Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

2

Investigations of Temperature Effects on NOAA's Next Generation Water Level Measurement System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collects tide and water-level data by using an acoustic tide gauge in its Next Generation Water Level Measurement System (NGWLMS). The elevation of the water is calculated from the round-trip ...

David L. Portep; H. H. Shih

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

FA Spane, Jr.

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

4

Reducing Wave-Induced Microwave Water Level Measurement Error with a Least Squares Designed Digital Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave water level sensor, the Design Analysis Model H-3611i, will soon enter service at tide stations operated by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS), ...

John D. Boon

5

MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2001 APRIL 15 AND 2005 JANUARY 20 GROUND-LEVEL ENHANCEMENTS BY THE MILAGRO WATER CERENKOV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WATER CERENKOV DETECTOR BY Trevor Morgan B.S., University of New Hampshire (2004) DISSERTATION Submitted

California at Santa Cruz, University of

6

MEASUREMENTS OF PAST 14C LEVELS AND 13C/12C RATIOS IN THE SURFACE WATERS OF THE WORLD'S SUBPOLAR OCEANS.  

SciTech Connect

Under this project we have developed methods that allow the reconstruction of past {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean by measuring the {sup 14}C contents of archived salmon scales. The overall goal of this research was to reduce of the uncertainty in the uptake of fossil CO{sub 2} by the oceans and thereby improve the quantification of the global carbon cycle and to elucidate the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs), with their three dimensional global spatial coverage and temporal modeling capabilities, provide the best route to accurately calculating the total uptake of CO{sub 2} by the oceans and, hence, to achieving the desired reduction in uncertainty. {sup 14}C has played, and continues to play, a central role in the validation of the OGCMs calculations, particularly with respect to those model components which govern the uptake of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and the transport of this carbon within the oceans. Under this project, we have developed time-series records of the {sup 14}C levels of the surface waters of three areas of the subpolar North Pacific Ocean. As the previously available data on the time-history of oceanic surface water {sup 14}C levels are very limited, these time-series records provide significant new {sup 14}C data to constrain and validate the OGCMs.

Brown, T A

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

ARM - Measurement - Ice water content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Ice water content The concentration (massvol) of ice water particles in a cloud....

8

ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cloud water cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. External Instruments NCEPGFS : National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System Field Campaign Instruments CSI : Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer

9

Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (< 30 psi) is less than half the pressure on the 7th floor (>80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

10

Wynkoop Building Performance Measurement: Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the water analysis performance for the Denver, Colorado Wynkoop Building. The Wynkoop Building (Figure 1) was built in 2006 as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8 Headquarters intended to house over 900 occupants in the 301,292 gross square feet (248,849 rentable square feet). The building was built on a brownfield in the Lower Downtown Historic District as part of an urban redevelopment effort. The building was designed and constructed through a public-private partnership with the sustainable design elements developed jointly by General Services Administration (GSA) and EPA. That partnership is still active with all parties still engaged to optimize building operations and use the building as a Learning Laboratory. The building design achieved U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for New Construction (LEED-NC) Gold Certification in 2008 (Figure 2) and a 2008 EPA Energy Star Rating of 96 with design highlights that include: (1) Water use was designed to use 40% less than a typical design baseline. The design included low flow fixtures, waterless urinals and dual flush toilets; (2) Native and adaptive vegetation were selected to minimize the need for irrigation water for landscaping; and (3) Energy use intensity was modeled at 66.1 kBtus/gross square foot, which is 39% better than ASHRAE 90.1 1999. The Wynkoop Building water use (10 gallons/square foot) was measured at lower than industry average (15 gallons/square foot) and GSA goals (13 gallons/square foot), however, it was higher than building management expected it would be. The type of occupants and number of occupants can have a significant impact on fixture water use. The occupancy per floor varied significantly over the study time period, which added uncertainty to the data analysis. Investigation of the fixture use on the 2nd, 5th, and 7th floors identified potential for water use reduction if the flush direction of the dual-flush toilet handles was reversed. The building management retrofitted the building's toilets with handles that operated on reduced flush when pushed down (0.8 gallons) and full flush when pulled up (1.1 gallons). The water pressure on the 5th floor (80 psi). The measured water savings post-retrofit was lower on the 5th floor than the 7th floor. The differences in water pressure may have had an impact on the quantity of water used per floor. The second floor water use was examined prior to and following the toilet fixture retrofit. This floor is where conference rooms for non-building occupants are available for use, thus occupancy is highly variable. The 3-day average volume per flush event was higher post-retrofit (0.79 gallons per event), in contrast to pre-retrofit (0.57 gallons per event). There were 40% more flush events post retrofit, which impacted the findings. Water use in the third floor fitness center was also measured for a limited number of days. Because of water line accessibility, only water use on the men's side of the fitness center was measured and from that the total fitness center water use was estimated. Using the limited data collected, the fitness center shower water use is approximately 2% of the whole building water use. Overall water use in the Wynkoop Building is below the industry baseline and GSA expectations. The dual flush fixture replacement appears to have resulted in additional water savings that are expected to show a savings in the total annual water use.

Fowler, Kimberly M.; Kora, Angela R.

2012-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hydro static water level systems at Fermilab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several Hydrostatic Water Leveling systems (HLS) are in use at Fermilab. Three systems are used to monitor quadrupoles in the Tevatron and two systems are used to monitor ground motion for potential sites for the International Linear Collider (ILC). All systems use capacitive sensors to determine the water level of water in a pool. These pools are connected with tubing so that relative vertical shifts between sensors can be determined. There are low beta quadrupoles at the B0 and D0 interaction regions of Tevatron accelerator. These quadrupoles use BINP designed and built sensors and have a resolution of 1 micron. All regular lattice superconducting quadrupoles (a total of 204) in the Tevatron use a Fermilab designed system and have a resolution of 6 microns. Data on quadrupole motion due to quenches, changes in temperature will be presented. In addition data for ground motion for ILC studies caused by natural and cultural factors will be presented.

Volk, J.T.; Guerra, J.A.; Hansen, S.U.; Kiper, T.E.; Jostlein, H.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab; Chupyra, A.; Kondaurov, M.; Singatulin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system  

SciTech Connect

A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kisner, Roger A. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

13

Vapor Pressure Measurement of Supercooled Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new dewpoint hygrometer was developed for subfreezing temperature application. Vapor pressure of supercooled water was determined by measuring temperatures at the dew-forming surface and the vapor source ice under the flux density balance, and ...

N. Fukuta; C. M. Gramada

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydroclimatic Factors of the Recent Record Drop in Laurentian Great Lakes Water Levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An extreme low-water supply episode from 1997 to 2000 resulted in the largest 1-yr drop in Lakes Michigan–Huron and Lake Erie water levels (0.92 and 1.03 m, respectively) recorded since measurements began in the early 1800s. Lake Superior water ...

Raymond A. Assel; Frank H. Quinn; Cynthia E. Sellinger

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Return Levels of Northern Great Plains Snow Water Equivalents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper estimates return levels of extreme snow water equivalents (SWE) in the northern Great Plains region, containing North and South Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. The return levels are estimated from extreme-value methods using a ...

Andrew J. Grundstein; Qi Qi Lu; Robert Lund

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Rain noise level measurements in a performing arts center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Noise level measurements made in a performance hall and in related spaces with subjectively described light

Robert C. Coffeen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

EM Corporate Performance Measures- Site Office Level  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Office of Environmental Management assigns specific measures to each site that is tailored to the unique nature and scope of each area’s contamination and cleanup work.

18

Determination of Water Level and Tides Using Interferometric Observations of GPS Signals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonintrusive remote sensing method to measure water level is examined. It relies on the fact that water is a good reflector of radio frequency energy, thus, on a satellite-to-ground path when the satellite is near the horizon, a readily ...

Kenneth D. Anderson

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Developing a Performance Measure for Snow-Level Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The snow level, or altitude in the atmosphere where snow melts to rain, is an important variable for hydrometeorological prediction in mountainous watersheds; yet, there is no operational performance measure associated with snow-level forecasts ...

Allen B. White; Daniel J. Gottas; Arthur F. Henkel; Paul J. Neiman; F. Martin Ralph; Seth I. Gutman

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Precipitable Water Measurements with Sun Photometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a brief history of spectroscopic and radiometric methods of remotely sensing precipitable water. We demonstrate a new method of calibrating sun photometers with microwave radiometer data to obtain precipitable water, and a new ...

R. E. Bird; R. L. Hulstrom

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Estimating the Atmospheric Water Vapor Content from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The differential absorption technique for estimating columnar water vapor values from the analysis of sunphotometric measurements with wide- and narrowband interferential filters centered near 0.94 ?m is discussed and adapted. Water vapor line ...

Artemio Plana-Fattori; Michel Legrand; Didier Tanré; Claude Devaux; Anne Vermeulen; Philippe Dubuisson

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT calculations. X-ray computer tomography (CT) aided by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. The measured steam-water relative permeability curves assume a shape similar to those obtained by Corey (1954

Stanford University

23

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosols and Water Vapor During the May 2003 Aerosol IOP R. A. Ferrare National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton,...

24

Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

An Analysis and Comparison of Five Water Droplet Measuring Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five different instruments have been used routinely by the University of Wyoming for aircraft measurements of water droplets. A study has been conducted in which the measurement accuracies of these instruments are analyzed and evaluated. This ...

Darrel Baumgardner

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Measuring water collection times in Kenyan informal settlements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper uses GPS loggers and interviews to measure the time taken to collect water in two Kenyan informal settlements. The time devoted to water collection is widely believed to prevent women and girls, who do most of this work, from undertaking more ... Keywords: GPS, Kenya, time, water collection, women's work

James Davis; Ben Crow; Julio Miles

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

A Water Vapor Index from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for deriving a water vapor index is presented. An important feature of the index is the fact that it does not rely on radiosondes. Thus, it is not influenced by problems associated with radiosondes and the extent to which the horizontal ...

Larry M. McMillin; David S. Crosby; Mitchell D. Goldberg

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Feasibility Study of Developing a Virtual Chilled Water Flow Meter at Air Handling Unit Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a virtual Air handling unit (AHU) level water flow meter is explored by using a control valve as a measurement device. The flow through the valve is indirectly calculated using differential pressure over both the valve and its associated coil and valve stem position. Thus, the non-intrusive virtual flow meter introduced in this paper provides a solution to one of the measurement barriers and challenges: a low cost, reliable energy metering system at the AHU level. Mathematical models were built and the preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the virtual flow meter applications. As a result, the valve flow meter can be a cost effective means for water flow measurements at the AHU and thus provides an effective index for detecting and diagnosing the AHU operation faults.

Song, L.; Swamy, A.; Shim, G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Microcosm procedure for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a method for determining safe levels of chemical exposure in shallow-water communities, using laboratory microcosms as test subjects. The safe level is considered to be the maximum exposure that causes no persistent, ecologically significant changes in the ecosystem. In experiments completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, microcosm-derived estimates of safe exposure levels were confirmed using outdoor artificial ponds, which suggests that the microcosm procedure can be an efficient and economical means of determining safe levels for shallow-water communities. Details of microcosm construction, techniques for monitoring ecological variables in microcosms, and an experimental design for determining safe exposure levels are provided here. The microcosms are assembled by transferring components of natural ecosystems to 80-litre aquaria in a controlled laboratory environment. The communities that develop in these systems are typically dominated by common, cosmopolitan littoral species of macrophytes, algae, and invertebrates. Methods are described for measuring changes in water chemistry, phytoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and ecosystem production and respiration. By monitoring these variables over a gradient of pollutant exposure levels, the safe level can be determined accurately and precisely. 16 refs., 2 figs.

Giddings, J.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

A fine-grained component-level power measurement method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ever growing energy consumption of computer systems have become a more and more serious problem in the past few years. Power profiling is a fundamental way for us to better understand where, when and how energy is consumed. This paper presents a ... Keywords: energy efficiency, fine-grained component-level power measurement method, computer system energy consumption, power profiling, direct measurement method, power dissipation synchronization, program phase, SPEC CPU2006 benchmarks, fine time granularity, memory management, architecture design

Zehan Cui; Yan Zhu; Yungang Bao; Mingyu Chen

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WATER AND SOLUTE FLUXES USING A PASSIVE SURFACE WATER FLUX METER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WATER AND SOLUTE FLUXES USING A PASSIVE SURFACE WATER FLUX METER J Surface Water Flux Meter (PSFM). Current techniques for estimating contaminant mass inputs to impaired flux meter, MS Thesis, UF. This work was supported by the United States Department of Agriculture

Watson, Craig A.

33

Intercomparison of Four Commercial Analyzers for Water Vapor Isotope Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ?18O and ?D of atmospheric water vapor are important tracers in hydrological and ecological studies. Isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS) provides an in situ technology for measuring ?18O and ?D in ambient conditions. An intercomparison ...

Xue-Fa Wen; Xuhui Lee; Xiao-Min Sun; Jian-Lin Wang; Ya-Kun Tang; Sheng-Gong Li; Gui-Rui Yu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Determination of Supercooled Liquid Water Content by Measuring Rime Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ground-based technique is described for determining the liquid water content of supercooled clouds orfog by measuring the mass rate of rime accumulation on a small rotating wire. Development of the techniqueis described, examples of the data ...

David C. Rogers; Darrel Baumgardner; Gabor Vali

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Measurements of the Electrical Conductivities of Air over Hot Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the conduction current between two electrodes in air over recently boiled water have been interpreted by Carlon as indicating that the humidified air became highly conductive and that large numbers of ions were produced in the air ...

C. B. Moore; B. Vonnegut

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Offshore Tower Shading Effects on In-Water Optical Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A field campaign was performed to estimate the shading effect induced on in-water irradiance and radiance measurements taken in the immediate vicinity of the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT), located in the northern Adriatic Sea, which is ...

Giuseppe Zibordi; John Piero Doyle; Stanford B. Hooker

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Development of an Atlantic Canadian Coastal Water Level Neural Network Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coastal water-level information is essential for coastal zone management, navigation, and oceanographic research. However, long-term water-level observations are usually only available at a limited number of locations. This study discusses a ...

Guoqi Han; Yu Shi

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Microwave measurement of water content in flowing crude oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microwave method and a microwave device for measurement of water content in flowing crude oil are proposed. The method is based on measuring power of electromagnetic waves propagated through a transmission line and reflected from the load that is a ...

