbit far outside of the standard habitable zone could maintain surface liquid water as a result of H2-H2 collision-induced absorption by a thick H2 atmosphere. Without a stabilizing climate feedback, however, habitability would be accidental and likely brief. In this letter I propose stabilizing climate feedbacks for such a planet that require only that biological functions have an optimal temperature and operate less efficiently at other temperatures. For example, on a planet with a net source of H2 from its interior, H2-consuming life (such as methanogens) could establish a stable climate. If a positive perturbation is added to the equilibrium temperature, H2 consumption by life will increase (cooling the planet) until the equilibrium climate is reestablished. The potential existence of such feedbacks makes H2-warmed planets more attractive astrobiological targets.

  11. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.; Linehan, J.

    1986-02-01

    Inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from large aspect ratio nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, breakup mode, and dispersed core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow destabilization led to inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and to dispersed droplet flow, core breakup length correlations were developed by extending work on free liquid jets to include this coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The results show length dependence upon D/sub J/, Re/sub J/, We/sub J/, ..cap alpha.., and We/sub G/,rel. Correlations for core shape, breakup mechanisms, and dispersed core droplet size were also developed, by extending the results of free jet stability, roll wave entrainment, and churn turbulent droplet stability studies.

  12. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarlais, G.; Ishii, M.; Linehan, J.

    1983-07-01

    Inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from large aspect ratio nozzles, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow destabilization lead to inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and to dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of these transitions from inverted annular flow, core break-up length correlations were developed by extending work on free liquid jets to include this coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The results show length dependence upon D/SUB J/, Re/SUB J/, We/SUB J/, ..cap alpha.. and We/SUB G. Correlations for core shape, break-up mechanisms and dispersed core droplet size were also developed, by extending the results of free jet stability, roll wave entrainment, and churn turbulent droplet stability studies.

  13. Hydrodynamic stability of inverted annular flow in an adiabatic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jarlais, G.; Ishii, M.; Linehan, J.

    1984-01-01

    Inverted annular flow was simulated adiabatically with turbulent water jets, issuing downward from large aspect ratio nozzle, enclosed in gas annuli. Velocities, diameters, and gas species were varied, and core jet length, shape, break-up mode, and dispersed core droplet sizes were recorded at approximately 750 data points. Inverted annular flow destabilization lead to inverted slug flow at low relative velocities, and to dispersed droplet flow at high relative velocities. For both of these transitions from inverted annular flow, core break-up length correlations were developed by extending work on free liquid jets to include this coaxial, jet disintegration phenomenon. The results show length dependence upon D/sub J/, Re/sub J/, ..cap alpha.. and We/sub G, rel/. Correlations for core shape, break-up mechanisms and dispersed core droplet size were also developed, by extending the results of free jet stability, roll wave entrainment, and churn turbulent droplet stability studies.

  14. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercier, Magali

    L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Control 2010 Magali Mercier (Institut Camille Jordan, Lyon) L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Parma, 15th February 2010 1 / 30 #12;L1 Stability for scalar balance laws. Introduction. Introduction Scalar balance

  15. Nonlinear effects in charge stabilized colloidal suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kreer; J. Horbach; A. Chatterji

    2006-02-10

    Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to study the effective interactions in charged stabilized colloidal suspensions. For not too high macroion charges and sufficiently large screening, the concept of the potential of mean force is known to work well. In the present work, we focus on highly charged macroions in the limit of low salt concentrations. Within this regime, nonlinear corrections to the celebrated DLVO theory [B. Derjaguin and L. Landau, Acta Physicochem. USSR {\\bf 14}, 633 (1941); E.J.W. Verwey and J.T.G. Overbeck, {\\em Theory of the Stability of Lyotropic Colloids} (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948)] have to be considered. For non--bulklike systems, such as isolated pairs or triples of macroions, we show, that nonlinear effects can become relevant, which cannot be described by the charge renormalization concept [S. Alexander et al., J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 80}, 5776 (1984)]. For an isolated pair of macroions, we find an almost perfect qualitative agreement between our simulation data and the primitive model. However, on a quantitative level, neither Debye-H\\"uckel theory nor the charge renormalization concept can be confirmed in detail. This seems mainly to be related to the fact, that for small ion concentrations, microionic layers can strongly overlap, whereas, simultaneously, excluded volume effects are less important. In the case of isolated triples, where we compare between coaxial and triangular geometries, we find attractive corrections to pairwise additivity in the limit of small macroion separations and salt concentrations. These triplet interactions arise if all three microionic layers around the macroions exhibit a significant overlap. In contrast to the case of two isolated colloids, the charge distribution around a macroion in a triple is found to be anisotropic.

  16. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-20, NO. 6, DECEMBER 1975 127 Acoustics, Stability, and Compensation in Boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwatny, Harry G.

    , and Compensation in Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Control Systems Abstract-An analysisis provided of the effeds THECONTROL of steam pressure inboiling water reactor(BWR)nuclear power stations is one of the critical plantIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-20, NO. 6, DECEMBER 1975 127 Acoustics, Stability

  17. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Best, Robert B; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, re- cent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated {\\alpha}-helices. However all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimen- tal pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure- dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experi- ment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water,...

  18. Stabilized polyacrylic saccharide protein conjugates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1996-02-20

    This invention is directed to water soluble protein polymer conjugates which are stable in hostile environments. The conjugate comprises a protein which is linked to an acrylic polymer at multiple points through saccharide linker groups. 16 figs.

  19. The Use of Catalysts in Near-Critical Water Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2005-06-26

    The use of heterogeneous catalysts in near-critical water processing provides many challenges of material stability in addition to the normal questions of chemical activity. Conventional catalyst materials developed in traditional organic chemistry or petroleum chemistry applications provide a source of information of materials with the required activities but often without the required stability when used in hot liquid water. The importance of the use of catalysts in near-critical water processing plays a particularly crucial role for the development of renewable fuels and chemicals based on biomass feedstocks. Stability issues include both those related to the catalytic metal and also to the catalyst support material. In fact, the stability of the support is the most likely concern when using conventional catalyst formulations in near-critical water processing. Processing test results are used to show important design parameters for catalyst formulations for use in wet biomass gasification in high-pressure water and in catalytic hydrogenations in water for production of value-added chemical products from biomass in the biorefinery concept. Analytical methods including powder x-ray diffraction for crystallite size and composition determination, surface area and porosity measurements, and elemental analysis have all been used to quantify differences in catalyst materials before and after use. By these methods both the chemical and physical stability of heterogeneous catalysts can be verified.

  20. Guidelines for water use. Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crook, J.; Ammerman, D.

    1992-09-01

    The manual is a valuable tool for regulatory agencies at all levels of government, engineers, planners, and all other groups affected by water reuse problems. Key water reuse planning issues are identified and discussed in a manner that librally employs case study experience to illustrate the importance of each issue and successful solutions. A comprehensive listing of state water reuse guidelines by category of reuse is provided, along with an analysis of the variations between states within each category. The analysis is then followed with a series of suggested guidelines for water quality required for each category of reuse. These guidelines are based on the state guidelines and experience described earlier, and they offer a suggested starting point for state, regional, and local governments that plan to establish water reuse procedures, both in terms of water quality requirements and procedures for design, operation, and monitoring.

  1. High Catalytic Activity of Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) Controlled by the Nature of the Mixed Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Ma, S; Liu, P; Nambu, A; Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-metal oxides play a very important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, materials science, and geochemistry. Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding phenomena associated with the deposition of oxide nanoparticles on the surface of a second (host) oxide. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density-functional calculations are used to study the behavior of ceria nanoparticles deposited on a TiO2(110) surface. The titania substrate imposes nontypical coordination modes on the ceria nanoparticles. In the CeOx/TiO2(110) systems, the Ce cations adopt an structural geometry and an oxidation state (+3) that are quite different from those seen in bulk ceria or for ceria nanoparticles deposited on metal substrates. The increase in the stability of the Ce3+ oxidation state leads to an enhancement in the chemical and catalytic activity of the ceria nanoparticles. The codeposition of ceria and gold nanoparticles on a TiO2(110) substrate generates catalysts with an extremely high activity for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO ? H2 + CO2) or for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O2 ? 2CO2). The enhanced stability of the Ce3+ state is an example of structural promotion in catalysis described here on the atomic level. The exploration of mixed-metal oxides at the nanometer level may open avenues for optimizing catalysts through stabilization of unconventional surface structures with special chemical activity.

  2. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  3. Grabbing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  4. Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

    2005-11-01

    Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

  5. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  6. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, Clay C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes.

  7. In-situ stabilization of radioactive zirconium swarf

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hess, C.C.

    1999-08-31

    The method for treating ignitable cutting swarf in accordance with the present invention involves collecting cutting swarf in a casting mold underwater and injecting a binder mixture comprising vinyl ester styrene into the vessel to fill void volume; and form a mixture comprising swarf and vinyl ester styrene; and curing the mixture. The method is especially useful for stabilizing the ignitable characteristics of radioactive zirconium cutting swarf, and can be used to solidify zirconium swarf, or other ignitable finely divided material, underwater. The process could also be performed out of water with other particulate wastes. 6 figs.

  8. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  9. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  10. Vacuum Stability of Standard Model^{++}

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R; Vlcek, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \\simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. We then pursue a numerical study of the system to determine the triviality and vacuum stability bounds, using a scan of 10^4 random set of points to fix the initial conditions. We show that, if there...

  11. WRF/Chem Simulations Over Fairbanks, AK Atmospheric Stability and Energy Correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    1 WRF/Chem Simulations Over Fairbanks, AK Atmospheric Stability and Energy Correlation Analysis deposition. #12;3 The interactions and cycles of energy, water and trace gas components are also simulated, Alaska, that is characteristic of the Tanana valley; Specifically, Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE

  12. Solid As A Rock: The Utilization of Polyvinyl Acetate to Stabilize and Consolidate Museum Sandstone Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Solid As A Rock: The Utilization of Polyvinyl Acetate to Stabilize and Consolidate Museum Sandstone) commonly used sandstone in creating various objects. Sandstone slabs used in hearth construction these objects unstable. Sandstone is a porous rock. The heat treatment and weathering drives off water and makes

  13. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    in order to reduce the water and energy wasted in hot waterhot water) and 17% if hot water energy is included. The datafrom the delivered hot water energy of 66% to provide the

  15. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  16. The Enterprise Level Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lean Advancement Initiative

    2000-01-01

    The Enterprise Level Roadmap is part of a Transition-To-Lean Guide, a three volume set of materials designed to help a user navigate through the Roadmap at increasingly deeper levels of detail.

  17. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... are partnering with federal and state agencies and universities to develop new programs or market existing ones. In North Central Texas, the city of McKin- ney and Texas AgriLife Research and Exten- sion Urban Solutions Center at Dallas recently began...

  18. A Particle-Water Based Model for Water Retention Hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yixiang Gan; Federico Maggi; Giuseppe Buscarnera; Itai Einav

    2013-12-04

    A particle-water discrete element based approach to describe water movement in partially saturated granular media is presented and tested. Water potential is governed by both capillary bridges, dominant at low saturations, and the pressure of entrapped air, dominant at high saturations. The approach captures the hysteresis of water retention during wetting and drainage by introducing the local evolution of liquid-solid contact angles at the level of pores and grains. Extensive comparisons against experimental data are presented. While these are made without the involvement of any fitting parameters, the method demonstrates relative high success by achieving a correlation coefficient of at least 82%, and mostly above 90%. For the tested materials with relatively mono-disperse grain size, the hysteresis of water retention during cycles of wetting and drainage has been shown to arise from the dynamics of solid-liquid contact angles as a function of local liquid volume changes.