Yu. V. Makeev; A. P. Lifanov; A. S. Sovlukov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography  

SciTech Connect

Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Quantitative Methodology for Assessing State-Level Nuclear Security Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The international community faces a growing threat from nuclear terrorism. The complexity of the threats of nuclear terrorism, the variety of nuclear security measures that States can devote resources towards to address the threats, and the limited resources States have to invest in these nuclear security measures make it imperative that resources are applied in the most effective way possible. In this dissertation, we develop a quantitative, risk-based methodology that States can employ to gain a better understanding of the nuclear threat they face, assist them in determining what nuclear security measures they should invest in, and facilitate communication to stake-holders to request and justify investment in these measures. The risk-based methodology has been developed employing a combination of pathways analysis, game-theory, multiple-attribute utility analysis, decision theory and risk analysis. The methodology was designed to account for the wide variety of nuclear security measures that States can invest in, the range of possible consequences from different nuclear threats, and the severity of these consequences to the State. In addition, the methodology models the adversary's strategic decision making while accounting for the capabilities, motivations, and disincentives that may influence which nuclear threat a terrorist group will attempt. The methodology is introduced into a Visual Basic for Applications code, which we demonstrate through verification and qualitative validation tests. We then develop three State nuclear infrastructures with varying levels of complexity, meant to provide a realistic representation of real-world States. We then utilize the code to evaluate the risk of nuclear terrorism against terrorist threats that have different motivations for nuclear terrorism to demonstrate how different motivations for nuclear terrorism may affect both State-level risk and the State's optimal risk-reduction strategy. These risk analyses are then used to both evaluate various nuclear security strategies and determine which nuclear security measures will have the greatest risk-reduction value. Finally, we conduct a sensitivity analysis on capabilities of terrorist groups to understand how changes in these capabilities affect the State-level risk from nuclear terrorism.

Myers, Christopher 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

MEASURING LEPTONIC CP VIOLATION WITH A WATER CERENKOV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk, we present the physics case for a megaton Water Cerenkov detector in addressing some of the still pending questions in neutrino oscillations physics, particularly the measurement of leptonic CP violation. We compare different future beams that could profit from a water detector and analyse, for the case ?13 ? 3 ? (the limit that can be reached by under-construction experiments), the signal-to-background rate for a ?-beam setup with the radioactive ions accelerated to ? = 350. 1

E. Couce

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Improved Measurements of the Ice Water Content in Cirrus Using a Total-Water Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note describes an improved method for the measurement of the ice water content (IWC) of cirrus cloud using a total water content probe. A previous version of this technique assumed that the air in cloud-containing regions was saturated with ...

Philip R. A. Brown; Peter N. Francis

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Energy and Water Conservation Measures for Hanford (2013)  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed an energy and water evaluation of selected buildings on the Hanford Site during the months of May and June 2012. The audit was performed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Sustainability Performance Office to identify key energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs). The evaluations consisted of on-site facility walk-throughs conducted by PNNL staff, interviews with building-operating personnel, and an examination of building designs and layouts. Information on 38 buildings was collected to develop a list of energy and water conservation measures. Table ES.1 is a summary of the ECMs, while table ES.2 is a summary of the WCMs.

Reid, Douglas J.; Butner, Ryan S.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Almost 4,000 water-level measurements in 216 wells in the Yucca Flat area from 1951 to 2003 were quality assured and analyzed. An interpretative database was developed that describes water-level conditions for each water level measured in Yucca Flat. Multiple attributes were assigned to each water-level measurement in the database to describe the hydrologic conditions at the time of measurement. General quality, temporal variability, regional significance, and hydrologic conditions are attributed for each water-level measurement. The database also includes narratives that discuss the water-level history of each well. Water levels in 34 wells were analyzed for variability and for statistically significant trends. An attempt was made to identify the cause of many of the water-level fluctuations or trends. Potential causes include equilibration following well construction or development, pumping in the monitoring well, withdrawals from a nearby supply well, recharge from precipitation, earthquakes, underground nuclear tests, land subsidence, barometric pressure, and Earth tides. Some of the naturally occurring fluctuations in water levels may result from variations in recharge. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for these fluctuations generally is less than 2 feet. Long-term steady-state hydrographs for most of the wells open to carbonate rock have a very similar pattern. Carbonate-rock wells without the characteristic pattern are directly west of the Yucca and Topgallant faults in the southwestern part of Yucca Flat. Long-term steady-state hydrographs from wells open to volcanic tuffs or the Eleana confining unit have a distinctly different pattern from the general water-level pattern of the carbonate-rock aquifers. Anthropogenic water-level fluctuations were caused primarily by water withdrawals and nuclear testing. Nuclear tests affected water levels in many wells. Trends in these wells are attributed to test-cavity infilling or the effects of depressurization following nuclear testing. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for wells with anthropogenic trends can be large, ranging from several feet to hundreds of feet. Vertical water-level differences at 27 sites in Yucca Flat with multiple open intervals were compared. Large vertical differences were noted in volcanic rocks and in boreholes where water levels were affected by nuclear tests. Small vertical differences were noted within the carbonate-rock and valley-fill aquifers. Vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in volcanic rocks and from pre-Tertiary clastic rocks toward volcanic- or carbonate-rock units.

J.M. Fenelon

2005-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

45

The Relationship between Great Lakes Water Levels, Wave Energies, and Shoreline Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The latter half of the twentieth century can be characterized as a period of rising water levels on the Great Lakes, with record high levels in 1974 and 1986. Concurrent with these periods of high water level are reported periods of high ...

G. A. Meadows; L. A. Meadows; W. L. Wood; J. M. Hubertz; M. Perlin

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Constant-pressure measurement of steam-water relative permeability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of steady-state experiments have established relative permeability curves for two-phase flow of water in a porous medium. These experiments have minimized uncertainty in pressure, heat loss, and saturation. By attempting to maintain a constant pressure gradient, the experiments have provided a baseline from which to determine the effect of temperature on relative permeability. The use of a flexible heater with an automatic control system made it possible to assume negligible phase change for the mobile fluid. X-ray computer tomography (CT) aided by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative permeability curves assume a shape similar to those obtained by Corey (1954) for the simultaneous flow of nitrogen and water. Close agreement between the curves by Satik (1998), Mahiya (1999), and this study establishes the reliability of the experimental method and instrumentation adopted in these experiments, though some differences may bear further investigation. In particular, the steam phase relative permeability appears to vary much more linearly with saturation than does the water phase relative permeability.

O'Connor, Peter A.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Measuring Leptonic CP Violation with a Water Cerenkov  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk, we present the physics case for a megaton Water Cerenkov detector in addressing some of the still pending questions in neutrino oscillations physics, particularly the measurement of leptonic CP violation. We compare different future beams that could profit from a water detector and analyse, for the case $\\theta_{13} \\approx 3^\\circ$ (the limit that can be reached by under-construction experiments), the signal-to-background rate for a $\\beta$-beam setup with the radioactive ions accelerated to $\\gamma = 350$.

E. Couce

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Ensemble Precipitation and Water-Level Forecasts for Anticipatory Water-System Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for testing weather forecast products for applications in anticipatory water-system control. The applicability of the ensemble prediction system (EPS) of the ECMWF is tested for flood control in a regional water system in ...

Schalk Jan van Andel; Roland K. Price; Arnold H. Lobbrecht; Frans van Kruiningen; Robert Mureau

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Natural circulation steam generator model for optimal steam generator water level control  

SciTech Connect

Several authors have cited the control of steam generator water level as an important problem in the operation of pressurized water reactor plants. In this paper problems associated with steam generator water level control are identified, and advantages of modern estimation and control theory in dealing with these problems are discussed. A new state variable steam generator model and preliminary verification results using data from the loss of fluid test (LOFT) plant are also presented.

Feeley, J.J.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

The Evaluation of Steam Generator Level Measurement Model for OPR1000 Using RETRAN-3D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam generator level measurement is important factor for plant transient analyses using best estimate thermal hydraulic computer codes since the value of steam generator level is used for steam generator level control system and plant protection system. Because steam generator is in the saturation condition which includes steam and liquid together and is the place that heat exchange occurs from primary side to secondary side, computer codes are hard to calculate steam generator level realistically without appropriate level measurement model. In this paper, we prepare the steam generator models using RETRAN-3D that include geometry models, full range feedwater control system and five types of steam generator level measurement model. Five types of steam generator level measurement model consist of level measurement model using elevation difference in downcomer, 1D level measurement model using fluid mass, 1D level measurement model using fluid volume, 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass, and 2D level measurement model using power and fluid volume. And we perform the evaluation of the capability of each steam generator level measurement model by simulating the real plant transient condition, the title is 'Reactor Trip by The Failure of The Deaerator Level Control Card of Ulchin Unit 3'. The comparison results between real plant data and RETRAN-3D analyses for each steam generator level measurement model show that 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass or fluid volume has more realistic prediction capability compared with other level measurement models. (authors)

Doo Yong Lee; Soon Joon Hong; Byung Chul Lee [FNC Technology Co., SNU Research Park Innovation Center 516, San4-2, Bongchun-7 dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heok Soon Lim [KHNP Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Munji-dong 103-16, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

In-Vessel Torsional Ultrasonic Wave-Based Level Measurement System  

loss of reactor coolant water. In the past, a reactor’s high temperature andpressure environment has complicated the implementation of level ...

52

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Content Measurements of Wood Chips * P. J. Barale, C.measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brownwater content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report summarizes efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a generic hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt; chemical processes of the system allow precipitation and dissolution of salt with elevated temperatures that drive water and water vapor flow around hot waste packages. Characterizing salt backfill processes is an important objective of the exercise. An evidence-based algorithm for mineral dehydration is also applied in the modeling. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) is used to simulate coupled thermal,

55

Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations  

SciTech Connect

The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Low-Light-Level Television Measurements of Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nighttime observations of lightning were conducted using a low-light-level television system at the Langmuir Laboratory for Atmospheric Research in New Mexico. The number of strokes per flash, the interstroke intervals, and flash durations of ...

K. Stuart Clifton; G. Kelly Hill; George C. Marshall

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Radar Reflectivity-Ice Water Content Relationships for Use above the Melting Level in Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regression equations linking radar reflectivity (Ze) and ice water content (IWC) were calculated from airborne radar and particle image data that were collected above the melting level in two hurricanes. The Ze ? IWC equation from the stratiform ...

Robert A. Black

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measurements of the Vapor Pressure of Supercooled Water Using Infrared Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements are presented of the vapor pressure of supercooled water utilizing infrared spectroscopy, which enables unambiguous verification that the authors’ data correspond to the vapor pressure of liquid water, not a mixture of liquid water ...

Will Cantrell; Eli Ochshorn; Alexander Kostinski; Keith Bozin

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

The Impact of the Sierra Nevada on Low-Level Winds and Water Vapor Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the influence of the Sierra Nevada on the water cycle in California the authors have analyzed low-level winds and water vapor fluxes upstream of the mountain range in regional climate model simulations. In a low Froude number (Fr) ...

Jinwon Kim; Hyun-Suk Kang

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Application Level Energy and Performance Measurements in a Wireless LAN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an experimental evaluation of energy usage and performance in a wireless LAN cell based on a test bed using the 5GHz ISM band for 802.11a and 802.11n. We have taken an application-level approach, by varying the packet size and transmission ... Keywords: WLAN, Performance, Energy-Efficiency

Markus Tauber; Saleem N. Bhatti; Yi Yu

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) A Model for Water Factor Measurements With Fission-Neutron Logging Tools (May 1983) A Model for...

63

Comparisons of SSM/I Liquid Water Paths with Aircraft Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons have been made between in situ aircraft measurements of integrated liquid water and retrievals of integrated liquid water path (LWP) from algorithms using SSM/I brightness temperatures. The aircraft measurements were made over the ...

Stewart G. Cober; Andre Tremblay; George A. Isaac

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Research on water level optimal control of boiler drum based on dual heuristic dynamic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiler drum system is an important component of a thermal power plant or industrial production, and the water level is a critical parameter of boiler drum control system. Because of non-linear, strong coupling and large disturbance, it is difficult to ... Keywords: BP neural network, boiler drum level, dual heuristic dynamic programming, optimal control

Qingbao Huang; Shaojian Song; Xiaofeng Lin; Kui Peng

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Assessment of impacts from water level fluctuations on fish in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Observations on the effects of water level fluctuations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, were made in 1976 and 1977. The two years provided contrasting flow regimes: high water and fluctuations of greater magnitude prevailed in 1976; low water and higher temperatures prevailed in 1977. Situations where fish and other aquatic organisms were destroyed by changing water levels were observed and evaluated each year in three study areas: Hanford, F-Area, and White Bluffs sloughs. Losses primarily were due to stranding, entrapment (with or without complete dewatering), and predation. Juvenile fish were more susceptible to entrapment and stranding than were adult fish. Estimates of actual losses were biased and conservative because relatively few fish could be found after each decline of water level and dewatering. The most valued species of fish affected by water level fluctuations at Hanford were the anadromus fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the resident smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Crucial periods for chinook salmon occurred during winter when incubating eggs were in the gravel of the main channel, and before and during seaward migration in the spring when fry were abundant in shoreline zones. The crucial period for smallmouth bass was during spring and early summer when adults were spawning in warmed sloughs and shoreline zones. Chinook salmon and smallmouth bass fry were vulnerable to stranding and entrapment, and smallmouth bass nests were susceptible to exposure and temperature changes resulting from repeated water level fluctuations. Thus, flow manipulation may be crucial to their survival. The extent to which other species of riverine fish were affected by water level fluctuations depended upon their use of shoreline zones for spawning and rearing young.

Becker, C.D.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Montgomery, J.C.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Measurement of Total Water with a Tunable Diode Laser Hygrometer: Inlet Analysis, Calibration Procedure, and Ice Water Content Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Colorado closed-path tunable diode laser hygrometer (CLH), a new instrument for the in situ measurement of enhanced total water (eTW, the sum of water vapor and condensed water enhanced by a subisokinetic inlet), has recently ...

Sean M. Davis; A. Gannet Hallar; Linnea M. Avallone; William Engblom

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Measurement of Ground Level Muon Charge Ratio Using ECRS Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Muon charge ratio at the Earth's surface has been studied with a Geant4 based simulation for two different geomagnetic locations: Atlanta and Lynn Lake. The simulation results are shown in excellent agreement with the data from NMSU-WIZARD/CAPRICE and BESS experiments at Lynn Lake, At low momentum, ground level muon charge ratios show latitude dependent geomagnetic effects for both Atlanta and Lynn Lake from the simulation. The simulated charge ratio is 1.20 {+-} 0.05 (without geomagnetic field), 1.12 {+-} 0.05 (with geomagnetic field) for Atlanta and 1.22 {+-} 0.04 (with geomagnetic field) for Lynn Lake. These types of studies are very important for analyzing secondary cosmic ray muon flux distribution at Earth's surface and can be used to evaluate the parameter of atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

Sanjeewa, Hakmana; He Xiaochun; Cleven, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

68

A HPLC method for the quantification of butyramide and acetamide at ppb levels in hydrogeothermal waters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A quantitative analytical method to determine butyramide and acetamide concentrations at the low ppb levels in geothermal waters has been developed. The analytes are concentrated in a preparation step by evaporation and analyzed using HPLC-UV. Chromatographic separation is achieved isocratically with a RP C-18 column using a 30 mM phosphate buffer solution with 5 mM heptane sulfonic acid and methanol (98:2 ratio) as the mobile phase. Absorbance is measured at 200 nm. The limit of detection (LOD) for BA and AA were 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 2.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for BA and AA were 5.7 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 7.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, at the detection wavelength of 200 nm. Attaining these levels of quantification better allows these amides to be used as thermally reactive tracers in low-temperature hydrogeothermal systems.