  19. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability. Supplement 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove {sup 137}CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

  20. Chemical Stabilization of Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in-situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of the three most significant mobile contaminants of concern from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. For uranium, all three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective MCLs for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  1. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Experimental Studies of NGNP Reactor Cavity Cooling System With Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Anderson, Mark; Hassan, Yassin; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2013-01-16

    This project will investigate the flow behavior that can occur in the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) with water coolant under the passive cooling-mode of operation. The team will conduct separate-effects tests and develop associated scaling analyses, and provide system-level phenomenological and computational models that describe key flow phenomena during RCCS operation, from forced to natural circulation, single-phase flow and two-phase flow and flashing. The project consists of the following tasks: Task 1. Conduct separate-effects, single-phase flow experiments and develop scaling analyses for comparison to system-level computational modeling for the RCCS standpipe design. A transition from forced to natural convection cooling occurs in the standpipe under accident conditions. These tests will measure global flow behavior and local flow velocities, as well as develop instrumentation for use in larger scale tests, thereby providing proper flow distribution among standpipes for decay heat removal. Task 2. Conduct separate-effects experiments for the RCCS standpipe design as two-phase flashing occurs and flow develops. As natural circulation cooling continues without an ultimate heat sink, water within the system will heat to temperatures approaching saturation , at which point two-phase flashing and flow will begin. The focus is to develop a phenomenological model from these tests that will describe the flashing and flow stability phenomena. In addition, one could determine the efficiency of phase separation in the RCCS storage tank as the two-phase flashing phenomena ensues and the storage tank vents the steam produced. Task 3. Develop a system-level computational model that will describe the overall RCCS behavior as it transitions from forced flow to natural circulation and eventual two-phase flow in the passive cooling-mode of operation. This modeling can then be used to test the phenomenological models developed as a function of scale.

  3. Optimization Online - Quantitative Stability Analysis of Stochastic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Zhang

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Quantitative Stability Analysis of Stochastic Quasi-Variational Inequality Problems and Applications. Jie Zhang(zhangjie04212001 ***at*** ...

  4. Nonlinear symmetric stability of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.C.; Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    The energy-Casimir method is applied to the problem of symmetric stability in the context of a compressible, hydrostatic planetary atmosphere with a general equation of state. Linear stability criteria for symmetric disturbances to a zonally symmetric baroclinic flow are obtained. In the special case of a perfect gas the results of Stevens (1983) are recovered. Nonlinear stability conditions are also obtained that, in addition to implying linear stability, provide an upper bound on a certain positive-definite measure of disturbance amplitude.

  5. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to bout 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution.

  6. Stabilization of polyaniline solutions through additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.

    1996-12-10

    A stabilized non-conductive polyaniline solution comprising from about 1 to about 10 percent by weight polyaniline or a polyaniline derivative, from about 90 to about 99 percent by weight N-methylpyrrolidone, and from about 0.5 percent by weight to about 15 percent by weight of a solution stabilizing additive selected from the group consisting of hindered amine light stabilizers, polymeric amines, and dialkylamines, percent by weight of additive based on the total weight of polyaniline or polyaniline derivative is provided together with a method for stabilizing a polyaniline solution. 4 figs.

  7. Quench propagation velocity for highly stabilized conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mints, R.G. |; Ogitsu, T. |; Devred, A.

    1995-05-01

    Quench propagation velocity in conductors having a large amount of stabilizer outside the multifilamentary area is considered. It is shown that the current redistribution process between the multifilamentary area and the stabilizer can strongly effect the quench propagation. A criterion is derived determining the conditions under which the current redistribution process becomes significant, and a model of effective stabilizer area is suggested to describe its influence on the quench propagation velocity. As an illustration, the model is applied to calculate the adiabatic quench propagation velocity for a conductor geometry with a multifilamentary area embedded inside the stabilizer.

  8. Adaptive Stabilization of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Florchinger, P. [URA CNRS No. 399, Departement de Mathematiques, UFR MIM, Universite de Metz, Ile du Saulcy, F 57045 Metz Cedex (France)

    1998-07-15

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problem of asymptotic stabilization in probability of nonlinear stochastic differential systems with unknown parameters. With this aim, we introduce the concept of an adaptive control Lyapunov function for stochastic systems and we use the stochastic version of Artstein's theorem to design an adaptive stabilizer. In this framework the problem of adaptive stabilization of a nonlinear stochastic system is reduced to the problem of asymptotic stabilization in probability of a modified system. The design of an adaptive control Lyapunov function is illustrated by the example of adaptively quadratically stabilizable in probability stochastic differential systems.

  9. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  10. Chemically stabilized ionomers containing inorganic fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit

    2013-12-31

    Ionomeric polymers that are chemically stabilized and contain inorganic fillers are prepared, and show reduced degradation. The ionomers care useful in membranes and electrochemical cells.

  11. The limits of filopodium stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sander Pronk; Phillip L. Geissler; Daniel A. Fletcher

    2008-03-03

    Filopodia are long, finger-like membrane tubes supported by cytoskeletal filaments. Their shape is determined by the stiffness of the actin filament bundles found inside them and by the interplay between the surface tension and bending rigidity of the membrane. Although one might expect the Euler buckling instability to limit the length of filopodia, we show through simple energetic considerations that this is in general not the case. By further analyzing the statics of filaments inside membrane tubes, and through computer simulations that capture membrane and filament fluctuations, we show under which conditions filopodia of arbitrary lengths are stable. We discuss several in vitro experiments where this kind of stability has already been observed. Furthermore, we predict that the filaments in long, stable filopodia adopt a helical shape.

  12. County Level Wind Erosion Estimation Using National

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Fuller (1987), Rao (2003). 11 #12;Model searching for Wind Erosion In NRI, wind erosion WEQCounty Level Wind Erosion Estimation Using National Resources Inventory Survey Taps Maiti. · Approx. 3 points/PSU; 800,000 points in 1997 NRI 4 #12;· Data on Urban land, small water etc

  13. El Paso landscape perspective: Researchers study water conservation, plant-tolerance, and water reuse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    and demand side), reclaimed water, and desalination. It has been one of the key factors in bringing our aquifer back to a sustainable level and making sure there is an ample water supply for the next ?? years before considering the importation of water...

  14. Background: Subsurface Water Retention Technology (SWRT) Durable and easy to install: Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Background: Subsurface Water Retention Technology (SWRT) Benefits Durable and easy to install: Water retaining membranes can last at least 40 years and can be installed quickly and costeffectively permeable marginal soils converting them to much higher production levels of food crops. Better water

  15. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  16. Surface rheology and interface stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaklin, Melissa A.; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Walker, Lynn; Koehler, Timothy P.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Brooks, Carlton, F.

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a mature laboratory at Sandia to measure interfacial rheology, using a combination of home-built, commercially available, and customized commercial tools. An Interfacial Shear Rheometer (KSV ISR-400) was modified and the software improved to increase sensitivity and reliability. Another shear rheometer, a TA Instruments AR-G2, was equipped with a du Nouey ring, bicone geometry, and a double wall ring. These interfacial attachments were compared to each other and to the ISR. The best results with the AR-G2 were obtained with the du Nouey ring. A Micro-Interfacial Rheometer (MIR) was developed in house to obtain the much higher sensitivity given by a smaller probe. However, it was found to be difficult to apply this technique for highly elastic surfaces. Interfaces also exhibit dilatational rheology when the interface changes area, such as occurs when bubbles grow or shrink. To measure this rheological response we developed a Surface Dilatational Rheometer (SDR), in which changes in surface tension with surface area are measured during the oscillation of the volume of a pendant drop or bubble. All instruments were tested with various surfactant solutions to determine the limitations of each. In addition, foaming capability and foam stability were tested and compared with the rheology data. It was found that there was no clear correlation of surface rheology with foaming/defoaming with different types of surfactants, but, within a family of surfactants, rheology could predict the foam stability. Diffusion of surfactants to the interface and the behavior of polyelectrolytes were two subjects studied with the new equipment. Finally, surface rheological terms were added to a finite element Navier-Stokes solver and preliminary testing of the code completed. Recommendations for improved implementation were given. When completed we plan to use the computations to better interpret the experimental data and account for the effects of the underlying bulk fluid.

  17. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  18. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  19. UNDERSTANDING FORCES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO PROTEIN STABILITY: APPLICATION FOR INCREASING PROTEIN STABILITY 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Hailong

    2010-07-14

    The aim of this study is to further our understanding of the forces that contribute to protein stability and to investigate how site-directed mutagenesis might be used for increasing protein stability. Eleven proteins ...

  20. Analyzing the Stability ofAnalyzing the Stability of --Carotene and PVCarotene and PV--1919

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Analyzing the Stability ofAnalyzing the Stability of --Carotene and PVCarotene and PV--1919 nanoparticles #12;Goals of Second ProjectGoals of Second Project Study of PVStudy of PV--1919 --Determine

  1. Selective Trace Level Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Water by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jardim, Wilson de Figueiredo

    interferences, but several phenols fail to distill completely. When selectivity is needed, liquid or gas chromatographic methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and preconcentration procedures and is therefore industrial wastewaters or indirectly as transformation prod- ucts from natural and synthetic chemicals

  2. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) - Office of Biomass Country of Publication:...

  3. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solidSwitchgrass and Miscanthus x Giganteus in the United

  4. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solidSwitchgrass and Miscanthus x Giganteus in the

  5. Preparation of brightness stabilization agent for lignin containing pulp from biomass pyrolysis oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, Foster A. (Blacksburg, VA); Besler-Guran, Serpil (Flemington, NJ)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing a brightness stabilization mixture of water-soluble organic compounds from biomass pyrolysis oils comprising: a) size-reducing biomass material and pyrolyzing the size-reduced biomass material in a fluidized bed reactor; b) separating a char/ash component while maintaining char-pot temperatures to avoid condensation of pyrolysis vapors; c) condensing pyrolysis gases and vapors, and recovering pyrolysis oils by mixing the oils with acetone to obtain an oil-acetone mixture; d) evaporating acetone and recovering pyrolysis oils; e) extracting the pyrolysis oils with water to obtain a water extract; f) slurrying the water extract with carbon while stirring, and filtering the slurry to obtain a colorless filtrate; g) cooling the solution and stabilizing the solution against thermally-induced gelling and solidification by extraction with ethyl acetate to form an aqueous phase lower layer and an organic phase upper layer; h) discarding the upper organic layer and extracting the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate, and discarding the ethyl acetate fraction to obtain a brown-colored solution not susceptible to gelling or solidification upon heating; i) heating the solution to distill off water and other light components and concentrating a bottoms fraction comprising hydroxyacetaldehyde and other non-volatile components having high boiling points; and j) decolorizing the stabilized brown solution with activated carbon to obtain a colorless solution.

  6. Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

    2007-05-01

    This report and its accompanying Microsoft Excel workbooksummarize water data we found to support efforts of the EnvironmentalProtection Agency s WaterSense program. WaterSense aims to extend theoperating life of water and wastewater treatment facilities and prolongthe availability of water resourcesby reducing residential andcommercial water consumption through the voluntary replacement ofinefficient water-using products with more efficient ones. WaterSense hasan immediate need for water consumption data categorized by sector and,for the residential sector, per capita data available by region. Thisinformation will assist policy makers, water and wastewater utilityplanners, and others in defining and refining program possibilities.Future data needs concern water supply, wastewater flow volumes, waterquality, and watersheds. This report focuses primarily on the immediateneed for data regarding water consumption and product end-use. We found avariety of data on water consumption at the national, state, andmunicipal levels. We also found several databases related towater-consuming products. Most of the data are available in electronicform on the Web pages of the data-collecting organizations. In addition,we found national, state, and local data on water supply, wastewater,water quality, and watersheds.

  7. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  8. Enabling better water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenslade, Diana

    CASE STUDY Enabling better water management Seasonal Streamflow Forecast Service influencing water decisions Water management decisions made with confidence Using the Bureau's streamflow forecasting, ACTEW Water confidently removed temporary water restrictions after the millennium drought. Millennium drought

  9. DHV water pumping optimization Simon van Mourik1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rottschäfer, Vivi

    Chapter 6 DHV water pumping optimization Simon van Mourik1 Joris Bierkens2 Hans Stigter1 Martijn for optimizing a drinking water network over a horizon of 48 hours, given variable water demands, energy prices and constraints on the pumping strategy and water levels in the reservoirs. Both the dynamic model and goal

  10. Seoul, South Korea -classification deteriorating slope stability -Robert Hack 1 SLOPE STABILITY CLASSIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 1 SLOPE STABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF TIME DEPENDENT DETERIORATING SLOPES Seoul, Korea, 29 February 2008 Robert Hack Engineering) The Netherlands #12;Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 2 Jan van

  11. Aalborg Universitet Modeling, Stability Analysis and Active Stabilization of Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Modeling, Stability Analysis and Active Stabilization of Multiple DC-Microgrids and Active Stabilization of Multiple DC-Microgrids Clusters. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE International of Multiple DC-Microgrid Clusters," in Proc. IEEE International Energy Conference (EnergyCon'14), 2014

  12. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  13. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  14. Nanoparticle halos: A new colloid stabilization mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Nanoparticle halos: A new colloid stabilization mechanism Valeria Tohver*, James E. Smay*, Alan, 2001 (received for review February 7, 2001) A new mechanism for regulating the stability of colloidal for tailoring the behavior of com- plex fluids. Colloidal suspensions enjoy widespread use in applications

  15. On the Jacobi-Metric Stability Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Gonzalez Leon; J. L. Hernandez Pastora

    2007-05-30

    We investigate the exact relation existing between the stability equation for the solutions of a mechanical system and the geodesic deviation equation of the associated geodesic problem in the Jacobi metric constructed via the Maupertuis-Jacobi Principle. We conclude that the dynamical and geometrical approaches to the stability/instability problem are not equivalent.

  16. A New Stabilized Nodal Integration Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puso, M; Zywicz, E; Chen, J S

    2006-02-08

    A new stabilized nodal integration scheme is proposed and implemented. In this work, focus is on the natural neighbor meshless interpolation schemes. The approach is a modification of the stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI) scheme and is shown to perform well in several benchmark problems.

  17. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  18. Thermal effects on the stability of excited atoms in cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, F. C.; Malbouisson, A. P. C.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Santana, A. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada) and TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/MCT, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40.210-310 Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, Distrito Federal (Brazil) and Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    An atom, coupled linearly to an environment, is considered in a harmonic approximation in thermal equilibrium inside a cavity. The environment is modeled by an infinite set of harmonic oscillators. We employ the notion of dressed states to investigate the time evolution of the atom initially in the first excited level. In a very large cavity (free space) for a long elapsed time, the atom decays and the value of its occupation number is the physically expected one at a given temperature. For a small cavity the excited atom never completely decays and the stability rate depends on temperature.

  19. RF-Photonic Frequency Stability Gear Box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsko, Andrey B; Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Seidel, David; Maleki, Lute

    2011-01-01

    An optical technique based on stability transfer among modes of a monolithic optical microresonator is proposed for long therm frequency stabilization of a radiofrequency (RF) oscillator. We show that locking two resonator modes, characterized with dissimilar sensitivity in responding to an applied forcing function, to a master RF oscillator allows enhancing the long term stability of a slave RF oscillator locked to two resonator modes having nearly identical sensitivity. For instance, the stability of a 10 MHz master oscillator characterized with Allan deviation of 10^-7 at 10^4s can be increased and transferred to a slave oscillator with identical stability performance, so that the resultant Allan deviation of the slave oscillator becomes equal to 10-13 at 10^4s. The method does not require absolute frequency references to achieve such a performance.

  20. Can the correlated stability conjecture be saved?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel; Alexander Patrushev

    2011-06-10

    Correlated stability conjecture (CSC) proposed by Gubser and Mitra [1,2] linked the thermodynamic and classical (in)stabilities of black branes. In [3] it was shown that the thermodynamic instabilities, specifically the negative specific heat, indeed result in the instabilities in the hydrodynamic spectrum of holographically dual plasma excitations. Counter-examples of CSC were presented in the context of black branes with scalar hair undergoing a second-order phase transition [4,5]. The latter translationary invariant horizons have scalar hair, raising the question whether the asymptotic parameters of the scalar hair can be appropriately interpreted as additional charges leading to a generalization of the thermodynamic stability criterion. In this paper we show that the generalization of the thermodynamic stability criterion of this type can not save CSC. We further present a simple statistical model which makes it clear that thermodynamic and dynamical (in)stabilities generically are not correlated.

  1. The Current Water and Agriculture Context, Challenges, and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Surveys the current policy environment for addressing water and agricultural issues in a changing climate, which is shaped by economic development plans at the national and provincial levels, sector plans for water and ...

  2. Econometric Analyses of Public Water Demand in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, David

    2012-02-14

    Two broad surveys of community- level water consumption and pricing behavior are used to answer questions about water demand in a more flexible and dynamic context than is provided in the literature. Central themes of price representation...

  3. Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Developments and Issues

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The previous drinking water standard for arsenic, 50 ppb, was set by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1942. EPA adopted that level and issued an interim drinking water...

  4. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Farris, Alvis (late of Byron, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  5. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  6. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1

  7. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    they join tributaries to the Mississippi River. · The deep ground water divide is the underground boundary Deep ground water divide Racine Kenosha Walworth Waukesha Washington Ozaukee Milwaukee LAKE MICHIGANGround water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also

  8. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C.; Mostofi, Arash A.

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup ?4}?e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  9. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-27

    A pipe crawler is described having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in ''inch worm'' fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting. 5 figures.

  10. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  11. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  12. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  13. How to Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into National-Level...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    How to Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into National-Level Policy and Planning in the Water Sector Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: How to Integrate...

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    8 Assess California’s Small Gas Storage Water HeaterAssess California’s Small Gas Storage Water Heater Marketassess California’s small gas storage water heater market.

  15. Jacobi stability analysis of the Lorenz system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiberiu Harko; Chor Yin Ho; Chun Sing Leung; Stan Yip

    2015-04-11

    We perform the study of the stability of the Lorenz system by using the Jacobi stability analysis, or the Kosambi-Cartan-Chern (KCC) theory. The Lorenz model plays an important role for understanding hydrodynamic instabilities and the nature of the turbulence, also representing a non-trivial testing object for studying non-linear effects. The KCC theory represents a powerful mathematical method for the analysis of dynamical systems. In this approach we describe the evolution of the Lorenz system in geometric terms, by considering it as a geodesic in a Finsler space. By associating a non-linear connection and a Berwald type connection, five geometrical invariants are obtained, with the second invariant giving the Jacobi stability of the system. The Jacobi (in)stability is a natural generalization of the (in)stability of the geodesic flow on a differentiable manifold endowed with a metric (Riemannian or Finslerian) to the non-metric setting. In order to apply the KCC theory we reformulate the Lorenz system as a set of two second order non-linear differential equations. The geometric invariants associated to this system (nonlinear and Berwald connections), and the deviation curvature tensor, as well as its eigenvalues, are explicitly obtained. The Jacobi stability of the equilibrium points of the Lorenz system is studied, and the condition of the stability of the equilibrium points is obtained. Finally, we consider the time evolution of the components of the deviation vector near the equilibrium points.

  16. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos/01/2012 Page 1Water Power

  17. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  18. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,Saving Water Saves Energy James E. McMahon, Camilla Dunhamavailable products. The energy savings associated with water

  19. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    paper describing produced water from production of crudeEmerging Issues Paper: Mine Water Pollution. Dep. Environ.40. Vine G. 2010. Cooling water issues and opportunities at

  20. Terrestrial Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, Jay

    2013-01-01

    with Subantarctic Mode Water. J. Geophys. Res. , 116,Global Climate] Stratospheric water vapor [in “State of the18 2. Total column water

  1. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Individual Permit Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial...

  2. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01

    connections between water and energy, advances in knowledgeimportant nexus between water and energy. The demand fortwo reports on the water and energy nexus highlighting the

  3. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from Showerheads,shorter showers). Water- and energy- conserving activitiesstress imposed on limited water (and energy) supplies from

  4. Bidimensional electronic spectroscopy on indole in gas phase and in water from first principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenov, A; Rivalta, I; Mukamel, S; Garavelli, M

    2014-01-01

    level. E (gas-phase) E (water) TDM (gas-phase) from GS L aindole in gas phase and in water from ?rst principles Arturdielectric constant of water ( ¼ 78:39) and for the areas of

  5. Water On -and In- Terrestrial Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowan, Nicolas B

    2015-01-01

    Earth has a unique surface character among Solar System worlds. Not only does it harbor liquid water, but also large continents. An exoplanet with a similar appearance would remind us of home, but it is not obvious whether such a planet is more likely to bear life than an entirely ocean-covered waterworld---after all, surface liquid water defines the canonical habitable zone. In this proceeding, I argue that 1) Earth's bimodal surface character is critical to its long-term climate stability and hence is a signpost of habitability, and 2) we will be able to constrain the surface character of terrestrial exoplanets with next-generation space missions.

  6. FORMATION OF COLLOIDAL CRYSTALS FROM NANOPARTICLE STABILIZED COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    FORMATION OF COLLOIDAL CRYSTALS FROM NANOPARTICLE STABILIZED COLLOIDAL SUSPENSIONS BY WENDY WOONYEE.....................................................................8 2.2 Colloid Stability in Suspension .......................................................................................9 2.3 Nanoparticle-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions...............................................13

  7. Novel Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    urWaterFutureFinal.pdf Technical Approach Technical Approach (continued) * "Dial-in" film thickness * Smooth (rms 3.5 nm) New Approach Molecular level control Precise...

  8. Solar Hot Water Heater Industry in Barbados | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    overcame market barriers to widespread implementation of solar water heaters, thanks to local high-level government champions, financial incentives, and a locally sensitive...

  9. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Lu, Wenquan (Darien, IL)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  10. On stability condition for bifluid flows with surface tension: Application to microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    On stability condition for bifluid flows with surface tension: Application to microfluidics Ce simulations of microfluidic flows using a Level Set method, namely the exploration of different mixing-vol- umes; Microfluidics; Droplets 1. Introduction Analysis and algorithms derived herein are the result

  11. Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Stuart

    Sanctions and mutualism stability: when should less beneficial mutualists be tolerated? S. A. WEST a model that shows how such sanctions provide a fitness benefit to the individuals that carry them out sanctions). We have previously argued that appreciable levels of N2 fixation by rhizobia are only likely

  12. Stability of Passive Dynamic Walking on Uneven Terrain Katie Byl and Russ Tedrake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tedrake, Russ

    and MFPTs on uneven terrain. mh/m a (m) MFPT: std .5° MFPT: std 1.0° walker #1 2.0 .6 20 6 walker #2 0.3 .7 Institute of Technology email: katiebyl@mit.edu, russt@mit.edu, web: http terrain. Although deterministic definitions of stability do not apply, for sufficiently low levels

  13. Controlling Accumulation of Fermentation Inhibitors in Biorefinery Recycle Water Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Leak, David [Imperial College, London; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Andras, Calin [Imperial College, London

    2009-01-01

    Background Microbial fuel cells (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cells are electrical devices that treat water using microorganisms and convert soluble organic matter into electricity and hydrogen, respectively. Emerging cellulosic biorefineries are expected to use large amounts of water during production of ethanol. Pretreatment of cellulosic biomass results in production of fermentation inhibitors which accumulate in process water and make the water recycle process difficult. Use of MFCs to remove the inhibitory sugar and lignin degradation products from recycle water is investigated in this study. Results Use of an MFC to reduce the levels of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillic acid, 4- hydroxybenzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyacetophenone while simultaneously producing electricity is demonstrated here. An integrated MFC design approach was used which resulted in high power densities for the MFC, reaching up to 3700mW/m2 (356W/m3 net anode volume) and a coulombic efficiency of 69%. The exoelectrogenic microbial consortium enriched in the anode was characterized using a 16S rRNA clone library method. A unique exoelectrogenic microbial consortium dominated by -Proteobacteria (50%), along with -Proteobacteria (28%), -Proteobacteria (14%), -Proteobacteria (6%) and others was identified. The consortium demonstrated broad substrate specificity, ability to handle high inhibitor concentrations (5 to 20mM) with near complete removal, while maintaining long-term stability with respect to power production. Conclusions Use of MFCs for removing fermentation inhibitors has implications for: 1) enabling higher ethanol yields at high biomass loading in cellulosic ethanol biorefineries, 2) improved water recycle and 3) electricity production up to 25% of total biorefinery power needs.