Gracy Elias; Earl D. Mattson; Jessica E. Little

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

MCDONALD JP

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

70

Water transport in fuel cell membranes measured by laser interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) The coefficients of electro-osmotic drag were found to increase with the increasing water content, which indicates that the Grotthuss mechanism of proton transfer is not active in the membranes with low water ...

Kim, Jungik, 1973-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Refueling Simulation Strategy of a CANDU Reactor Based on Optimum Zone Controller Water Levels  

SciTech Connect

An optimum refueling simulation method was developed for application to a Canada deuterium uranium 713-MW(electric) (CANDU-6) reactor. The objective of the optimization was to maintain the operating range of the zone controller unit (ZCU) water level so that the reference zone power distribution is reproduced following the refueling operation. The zone controller level on the refueling operation was estimated by the generalized perturbation method, which provides sensitivities of the zone power to an individual refueling operation and the zone controller level. By constructing a system equation of the zone power, the zone controller level was obtained, which was used to find the most suitable combination of the refueling channels. The 250-full-power-day refueling simulations showed that the channel and bundle powers are well controlled below the license limits when the ZCU water level remains in the typical operating range.

Choi, Hangbok; Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Airborne Measurement of Liquid and Total Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two identical liquid water content (LWC) King probes—one total water content/liquid water content (TWC/LWC) Nevzorov probe and two constant-temperature T probes that are different in size to distinguish particles of different densities and ...

German Vidaurre; John Hallett; David C. Rogers

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Estimating Noise Levels of Remotely Sensed Measurements from Satellites Using Spatial Structure Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique is presented whereby the noise level of satellite measurements of the atmosphere and earth can be estimated. The technique analyzes a spatial array of data measured by a satellite instrument. A minimum of about 200 satellite ...

Donald W. Hillger; Thomas H. Vonder Haar

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Comparison of Aura MLS Water Vapor Measurements with GFS and NAM Analyses in the Upper Troposphere–Lower Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere measured by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 2.2 instrument have been compared with Global Forecast System (GFS) analyses at five levels within the 300–100-hPa ...

Le Van Thien; William A. Gallus Jr.; Mark A. Olsen; Nathaniel Livesey

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Inexpensive Near-IR Sun Photometer for Measuring Total Column Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An inexpensive two-channel near-IR sun photometer for measuring total atmospheric column water vapor (precipitable water) has been developed for use by the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) environmental science ...

David R. Brooks; Forrest M. Mims III; Richard Roettger

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Observed and Modeled Wind and Water-Level Response from Tropical Storm Marco (1990)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hurricane Research Division (HRD) analyzes surface wind fields in tropical storms and hurricanes using surface wind observations and aircraft flight-level wind measurements in the vicinity of the storms. The analyzed surface wind fields for ...

Sam H. Houston; Mark D. Powell

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Advanced Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

Programme Csad

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip Computer Science 120 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) Credit

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of construction, successive trades must take care not to create a defect nor to compound or cover up a previous trade's defect. Covering a defect hides the inevitable point of failure and may even exacerbate the situation.

Dickson, B.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Water Vapor Flux Measurements from Ground-Based Vertically Pointed Water Vapor Differential Absorption and Doppler Lidars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the first time, two lidar systems were used to measure the vertical water vapor flux in a convective boundary layer by means of eddy correlation. This was achieved by combining a water vapor differential absorption lidar and a heterodyne wind ...

Andreas Giez; Gerhard Ehret; Ronald L. Schwiesow; Kenneth J. Davis; Donald H. Lenschow

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Twenty-Four-Hour Raman Lidar Water Vapor Measurements during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s 1996 and 1997 Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program’s first water vapor intensive observation period (WVIOP) at the Cloud and Radiation Testbed site near Lamont, Oklahoma, an automated 24-h Raman lidar was delivered to the site. This ...

D. D. Turner; J. E. M. Goldsmith

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Measurement of Highly Tritiated Water by Imaging Plate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurement, Monitoring, and Accountancy / Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology

Yuji Hatano; Masanori Hara; Hiroko Ohuchi; Hirofumi Nakamura; Takumi Hayashi; Toshihiko Yamanishi

83

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the Implementation for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 i Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1

84

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for the Implementation for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 U.S. Department of ENERGY United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 i Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) September 2012 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1

85

Assessment of Vertically Integrated Liquid (VIL) Water Content Radar Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content is a parameter obtained from a radar performing voluminal scanning. This parameter has proven useful in the detection of severe storms and may be a worthwhile indicator for very short-term rainfall ...

Brice Boudevillain; Hervé Andrieu

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Measurement and Modeling of Algal Biokinetics in Highly Eutrophic Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 of 20 Introduction Algae are now recognized as aLarge standing crops of algae can support higher trophicproductivity, but large algae blooms can also impair water

Stringfellow, William T.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Measurements of Lagrangian Atmospheric Dispersion Statistics over Open Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric dispersion statistics in the Lagrangian frame have been evaluated over open water by using a double-theodolite system to track neutrally buoyant balloons released a few kilometers off-shore during onshore winds. Analysis of the ...

C. M. Sheih; P. Frenzen; R. L. Hart

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Total Precipitable Water Measurements from GOES Sounder Derived Product Imagery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistics are compiled comparing calculations of total precipitable water (TPW) as given by GOES sounder derived product imagery (DPI) to that computed from radiosonde data for the 12-month period March 1998–February 1999. In order to ...

John F. Dostalek; Timothy J. Schmit

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Estimating retained gas volumes in the Hanford tanks using waste level measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Safety and environmental concerns surround these tanks and their contents. One such concern is the propensity for the waste in these tanks to generate and trap flammable gases. This report focuses on understanding and improving the quality of retained gas volume estimates derived from tank waste level measurements. While direct measurements of gas volume are available for a small number of the Hanford tanks, the increasingly wide availability of tank waste level measurements provides an opportunity for less expensive (than direct gas volume measurement) assessment of gas hazard for the Hanford tanks. Retained gas in the tank waste is inferred from level measurements -- either long-term increase in the tank waste level, or fluctuations in tank waste level with atmospheric pressure changes. This report concentrates on the latter phenomena. As atmospheric pressure increases, the pressure on the gas in the tank waste increases, resulting in a level decrease (as long as the tank waste is {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} enough). Tanks with waste levels exhibiting fluctuations inversely correlated with atmospheric pressure fluctuations were catalogued in an earlier study. Additionally, models incorporating ideal-gas law behavior and waste material properties have been proposed. These models explicitly relate the retained gas volume in the tank with the magnitude of the waste level fluctuations, dL/dP. This report describes how these models compare with the tank waste level measurements.

Whitney, P.D.; Chen, G.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Miller, N.E.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Engineering Technical Training Module (ETTM) - Level Measurement v1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineering Technical Training Module (ETTM) – Level Measurement, Version 1.0 is a computer-based training module that allows users to access training when desired and review it at their own pace.Accurate fluid level measurements are critical to the safe operation and efficient energy production within a power plant. Knowledge of several fluid properties, such as pressure, gravity, and density effects, are reviewed before introducing the methods and devices used to measure fluid ...

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

Level-set RANS method for sloshing and green water simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An interface-preserving level set method is incorporated into the Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) numerical method for the time-domain simulation of green water effects. This generalized method can be used to evaluate two- and three-dimensional, laminar and turbulent, free surface flows in moving non-orthogonal grids. In the method, free surface flows are modeled as immiscible two-phase (air and water) flows. A level set function is used to mark the individual fluids and the free surface itself is represented by the zero level set function. The level set evolution equation is coupled with the conservation equations for mass and momentum, and solved in the transformed plane. Chimera domain decomposition technique is employed to handle embedding, overlapping, or matching grids. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, calculations are performed in several bench mark free surface flows including dam break flows, free jets, solitary wave propagations and the impingement of dam break flow on a fixed structure. The comparisons between the simulations and the experimental data provide a thorough validation of the present method. The results also show the potential capability of level-set RANS method in much more complicated free surface flow simulations. After validations, the method is applied to simulate sloshing flows in LNG tank and green water over the platform. In sloshing flows, the level-set RANS method captures the large impact pressure accurately on LNG tank walls. It also generates a plunging breaker successfully in front of a platform in the numerical wave tank. The good agreements between numerical and experimental results prove the level set RANS method is a powerful and accurate CFD methodology in free surface flow simulations.

Yu, Kai

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Simultaneous Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with MIR, Raman Lidar, and Rawinsondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made by the Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (MIR), Raman lidar, and rawinsondes. Two types of rawinsonde sensor packages (AIR and Vaisala) were carried by the same balloon. The measured ...

J. R. Wang; S. H. Melfi; P. Racette; D. N. Whitemen; L. A. Chang; R. A. Ferrare; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Evaluation of Liquid Water Measuring Instruments in Cold Clouds Sampled during FIRE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid water measurements from the Rosemount icing detector (RICE), Particle Measuring Systems (PMS) forward scattering spectrometer probe (FSSP), and Johnson–williams and King hot-wire probes used on the NCAR King Air aircraft are evaluated for ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Larry M. Miloshevich

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Raman Lidar Profiling of Atmospheric Water Vapor: Simultaneous Measurements with Two Collocated Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raman lidar is a loading candidate for providing the detailed space-and time-resolved measurements of water vapor needed by a variety of atmospheric studies. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric watervapor are described using two collocated ...

J. E. M. Goldsmith; Scott E. Bisson; Richard A. Ferrare; Keith D. Evans; David N. Whiteman; S. H. Melfi

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Dynamic Response of the Fine Wire Psychrometer for Direct Measurement of Water Vapor Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the measurement of humidity fluctuation in the atmospheric boundary layer, a wet- and dry-bulb ther-mocouple psychrometer has been used traditionally. However, in the direct measurement of water vapor flux with the eddy correlation method, ...

Osamu Tsukamoto

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Ground-Based FSSP and PVM Measurements of Liquid Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently published ground-based measurements of liquid water content (LWC) measured in fogs by two microphysical instruments, the FSSP-100 and PVM-100, are evaluated. These publications had suggested that the PVM-100 underestimated LWC ...

H. Gerber; Glendon Frick; Alfred R. Rodi

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Liquid Water Cloud Measurements Using the Raman Lidar Technique: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes recent work in the Raman lidar liquid water cloud measurement technique. The range-resolved spectral measurements at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center indicate that the Raman ...

Tetsu Sakai; David N. Whiteman; Felicita Russo; David D. Turner; Igor Veselovskii; S. Harvey Melfi; Tomohiro Nagai; Yuzo Mano

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Measurements of the Total Water Content of Cirrus Clouds. Part I: Instrument Details and Calibration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an instrument designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds, and to be mounted in a pallet in the underbelly of the NASA WB-57 research aircraft. The ice water content of ...

E. M. Weinstock; J. B. Smith; D. Sayres; J. R. Spackman; J. V. Pittman; N. Allen; J. Demusz; M. Greenberg; M. Rivero; L. Solomon; J. G. Anderson

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A New Fast Response Instrument for Measuring Total Water Content from Aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A device for measuring the total water content of a parcel of air from an aircraft has been developed. The total water of a parcel of air is a conserved quantity, independent of phase changes, provided there is no transport of water through the ...

S. Nicholls; J. Leighton; R. Barker

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Integrated modelling of risk and uncertainty underlying the cost and effectiveness of water quality measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an overview of the most important sources of uncertainty when analysing the least cost way to improve water quality. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of water quality measures is surrounded by environmental, economic ... Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, Integrated modelling, Risk, Uncertainty, Water quality

Roy Brouwer; Chris De Blois

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements ofwood chips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has developed a device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brown stock for the paper industry. This device employs a permanent magnet as the central part of a NMR measurement system. This report describes the magnet and the NMR measurement system. The results of water content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field of 0.47 T are presented.

Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Green, M.A.; Luft, P.A.; McInturff,A.D.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.

2001-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange membranes using neutron radiography Title Accurate measurement of the through-plane water content of proton-exchange membranes using neutron radiography Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hussey, Daniel S., Dusan Spernjak, Adam Z. Weber, Rangachary Mukundan, Joseph Fairweather, Eric L. Brosha, John Davey, Jacob S. Spendelow, David L. Jacobson, and Rodney L. Borup Journal Journal of Applied Physics Volume 112 Issue 10 Pagination 104906 Date Published 2012 ISSN 00218979 Keywords electrolyte fuel-cells, in-situ, liquid water, microchannel plate detectors, model, nafion, polymer electrolytes, schroeders-paradox, transport, x-ray-scattering Abstract The water sorption of proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) was measured in situ using high-resolution neutron imaging in small-scale fuel cell test sections. A detailed characterization of the measurement uncertainties and corrections associated with the technique is presented. An image-processing procedure resolved a previously reported discrepancy between the measured and predicted membrane water content. With high-resolution neutron-imaging detectors, the water distributions across N1140 and N117 Nafion membranes are resolved in vapor-sorption experiments and during fuel cell and hydrogen-pump operation. The measured in situ water content of a restricted membrane at 80 degrees C is shown to agree with ex situ gravimetric measurements of free-swelling membranes over a water activity range of 0.5 to 1.0 including at liquid equilibration. Schroeder's paradox was verified by in situ water-content measurements which go from a high value at supersaturated or liquid conditions to a lower one with fully saturated vapor. At open circuit and during fuel cell operation, the measured water content indicates that the membrane is operating between the vapor-and liquid-equilibrated states.