  14. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) for Coal Storage Area Stabilization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Project and Design Engineering

    2011-03-01

    The scope of this project is to stabilize the abandoned coal storage area and redirect the storm water runoff from sanitary sewer system to the storm drain system. Currently, the existing storm water runoff is directed to a perimeter concrete drainage swale and collected in a containment basin. The collected water is then pumped to a treatment facility and after treatment, is discharged to the Y-12 sanitary sewer system. The existing drainage swale and collection basin along with silt fencing will be used during aggregate placement and grading to provide erosion and sediment control. Inlet protection will also be installed around existing structures during the storm water diversion construction. This project scope will include the installation of a non-woven geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base (paving optional) to stabilize the site. The geotextile specifications are provided on the vendor cut sheets in Appendix B. The installation of a storm water collection/retention area will also be installed on the southern side of the site in accordance with EPA Technical Guidance on Implementing the Stormwater Runoff Requirements for federal Projects under Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act. The total area to be disturbed is approximately 2.5 acres. The order of activities for this Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) will be: (1) post notice of coverage (NOC) in a prominent display near entrance of the site; (2) install rain gauge on site or contact Y-12 Plant Shift Superintendent daily for Met tower rain gauge readings; (3) install stabilized construction exit on site; (4) install silt fencing along perimeter as indicated on the attached site plan; (5) regrade site; (6) install geotextile fabric and compacted mineral aggregate base; (7) install catch basin inlet protection where required; (8) excavate and lower existing catch basin tops, re-grade and asphalt to drain; and (9) when all disturbed areas are re-stabilized, remove silt fencing and any other temporary erosion control.

  15. Thermodynamic stability of oxygen point defects in cubic Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samanta, Amit; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is an important material with technological applications which are affected by point defect physics. Ab-initio calculations are performed to understand the structural and electronic properties of oxygen vacancies and interstitials in different charge states in cubic zirconia. We find oxygen interstitials in cubic ZrO2 can have five different configurations - dumbbell, dumbbell, crowd-ion, octahedral, and distorted dumbbell. For a neutral and singly charged oxygen interstitial, the lowest energy configuration is the dumbbell, while for a doubly charged oxygen interstitial the octahedral site is energetically the most favorable. Both the oxygen interstitial and the oxygen vacancy are negative-U, so that the singly charged defects are unstable at any Fermi level. The thermodynamic stability of these defects are studied in terms of Fermi level, oxygen partial pressure and temperature. A method to determine the chemical potential of the system as a function of temperature and pressure is propo...

  16. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

    2010-05-30

    In this program, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), General Motors (GM) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) have focused on fundamental studies that address water transport, accumulation and mitigation processes in the gas diffusion layer and flow field channels of the bipolar plate. These studies have been conducted with a particular emphasis on understanding the key transport phenomena which control fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Technical accomplishments are listed below: • Demonstrated that shutdown air purge is controlled predominantly by the water carrying capacity of the purge stream and the most practical means of reducing the purge time and energy is to reduce the volume of liquid water present in the fuel cell at shutdown. The GDL thermal conductivity has been identified as an important parameter to dictate water accumulation within a GDL. • Found that under the normal shutdown conditions most of the GDL-level water accumulation occurs on the anode side and that the mass transport resistance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) thus plays a critically important role in understanding and optimizing purge. • Identified two-phase flow patterns (slug, film and mist flow) in flow field channel, established the features of each pattern, and created a flow pattern map to characterize the two-phase flow in GDL/channel combination. • Implemented changes to the baseline channel surface energy and GDL materials and evaluated their performance with the ex situ multi-channel experiments. It was found that the hydrophilic channel (contact angle ? ? 10?) facilitates the removal of liquid water by capillary effects and by reducing water accumulation at the channel exit. It was also found that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. • Identified a new mechanism of water transport through GDLs based on Haines jump mechanism. The breakdown and redevelopment of the water paths in GDLs lead to an intermittent water drainage behavior, which is characterized by dynamic capillary pressure and changing of breakthrough location. MPL was found to not only limit the number of water entry locations into the GDL (thus drastically reducing water saturation), but also stabilizes the water paths (or morphology). • Simultaneously visualized the water transport on cathode and anode channels of an operating fuel cell. It was found that under relatively dry hydrogen/air conditions at lower temperatures, the cathode channels display a similar flow pattern map to the ex-situ experiments under similar conditions. Liquid water on the anode side is more likely formed via condensation of water vapor which is transported through the anode GDL. • Investigated the water percolation through the GDL with pseudo-Hele-Shaw experiments and simulated the capillary-driven two-phase flow inside gas diffusion media, with the pore size distributions being modeled by using Weibull distribution functions. The effect of the inclusion of the microporous layer in the fuel cell assembly was explored numerically. • Developed and validated a simple, reliable computational tool for predicting liquid water transport in GDLs. • Developed a new method of determining the pore size distribution in GDL using scanning electron microscope (SEM) image processing, which allows for separate characterization of GDL wetting properties and pore size distribution. • Determined the effect of surface wettability and channel cross section and bend dihedral on liquid holdup in fuel cell flow channels. A major thrust of this research program has been the development of an optimal combination of materials, design features and cell operating conditions that achieve a water management strategy which facilitates fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Based on our various findings, we have made the final recommendation relative to GDL materials, bipolar design and surface properties, and the combination of materials, design featur

  17. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

    1998-12-01

    The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

  18. Mayors, Markets and Municipal Reform: The Politics of Water Delivery in Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Veronica Maria Sol

    2011-01-01

    and electricity, because of a high level of social resistance to paying for water in developing countries.

  19. Related Rates Introduction: Consider water draining from the bottom of a circular cylin-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavener, Simon

    . On the tape, mark a 2cm interval l centered at b (from 1cm above b to 1cm below b). Fill the funnel with water until the water level is approximately 2cm above b. 6. When the water level reaches the top mark (1cmRelated Rates Introduction: Consider water draining from the bottom of a circular cylin- der

  20. Formation and Stability of Impurity "Snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation and Stability of Impurity "Snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation and Stability of Impurity "Snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas Authors:...

  1. Stabilizing Topological Phases in Graphene via Random Adsorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stabilizing Topological Phases in Graphene via Random Adsorption Prev Next Title: Stabilizing Topological Phases in Graphene via Random Adsorption Authors: Jiang, Hua ; Qiao,...

  2. Design and control of a passively stabilized multimodal hopping robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantel, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Stabilized Multimodal Hopping Robot A Thesis submitted inStabilized Multimodal Hopping Robot by Erica Pantel Masterfor a multimodal hopping robot. The robot harnesses passive

  3. Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Quality, Stability, Performance, and Emission Impacts of Biodiesel Blends Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

  4. Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Thermal Stability of Wastes Involved in February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Drum Breach Event Probative Investigation of the Thermal Stability of Wastes...

  5. Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  6. Pyrolysis of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia and its Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FARSHIHAGHRO, EBRAHIM

    2013-01-01

    to produce Yttrium stabilized Zirconia is introduced and theused methods for synthesizing zirconia nanoparticles areyttrium stabilized zirconia is analyzed. Generally, there

  7. Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis Scale-Up of Magnesium Production by Fully Stabilized Zirconia Electrolysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  8. Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability, Reliability, and Durability under Automotive Load Cycle Adaptive Stack with Subdivided Cells for Improved Stability, Reliability,...

  9. Water for Texas 2012: What is the plan? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    ?s Executive Summary. ?is plan is based on the ?drought of record,? which occurred in the ????s. Planning starts at the regional level with ?? regional water planning groups identifying water needs and recommending water management strategies... needs are projected to increase by ??? percent between ???? and ???? to ?.? million acre-feet per year. What can we do to get more water? ?e strategies recommended by regional water planning groups would provide, if implemented, ?.? million acre...

  10. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28

    at http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/water/ az9420.pdf. ?Drinking Water Treatment: Distillation.? Nebraska Cooperative Extension. Available at http://ianrpubs. unl.edu/water/g1493.htm. ?Electrodyalisis.? GE Infrastructure Water & Process Technologies. General...

  11. Experimental characterization of foam drainage and stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheth, Vikas Rameshchandra

    1993-01-01

    A novel experimental procedure to characterize the stability of foams is established. The procedure involves the unsteady state drainage of liquid from a stationary foam due to an applied pressure difference (forced drainage)- Unlike other bulk...

  12. LED Color Stability: 10 Important Questions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 15, 2014 webinar examined the causes of color shift, and took a look at existing metrics used to describe color shift/color stability in LED lighting. The lumen maintenance lifetime of...

  13. Singlet-Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Curtin; Yuhsin Tsai

    2011-04-27

    We propose Singlet Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation as a simple ISS-based model of Direct Gauge Mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining SQCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via non-renormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale Lambda_UV in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero VEV for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision ~ (Lambda/Lambda_UV)^2, which is ~ 10^{-4}. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.

  14. Singlet-Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtin, David

    2010-01-01

    We propose Singlet Stabilized Minimal Gauge Mediation as a simple ISS-based model of Direct Gauge Mediation which avoids both light gauginos and Landau poles. The hidden sector is a massive s-confining SQCD that is distinguished by a minimal SU(5) flavor group. The uplifted vacuum is stabilized by coupling the meson to an additional singlet sector with its own U(1) gauge symmetry via non-renormalizable interactions suppressed by a higher scale Lambda_UV in the electric theory. This generates a nonzero VEV for the singlet meson via the inverted hierarchy mechanism, but requires tuning to a precision ~ (Lambda/Lambda_UV)^2, which is ~ 10^{-4}. In the course of this analysis we also outline some simple model-building rules for stabilizing uplifted ISS models, which lead us to conclude that meson deformations are required (or at least heavily favored) to stabilize the adjoint component of the magnetic meson.

  15. Influence of Motion Cueing on Helicopter Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Motion Cueing on Helicopter Stabilization Daniel R. Berger, Cengiz Terzibas, and Heinrich H. Bülthoff Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany Helicopters vestibular and somatosensory cues. To test this hypothesis, we measured helicopter hovering performance

  16. Discontinuous Lyapunov Functions for Nonasymptotic Stability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discontinuous Lyapunov Functions for Nonasymptotic Stability Analysis A. Polyakov Inria Lille of discontinuous control systems using discontinuous Lyapunov functions. Elements of Filippov theory of generalized derivatives and non-smooth Lyapunov functions are considered. The generalized Lyapunov theorems

  17. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  18. Automatic Stability Checking for Large Analog Circuits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Parijat 1985-

    2010-12-06

    Small signal stability has always been an important concern for analog designers. Recent advances such as the Loop Finder algorithm allows designers to detect and identify local, potentially unstable return loops without ...

  19. Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bredenkamp, Sanet

    1994-01-01

    The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an ...