103

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN MEASUREMENTS AND RETRIEVALS FROM A NEW 183-GHz WATER VAPOR RADIOMETER IN THE ARCTIC Cadeddu, Maria Argonne National Laboratory Category: Instruments A new G-band (183 GHz) vapor radiometer (GVR), developed and built by Prosensing Inc. (http://www.prosensing.com), was deployed in Barrow, Alaska, in April 2005. The radiometer was deployed as part of the ongoing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's effort to improve water vapor retrievals in the cold, dry Arctic environment. The instrument measures brightness temperatures from four double sideband channels centered at 1, 3, 7, and 14 GHz from the 183.31-GHz water vapor line. Atmospheric emission in this spectral region is primarily due to water vapor, with some influence from liquid water. The GVR will remain in Barrow

104

MEASURING SURFACE WATER FROM SPACE Douglas E. Alsdorf,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the SRTM design to permit multitemporal mappings of h across the world's wetlands, floodplains, lakes are of the temporal and spatial variations in water stored in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, floodplains, and wetlands stored and flowing in rivers, lakes, and wetlands (see sections 2 and 3). Furthermore, the spatial extent

Howat, Ian M.

105

Measurements of the Ice Water Content in Cirrus Using an Evaporative Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for the measurement of the ice water content (IWC) of cirrus clouds is described. The IWC is obtained by the measurement of the total water content (TWC) and the subtraction of the saturation specific humidity with respect to ice at ...

Philip R. A. Brown

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

7 180 credits with not more than 30 credits at level 3 (FHEQ level 6) and the rest at level M (FHEQ level 7) 4. Other entry N/A Credit Level awards (if applicable): 5. Exit Awards: PGDip in Advanced Computer Science with

Programme Csci

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Enhancing Water Cycle Measurements for Future Hydrologic Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise ...

H. W. Loescher; J. M. Jacobs; O. Wendroth; D. A. Robinson; G. S. Poulos; K. Mcguire; P. Reed; B. P. Mohanty; J. B. Shanley; W. Krajewski

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Tropospheric Water Vapor Transport as Determined from Airborne Lidar Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first collocated measurements during THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) regional campaign in Europe in 2007 were performed by a novel four-wavelength differential absorption lidar and a scanning 2-?m Doppler ...

Andreas Schäfler; Andreas Dörnbrack; Christoph Kiemle; Stephan Rahm; Martin Wirth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Improved Retrieval of Integrated Water Vapor from Water Vapor Radiometer Measurements Using Numerical Weather Prediction Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor radiometer (WVR) retrieval algorithms require a priori information on atmospheric conditions along the line of sight of the radiometer in order to derive opacities from observed brightness temperatures. This paper's focus is the mean ...

Steven R. Chiswell; Steven Businger; Michael Bevis; Fredrick Solheim; Christian Rocken; Randolph Ware

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Measurement and Modeling of Algal Biokinetics in Highly Eutrophic Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factor apparently limiting growth, identified using the model, are carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide solubility (calculated as a percent of total inorganic carbon) was identified as the factorfactor of either mineral concentration (M) as measured by suspended mineral solids (TSS minus VSS), carbon dioxide

Stringfellow, William T.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of pressurized water reactor steam-generator water-level control, designed for use within physically distributed testing environments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A hardware-in-the-loop model was developed to represent digital sensing and control of steam generator water-level. The model was created with an intention to serve as… (more)

Brink, Michael Joseph

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Measurements of the Total Water Content of Cirrus Clouds. Part II: Instrument Performance and Validation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the performance and in-flight validation of an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 research aircraft that measures the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using a heated ...

E. M. Weinstock; J. B. Smith; D. Sayres; J. V. Pittman; N. Allen; J. G. Anderson

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

On the Calibration and Performance of an Instrument for Measuring Total Water Mixing Ratio in Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument which measures the total water mixing ratio in cloud has been calibrated to an accuracy of ±0.1 g kg?1 in the presence of liquid water contents ranging up to 7 g kg?1. Evaporation occurs in a labyrinth of heated plates and the ...

C. E. Coulman; M. A. Parker

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Fuzzy expert system for the detection of episodes of poor water quality through continuous measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to prevent and reduce water pollution, promote a sustainable use, protect the environment and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems, this article deals with the application of advanced mathematical techniques designed to aid in the management ... Keywords: Automated measurement networks, Fuzzy inference system, Fuzzy logic, Guadiana river, Water quality system

Cecilio Angulo; Joan Cabestany; Pablo Rodríguez; Montserrat Batlle; Antonio González; Sergio de Campos

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

MEASUREMENTS OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR STEAM-WATER FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEASUREMENTS OF RELATIVE PERMEABILITY FOR STEAM-WATER FLOW IN POROUS MEDIA A REPORT SUBMITTED experimental efforts towards obtaining relative permeability for steam-water flow in a homogeneous porous computer tomography (CT) scanner. Steam fractional flow, crucial in evaluating relative permeabilities

Stanford University

116

Comparison of Measurements of Atmospheric Wet Delay by Radiosonde, Water Vapor Radiometer, GPS, and VLBI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) as an instrument for measuring the integrated water vapor content of the atmosphere has been evaluated by comparison with concurrent observations made over a 14-day period by radiosonde, ...

A. E. Niell; A. J. Coster; F. S. Solheim; V. B. Mendes; P. C. Toor; R. B. Langley; C. A. Upham

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Characterization of Upper-Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX Using LASE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mass mixing ratio profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)–First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (...

R. A. Ferrare; E. V. Browell; S. Ismail; S. A. Kooi; L. H. Brasseur; V. G. Brackett; M. B. Clayton; J. D. W. Barrick; G. S. Diskin; J. E. M. Goldsmith; B. M. Lesht; J. R. Podolske; G. W. Sachse; F. J. Schmidlin; D. D. Turner; D. N. Whiteman; D. Tobin; L. M. Miloshevich; H. E. Revercomb; B. B. Demoz; P. Di Girolamo

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Analysis of Rotating Multicylinder Data in Measuring Cloud-Droplet Size and Liquid Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective method is presented for the analysis of rotating multicylinder data in measuring the liquid water content and median volume droplet diameter of icing clouds. The method is based on time-dependent numerical modeling of cylinder icing ...

Lasse Makkonen

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Remote Sensing of Precipitable Water over the Oceans from Nimbus 7 Microwave Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) brightness temperature measurements in the 21 and 18 GHz channels are used to sense the precipitable water in the atmosphere over oceans. The difference in the brightness temperature (T21 ...

C. Prabhakara; H. D. Chang; A. T. C. Chang

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Estimating Soil Water Contents from Soil Temperature Measurements by Using an Adaptive Kalman Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple soil heat transfer model is used together with an adaptive Kalman filter to estimate the daily averaged soil volumetric water contents from diurnal variations of the soil temperatures measured at different depths. In this method, the ...

Shu-Wen Zhang; Chong-Jian Qiu; Qin Xu

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Comments on “Estimating Soil Water Contents from Soil Temperature Measurements by Using an Adaptive Kalman Filter”  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scheme was proposed by Zhang et al. to estimate soil water content from soil temperature measurements by using an adaptive Kalman filter. Their scheme is based on the fact that soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity are a monotonic ...

Kun Yang; Toshio Koike

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Recent Lidar Technology Developments and Their Influence on Measurements of Tropospheric Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the influences of recent technology developments in the areas of lasers, detectors, and optical filters of a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system on the measurement of tropospheric water vapor (H20) profiles are discussed. ...

Syed Ismail; Edward V. Browell

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Estimating the Vertical Component of Water Velocity from Measurements Collected with a Free-fall Vehicle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimated of the vertical component of water velocity are made with measurements of the pressure-change rate and rotation rate recorded by the free-fall vehicle “Cartesian diver” (CD). Using buoyancy control, this device moves alternately up and ...

David C. Jacobs; Charles S. Cox

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements with Data Retrieved from ECMWF Analyses during the POLINAT Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the POLINAT (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) experiment, water vapor content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board the DLR (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luft-und-Raumfahrt) Falcon ...

Joëlle Ovarlez; Peter van Velthoven

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

LASE Measurements of Water Vapor, Aerosol, and Cloud Distributions in Saharan Air Layers and Tropical Disturbances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) on board the NASA DC-8 measured high-resolution profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and cloud distributions in 14 flights over the eastern North Atlantic during the NASA African Monsoon ...

Syed Ismail; Richard A. Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; Gao Chen; Bruce Anderson; Susan A. Kooi; Anthony Notari; Carolyn F. Butler; Sharon Burton; Marta Fenn; Jason P. Dunion; Gerry Heymsfield; T. N. Krishnamurti; Mrinal K. Biswas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Satellite-Based Assessment of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consistency of upper-tropospheric water vapor measurements from a variety of state-of-the-art instruments was assessed using collocated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) 6.7-?m brightness temperatures as a common ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Condensation Coefficient Measurement for Water in the UMR Cloud Simulation Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic series of condensation coefficient measurements of water have been made using the University of Missouri—Rolla cooled-wall expansion chamber which simulates the thermodynamics of cloud. This coefficient is seen to decrease from a ...

D. E. Hagen; J. Schmitt; M. Trueblood; J. Carstens; D. R. White; D. J. Alofs

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Statistical Retrieval of Humidity Profiles from Precipitable Water Vapor and Surface Measurements of Humidity and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented of statistical retrieval of humidity profiles based on measurements of surface temperature ?1, surface dewpoint ?2, and integrated water vapor ?3. In this method the retrieved values of humidity depend nonlinearly on ...

Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii; Maia S. Tatarskaia; Ed R. Westwater

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Comparison of Simultaneous Airborne and Radiometric Measurements of Supercooled Liquid Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of supercooled liquid water by an instrumented aircraft and a dual-frequency microwave radiometer were made at Lake Ontario, New York, during wintertime. The geographic location and typical meteorological conditions for ...

Geoffrey E. Hill

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Further Comparisons of Simultaneous Airborne and Radiometric Measurements of Supercooled Liquid Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of supercooled liquid water were made by an instrumented aircraft and a microwave radiometer at Muskegon, Michigan during wintertime. The purpose was to confirm recent findings that there is good agreement between the ...

Geoffrey E. Hill

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Analysis of Supercooled Liquid Water Measurements Using Microwave Radiometer and Vibrating Wire Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review is made of the theoretical basis for using a vibrating wire to measure supercooled liquid water in clouds. The device consists of a vibrating wire and associated electronics added to radiosondes. The sensing wire that collects ...

Geoffrey E. Hill

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Automated Quality Control Procedure for the "Water Equivalent of Snow on the Ground" Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) has been measured daily by the United States National Weather Service since 1952, whenever snow depth is 2 in. (5 cm) or greater. These data are used to develop design snow loads for buildings, for hydrological ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Daniel S. Wilks; Megan McKay; Richard P. Cember

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Effects of Water Levels on Productivity of Canada Geese in the Northern Flathead Valley, Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council calls for wildlife mitigation at hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River System. Beginning April, 1984, the Bonneville Power Administration funded a study of the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr Dams on the western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffittii) inhabitating the Flathead Valley of northwest Montana. The study was conducted by personnel of the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP), to: (1) identify the size and productivity of this population, (2) identify current habitat conditions and losses of nesting and brood-rearing areas, (3) describe the effects of water level fluctuations on nesting and brood-rearing, and (4) identify mitigation alternatives to offset these effects. Annual pair and nest surveys were used to document the location and fate of goose nests. The number of known nesting attempts varied from 44 in 1984 to 108 in 1985, to 136 in 1986 and 134 in 1987. Fifty-four percent of the annual meeting nesting effort took place on elevated sites which were secure from the flooding and dewatering effects of fluctuating water levels. An average of 15 nests were found on stumps in the remnant Flathead River delta, however, an area strongly influenced by the operation of Kerr Dam. Annual nest losses to flooding and predation attributable to fluctuations caused by the dam were recorded. 53 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

Casey, Daniel

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Broadband Acoustic Technique for Measuring Bubble Size Distributions: Laboratory and Shallow Water Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a broadband sound velocimeter that allows the simultaneous measurement of sound speed and attenuation over a wide range of frequencies is described. The velocimeter measures the attenuation and dispersion of a broadband ...

Eric J. Terrill; W. Kendall Melville

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Draft Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guidance 9Dec2010 Guidance 9Dec2010 i DRAFT Guidance for the Implementation and Follow-up of Identified Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Covered Facilities (per 42 U.S.C. 8253 Subsection (f), Use of Energy and Water Efficiency Measures in Federal Buildings) December 9, 2010 I. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................................ 1 II. BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1 A. Authority ................................................................................................................................. 1 B. Related DOE Guidance and Activity ...................................................................................... 1

136

Measurements of metabolically active inorganic phosphate in plants growing in natural and agronomic settings and under water stress. [Stromal Phosphate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At high rates of photosynthesis, the conflicting requirements of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis for phosphate and starch and sucrose synthesis for low phosphate, may limit the overall rate of photosynthesis. This is called feedback limitation of photosynthesis. A nonaqueous fractionation technique was used to measure stromal phosphate levels without contamination from vacuolar phosphate. Under normal conditions the stromal phosphate level was found to be 7mM. Under feedback limited photosynthesis, this value dropped to <1mM. In a related study, the effect of water stress on photosynthesis was examined. Water stress was shown to cause a decrease in total leaf photosynthesis, due not to a total loss of photosynthetic ability, but rather due to photosynthesis only occurring in patches of the leaf. Water stress was shown to cause a reduction in starch and sucrose synthesis. Since this decline can be reversed by increasing the CO{sub 2} level around the plant, this is proposed to be due to closing of stomata due to the water stress. (MHB)

Sharkey, T.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The CI-FLOW Project: A System for Total Water Level Prediction from the Summit to the Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Coastal and Inland Flooding Observation and Warning (CI-FLOW) project is to prototype new hydrometeorologic techniques to address a critical NOAA service gap: routine total water level predictions for tidally influenced watersheds. ...

Suzanne Van Cooten; Kevin E. Kelleher; Kenneth Howard; Jian Zhang; Jonathan J. Gourley; John S. Kain; Kodi Nemunaitis-Monroe; Zac Flamig; Heather Moser; Ami Arthur; Carrie Langston; Randall Kolar; Yang Hong; Kendra Dresback; Evan Tromble; Humberto Vergara; Richard A Luettich Jr.; Brian Blanton; Howard Lander; Ken Galluppi; Jessica Proud Losego; Cheryl Ann Blain; Jack Thigpen; Katie Mosher; Darin Figurskey; Michael Moneypenny; Jonathan Blaes; Jeff Orrock; Rich Bandy; Carin Goodall; John G. W. Kelley; Jason Greenlaw; Micah Wengren; Dave Eslinger; Jeff Payne; Geno Olmi; John Feldt; John Schmidt; Todd Hamill; Robert Bacon; Robert Stickney; Lundie Spence

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Improved Airborne Hot-Wire Measurements of Ice Water Content in Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of ice water content (IWC) in both ice and mixed phase clouds remain one of the long standing problems in experimental cloud physics. For nearly three decades, IWC has been measured with the help of the Nevzorov hot-wire ...

A. Korolev; J. W. Strapp; G. A. Isaac; E. Emery

139

Measurement of Condensed Water Content in Liquid and Ice Clouds Using an Airborne Counterflow Virtual Impactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condensed water content (CWC) measured using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) with a Lyman-? hygrometer downstream is compared with that measured by other airborne instruments (a hot-wire probe, a PMS FSSP, and a PMS 2D-C). Results indicate ...

Cynthia H. Twohy; Allen J. Schanot; William A. Cooper

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Autonomous Above-Water Radiance Measurements from an Offshore Platform: A Field Assessment Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An autonomous system for making above-water radiance measurements has been produced by adding a new measurement scenario to a CIMEL CE-318 sun photometer. The new system, called the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Photometer ...

G. Zibordi; S. B. Hooker; J. F. Berthon; D. D'Alimonte

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Concentrating solar collector system for the evaporation of low-level radioactive waste water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently been awarded a grant under the Solar Federal Buildings Program to design, construct, and operate a high-temperature solar energy system for the processing of low-level radioactive waste water. Conceptual design studies have been completed, and detailed design work is under way for a solar system to produce process heat to evaporate 38,000 gal (143,830 L) of waste water per month. The system will use approximately 11,000 ft/sup 2/ (1022 m/sup 2/) of concentrating parabolic trough collectors operating at about 500/sup 0/F (262/sup 0/C). Construction of the system is anticipated to begin in 1981. Performance optimization of collector array size and configuration, storage medium and capacity, system operation, and control schemes are done using the active solar system simulator in the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. Results of this optimization are reported. This project represents a unique application of solar energy to an increasingly significant problem area in the energy field.

Diamond, S.C.; Cappiello, C.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Power levels in office equipment: Measurements of new monitors and personal computers  

SciTech Connect

Electronic office equipment has proliferated rapidly over the last twenty years and is projected to continue growing in the future. Efforts to reduce the growth in office equipment energy use have focused on power management to reduce power consumption of electronic devices when not being used for their primary purpose. The EPA ENERGY STAR[registered trademark] program has been instrumental in gaining widespread support for power management in office equipment, and accurate information about the energy used by office equipment in all power levels is important to improving program design and evaluation. This paper presents the results of a field study conducted during 2001 to measure the power levels of new monitors and personal computers. We measured off, on, and low-power levels in about 60 units manufactured since July 2000. The paper summarizes power data collected, explores differences within the sample (e.g., between CRT and LCD monitors), and discusses some issues that arise in m etering office equipment. We also present conclusions to help improve the success of future power management programs.Our findings include a trend among monitor manufacturers to provide a single very low low-power level, and the need to standardize methods for measuring monitor on power, to more accurately estimate the annual energy consumption of office equipment, as well as actual and potential energy savings from power management.

Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Nordman, Bruce; Webber, Carrie A.; Homan, Gregory H.; Mahajan, Akshay; McWhinney, Marla; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

Cabeche, Dion Tunick

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Relating x-ray attenuation measurements to water content and distribution in SB-15D core  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Making improved estimates of the water content of The Geysers reservoir is fundamental to efficient and economic long term production of steam power from the resource. A series of coordinated physical properties measurements form core recovered from the SB-15D, reported in this volume in a series of papers, have been made to better understand water storage and to relate water content and distribution to observable geophysical properties such as electrical conductivity and seismic velocities. A principal objective here is to report new interpretations of x-ray scans made within 72 hours of core recovery from SB-15D, which suggest, taking advantage of preliminary measurements of capillary suction for metagraywacke, that water content was low in much of the preserved core.

Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Schneberk, D.J

1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

An Istrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested, which is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the neutrons produced by the transuranics, primarily via (?,n) reactions, in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. Correct operation of the monitor was demonstrated in a hot cell utilizing an actual sample of high-level waste. Results of that demonstration are given, and suggestions for improvements in the next generation system are discussed.

Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R. A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah O.; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Michael R.; Walker, Darrell D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Appendix D Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots,  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots, Surface Water and Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots, Stream Discharge Measurements, Ground Water Level Data, and Ground Water Well Hydrographs This page intentionally left blank Contents Section .................................................................................. Surface Water Time-Concentration Plots D1.O ............................................................................................... Stream Discharge Measurements D2.0 ............................................................. Ground Water Time-Concentration Plots for Uranium D3.0 .......................................................................................................... Ground Water Level Data D4.0 ..............................................................................................

147

Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Water-saving Measures: Energy and Cost Savings Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Sector: Water Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Water Conservation Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.doe2.com/download/Water-Energy/ Country: United States Locality: California Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 37.09024°, -95.712891° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.09024,"lon":-95.712891,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

148

Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART] site-based) and modeling of atmospheric radiation, the spectrum of water vapor, ranging from the microwave to the visible wavelengths, plays a significant role. Its spectrum has been the subject of many studies throughout the last century. Therefore, it is natural to presume it should be fairly well established by now. However, the need for a

149

Feasibility of Using Measurements of Internal Components of Tankless Water Heaters for Field Monitoring of Energy and Water Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products: Test Procedures for Water Heaters; Final Rule,"Testing of Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance," DavisInc. , "T-K2 Instantaneous Water Heater Installation Manual

Lutz, Jim

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Alternative Minimum Levels for Utility Aqueous Discharges: Chemical Analytical Measurement Guide for National Pollutant Discharge El imination System (NPDES) Permits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Clean Water Act requires the electric utility industry to monitor their wastewater discharges to ensure compliance with discharge permit limits. EPRI developed a new definition of quantitation level appropriate to water quality compliance monitoring and used data from its previous studies on trace element analysis of utility wastewaters to calculate Alternative Minimum Levels (AMLs). The approach developed in this report will help utilities define reasonable pollutant discharge limits to meet effluen...

1997-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

151

Water flow calorimetry measurements of heat loads for a volume production H/sup -/ source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of volume-production H/sup -/ sources requires the knowledge of heat loads on the source components. The arc and filament heater power input to a 20 cm diameter x 23 cm long source can be 50 kW or higher, practically all of which is absorbed in the cooling water. Water flow calorimetry measurements were made to determine the heat loads on the bucket walls, grid no. 1, and magnetic filter rods. The measurements are presented for two different filament locations, for three different values of arc power, and for three values of source gas pressure. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Purgalis, P.; Ackerman, G.; Kwan, J.; Wells, R.P.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Directional solvent for membrane-free water desalination-A molecular level study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of desalination technologies has been identified as vital to fulfilling future water demand. In this paper, we use molecular simulation to demonstrate that decanoic acid can dissolve water but reject salt, and ...

Luo, Tengfei

153

Land Use and Water Quality on California's Central Coast: Nutrient Levels in Coastal Waterways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pollution originating from urban and agricul- tural landrefers to pollution that occurs when water runs over land or

Los Huertos, Marc; Gentry, Lowell; Shennan, Carol

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Laboratory Measurement of Water Nucleation Using a Laminar Flow Tube Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A Laminar Flow Tube Reactor (LFTR) was used to study the nucleation of water vapor. Computational analysis was carried out to define the operating conditions of the LFTR suitable for water nucleation measurements. An interface between the LFTR and a mass spectrometer was developed to analyze the chemical content of the freshly nucleated water particles. Presence of contaminants was detected in the initial configuration of the LFTR. As a result, improvements were made to the LFTR to achieve ultra-high purity conditions in the system. The nucleation rate of water vapor as a function of supersaturation was measured over the temperature range 210-250 K. The first measurement of the nucleation rate of water at a temperature of 210 K was obtained. Reasonable agreement with the classical theory predictions is observed for temperatures in the range 230-250 K. However, below 220 K, classical theory begins to overestimate nucleation rates compared to experimental data and the disagreement grows with decreasing temperature. The experimental data obtained provide an excellent benchmark for further nucleation studies of binary, ternary and more complex systems.

Mikheev, Vladimir B. (InnovaTek, Inc); Irving, Patricia M. (InnovaTek); Laulainen, Nels S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Barlow, Stephan E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Pervukhin, Viktor V. (Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia)

2002-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

156

Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

A Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Retrievals Obtained with Near-IR Solar Radiometer and Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple two-channel solar radiometer and analysis technique have been developed for setting atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 940-nm water vapor absorption band. A prototype solar ...

J. Reagan; K. Thome; B. Herman; R. Stone; J. DeLuisi; J. Snider

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A Refined Calibration Procedure of Two-Channel Sun Photometers to Measure Atmospheric Precipitable Water at Various Antarctic Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-channel sun photometers can be easily employed at Antarctic sites, where harsh environmental conditions prevail, to carry out measurements of precipitable water W. In the very dry air conditions observed in the Antarctic atmosphere, water ...

Claudio Tomasi; Boyan Petkov; Elena Benedetti; Luca Valenziano; Angelo Lupi; Vito Vitale; Ubaldo Bonafé

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A Differential Pressure Instrument with Wireless Telemetry for In-Situ Measurement of Fluid Flow across Sediment-Water Boundaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An instrument has been built to carry out continuous in-situ measurement of small differences in water pressure, conductivity and temperature, in natural surface water and groundwater systems. A low-cost data telemetry ...

Gardner, Alan T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Near-Surface Measurements of Quasi-Lagrangian Velocities in Open Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-surface water velocities have been measured in the coastal zone of Lake Huron and Cape Cod Bay by tracking drifters and drogues using acoustic travel time and compass sighting techniques. The near-surface current, defined as the velocity of ...

J. H. Churchill; G. T. Csanady

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Balloonborne Instrument for the Measurement of Vertical Profiles of Supercooled Liquid Water Concentration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A vibrating wire placed in the humidity duct of a standard U.S. rawinsonde is used to measure vertical profiles of the concentration of supercooled liquid water in clouds. The natural frequency of vibration varies according to the mass of ice ...

Geoffrey E. Hill; Duard S. Woffinden

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Thermal Device for Aircraft Measurement of the Solid Water Content of Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A constant temperature probe for the measurement of solid water content of clouds is described. The probe is operated at a temperature of approximately 25°C, and is designed to collect and melt ice particles that impact in an open half-cylinder, ...

W. D. King; D. E. Turvey

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Laboratory Calibration of a Vibrating Wire Device for Measuring Concentrations of Supercooled Liquid Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of supercooled liquid water are made by a vibrating-wire sensor whose frequency of vibration varies according to the mass of ice collected on it. The vibrating-wire system is designed to be placed in the humidity duct of ...

Geoffrey E. Hill

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Extinction and Liquid Water Content Measurements at CO2 Laser wavelengths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements have been made of both extinction coefficients in an evaporating laboratory cloud at wavelength ? = 10.591 ?m using a CO2 laser, and of liquid water content (LWC) at the center of the cloud using a continuous filtration LWC device. ...

P. F. Nolan; S. G. Jennings

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Measured and Estimated Water Vapor Advection in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flux of water vapor due to advection is measured using high resolution Raman lidar that was orientated horizontally across a land-lake transition. At the same time, a full surface energy balance is performed to assess the impact of scalar ...

Chad W. Higgins; Eric Pardyjak; Martin Froidevaux; Valentin Simeonov; Marc B. Parlange

167

Measuring the effectiveness of infrastructure-level detection of large-scale botnets  

SciTech Connect

Botnets are one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and its end users. In recent years, utilizing P2P as a Command and Control (C&C) protocol has gained popularity due to its decentralized nature that can help hide the hotmaster's identity. Most bot detection approaches targeting P2P botnets either rely on behavior monitoring or traffic flow and packet analysis, requiring fine-grained information collected locally. This requirement limits the scale of detection. In this paper, we consider detection of P2P botnets at a high-level - the infrastructure level - by exploiting their structural properties from a graph analysis perspective. Using three different P2P overlay structures, we measure the effectiveness of detecting each structure at various locations (the Autonomous System (AS), the Point of Presence (PoP), and the router rendezvous) in the Internet infrastructure.

Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zeng, Yuanyuan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shin, Kang G [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

168

An Instrument for Measuring the TRU Concentration in High-Level Liquid Waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An online monitor has been designed, built, and tested that is capable of measuring the residual transuranic concentrations in processed high-level wastes with a detection limit of 370 Bq/ml (10 nCi/ml) in less than six hours. The monitor measures the ({alpha},n) neutrons in the presence of gamma-ray fields up to 1 Sv/h (100 R/h). The optimum design was determined by Monte Carlo modeling and then tempered with practical engineering and cost considerations. A multiplicity counter is used in data acquisition to reject the large fraction of coincident and highly variable cosmic-ray-engendered background events and results in a S/N ratio {approx}1.

Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Craig, R A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Hensley, Walter K.; Holt, Noah OA; Knopf, Michael A.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Mullen, O Dennis; Salaymeh, Saleem R.; Samuel, Todd J.; Smart, John E.; Tinker, Mike R.; Walker, D

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has independently verified the accuracy and precision of the AMS detection system for low-level bioassay measurements of plutonium isotopes through participation in an intercomparison exercise whereby performance evaluation samples were prepared in a synthetic urine matrix and submitted to participating laboratories for blind analysis. The results of the analyses were then sent to the NIST to independently evaluate the performance of laboratory participants. At LLNL, the AMS measurements of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu met ANSI 13.30 criteria for both precision and accuracy at all sample test levels. Livermore scientists continue to test the performance of the Marshall Islands Plutonium Urinalysis Program by routine blind analysis of externally prepared quality control test samples, and through the rigorous implementation of standardized methods and procedures. Although not addressed directly in the report, AMS measurements show that the urinary excretion of plutonium by selected Marshallese populations fall into a low and reproducible range. Moreover, there appears to be no evidence of small incremental intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement activities - past or present. The improved quality, reliability and detection sensitivity of AMS for low-level plutonium isotope measurements will enable DOE to develop high-quality, baseline urinary excretion data for Marshallese populations, and accurately assess and track potential uptakes of plutonium. associated with resettlement activities and/or from long-term changes in plutonium exposure conditions in the Marshall Islands.

Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

170

PROMETHEE: An Alpha Low Level Waste Assay System Using Passive and Active Neutron Measurement Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a passive-active neutron assay system for alpha low level waste characterization at the French Atomic Energy Commission is discussed. Less than 50 Bq[{alpha}] (about 50 {mu}g Pu) per gram of crude waste must be measured in 118-l 'European' drums in order to reach the requirements for incinerating wastes. Detection limits of about 0.12 mg of effective {sup 239}Pu in total active neutron counting, and 0.08 mg of effective {sup 239}Pu coincident active neutron counting, may currently be detected (empty cavity, measurement time of 15 min, neutron generator emission of 1.6 x 10{sup 8} s{sup -1} [4{pi}]). The most limiting parameters in terms of performances are the matrix of the drum - its composition (H, Cl...), its density, and its heterogeneity degree - and the localization and self-shielding properties of the contaminant.