  20. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Integrated regional water management: Collaboration or water politics as usual?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lubell, Mark N.; Lippert, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    the water quality and waste water elements. At the sameAll water supply, waste water, and flood control agenciesprovide services like waste water treatment and drinking

  2. Water watch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

  3. Classical and thermodynamic stability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Monteiro

    2010-06-28

    We consider the stability of black holes within both classical general relativity and the semiclassical thermodynamic description. In particular, we study linearised perturbations and their contribution to the gravitational partition function, addressing technical issues for charged (Reissner-Nordstrom) and rotating (Kerr-AdS) black holes. Exploring the connection between classical and thermodynamic stability, we find classical instabilities of Myers-Perry black holes and bifurcations to new black hole families.

  4. Engineering report (conceptual design) PFP solution stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witt, J.B.

    1997-07-17

    This Engineering Report (Conceptual Design) addresses remediation of the plutonium-bearing solutions currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The recommendation from the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is that the solutions be treated thermally and stabilized as a solid for long term storage. For solutions which are not discardable, the baseline plan is to utilize a denitration process to stabilize the solutions prior to packaging for storage.

  5. Stabilized fuel with silica support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes a stabilized fuel which is supported by a silica support structure. The silica support structure provides a low density, high porosity vehicle for safely carrying hydrocarbon fuels. The silica support structure for hydrocarbon fuel does not produce toxic material residues on combustion which would pose environmentally sensitive disposal problems. The silica stabilized fuel composition is useful as a low temperature, continuous burning fire starter for wood or charcoal.

  6. A model study of articulated mat stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Tetsu

    1990-01-01

    characteristics of. model articulated mat revetrrient svith respect to different revetmert slope con- ditions. In this experirrent three diFierent slope permeabilities were investigated by layering geotextile filter on the revetment frame. The stability... EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 12 18 A. Geotextile filter B. Stability experiment V WAVE RUNUP 18 21 33 VI VII VIII WAVE RUNDOWN UPLIFTING FORCE SLIDE-UP FORCE 44 IX SLIDE-DOWN FORCE 77 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION REFERENCES . APPENDIX A EXPERIMENTAL...

  7. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal . 20 Energy Used for Water Services . 20 Transporting Water 21 Pumping Groundwater. 22 Treating Wastewater 23 Desalination ..

  8. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    2004-02-19

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  9. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Maria Cadeddu

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  10. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive and diverse water resources 54,836 miles of rivers and streams 1.8 million acres of lakes, reservoirs

  11. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

    2001-08-08

    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

  12. Further Results on Finite-Time Partial Stability and Stabilization. Applications to Nonlinear Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jammazi, Chaker [Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte Departement de Mathematiques Laboratoire LIM Ecole Polytechnique de Tunisie (Tunisia)

    2009-03-05

    The paper gives Lyapunov type sufficient conditions for partial finite-time and asymptotic stability in which some state variables converge to zero while the rest converge to constant values that possibly depend on the initial conditions. The paper then presents partially asymptotically stabilizing controllers for many nonlinear control systems for which continuous asymptotically stabilizing (in the usual sense) controllers are known not to exist.

  13. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat, and exacerbating adverse water quality conditions. A reduction in carry over can lead to seasonal reductions in instream flows, which may also negatively affect fish, wildlife, and recreation in Idaho. The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project does provide opportunities to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat by improving water quality and instream flows. Control of point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, alone will not achieve water quality goals in Idaho reservoirs and streams. Slow, continuous releases of rented water can increase and stabilize instream flows, increase available fish and wildlife habitat, decrease fish displacement, and improve water quality. Island integrity, requisite for waterfowl protection from mainland predators, can be maintained with improved timing of water releases. Rebuilding Snake River salmon and steelhead runs requires a cooperative commitment and increased flexibility in system operations to increase flow velocities for fish passage and migration. Idaho's resident fish and wildlife resources require judicious management and a willingness by all parties to liberate water supplies equitably.

  14. Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Services Homes Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water...

  15. A study of the effects of repeated loadings and free water on the stability of a lime stabilized clay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantos, Carl Thomas

    1959-01-01

    . Sere Percent Lime (Raw Soil) Triaxial Results . 9, Twe Percent Lime Triaxial Results . 10. Four Percent Lime Triaxial Results 37 37 40 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Triaxial Compression Device and Universal Testing Nachine . 2. Harvard Nlniature Compactor... Equipment 3. Typical Test Speoimens 4. Ltterberg Limits - Brasos River Clay 5. Modified JULS80 Compaction - Brasos River Clay 6. Nohr's Circles and Rupture Envelopes 7, 0 Percent Lime (Raw Soil) Triaxial Test, 15 psi 45 47 48 Lateral Pressure 49 S...

  16. Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robustness and reactivity of a given framework are largely dependent on its metal-ligand interactions, where the metal-containing clusters are often vulnerable to ligand substitution by water or other nucleophiles, meaning that the frameworks may collapsemore »upon exposure even to moist air. Other frameworks may collapse upon thermal or vacuum treatment or simply over time. This instability limits the practical uses of many MOFs. In order to further enhance the stability of the framework, many different approaches, such as the utilization of high-valence metal ions or nitrogen-donor ligands, were recently investigated. This review details the efforts of both our research group and others to synthesize MOFs possessing drastically increased chemical and thermal stability, in addition to exemplary performance for catalysis, gas sorption, and separation.« less

  17. METHANE GAS STABILIZES SUPERCOOLED ETHANE DROPLETS IN TITAN'S CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chia C.; Lang, E. Kathrin; Signorell, Ruth

    2010-03-20

    Strong evidence for ethane clouds in various regions of Titan's atmosphere has recently been found. Ethane is usually assumed to exist as ice particles in these clouds, although the possible role of liquid and supercooled liquid ethane droplets has been recognized. Here, we report on infrared spectroscopic measurements of ethane aerosols performed in the laboratory under conditions mimicking Titan's lower atmosphere. The results clearly show that liquid ethane droplets are significantly stabilized by methane gas which is ubiquitous in Titan's nitrogen atmosphere-a phenomenon that does not have a counterpart for water droplets in Earth's atmosphere. Our data imply that supercooled ethane droplets are much more abundant in Titan's clouds than previously anticipated. Possibly, these liquid droplets are even more important for cloud processes and the formation of lakes than ethane ice particles.

  18. Viscosity stabilization of SRC residual oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-05-01

    The use of SRC residual oils for No. 6 Fuel Oil substitutes has been proposed. The oils exhibit viscosity characteristics at elevated temperatures that allow this substitution with only minor modifications to the existing fuel oil infrastructure. However, loss of low-boiling materials causes an increase in the viscosity of the residual oils that is greater than expected from concentration changes. A process has been developed that minimizes the loss of volatiles and thus maintains the viscosity of these materials. The use of an additive (water, phenol, or an SRC light oil cut rich in low-boiling phenols in amounts up to 2.0 wt %) accomplishes this and hence stabilizes the pumping and atomizing characteristics for an extended period. During the course of the work, the components of the volatiles lost were identified and the viscosity change due to this loss was quantified. 3 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  19. RADIATION STABILITY OF NAFION MEMBRANES USED FOR ISOTOPE SEPARATION BY PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E

    2009-05-15

    Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers have potential interest for use for hydrogen isotope separation from water. In order for PEME to be fully utilized, more information is needed on the stability of Nafion when exposed to radiation. This work examines Nafion 117 under varying exposure conditions, including dose rate, total dosage and atmospheric condition. Analytical tools, such as FT-IR, ion exchange capacity, DMA and TIC-TOC were used to characterize the exposed membranes. Analysis of the water from saturated membranes can provide important data on the stability of the membranes during radiation exposure. It was found that the dose rate of exposure plays an important role in membrane degradation. Potential mechanisms for membrane degradation include peroxide formation by free radicals.

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report, attachment 2, geology report; attachment 3, groundwater hydrology report; and attachment 4, water resources protection strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  1. Tools and Technology Article Stability of Avian Fecal Corticosterone Metabolite Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gawlik, Dale E.

    detects a stressor (e.g., food shortage, large temp change), a neural signal is sent to the hypothalamus (Levine et al. 1989). The hypothalamus then sends a hormone signal to the pituitary gland, resulting). After the stressor has been alleviated a negative feedback loop shuts off the hypothalamus

  2. Adaptable Chip-Level Microfluidic Packaging for a Micro-Scale Gas Chromatograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Adaptable Chip-Level Microfluidic Packaging for a Micro-Scale Gas Chromatograph Nathan Ward1 the microfluidic package with non-sorbent epoxy. The stability and efficacy of the integrated detector cell. Keywords-microfluidics; chip-level packaging; µGC; chemiresistor array I. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATIONS

  3. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  4. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, S. E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com; Poornima,; Dasgupta, K.; Mishra, S.; Behera, R.

    2015-06-15

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity.

  5. Generalized entering coefficients: A criterion for foam stability against oil in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, V.; Fagan, M.E.; Radke, C.J.

    1993-09-01

    The unique mobility-control properties of foam in porous media make it an attractive choice as an injection fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Unfortunately, in many cases oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important to understand how oil destabilizes foam and what surfactant properties lead to increased stability against oil. To explain the stability of foam in porous media in the presence of oil, we generalize the ideas of spreading and entering behavior using Frumkin-Deryaguin wetting theory. This formulation overcomes the inherent deficiencies in the classical spreading and entering coefficients used to explain foam stability against oil. We find that oil-tolerant foam can be produced by making the oil surface ``water wet``. To test our theoretical ideas, we measure foam-flow resistance through 45--70 {mu}m glass beadpacks, surface and interfacial tensions, and disjoining pressure isotherms for foam and pseudoemulsion films for a variety of surfactant/oil systems. Most notably, we measure pseudoemulsion-film disjoining pressure isotherms for the first time and directly establish that pseudoemulsion film stability controls the stability of the foam in the systems we tested. Moreover, we demonstrate the correspondence between stable pseudoemulsion films, negative entering behavior, and oil-tolerant foams.

  6. Thermal Stability of Various Chelates that are Used in the Oilfield 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokhanvarian, Khatere

    2012-10-24

    bound to one or more nitrogen atoms. Their ability to form stable, water-soluble complexes with a broad range of metal ions makes them versatile in different applications (Means et al. 2003). Various chelates are used in oilfield treatment...-1 THERMAL STABILITY OF VARIOUS CHELATES THAT ARE USED IN THE OILFIELD A Thesis by KHATERE SOKHANVARIAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  7. Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-cementing fly ashes derived from combustion of subbituminous coal at electric power plants for stabilization of soft fine-grained soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus (M{sub r}) tests were conducted on mixtures prepared with seven soft fine-grained soils (six inorganic soils and one organic soil) and four fly ashes. The soils were selected to represent a relatively broad range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 15 and 38. Two of the fly ashes are high quality Class C ashes (per ASTM C 618) that are normally used in Portland cement concrete. The other ashes are off-specification ashes, meaning they do not meet the Class C or Class F criteria in ASTM C 618. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-fly ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content (a standardized condition), 7% wet of optimum water content (representative of the typical in situ condition in Wisconsin), and 9-18% wet of optimum water content (representative of a very wet in situ condition). Addition of fly ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR and M{sub r} of the inorganic soils. For water contents 7% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils alone ranged between 1 and 5. Addition of 10% fly ash resulted in CBRs ranging between 8 and 17, and 18% fly ash resulted in CBRs between 15 and 31. Similarly, M{sub r} of the soil alone ranged between 3 and 15 MPa at 7% wet of optimum, whereas addition of 10% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 12 and 60 MPa and 18% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 51 and 106 MPa. In contrast, except for one fly ash, addition of fly ash generally had little effect on CBR or M{sub r} of the organic soil.

  8. U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy U.S. Virgin Islands Clears the Way for Unprecedented Levels of Solar Energy Almost 1,500 solar water heating and PV systems...