Passard, Christian [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Mariani, Alain [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Jallu, Fanny [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Romeyer-Dherbey, Jacques [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Recroix, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Rodriguez, Michel [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Loridon, Joel [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Denis, Caroline [French Atomic Energy Commission, C.E.A. Cadarache (France); Toubon, Herve [COGEMA (France)

2002-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

On inconsistency of experimental data on primary nuclei spectra with sea level muon intensity measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the first time a complete set of the most recent direct data on primary cosmic ray spectra is used as input into calculations of muon flux at sea level in wide energy range $E_\\mu=1-3\\cdot10^5$ GeV. Computations have been performed with the CORSIKA/QGSJET and CORSIKA/VENUS codes. The comparison of the obtained muon intensity with the data of muon experiments shows, that measurements of primary nuclei spectra conform to sea level muon data only up to several tens of GeV and result in essential deficit of muons at higher energies. As it follows from our examination, uncertainties in muon flux measurements and in the description of nuclear cascades development are not suitable to explain this contradiction, and the only remaining factor, leading to this situation, is underestimation of primary light nuclei fluxes. We have considered systematic effects, that may distort the results of the primary cosmic ray measurements with the application of the emulsion chambers. We suggest, that re-examination of these measurements is required with the employment of different hadronic interaction models. Also, in our point of view, it is necessary to perform estimates of possible influence of the fact, that sizable fraction of events, identified as protons, actually are antiprotons. Study of these cosmic ray component begins to attract much attention, but today nothing definite is known for the energies $>40$ GeV. In any case, to realize whether the mentioned, or some other reasons are the sources of disagreement of the data on primaries with the data on muons, the indicated effects should be thoroughly analyzed.

A. A. Lagutin; A. G. Tyumentsev; A. V. Yushkov

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

172

Predevelopment Water-Level Contours for Aquifers in the Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contaminants introduced into the subsurface of the Nevada Test Site at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain by underground nuclear testing are of concern to the U.S. Department of Energy and regulators responsible for protecting human health and safety. Although contaminants were introduced into low-permeability rocks above the regional flow system, the potential for contaminant movement away from the underground test areas and into the accessible environment is greatest by ground-water transport. The primary hydrologic control on this transport is evaluated and examined through a series of contour maps developed to represent the water-level distribution within each of the major aquifers underlying the area. Aquifers were identified and their extents delineated by merging and analyzing multiple hydrostratigraphic framework models developed by other investigators from existing geologic information. The contoured water-level distribution in each major aquifer was developed from a detailed evaluation and assessment of available water-level measurements. Multiple spreadsheets that accompany this report provide pertinent water-level and geologic data by well or drill hole. Aquifers are mapped, presented, and discussed in general terms as being one of three aquifer types—volcanic aquifer, upper carbonate aquifer, or lower carbonate aquifer. Each of these aquifer types was subdivided and mapped as independent continuous and isolated aquifers, based on the continuity of its component rock. Ground-water flow directions, as related to the transport of test-generated contaminants, were developed from water-level contours and are presented and discussed for each of the continuous aquifers. Contoured water-level altitudes vary across the study area and range from more than 5,000 feet in the volcanic aquifer beneath a recharge area in the northern part of the study area to less than 2,450 feet in the lower carbonate aquifer in the southern part of the study area. Variations in water-level altitudes within any single continuous aquifer range from a few hundred feet in a lower carbonate aquifer to just more than 1,100 feet in a volcanic aquifer. Flow directions throughout the study area are dominantly southward with minor eastward or westward deviations. Primary exceptions are westward flow in the northern part of the volcanic aquifer and eastward flow in the eastern part of the lower carbonate aquifer. Northward flow in the upper and lower carbonate aquifers in the northern part of the study area is possible but cannot be substantiated because data are lacking. Interflow between continuous aquifers is evaluated and mapped to define major flow paths. These flow paths delineate tributary flow systems, which converge to form the regional ground-water flow system. The implications of these tributary flow paths in controlling transport away from the underground test areas at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain are discussed. The obvious data gaps contributing to uncertainties in the delineation of aquifers and development of water-level contours are identified and evaluated.

Joseph M. Fenelon; Randell J. Laczniak; and Keith J. Halford

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Aerosols R. A. Ferrare and K. D. Evans (a) Hughes STX Corporation Lanham, Maryland S. H. Melfi and D. N. Whiteman NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland The principal objective of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general circulation models (GCMs) which are used to study climate change. Meeting this objective requires detailed measurements of both water vapor and aerosols since these atmospheric constituents affect the radiation balance directly, through scattering and absorption of solar and

174

Comparison of MTI Satellite-Derived Surface Water Temperatures and In-Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperatures of the water surface of a cold, mid-latitude lake and the tropical Pacific Ocean were determined from MTI images and from in situ concurrent measurements. In situ measurements were obtained at the time of the MTI image with a floating, anchored platform, which measured the surface and bulk water temperatures and relevant meteorological variables, and also from a boat moving across the target area. Atmospheric profiles were obtained from concurrent radiosonde soundings. Radiances at the satellite were calculated with the Modtran radiative transfer model. The MTI infrared radiances were within 1 percent of the calculated values at the Pacific Ocean site but were 1-2 percent different over the mid-latitude lake.

Kurzeja, R.

2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

175

Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Level and Degradation of Deepwater Horizon Spilled Oil in Coastal Marsh Sediments and Pore-Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

eight months after the spill. By contrast, pore-water separated from heavily oiled Louisiana wetland-waters extracted from heavily oiled Louisiana wetlands. Environmental Science & Technology Article dx.doi.org/10 wetlands decades after the Amoco-Cadiz oil spill. The fate and biotransformation of oils in coastal

Wang, Yang

178

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

179

Inferring immobile and in-situ water saturation from laboratory and field measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of experimental data and numerical simulation results of dynamic boiling experiments revealed that there is an apparent correlation between the immobile water saturation and the shape of the steam saturation profile. An elbow in the steam saturation profile indicates the sudden drop in steam saturation that marks the transition from steam to two-phase conditions inside the core during boiling. The immobile water saturation can be inferred from this elbow in the steam saturation profile. Based on experimental results obtained by Satik (1997), the inferred immobile water saturation of Berea sandstone was found to be about 0.25, which is consistent with results of relative permeability experiments reported by Mahiya (1999). However, this technique may not be useful in inferring the immobile water saturation of less permeable geothermal rocks because the elbow in the steam saturation profile is less prominent. Models of vapor and liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs that were developed based on Darcy's law and material and energy conservation equations proved to be useful in inferring the in-situ and immobile water saturations from field measurements of cumulative mass production, discharge enthalpy, and downhole temperature. Knowing rock and fluid properties, and the difference between the stable initial, T{sub o}, and dry-out, T{sub d}, downhole temperatures, the in-situ and immobile water saturations of vapor-dominated reservoirs can be estimated. On the other hand, the in-situ and immobile water saturations, and the change in mobile water content of liquid-dominated reservoirs can be inferred from the cumulative mass production, {Delta}m, and enthalpy, h{prime}, data. Comparison with two-phase, radial flow, numerical simulation results confirmed the validity and usefulness of these models.

Belen, Rodolfo P., Jr.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Measurements of the Directional Spectra of Shallow Water Waves Using the Maximum Entropy Principle and a Single Ocean Bottom Seismometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method for measurement of the directional spectra of surface gravity (water) waves is presented here. Measurements are made at a single point by orthogonally mounted seismometers buried 0.5 meters below the seabed surface and a pressure ...

Tom Nye; Tokuo Yamamoto; Mark Trevorrow

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Demonstration Measurements of Water Vapor, Cirrus Clouds, and Carbon Dioxide Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Profile measurements of atmospheric water vapor, cirrus clouds, and carbon dioxide using the Raman Airborne Spectroscopic lidar (RASL) during ground-based, upward-looking tests are presented here. These measurements improve upon any previously ...

David N. Whiteman; Kurt Rush; Igor Veselovskii; Martin Cadirola; Joseph Comer; John R. Potter; Rebecca Tola

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Low-Level Water Vapor Fields from the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) “Split Window” Channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple physical algorithm is developed which calculates the water vapor content of the lower troposphere from the 11 and 12 ?m (split window) channels on the VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) on the Geostationary Operational Environmental ...

Dennis Chesters; Louis W. Uccellini; Wayne D. Robinson

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Association between Winter Precipitation and Water Level Fluctuations in the Great Lakes and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric precipitation in the Great Lakes basin, as a major mediating variable between atmospheric circulation and lake levels, is analyzed relative to both. The effect of cumulative winter precipitation on lake levels varies from lake to lake ...

Sergei N. Rodionov

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Low Level Gamma Spectroscopy Measurements of Radium and Cesium in Lucerne (Medicago Sativa)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nineteen years after Chernobyl nuclear accident, activity concentration of 137Cs still could be detected in food and soil samples in Central and Eastern Europe. In this paper radiation levels of radium and cesium in Lucerne will be presented. It is a perennial plant with a deep root system and it is widely grown throughout the world as forage for cattle. The samples of Lucerne were taken from twelve different locations in Vojvodina in the summer period July-September 2004. The samples were specially dried on the air and after that ground, powdered and mineralized by method of dry burning on the temperature of 450 deg. C. Gamma spectrometry measurements of the ash were performed by means of actively shielded germanium detector with maximal background reduction. For cesium 137Cs 10 mBq/kg order of magnitude detection limits were achieved.

Fokapic, S.; Bikit, I.; Mrda, D.; Veskovic, M.; Slivka, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 4, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Mihaljev, Z. [Scientific Veterinary Institute, Rumenacki put 20, 21 000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Cupic, Z. [Research Institute for Reproduction, A.I. and Embryo Transfer Temerin, 21235 Temerin, Industrijska zona bb. (Serbia)

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

185

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison wit microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays an important role in weather in climate; it is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is studying the column abundance and distribution of water vapor with altitude. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is mainly for measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and spectral extinction by aerosol, it can also measure total column water vapor. This paper reports a preliminary investigation of MFRSR`s capabilities for total column water vapor under cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use  

SciTech Connect

The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads. A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.

Rugh, J. P.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

On the Importance of Zero-Point Effects in Molecular Level Classical Simulations of Water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss the fundamental difficulties involved in comparing energetic results obtained via classical simulations of bulk water with the observed values. Emphasis is placed on the difference between quantum and classical dynamics and correction techniques, which can be used to emulate quantum effects in a classical system, are investigated. We present molecular dynamics simulation results for liquid water using the ''Thole-type'' all atom polarizable water model, which has previously been shown to give reasonable results for both ice Ih and small water clusters. We employ expressions for the density of states power spectrum in the liquid in either atomic or rigid-body coordinates that are appropriate for rigid molecule simulations. It is demonstrated that the atomic power spectra can be written as a linear combination of the center of mass and rotational power spectra via the use of the ''coupling matrix'' of linear coefficients. This approach allows us to introduce the concept of ''fractional degrees of freedom'' for nuclei in rigid molecule simulation. Within this framework, it is illustrated that, in a rigid water molecule, the Oxygen and Hydrogen atoms have 2.82 and 1.59 degrees of freedom, respectively (for the TIP4P geometry). Within our suggested approach, we finally demonstrate that Debye-Waller factors can be obtained from the coupling matrix and show that quantum corrections to the structure can be accounted for by raising the temperature of the system in a classical simulation by around 500, a result consistent with previous suggestions.

Burnham, Christian J.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1-3% in landfill gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1-3% in landfill gas but 4-5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3-4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yazdani, Ramin [Yolo County Planning and Public Works Department, Division of Integrated Waste Management, Yolo County, 44090 County Rd. 28H, Woodland, CA 95776 (United States); Imhoff, Paul T., E-mail: imhoff@udel.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Primary Research Paper Ecosystem response to changes in water level of Lake Ontario marshes: lessons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plants that had declined dramatically since the 1930s. Data from 1934 to 1993 were re-assembled from colonization and light extinction coefficient. I suggest that wave disturbance and propagule burial associated). As of 1995, these waters provided consumption, transporta- tion, power, and recreation to 33 million people

McMaster University

190

Modeling Plot-Level Biomass and Volume Using Airborne and Terrestrial Lidar Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program provides a diverse selection of data used to assess the status of the nation’s forested areas using sample locations dispersed throughout the country. Airborne, and more recently, terrestrial lidar (light detection and ranging) systems are capable of producing accurate measurements of individual tree dimensions and also possess the ability to characterize three-dimensional vertical forest structure. This study investigates the potential of airborne and terrestrial scanning lidar systems for modeling forest volume and aboveground biomass on FIA subplots in the Malheur National Forest, eastern Oregon. A methodology for the creation of five airborne lidar metric sets (four point cloud-based and one individual tree based) and four terrestrial lidar metric sets (three height-based and one distance-based) is presented. Metrics were compared to estimates of subplot aboveground biomass and gross volume derived from FIA data using national and regional allometric equations respectively. Simple linear regression models from the airborne lidar data accounted for 15 percent of the variability in subplot biomass and 14 percent of the variability in subplot volume, while multiple linear regression models increased these amounts to 29 percent and 25 percent, respectively. When subplot estimates of biophysical parameters were scaled to the plot-level and compared with plot-level lidar metrics, simple linear regression models were able to account for 60 percent of the variability in biomass and 71 percent of the variation in volume. Terrestrial lidar metrics produced moderate results with simple linear regression models accounting for 41 percent of the variability in biomass and 46 percent of the variability in volume, with multiple linear regression models accounting for 71 percent and 84 percent, respectively. Results show that: (1) larger plot sizes help to mitigate errors and produce better models; and (2) a combination of height-based and distance-based terrestrial lidar metrics has the potential to estimate biomass and volume on FIA subplots.

Sheridan, Ryan D.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Cloud Liquid Water Measurements on the Armored T-28: Intercomparison between Johnson–Williams Cloud Water Meter and CSIRO (King) Liquid Water Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons are made between liquid water concentration (LWC) readings obtained from a Johnson–Williams (J–W) cloud water meter and a King (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) liquid water probe, both mounted on the ...

Rand E. Feind; Andrew G. Detwiler; Paul L. Smith

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Colombani, Jean

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature.