  9. Physics Issues Worshop Summary (energetic beams, flow, stability)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Physics Issues Worshop Summary (energetic beams, flow, stability) FRC stability Global stability remains the leading issue affecting the future of FRC research. It must be resolved before the fusion community will embrace FRC as not just an entertaining toy, but a bona fide fusion concept. The stability

  10. On the possibility of the space-dependence of the stability indicator (decay ratio) of a BWR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    ratio (DR) which is used to quantify the stability properties of boiling water reactors (BWRs Christophe Demazie`re *, Imre Pa´zsit Department of Reactor Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE at the very early days of reactor operation (Thie, 1958). Its origin was understood and various instability

  11. Water resources data for New Hampshire and Vermont, water year 1995. Water-data report (Annual), 1 October 1994-30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, R.E.; Coakley, M.F.; Keirstead, C.; Kiah, R.G.

    1996-07-01

    Water-resources data for the 1995 water year for New Hampshire and Vermont consists of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; contents of lakes and reservoirs; and ground-water levels. The report contains discharge records for 72 gaging stations, stage records for 5 lakes, monthend contents for 23 lakes and reservoirs, water quality for 9 gaging stations and water levels for 26 observation wells. Also included are data for 18 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. A few pertinent stations in bordering states are also included in the report. These data represent that portion of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in New Hampshire and Vermont.

  12. Author's personal copy Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Thomas K.

    coal and gasoline [3]. Moreover, hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity, or directly as a transportation fuel [4]. Hydrogen can be generated from hydrocarbons and water resources criteria for these materials are low cost, environmentally friendly, high efficiency and stability. TiO2

  13. On the applicability of local asymptotic stability criteria to stellarator stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuno, Tomoya

    On the applicability of local asymptotic stability criteria to stellarator stability B. A. Carreras, Kyoto, Japan T. Tatsuno Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan Received 22 November 2000; accepted 12 December be the existence of local flattening of the pressure profile at the resonant surfaces. This local flattening

  14. Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

  15. The (In)Stability of Planetary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rory Barnes; Thomas Quinn

    2004-01-09

    We present results of numerical simulations which examine the dynamical stability of known planetary systems, a star with two or more planets. First we vary the initial conditions of each system based on observational data. We then determine regions of phase space which produce stable planetary configurations. For each system we perform 1000 ~1 million year integrations. We examine upsilon And, HD83443, GJ876, HD82943, 47UMa, HD168443, and the solar system (SS). We find that the resonant systems, 2 planets in a first order mean motion resonance, (HD82943 and GJ876) have very narrow zones of stability. The interacting systems, not in first order resonance, but able to perturb each other (upsilon And, 47UMa, and SS) have broad regions of stability. The separated systems, 2 planets beyond 10:1 resonance, (we only examine HD83443 and HD168443) are fully stable. Furthermore we find that the best fits to the interacting and resonant systems place them very close to unstable regions. The boundary in phase space between stability and instability depends strongly on the eccentricities, and (if applicable) the proximity of the system to perfect resonance. In addition to million year integrations, we also examined stability on ~100 million year timescales. For each system we ran ~10 long term simulations, and find that the Keplerian fits to these systems all contain configurations which may be regular on this timescale.

  16. Stability Study of the RERTR Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Gan; Dennis Keiser; Brandon Miller; Daniel Wachs

    2014-04-01

    The irradiation stability of the interaction phases at the interface of fuel and Al alloy matrix as well as the stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice is believed to be very important to the U-Mo fuel performance. In this paper the recent result from TEM characterization of Kr ion irradiated U-10Mo-5Zr alloy will be discussed. The focus will be on the phase stability of Mo2-Zr, a dominated second phase developed at the interface of U-10Mo and the Zr barrier in a monolithic fuel plate from fuel fabrication. The Kr ion irradiations were conducted at a temperature of 200 degrees C to an ion fluence of 2.0E+16 ions/cm2. To investigate the thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice, a key microstructural feature in both irradiated dispersion U-7Mo fuel and monolithic U-10Mo fuel, a FIB-TEM sample of the irradiated U-10Mo fuel (3.53E+21 fission/cm3) was used for a TEM in-situ heating experiment. The preliminary result showed extraordinary thermal stability of the fission gas bubble superlattice. The implication of the TEM observation from these two experiments on the fuel microstructural evolution under irradiation will be discussed.

  17. Analyzing risk and uncertainty for improving water distribution system security from malevolent water supply contamination events 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres, Jacob Manuel

    2009-05-15

    subject to an intentional water contamination event. A Monte Carlo simulation is conducted including uncertain stochastic diurnal demand patterns, seasonal demand, initial storage tank levels, time of day of contamination initiation, duration...

  18. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1996-10-01

    This programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) was prepared for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This PElS provides an analysis of the potential impacts of the alternatives and ground water compliance strategies as well as potential cumulative impacts. On November 8, 1978, Congress enacted the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law, codified at 42 USC §7901 et seq. Congress found that uranium mill tailings " ... may pose a potential and significant radiation health hazard to the public, and that every reasonable effort should be made to provide for stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe, and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings." Congress authorized the Secretary of Energy to designate inactive uranium processing sites for remedial action by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Congress also directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set the standards to be followed by the DOE for this process of stabilization, disposal, and control. On January 5, 1983, EPA published standards (40 CFR Part 192) for the disposal and cleanup of residual radioactive materials. On September 3, 1985, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit set aside and remanded to EPA the ground water provisions of the standards. The EPA proposed new standards to replace remanded sections and changed other sections of 40 CFR Part 192. These proposed standards were published in the Federal Register on September 24, 1987 (52 FR 36000). Section 108 of the UMTRCA requires that DOE comply with EPA's proposed standards in the absence of final standards. The Ground Water Project was planned under the proposed standards. On January 11, 1995, EPA published the final rule, with which the DOE must now comply. The PElS and the Ground Water Project are in accordance with the final standards. The EPA reserves the right to modify the ground water standards, if necessary, based on changes in EPA drinking water standards. Appendix A contains a copy of the 1983 EPA ground water compliance standards, the 1987 proposed changes to the standards, and the 1995 final rule. Under UMTRA, DOE is responsible for bringing the designated processing sites into compliance with the EPA ground water standards and complying with all other applicable standards and requirements. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must concur with DOE's actions. States are full participants in the process. The DOE also must consult with any affected Indian tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Uranium processing activities at most of the inactive mill sites resulted in the contamination of ground water beneath and, in some cases, downgradient of the sites. This contaminated ground water often has elevated levels of constituents such as but not limited to uranium and nitrates. The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to eliminate or reduce to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting the EPA ground water standards.

  19. Insights into Stabilization of the 99TcVO Core for Synthesis of 99TcVO Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Howell, Robertha C.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of technetium-99 (99Tc; t1/2: 2.1 105 years, max: 253 keV) materials is of importance in studies of the nuclear fuel cycle where Tc is a major fission product (6percent thermal yield from 235U and 239Pu), in understanding radioactive tank waste composition, and in identifying 99mTc compounds for nuclear medicine imaging. One of the most useful synthetic starting materials, (NBu4)TcOCl4, is susceptible to disproportionation in water to form TcO4 and TcIV species, especially TcO2 2H2O. This unwanted reaction is especially problematic when working with ligands bearing hard donor atoms, such as oxygen, where the stability with the soft TcV=O3+ core may be low. Polyoxometalates (POMs) are such ligands. They possess defect sites with four hard oxygen atoms and show low (ca. 108) stability constants with transition metals. Tc complexes of POMs are molecular-level models for Tc metal oxide solid-state materials and can provide information on coordination and redox environments of metal oxides that stabilize low-valent Tc. In order to synthesize pure Tc POM complexes [TcVO(1-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-1) and [TcVO(2-P2W17O61)]7 (TcVO-2) from (NBu4)TcOCl4, we have identified strategies that minimize formation of TcIV species and optimize the formation of pure TcV species. The parameters that we consider are the amount of ethylene glycol, which is employed as a transfer ligand to prevent hydrolysis of (NBu4)TcOCl4, and the precipitating agent. The TcIV species that contaminates the non-optimized syntheses is likely a TcIV -oxido-bridged dimer [TcIV-(-O)2-TcIV]. We also employ a novel procedure where the 2 ligand is photoactivated and reduced (in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor) to subsequently reduce TcVIIO4 to an isolatable TcVO-2 product that is remarkably free of TcIV.

  20. Water under the Cover: Structures and Thermodynamics of Water Encapsulated by Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuping Jiao; Zhiping Xu

    2015-09-24

    Understanding the phase behaviors of nanoconfined water has driven notable research interests recently. In this work, we examine the structures and thermodynamics of water encapsulated under a graphene cover. We find layered water structures up to ~1000 molecules, which is stabilized by the spatial confinement and pressure induced by the adhesion between graphene cover and substrate. For monolayer encapsulations, we identify both crystalline lattices and defects. Free energy analysis shows that these low- entropy orders are compensated by high formation energies. There exists an order- disorder transition for this condensed phase at ~480-490 K, with a sharp reduction in the number of hydrogen bonds and increase in the entropy. These findings offer fundamental understandings of the encapsulated water, and provide guidance for practical applications with its presence, for example, in the design of nanoelectronic devices.

  1. Post-doctoral Fellow Soil and Water Conservation Position specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , especially the assessment of the impact of soil conservation and water harvesting interventions. - DesignPost-doctoral Fellow Soil and Water Conservation Position specification Internationally Recruited Position (PDF Level) Director, Integrated Water and Land Management Program (IWLMP) Reports to: 20 October

  2. Iowa State Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a major water quality problem in the United States, especially in the North Central Region (Nolan et al contain nitrate above the drinking water standard of 10 mg/l as N. Another 37% of the wells have levelsIowa State Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1998 Introduction Research

  3. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  4. LEVEL 01 FLOOR LEVEL 1 / GROUND FLOOR / SUPPORT SERVICES BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennard, William N.

    LEVEL 01 FLOOR LEVEL 1 / GROUND FLOOR / SUPPORT SERVICES BUILDING 05/02/2012ACCESSIBILITY WESTERN FLOOR PLAN SUPPORT SERVICES BUILDING Level 2 Lower building Rm.2350 1393 WESTERN ROAD N6G -1G9 UPDATE DRAWN #12;LEVEL 02 FLOOR LEVEL 2 / SECOND FLOOR / SUPPORT SERVICES BUILDING 05/02/2012ACCESSIBILITY

  5. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  6. Process and system for treating waste water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olesen, Douglas E. (Kennewick, WA); Shuckrow, Alan J. (Pasco, WA)

    1978-01-01

    A process of treating raw or primary waste water using a powdered, activated carbon/aerated biological treatment system is disclosed. Effluent turbidities less than 2 JTU (Jackson turbidity units), zero TOC (total organic carbon) and in the range of 10 mg/l COD (chemical oxygen demand) can be obtained. An influent stream of raw or primary waste water is contacted with an acidified, powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture. Lime is then added to the slurry to raise the pH to about 7.0. A polyelectrolyte flocculant is added to the slurry followed by a flocculation period -- then sedimentation and filtration. The separated solids (sludge) are aerated in a stabilization sludge basin and a portion thereof recycled to an aerated contact basin for mixing with the influent waste water stream prior to or after contact of the influent stream with the powdered, activated carbon/alum mixture.

  7. Stability and dynamics of magnetocapillary interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rujeko Chinomona; Janelle Lajeunesse; William H. Mitchell; Yao Yao; Saverio E. Spagnolie

    2014-12-16

    Recent experiments have shown that floating ferromagnetic beads, under the influence of an oscillating background magnetic field, can move along a liquid-air interface in a sustained periodic locomotion [Lumay et al., Soft Matter, 2013, 9, 2420]. Dynamic activity arises from a periodically induced dipole-dipole repulsion between the beads acting in concert with capillary attraction. We investigate analytically and numerically the stability and dynamics of this magnetocapillary swimming, and explore other related topics including the steady and periodic equilibrium configurations of two and three beads, and bead collisions. The swimming speed and system stability depend on a dimensionless measure of the relative repulsive and attractive forces which we term the magnetocapillary number. An oscillatory magnetic field may stabilize an otherwise unstable collinear configuration, and striking behaviors are observed in fast transitions to and from locomotory states, offering insight into the behavior and self-assembly of interface-bound micro-particles.

  8. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  9. Image Registration for Stability Testing of MEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Blake, Peter N; Morey, Peter A; Landsman, Wayne B; Chambers, Victor J; Moseley, Samuel H; 10.1117/12.872076

    2013-01-01

    Image registration, or alignment of two or more images covering the same scenes or objects, is of great interest in many disciplines such as remote sensing, medical imaging, astronomy, and computer vision. In this paper, we introduce a new application of image registration algorithms. We demonstrate how through a wavelet based image registration algorithm, engineers can evaluate stability of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). In particular, we applied image registration algorithms to assess alignment stability of the MicroShutters Subsystem (MSS) of the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This work introduces a new methodology for evaluating stability of MEMS devices to engineers as well as a new application of image registration algorithms to computer scientists.

  10. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  11. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  12. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 9: Water in Agriculture () January 13, 2010 1 / 14 #12;Water in Agriculture Historically: Biggest consumer of water, in developed kilos of sugar. Though the source of water in all the three cases is usually different. Agriculture

  13. Theory, Investigation and Stability of Cathode Electrocatalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Dong; Liu, Mingfei; Lai, Samson; Blinn, Kevin; Liu, Meilin

    2012-09-30

    The main objective of this project is to systematically characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF, aiming to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating. The understanding gained will help us to optimize the composition and morphology of the catalyst layer and microstructure of the LSCF backbone for better performance. More specifically, the technical objectives include: (1) to characterize the surface composition, morphology, and electro-catalytic properties of catalysts coated on LSCF; (2) to characterize the microscopic details and stability of the LSCF-catalyst (e.g., LSM) interfaces; (3) to establish the scientific basis for rational design of high-performance cathodes by combining a porous backbone (such as LSCF) with a thin catalyst coating; and (4) to demonstrate that the performance and stability of porous LSCF cathodes can be enhanced by the application of a thin-film coating of LSM through a solution infiltration process in small homemade button cells and in commercially available cells of larger dimension. We have successfully developed dense, conformal LSM films with desired structure, composition, morphology, and thickness on the LSCF surfaces by two different infiltration processes: a non-aqueous and a water-based sol-gel process. It is demonstrated that the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes can be improved by the introduction of a thin-film LSM coating through an infiltration process. Surface and interface of the LSM-coated LSCF cathode were systematically characterized using advanced microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. TEM observation suggests that a layer of La and Sr oxide was formed on LSCF surfaces after annealing. With LSM infiltration, in contrast, we no longer observe such La/Sr oxide layer on the LSM-coated LSCF samples after annealing under similar conditions. This was also confirmed by x-ray analyses. For example, soft x-ray XANES data reveal that Co cations displace the Mn cations as being more favored to be reduced. Variations in the Sr-O in the annealed LSCF Fourier-transformed (FT) EXAFS suggest that some Sr segregation is occurring, but is not present in the annealed LSM-infiltrated LSCF cathode materials. Further, a surface enhanced Raman technique was also developed into to probe and map LSM and LSCF phase on underlying YSZ substrate, enabling us to capture important chemical information of cathode surfaces under practical operating conditions. Electrochemical models for the design of test cells and understanding of mechanism have been developed for the exploration of fundamental properties of electrode materials. Novel catalyst coatings through particle depositions (SDC, SSC, and LCC) or continuous thin films (PSM and PSCM) were successfully developed to improve the activity and stability of LSCF cathodes. Finally, we have demonstrated enhanced activity and stability of LSCF cathodes over longer periods of time in homemade and commercially available cells by an optimized LSM infiltration process. Microstructure examination of the tested cells did not show obvious differences between blank and infiltrated cells, suggesting that the infiltrated LSM may form a coherent film on the LSCF cathodes. There was no significant change in the morphology or microstructure of the LSCF cathode due to the structural similarity of LSCF and LSM. Raman analysis of the tested cells indicated small peaks emerging on the blank cells that correspond to trace amounts of secondary phase formation during operation (e.g., CoO{sub x}). The formation of this secondary phase might be attributed to performance degradation. In contrast, there was no such secondary phase observed in the LSM infiltrated cells, indicating that the LSM modification staved off secondary phase formation and thus improved the stability.

  14. Stabilizing Open Quantum Systems by Markovian Reservoir Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. G. Schirmer; Xiaoting Wang

    2010-06-09

    We study open quantum systems whose evolution is governed by a master equation of Kossakowski-Gorini-Sudarshan-Lindblad type and give a characterization of the convex set of steady states of such systems based on the generalized Bloch representation. It is shown that an isolated steady state of the Bloch equation cannot be a center, i.e., that the existence of a unique steady state implies attractivity and global asymptotic stability. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a unique steady state are derived and applied to different physical models including two- and four-level atoms, (truncated) harmonic oscillators, composite and decomposable systems. It is shown how these criteria could be exploited in principle for quantum reservoir engineeing via coherent control and direct feedback to stabilize the system to a desired steady state. We also discuss the question of limit points of the dynamics. Despite the non-existence of isolated centers, open quantum systems can have nontrivial invariant sets. These invariant sets are center manifolds that arise when the Bloch superoperator has purely imaginary eigenvalues and are closely related to decoherence-free subspaces.

  15. Renewable source controls for grid stability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability perspective, the increase in renewable penetration results in subtle changes to the system modes. In gen- eral, mode frequencies increase slightly, and mode shapes remain similar. The system frequency nadir for the 2022 light spring case was slightly lower than the other cases, largely because of the reduced system inertia. However, the nadir is still well above the minimum load shedding frequency of 59.5 Hz. Finally, several discrepancies were identi ed between actual and reported wind penetration, and additional work on wind/solar modeling is required to increase the delity of the WECC models.

  16. Fluid sphere: stability problem and dimensional constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farook Rahaman; Anirudh Pradhan; Nasr Ahmed; Saibal Ray; Bijan Saha; Mosiur Rahaman

    2015-04-14

    We study different dimensional fluids inspired by noncommutative geometry which admit conformal Killing vectors. The solutions of the Einstein field equations examined specifically for five different set of spacetime. We calculate the active gravitational mass and impose stability conditions of the fluid sphere. The analysis thus carried out immediately indicates that at $4$-dimension only one can get a stable configuration for any spherically symmetric stellar system and any other dimensions, lower or higher, becomes untenable as far as the stability of a system is concerned.

  17. VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER-THICKENED WATER-IN- OIL EMULSIONS MONTESI PEÑA HIRASAKI PASQUALI behavior of emulsions of water dispersed in a lubricant oil base and stabilized with a nonionic surfactant concentration, emulsions with and without polyisobutylene (PIB, MW = 2.1 ± 0.2 x 106 Da) added to the oil phase

  18. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  19. Evaluation of the US Geological Survey ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii, 1992. Water-resources investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1997-12-31

    This report describes an evaluation of the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program in Hawaii. The occurrence of ground water in the Hawaiian islands is briefly described. Objectives for the data-collection program are identified followed by a description of well networks needed to prepare maps of water levels and chloride concentrations. For the islands of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii, the wells in the 1992 ground-water data-collection program are described followed by maps showing the distribution and magnitude of pumpage, and the distribution of proposed pumped wells. Wells in the 1992 USGS ground-water data-collection program that provide useful data for mapping water levels and chloride concentrations are identified followed by locations where additional wells are needed for water-level and chloride-concentration data. In addition, a procedure to store and review data is described.

  20. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  1. Review: Globalization of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

  2. RETORT WATER PARTICULATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    layer of retort water from the filter surface, (3) crystaldeep layer of retort water from the filter surface, from C02distilled water before placing the filter RETORT OPERATING

  3. Lawn Water Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  4. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of California’s Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

  5. Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Prevent runoff and shrubs, either through directly killing plants or making them more prone to disease. Fertilizer runoff into storm drains pollutes waterways. Maintain plant health and protect water quality by fertilizing

  6. Water Conservation Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &aware of the need to use water responsibly, whether or notcut landscape and garden water needs. Here we share some of

  7. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01

    2009. Thirsty Energy: Water and Energy in the 21st Century.Summary Points 1. Water and energy are strongly dependent onof bioenergy increases water and energy interdependence. 3.

  8. Comparison of slope stability in two Brazilian municipal landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gharabaghi, B. Singh, M.K.; Inkratas, C. Fleming, I.R. McBean, E.

    2008-07-01

    The implementation of landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) projects has greatly assisted in reducing the greenhouse gases and air pollutants, leading to an improved local air quality and reduced health risks. The majority of cities in developing countries still dispose of their municipal waste in uncontrolled 'open dumps.' Municipal solid waste landfill construction practices and operating procedures in these countries pose a challenge to implementation of LFGTE projects because of concern about damage to the gas collection infrastructure (horizontal headers and vertical wells) caused by minor, relatively shallow slumps and slides within the waste mass. While major slope failures can and have occurred, such failures in most cases have been shown to involve contributory factors or triggers such as high pore pressures, weak foundation soil or failure along weak geosynthetic interfaces. Many researchers who have studied waste mechanics propose that the shear strength of municipal waste is sufficient such that major deep-seated catastrophic failures under most circumstances require such contributory factors. Obviously, evaluation of such potential major failures requires expert analysis by geotechnical specialists with detailed site-specific information regarding foundation soils, interface shearing resistances and pore pressures both within the waste and in clayey barrier layers or foundation soils. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of very simple stability analyses which can be used to study the potential for slumps and slides within the waste mass and which may represent a significant constraint on construction and development of the landfill, on reclamation and closure and on the feasibility of a LFGTE project. The stability analyses rely on site-specific but simple estimates of the unit weight of waste and the pore pressure conditions and use 'generic' published shear strength envelopes for municipal waste. Application of the slope stability analysis method is presented in a case study of two Brazilian landfill sites; the Cruz das Almas Landfill in Maceio and the Muribeca Landfill in Recife. The Muribeca site has never recorded a slope failure and is much larger and better-maintained when compared to the Maceio site at which numerous minor slumps and slides have been observed. Conventional limit-equilibrium analysis was used to calculate factors of safety for stability of the landfill side slopes. Results indicate that the Muribeca site is more stable with computed factors of safety values in the range 1.6-2.4 compared with computed values ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 for the Maceio site at which slope failures have been known to occur. The results suggest that this approach may be useful as a screening-level tool when considering the feasibility of implementing LFGTE projects.

  9. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

  10. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  11. A Systems-Integration Approach to the Optimal Design and Operation of Macroscopic Water Desalination and Supply Networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atilhan, Selma

    2012-02-14

    With the escalating levels of water demand, there is a need for expansion in the capacity of water desalination infrastructure and for better management and distribution of water resources. This dissertation introduces a systems approach...