Jean Colombani

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

194

HIGH TEMPERATURE CONDUCTIVITY PROBE FOR MONITORING CONTAMINATION LEVELS IN POWER PLANT BOILER WATER.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A high temperature/high pressure flow through probe was designed to measure high temperature electrical conductivity of aqueous (aq) dilute electrolyte solutions, an application which can… (more)

Hipple, Sarah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Validation of aerosol extinction and water vapor profiles from routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy with which vertical profiles of aerosol extinction ?ep(?) can be retrieved from ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) routine measurements was assessed using data from two airborne field campaigns, the ARM Aerosol Intensive Operation Period (AIOP, May 2003), and the Aerosol Lidar Validation Experiment (ALIVE, September 2005). This assessment pertains to the aerosol at its ambient concentration and thermodynamic state (i.e. ?ep(?) either free of or corrected for sampling artifacts) and includes the following ACRF routine methods: Raman Lidar, Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) and in-situ aerosol profiles (IAP) with a small aircraft. Profiles of aerosol optical depth ?p(???, from which the profiles of ?ep(???are derived through vertical differentiation, were measured by the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking 14-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-14); these data were used as truth in this evaluation. The ACRF IAP ?ep(550 nm) were lower by 16% (during AIOP) and higher by 10% (during ALIVE) when compared to AATS-14. The ACRF MPL ?ep(523 nm) were higher by 24% (AIOP) and 19%-21% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14 but the correlation improved significantly during ALIVE. In the AIOP a second MPL operated by NASA showed a smaller positive bias (13%) with respect to AATS-14. The ACRF Raman Lidar ?ep(355 nm) were higher by 54% (AIOP) and higher by 6% (ALIVE) compared to AATS-14. The large bias in AIOP stemmed from a gradual loss of the sensitivity of the Raman Lidar starting about the end of 2001 going unnoticed until after AIOP. A major refurbishment and upgrade of the instrument and improvements to a data-processing algorithm led to the significant improvement and very small bias in ALIVE. Finally we find that during ALIVE the Raman Lidar water vapor densities ?w are higher by 8% when compared to AATS-14, whereas comparisons between AATS-14 and in-situ measured ?w aboard two different aircraft showed small negative biases (0 to -3%).

Schmid, Beat; Flynn, Connor J.; Newsom, Rob K.; Turner, David D.; Ferrare, Richard; Clayton, Marian F.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Ogren, John A.; Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P. B.; Gore, W.; Dominguez, Roseanne

2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

196

Environmental Levels Of 129I Present In Bovine Thyroid And Fresh Water In Argentina  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations of {sup 129}I in bovine thyroid and fresh water samples coming from all over Argentina were analyzed by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and total iodine present in samples by Gas Chromatography (GC) and Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Once we complete this study, it will be the first set of data of this kind from an extended region of the south American subcontinent.

Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Carnellia, P. F. F.; Barbara, E. de; Figueira, J. M.; Fimiani, L.; Heimanna, D. M.; Zalazara, L. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); La Gamma, A. M. [Gerencia Quimica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

197

Water Use Efficiency in Plant Growth and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report examines the validity and explores the practical implications of the proposition that CO2 enrichment of the leaf environment enhances plant growth and, simultaneously decreases plant water use. A theoretical analysis of the water and carbon dioxide balance of plant leaves was made in the form of a computer program based upon known physiological facts. It predicts significant increases in water use efficiency by plants as CO is enriched, the size of the increase depending upon the external conditions. Experimental tests were conducted in an environmental simulator with stands of soybean, pepper and southern pea plants. The predictions of the model were substantially verified, with CO2 concentrations ranging from normal to six-fold normal. Although CO2 is obviously an ideal antitranspirant, the efficacy of its release in open stands is doubtful in view of plausible economic factors. Butt in enclosures this would be a different matter, and for such situations the present report gives a scientific basis for engineering and system analysis.

van Bavel, C. H. M.

1972-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Comparison of Satellite Altimetry to Tide Gauge Measurement of Sea Level: Predictions of Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern rates of sea level change are of interest because of concerns that global warming may be causing glacier retreat. Both tide gauges and satellite radar altimetry are used to measure the present rates of change in sea level. Tide gauges ...

James A. Clark; Paul E. Haidle; L. Nichole Cunningham

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Water vapor from sunradiometry in comparison with microwave and balloon-sonde measurements at the Southern Great Plains ARM Site  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor plays a fundamental role in weather and climate. It is the most important greenhouse gas and the most variable in space and time. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program is devoting a large fraction of its resources for the accurate characterization of the column abundance and the distribution of water vapor with altitude. Balloon sondes, microwave radiometers, and Raman lidars are the major instruments either currently in use or under consideration for these tasks. Although the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) is primarily intended for use in accurate measurements of spectral short-wave radiation and in the measurement of spectral extinction by aerosol, it has the potential to measure total column water vapor as well. In this paper the authors report on a preliminary investigation of the MFRSR`s capabilities with regard to accurate measurements of total column water vapor at times when there is a clear path to the sun, i.e., cloudless conditions.

Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Atmospheric Sciences Research Center; Liljegren, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Nondestructive Evaluation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Canisters for Free-Water Content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal regulations set limits on free-standing liquid in radioactive waste containers. This report identifies four nondestructive evaluation methods that may provide nuclear power plant operators with reliable and accurate determinations of the existence and amount of free-standing liquids in low-level radioactive waste (LLW) containers.

1991-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

202

Non-invasive Field Measurements of Soil Water Content Using a Pulsed 14 MeV Neutron Generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current techniques of soil water content measurement are invasive and labor-intensive. Here, we demonstrate that an in situ soil carbon (C) analyzer with a multi-elemental analysis capability, developed for studies of terrestrial C sequestration, can be used concurrently to non-invasively measure the water content of large-volume ({approx}0.3 m{sup 3}) soil samples. Our objectives were to investigate the correlations of the hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) signals with water to the changes in the soil water content in laboratory experiments, and in an agricultural field. Implementing prompt gamma neutron activation analyses we showed that in the field, the signal from the H nucleus better indicates the soil water content than does that from the O nucleus. Using a field calibration, we were able to use the H signal to estimate a minimum detectable change of {approx}2% volumetric water in a 0-30 cm depth of soil.

Mitra S.; Wielopolski L.; Omonode, R.; Novak, J.; Frederick, J.; Chan, A.

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

203

Out-of-Level Instruments: Errors in Hydrometeor Spectra and Precipitation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meteorological instruments which are designed to measure the size spectra of hydrometeors such as hailstones or raindrops or instruments designed to measure cumulative precipitation such as raingages can produce errors if they are not installed ...

Ronald E. Rinehart

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

On the Quantitative Low-Level Aerosol Measurements Using Ceilometer-Type Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate whether a commercial ceilometer-type lidar can be used as a quantitative aerosol measurement instrument. To this end, lidar backscattering measurements are compared with exact theoretical calculations ...

Anu-Maija Sundström; Timo Nousiainen; Tuukka Petäjä

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Determining an optimal sampling frequency for measuring bulk temporal changes in ground-water quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process, statistical methods are used to determine an optimal sampling and analysis plan. When the DQO decision rule for instituting remedial actions is based on a critical change in water quality, the monitoring program design must ensure that this change can be detected and measured with a specified confidence. Usually the focus is on the change at a single monitoring location and the process is limited to addressing the uncertainty inherent in the analytical methods and the variability at that location. However, new strategies that permit ranking the waste sites and prioritizing remedial activities require the means for assessing overall changes for small regions over time, where both spatial and temporal variability exist and where the uncertainty associated with these variations far exceeds measurement error. Two new methods for assessing these overall changes have been developed and are demonstrated by application to a waste disposal site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These methods incorporate historical data where available and allow the user to either test the statistical significance of a linear trend or of an annual change compared to a baseline year for a group of water quality wells.

Moline, G.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Wright, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part II: Assessing the ECMWF Humidity Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent publication (Part I), the authors introduced a data source—Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC)—for monitoring and studying upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) and analyzed 10 yr (1994–2004) of ...

Zhengzhao Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; Herman Smit

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

In Situ Aircraft Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Liquid and Ice Water Content in Midlatitude Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical distribution of liquid and ice water content and their partitioning is studied using 34 cases of in situ measured microphysical properties in midlatitude mixed-phase clouds, with liquid water path ranging from near zero to ~248 g m?2, ...

Yoo-Jeong Noh; Curtis J. Seaman; Thomas H. Vonder Haar; Guosheng Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

209

An Integrated Assessment of Measured and Modeled Integrated Water Vapor in Switzerland for the Period 2001–03  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper an integrated assessment of the vertically integrated water vapor (IWV) measured by radiosonde, microwave radiometer (MWR), and GPS and modeled by the limited-area mesoscale model of MeteoSwiss is presented. The different IWV ...

G. Guerova; E. Brockmann; F. Schubiger; J. Morland; C. Mätzler

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A Near-Infrared Diode Laser Spectrometer for the In Situ Measurement of Methane and Water Vapor from Stratospheric Balloons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Spectromčtre ŕ Diodes Laser Accordables (SDLA), a balloonborne near-infrared diode laser spectrometer, was developed to provide simultaneous in situ measurements of methane and water vapor in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The ...

Georges Durry; Ivan Pouchet

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Intercalibration of GOES-11 and GOES-12 Water Vapor Channels with MetOp IASI Hyperspectral Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calibrated radiances from geostationary water vapor channels play an important role for weather forecasting, data assimilation, and climate studies. Therefore, better understanding the data quality for radiance measurements and independently ...

Likun Wang; Changyong Cao; Mitch Goldberg

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

A Steerable Dual-Channel Microwave Radiometer for Measurement of Water Vapor and Liquid in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument that remotely senses the integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid on a path through the atmosphere is discussed. The vapor and liquid are measured simultaneously but independently by microwave radiometers. Comparison of the ...

D. C. Hogg; F. O. Guiraud; J. B. Snider; M. T. Decker; E. R. Westwater

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Measuring water velocity using DIDSON and image cross-correlation techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To design or operate hydroelectric facilities for maximum power generation and minimum ecological impact, it is critical to understand the biological responses of fish to different flow structures. However, information is still lacking on the relationship between fish behavior and flow structures despite many years of research. Existing field characterization approaches conduct fish behavior studies and flow measurements separately and coupled later using statistical analysis. These types of studies, however, lack a way to determine the specific hydraulic conditions or the specific causes of the biological response. The Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) has been in wide use for fish behavior studies since 1999. The DIDSON can detect acoustic targets at long ranges in dark or turbid dark water. PIV is a state-of-the-art, non-intrusive, whole-flow-field technique, providing instantaneous velocity vector measurements in a whole plane using image cross-correlating techniques. There has been considerable research in the development of image processing techniques associated with PIV. This existing body of knowledge is applicable and can be used to process the images taken by the DIDSON. This study was conducted in a water flume which is 9 m long, 1.2 m wide, and 1.2 m deep when filled with water. A lab jet flow was setup as the benchmark flow to calibrate DIDSON images. The jet nozzle was 6.35 cm in diameter and core jet velocity was 1.52 m/s. Different particles were used to seed the flow. The flow was characterized based on the results using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). A DIDSON was mounted about 5 meters away from the jet nozzle. Consecutive DIDSON images with known time delay were divided into small interrogation spots after background was subtracted. Across-correlation was then performed to estimate the velocity vector for each interrogation spot. The estimated average velocity in the core zone was comparable to that obtained using a LDV. This proof-of-principle project demonstrated the feasibility of extracting water flow velocity information from underwater DIDSON images using image cross-correlation techniques.

Deng, Zhiqun; Mueller, Robert P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Liquid-Water-Droplet Adhesion-Force Measurements on Fresh and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

tilted plate, wettability Abstract Optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures requires the efficient removal of liquid water from the...

215

Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1985 Annual Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, passed in 1980 by Congress, has provided a mechanism which integrates and provides for stable energy planning in the Pacific Northwest. The Act created the Northwest Power Planning Council and charged the Council with developing a comprehensive fish and wildlife program to protect and enhance fish and wildlife impacted by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is one of the many agencies implementing the Council's program. The Hungry Horse Reservoir (HHR) study is part of the Council's program. This study proposes to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance principal gamefish species in Hungry Horse Reservoir. The specific study objectives are: (1) Quantify the amount of reservoir habitat available at different water level elevations; (2) Estimate recruitment of westslope cutthroat trout juveniles from important spawning and nursery areas; (3) Determine the abundance, growth, distribution and use of available habitat by major game species in the reservoir; (4) Determine the abundance and availability of fish food organisms in the reservoir; (5) Quantify the seasonal use of available food items by major fish species; (6) Develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat use by fish and fish food organisms; and (7) Estimate the impact of reservoir operation on major gamefish species.

May, Bruce

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

Rugh, J.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Use of the Inertial Dissipation Method for Calculating Turbulent Fluxes from Low-Level Airborne Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements are currently used for computing turbulence fluxes of heat and momentum. The method generally used is the eddy correlation technique, which requires sophisticated equipments to calculate the absolute velocities of the air. ...

Pierre Durand; Leonardo De Sa; Aimé Druilhet; Frédérique Said

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Mesobeta Profiles to Extrapolate Radar Precipitation Measurements above the Alps to the Ground Level  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Alps, the volume visible by a radar is reduced because of ground clutter, elevated horizon, and earth curvature. This often inhibits a direct view on precipitation close to the ground. When using radar measurements from aloft to estimate ...

Urs Germann; Jürg Joss

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first six months of the fishery investigations in Libby Reservoir were aimed at developing suitable methodology for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, and seasonal distribution and abundance of fish populations. Appropriate methods have been developed for all aspects with minor modification of original proposed methodologies. Purse seining has yet to be tested. Physical-chemical limnologic sampling could be reduced or subcontracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to allow for more intensive sampling of fish food or fish distribution portions of the investigation. Final sample design will be determined during 1983-84. Future directions of the study revolve around two central issues, the potential for flexibility in reservoir operation and determination of how reservoir operation affects fish populations. Simulated maximum drawdown levels during a 40-year period were controlled by power in seven out of eight years. Drawdowns were generally within 10 feet of the flood control rule curve, however. There may be more flexibility with regards to timing of refill and evacuation. This aspect needs to be evaluated further. Production and availability of fish food, suitability of reservoir habitat, and accessibility of off-reservoir spawning and rearing habitat were identified as components of fish ecology which reservoir operation could potentially impact. Two models based on trophic dynamics and habitat suitabilities were suggested as a framework for exploring the relationship of reservoir operation on the fish community.

Shepard, Bradley B.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on   development  of  biomass  supply  systems  as  a  new  Future  biomass  energy  supply:  The  consumptive  water  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

223

Electro-osmotic drag of water in ionomeric membranes. New measurements employing a direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) employing a proton conducting membrane was used to determine the electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water in the ionomeric membrane. Water flux across the membrane in such a cell (operated with 1.0 M aqueous methanol at the anode and dry O{sub 2} at the cathode) is driven by protonic drag exclusively at sufficiently high current densities. This is evidenced experimentally by a linear relationship between cell current and flux of water measured crossing the membrane. Application of the DMFC for such water-drag measurements is significantly simpler experimentally than the approach described by the authors before, particularly so for measurements above room temperature. In measurements the authors performed in the DMFC configuration on Nafion 117 membranes, the water drag coefficient was found to increase with temperature, from 2.0 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} at 15 C to 5.1 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} at 130 C. Implications of these new results on water management in DMFCs are briefly discussed.

Ren, X.; Henderson, W.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A PORTABLE DOSE RATE INSTRUMENT FOR MEASUREMENT OF NATURAL BACK-GROUND RADIATION LEVELS  

SciTech Connect

An instrument of the ionization chamber type which is capable of measuring radiation dose rates down to and below those encountered in natural background was designed and constructed. It consists of a 40-liter ionization chamber coupled to a portable battery-powered electrometer. The chamber polarizing battery is a part of the chamber center electrode assembly and is located inside the chamber. (auth)

Rising, F.L.

1960-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

225

Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake, 1984 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was initiated in the fall of 1981 to delineate the extent of successful shoreline spawning of kokanee salmon in Flathead Lake and determine the impacts of the historic and present operations of Kerr and Hungry Horse dams. An investigation of the quantity and quality of groundwater and other factors affecting kokanee reproductive success in Flathead Lake began in the spring of 1982. A total of 719 redds were counted in 17 shoreline areas of Flathead Lake in1983 compared to 592 in 1981 and 1,029 in 1982. Shoreline spawning contributed three percent to the total kokanee spawning in the Flathead drainage in 1983. Fifty-nine percent of the redds were located above 2883 ft, the operational minimum pool. The majority of those redds were constructed between 2885 and 2889 ft. In areas above minimum pool, intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations were adequate for embryo survival and exhibited a decrease with depth. Limited data indicated apparent velocity may be the key in determining redd distribution. Seventy-five percent of the redds located below minimum pool were constructed in a zone between 2869 and 2883 ft. In individual areas, apparent velocity measurements and intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations were related to redd density. The variation in intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Yellow Bay spawning area was partially explained by lake stage fluctuation. As lake stage declined, groundwater apparent velocity increased which increased intergravel dissolved oxygen concentrations. Mean survival to the eyed stage in the three areas below minimum pool was 43 percent. Prior to exposure by lake drawdown, mean survival to the eyed stage in spawning areas above minimum pool was 87 percent. This indicated habitat most conducive to successful embryo survival was in gravels above 2883 ft. prior to significant exposure. Survival in redds exposed to either extended periods of drawdown or to temperatures less than -10% was significantly reduced to a mean of 20-30 percent. Survival in individual spawning areas exposed by lake drawdown varied from 0 to 65 percent. Groundwater reaction to lake stage explained some of the variation in individual spawning area survival. Three types of groundwater reaction to lake stage were identified. Increased survival in exposed redds resulted from two of the three types. A significant statistical relationship was determined between embryo survival and the number of days exposed by lake drawdown. The operation of Kerr Dam in 1983-84 was characterized by an early decline in lake stage, a longer period near minimum pool and a later and more rapid filling compared to the operation seen in 1981-82 and 1982-83. Based on the survival relationship observed in natural redds exposed by drawdown in 1983-84, complete mortality from exposure would have occurred to all redds constructed above 2884.7 ftor 90 percent of all redds constructed above minimum pool. Emergence traps placed over redds below minimum pool in Gravel, Blue, and Yellow bays captured fry in Gravel and Blue bays only. Duration of fry emergence in1984 was three weeks longer than in 1982 or 1983, but was not related to the date of initial redd construction. Survival to fry emergence in Gravel Bay was calculated to be 28.9 percent of egg deposition or 57,484 fry. Survival to fry emergence above and below the zone of greatest redd density was 33.6 and 245 percent, respectively, indicating a relationship between survival and spawner site selection. After analysis of the historic operation of Kerr Dam, it is believed that the dam has, and is continuing to have, a significant impact on successful shoreline spawning of kokanee salmon in Flathead Lake. Based on the evidence that prolonged exposure of salmonid embryo by dewatering causes significant mortality, the number of days the lake was held below various foot increments (2884 ft to 2888 ft) during the incubation period was investigated. The annual change in the number of days the lake was held below 2885 ft was further investigated because 80-90 percent of the redds cons

Decker-Hess, Janet; Clancey, Patrick (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

A Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements Made by Raman Lidar and Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the calibration characteristics of the NASA/GSFC Raman water vapor lidar during three field experiments that occurred between 1991 and 1993. The lidar water vapor profiles are calibrated using relative humidity profiles ...

R. A. Ferrare; S. H. Melfi; D. N. Whiteman; K. D. Evans; F. J. Schmidlin; D. O'C. Starr

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Temperature Dependence of Evaporation Coefficient for Water Measured in Droplets in Nitrogen under Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaporation and the thermal accommodation coefficients for water in nitrogen were investigated by means of the analysis of evaporation of pure water droplet as a function of temperature. The droplet was levitated in an electrodynamic trap ...

D. Jakubczyk; M. Zientara; K. Kolwas; M. Kolwas

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

A Simple Method to Continuous Measurement of Energy Consumption of Tank Less Gas Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy consumptions of hot water supply in restaurants or residential houses are large amount, guidelines for optimal design are not presented. measurements of energy consumption of tank less gas water heaters very difficult unless gas flow meters were installed. however a gas flow meters is hardly installed for individual heater. in this study, a simple method to estimate gas consumption of such appliances form temperature of exhaust gas and electric current was presented. experiments of japanese major hot water gas heaters were conducted change under conditions of various water flow rate at constant output temperature. the empirical equations, which related gas consumption to exhaust gas temperature and operative current, were obtained for each type of water heaters, each manufacturer and overall heaters. verification of the method was conducted at a commercial building. some thresholds to decide status of operation, such as anti-freeze operation, were set, and sufficient accuracy of around 10 % error was achieved.

Yamaha, M.; Fujita, M.; Miyoshi, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1988-1996 Methods and Data Summary.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Libby Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. This report summarizes the data collected from Libby Reservoir during 1988 through 1996.

Dalbey, Steven Ray

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Modelling and measuring single cell RNA expression levels find considerable transcriptional differences among phenotypically identical cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit bins); y-axis: proportion of genes in each bin. 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Log (base 2) expression ratios Fr eq ue nc yPage 9 of 12 (page number not for citation purposes) should generally apply to expression experiments per... following linear T7-based amplifi- cation [16,25], multiplexed FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) [26] and quantitative PCR [27]. Transcrip- tional bursting has been observed in Escherichia coli, in which protein levels have very little correlation...

Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Gilchrist, Michael J; Livesey, Frederick J

2008-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

231

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and  fermentation.   Biorefineries  consume  water  of  biomass  removal.   Biorefineries  can  also  improve  and  design  of  biorefineries  will   minimize  conflicts  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The  United  States'  Biofuel  Policies   and  Compliance  Water  Impacts  of  Biofuel  Extend  Beyond   Irrigation."  for  assessing  sustainable  biofuel  production."  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Information retrieval system: impacts of water-level changes on uses of federal storage reservoirs of the Columbia River.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A project undertaken to provide the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with information needed to conduct environmental assessments and meet requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act) is described. Access to information on environmental effects would help BPA fulfill its responsibilities to coordinate power generation on the Columbia River system, protect uses of the river system (e.g., irrigation, recreation, navigation), and enhance fish and wildlife production. Staff members at BPA identified the need to compile and index information resources that would help answer environmental impact questions. A computer retrieval system that would provide ready access to the information was envisioned. This project was supported by BPA to provide an initial step toward a compilation of environmental impact information. Scientists at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) identified, gathered, and evaluated information related to environmental effects of water level on uses of five study reservoirs and developed and implemented and environmental data retrieval system, which provides for automated storage and retrieval of annotated citations to published and unpublished information. The data retrieval system is operating on BPA's computer facility and includes the reservoir water-level environmental data. This project was divided into several tasks, some of which were conducted simultaneously to meet project deadlines. The tasks were to identify uses of the five study reservoirs, compile and evaluate reservoir information, develop a data entry and retrieval system, identify and analyze research needs, and document the data retrieval system and train users. Additional details of the project are described in several appendixes.

Fickeisen, D.H.; Cowley, P.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

September 2004 Water Sampling  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

was not identified at many groundwater locations. 18. Was the presence or absence of ice in the cooler documented at every sample location? Yes 19. Were water levels measured...

235

Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor. By means of testing data analysis, it is indicated that several problems such as unsuitable operation schedule of the chiller, low COP, irrational matching of pump and motor, unbalanced conditions of chilled water flow, and low working stability and efficiency ratio of the pump are existent. The paper presents suggestions for improvement with relevance based on the induction and analysis of system fault found in measurements.

Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The design and evaluation of prototype eco-feedback displays for fixture-level water usage data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Few means currently exist for home occupants to learn about their water consumption: e.g., where water use occurs, whether such use is excessive and what steps can be taken to conserve. Emerging water sensing systems, however, can provide detailed ... Keywords: eco-feedback, iterative design, sustainability, water

Jon Froehlich; Leah Findlater; Marilyn Ostergren; Solai Ramanathan; Josh Peterson; Inness Wragg; Eric Larson; Fabia Fu; Mazhengmin Bai; Shwetak Patel; James A. Landay

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Earthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region,Turkey Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(5), 777781 (2003) EGU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Earthquake dates and water level changes in wells in the Eskisehir region,Turkey 777 Hydrology changes in wells in the Eskisehir region, Turkey Galip Yuce and Didem Ugurluoglu Department of Geological common indicators of an anomalous precursor is a change in groundwater level in existing wells. Further

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

Sound power and pressure level measurements in the inlet and outlet of an HRSG duct  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ever-increasing size of cogeneration facilities has mandated the need for noise abatement in the design stage. Many noise projection models are available to the industry for predicting noise levels in an adjacent to new installations. However, the models all require accurate source noise information if valid noise predictions are to be expected. As a consequence of designing one of the world`s largest cogeneration installations involving eight Model W-701 turbine units and their Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs), it became apparent that the attention between the exhaust of the Generators (HRSGs), it became apparent that the attention between the exhaust of the turbine and the outlet of the HRSGs was not well known. Not having this information posed potentially expensive noise abatement modifications during the design and construction phases. In order to verify the adequacy of scaling studies from a W-501 turbine and HRSG to the W-701 system, a comprehensive field test of an existing W-501 installation was conducted. This paper describes the design of an acoustic intensity and sound pressure probe to operate inside the high-temperature ductwork, the access engineering required, data acquisition, and final results concerning noise attenuation across the HRSG.

Jungbauer, D.E.; Unruh, J.F.; Pantermuehl, P.J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rose, S. [Enron Power Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fracturing,  or  “fracking. ”  In  this  process,  fluids  a  coal  bed  through  fracking  requires  between  50,000  gallons  of  water.  Fracking  to  create  a  well  in  a  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Measured electric hot water standby and demand loads from Pacific Northwest homes. End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration began the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) in 1983 to obtain metered hourly end-use consumption data for a large sample of new and existing residential and commercial buildings in the Pacific Northwest. Loads and load shapes from the first 3 years of data fro each of several ELCAP residential studies representing various segments of the housing population have been summarized by Pratt et al. The analysis reported here uses the ELCAP data to investigate in much greater detail the relationship of key occupant and tank characteristics to the consumption of electricity for water heating. The hourly data collected provides opportunities to understand electricity consumption for heating water and to examine assumptions about water heating that are critical to load forecasting and conservation resource assessments. Specific objectives of this analysis are to: (A) determine the current baseline for standby heat losses by determining the standby heat loss of each hot water tank in the sample, (B) examine key assumptions affecting standby heat losses such as hot water temperatures and tank sizes and locations, (C) estimate, where possible, impacts on standby heat losses by conservation measures such as insulating tank wraps, pipe wraps, anticonvection valves or traps, and insulating bottom boards, (D) estimate the EF-factors used by the federal efficiency standards and the nominal R-values of the tanks in the sample, (E) develop estimates of demand for hot water for each home in the sample by subtracting the standby load from the total hot water load, (F) examine the relationship between the ages and number of occupants and the hot water demand, (G) place the standby and demand components of water heating electricity consumption in perspective with the total hot water load and load shape.

Pratt, R.G.; Ross, B.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Characteristics and Evolution of Supercooled Water in Wintertime Storms over the Sierra Nevada: A Summary of Microwave Radiometric Measurements Taken during the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive examination of the evolution and vertical distribution of supercooled liquid water in Sierra Nevada winter storms was completed as part of the Sierra Cooperative Pilot Project. Measurements of supercooled water in 63 storms, which ...

Mark F. Heggli; Robert M. Rauber

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Comparison of Water Vapor Measurements by Airborne Sun Photometer and Diode Laser Hygrometer on the NASA DC-8  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In January–February 2003, the 14-channel NASA Ames airborne tracking sun photometer (AATS) and the NASA Langley/Ames diode laser hygrometer (DLH) were flown on the NASA DC-8 aircraft. The AATS measured column water vapor on the aircraft-to-sun ...

J. M. Livingston; B. Schmid; P. B. Russell; J. R. Podolske; J. Redemann; G. S. Diskin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

A Portable Eddy Covariance System for the Measurement of Ecosystem–Atmosphere Exchange of CO2, Water Vapor, and Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To facilitate the study of flux heterogeneity within a region, the authors have designed and field-tested a portable eddy covariance system to measure exchange of CO2, water vapor, and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. The ...

D. P. Billesbach; M. L. Fischer; M. S. Torn; J. A. Berry

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

In Situ Measurement of the Water Vapor 18O/16O Isotope Ratio for Atmospheric and Ecological Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a system for in situ measurement of H216O/H218O in air based on tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption spectroscopy is described. Laboratory tests showed that its 60-min precision (one standard deviation) was 0.21‰ at a water vapor ...

Xuhui Lee; Steve Sargent; Ronald Smith; Bert Tanner

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Measuring Total Column Water Vapor by Pointing an Infrared Thermometer at the Sky  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 2-yr study affirms that the temperature indicated by an inexpensive ($20–$60) IR thermometer pointed at the cloud-free zenith sky (Tz) is a proxy for total column water vapor [precipitable water (PW)]. From 8 September 2008 to 18 October 2010 Tz was ...

Forrest M. Mims III; Lin Hartung Chambers; David R. Brooks

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Integrated Water Vapor Field and Multiscale Variations over China from GPS Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor plays a key role in the global hydrologic cycle and in