  12. of Flow on Morphological Stability Directional Solidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulze, Tim

    Effects During of Flow on Morphological Stability Directional Solidification S.H. DAVIS and T.P. SCHULZE Research involving the interaction of flow with morphological instability during directional solidifi- cation of binary alloys is reviewed. In general, flow may arise during the solidification process

  13. Stability of discrete breathers in magnetic metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry

    Stability of discrete breathers in magnetic metamaterials Dmitry Pelinovsky1 and Vassilis Rothos2 1 describing magnetic metamaterials which consist of periodic arrays of split- ring resonators [4, 7]: ¨qn + V criterion to the multi-site breathers in magnetic metamaterials. 2 Formalism In what follows, we shall use

  14. GEOPHYSICS FOR SLOPE STABILITY ROBERT HACK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hack, Robert

    GEOPHYSICS FOR SLOPE STABILITY ROBERT HACK Section Engineering Geology, Centre for Technical-mail: hack@itc.nl (Received 2 June, 2000; Accepted 4 September, 2000) Abstract. A pre-requisite in slope Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. #12;424 ROBERT HACK the slope material with, for example, manganese

  15. Stability and folds in an elastocapillary system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Akbari; Reghan J. Hill; Theo G. M. van de Ven

    2015-05-27

    We examine the equilibrium and stability of an elastocapillary system to model drying-induced structural failures. The model comprises a circular elastic membrane with a hole at the center that is deformed by the capillary pressure of simply connected and doubly connected menisci. Using variational and spectral methods, stability is related to the slope of equilibrium branches in the liquid content versus pressure diagram for the constrained and unconstrained problems. The second-variation spectra are separately determined for the membrane and meniscus, showing that the membrane out-of-plane spectrum and the in-plane spectrum at large elatocapillary numbers are both positive, so that only meniscus perturbations can cause instability. At small elastocapillary numbers, the in-plane spectrum has a negative eigenvalue, inducing wrinkling instabilities in thin membranes. In contrast, the smallest eigenvalue of the meniscus spectrum always changes sign at a pressure turning point where stability exchange occurs in the unconstrained problem. We also examine configurations in which the meniscus and membrane are individually stable, while the elastocapillary system as a whole is not; this emphasizes the connection between stability and the coupling of elastic and capillary forces.

  16. Hydrothermal stability of high silica zeolites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, David

    1988-01-01

    This thesis concerns the hydrothermal stability of two zeolite molecular sieves with the MFI structure, ZSM-5 and its 'aluminium free' form silicalite. Silicalite was synthesised from low pH alkali metal free aqueous gels at 95°C and characterised...

  17. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Phillip D; Wander, Marc J

    2014-11-04

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  18. Stability of AdS black strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Delsate

    2008-08-14

    We review the recent developements in the stability problem and phase diagram for asymptotically locally $AdS$ black strings. First, we quickly review the case of locally flat black string before turning to the case of locally $AdS$ spacetimes.

  19. Enhancing Power Grid Stability through Analytics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoba, Taras I.

    Enhancing Power Grid Stability through Analytics: Information is Power, and Power is Information no dummies). · But... many challenges in the North American power grid revolve around coordinating? Power is Information · Refrain in many quarters of the power grid today says that we must "extract

  20. White Oak Dam stability analysis. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to evaluate the stability of the White Oak Dam (WOD) embankment and foundation. Slope stability analyses were performed for the upper and lower bound soil properties at three sections of the dam using the PCSTABL4 computer program. Minimum safety factors were calculated for the applicable seismic and static loading conditions. Liquefaction potential of the dam embankment and foundation solid during the seismic event was assessed by using simplified procedures. The WOD is classified as a low hazard facility and the Evaluation Basis Earthquake (EBE) is defined as an earthquake with a magnitude of m{sub b} = 5.6 and a Peak Ground Accelerator (PGA) of 0.13 g. This event is approximately equivalent to a Modified Mercalli Intensity of VI-VIII. The EBE is used to perform the seismic evaluation for slope stability and liquefaction potential. Results of the stability analyses and the liquefaction assessment lead to the conclusion that the White Oak Dam is safe and stable for the static and the seismic events defined in this study. Ogden Environmental, at the request of MMES, has checked and verified the calculations for the critical loading conditions and performed a peer review of this report. Ogden has determined that the WOD is stable under the defined static and seismic loading conditions and the embankment materials are in general not susceptible to liquefaction.

  1. Melt dumping in string stabilized ribbon growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanuel M. (42 Old Middlesex Rd., Belmont, MA 02178)

    1986-12-09

    A method and apparatus for stabilizing the edge positions of a ribbon drawn from a melt includes the use of wettable strings drawn in parallel up through the melt surface, the ribbon being grown between the strings. A furnace and various features of the crucible used therein permit continuous automatic growth of flat ribbons without close temperature control or the need for visual inspection.

  2. http://www.pppl.gov Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    MHD. 2. Flow pattern of magnetic propulsion. 3. Theory of stabilization. 4. Flow locked mode. 5 of magnetic propulsion (cont.) Magnetic propulsion makes MHD of intense lithium streams compatible 8 #12; 2 Flow pattern of magnetic propulsion (cont.) Driving pressure pwall j outlet > 1 atm; p wall

  3. Amphiphiles for protein solubilization and stabilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gellman, Samuel Helmer; Chae, Pil Seok; Laible, Philip D.; Wander, Marc J.

    2012-09-11

    The invention provides amphiphiles for manipulating membrane proteins. The amphiphiles can feature carbohydrate-derived hydrophilic groups and branchpoints in the hydrophilic moiety and/or in a lipophilic moiety. Such amphiphiles are useful as detergents for solubilization and stabilization of membrane proteins, including photosynthetic protein superassemblies obtained from bacterial membranes.

  4. Irrigation Water Quality Salinity Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and industrial waste water can impact water quality. In most irrigation situations, the primary water qual- ity

  5. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F.

    1999-04-01

    A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

  6. Foams Stabilized by Tricationic Amphiphilic Surfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth Heerschap; John N. Marafino; Kristin McKenna; Kevin L. Caran; Klebert Feitosa

    2015-09-11

    The unique surface properties of amphiphilic molecules have made them widely used in applications where foaming, emulsifying or coating processes are needed. Novel surfactant architectures with multi-cephalic and multi-tailed molecules have reportedly enhanced their anti-bacterial activity in connection with tail length and the nature of the head group, but their ability to produce and stabilize foam is mostly unknown. Here we report on experiments with tris-cationic, triple-headed, double- and single-tailed amphiphiles and their foamability and foam stability with respect to head group, tail number and tail length. The amphiphiles are composed of an aromatic mesitylene core and three benzylic amonium bromide groups, with alkyl chains attached to one or two of the head groups. Whereas shorter (14 carbons in length) double-tailed molecules are found to produce very stable foams, foams made with single tail molecules of the same length show poor foamability and stability, and foams with longer (16 carbons in length) double-tail molecules do not foam with the methods used. By contrast, the structure of the non-tail-bearing head group (trimethylammonium vs. pyridinium) has no impact on foamability. Furthermore, observations of the coarsening rate at nearly constant liquid content indicate that the enhanced foam stability is a result of lower gas permeability through the surfactant monolayer. Finally, the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the surfactants demonstrates to be a good predictor of foamability and foam stability for these small molecule surfactants. This results inform how surfactant architecture can be tailored to produce stable foams.

  7. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  8. Enhancing Drinking Water Supply by Better Understanding Surface Water Ground Water Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    Enhancing Drinking Water Supply by Better Understanding Surface Water ­ Ground Water Interaction Primary Investigators Thomas Boving Anne Veeger Patricia Logan #12;Enhancing Drinking Water Supply by Better Understanding Surface Water ­ Ground Water Interaction Thomas Boving, Anne Veeger & Patricia Logan

  9. Managing water addition to a degraded core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Odar, F. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present information that can be used in severe accident management by providing an improved understanding of the effects of water addition to a degraded core. This improved understanding is developed using a diagram showing a sequence of core damage states. Whenever possible, a temperature and a time after accident initiation are estimated for each damage state in the sequence diagram. This diagram can be used to anticipate the evolution of events during an accident. Possible responses of plant instruments are described to identify these damage states and the effects of water addition. The rate and amount of water addition needed (1) to remove energy from the core, (2) to stabilize the core or (3) to not adversely affect the damage progression, are estimated. Analysis of the capability to remove energy from large cohesive and particulate debris beds indicates that these beds may not be stabilized in the core region and they may partially relocate to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel.

  10. Managing water addition to a degraded core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Odar, F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this paper we present information that can be used in severe accident management by providing an improved understanding of the effects of water addition to a degraded core. This improved understanding is developed using a diagram showing a sequence of core damage states. Whenever possible, a temperature and a time after accident initiation are estimated for each damage state in the sequence diagram. This diagram can be used to anticipate the evolution of events during an accident. Possible responses of plant instruments are described to identify these damage states and the effects of water addition. The rate and amount of water addition needed (1) to remove energy from the core, (2) to stabilize the core or (3) to not adversely affect the damage progression, are estimated. Analysis of the capability to remove energy from large cohesive and particulate debris beds indicates that these beds may not be stabilized in the core region and they may partially relocate to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel.

  11. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresel, P.E.; Newcomer, D.R.; Evans, J.C.; Webber, W.D.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Raymond, R.G.; Opitz, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    Monitoring activities were conducted to determine the distribution of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals present in ground water as a result of Hanford Site operations and, whenever possible, relate the distribution of these constituents to Site operations. A total of 720 wells were sampled during 1992 by all Hanford ground-water monitoring activities. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project prepared water-table maps of DOE`s Hanford Site for June 1992 from water-level elevations measured in 287 wells across the Hanford Site and outlying areas. These maps are used to infer ground-water flow directions and gradients for the interpretation of contaminant transport. Water levels beneath the 200 Areas decreased as much as 0.75 m (2.5 ft) between December 1991 and December 1992. Water levels in the Cold Creek Valley decreased approximately 0.5 m in that same period. The water table adjacent to the Columbia River along the Hanford Reach continues to respond significantly to fluctuations in river stage. These responses were observed in the 100 and 300 areas. The elevation of the ground-water mound beneath B Pond did not change significantly between December 1991 and December 1992. However, water levels from one well located at the center of the mound indicate a water-level rise of approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) during the last quarter of 1992. Water levels measured from unconfined aquifer wells north and east of the Columbia River in 1992 indicate that the primary source of recharge is from irrigation practices.

  12. Safety evaluation of interim stabilization of non-stabilized single-shell watch list tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stahl, S.M.

    1994-12-30

    The report provides a summation of the status of safety issues associated with interim stabilization of Watch List SSTs (organic, ferrocyanide, and flammable gas), as extracted from recent safety analyses, including the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis efforts.

  13. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  14. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  15. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fixtures Market Overview: Water Savings Potential forNew Jersey. American Water Works Association ResearchResidential End Uses of Water (REUWS). 1999. American Water

  16. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The workshop was conducted by a trained facilitator using Value Engineering techniques to elicit the most technically sound solutions from the workshop participants. The path forward includes developing the OBA into a well engineered solution for achieving RCRA clean closure of the EBR-II Primary Reactor Tank system. Several high level tasks are also part of the path forward such as reassigning responsibility of the cleanup project to a dedicated project team that is funded by the DOE Office of Environmental Management, and making it a priority so that adequate funding is available to complete the project. Based on the experience of the sodium cleanup specialists, negotiations with the DEQ will be necessary to determine a risk-based de minimus quantity for acceptable amount of sodium that can be left in the reactor systems after cleanup has been completed.

  17. Irrigation Water Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles

    2002-04-11

    Irrigation water quality is determined by the total amounts of salts and the types of salts the water contains. In this publication you'll learn why well water can be salty, what problems salty water can cause, what tests should be done...

  18. Landscape Design & Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    drainage lines to allow water to filter into surrounding soils. Install gravel sumps or other percolationLandscape Design & Water Quality Landscape Design & Water Quality Create a landscape design that reduces pesticide and fertilizer runoff and conserves water. Good plant choices, proper site preparation

  19. Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    valves and other water control surfaces, creating leaks inside and outside of valves and faucetsDrinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff* Professor and Extension Water Quality Coordinator, Professor and Extension Water Testing Laboratory Director

  20. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique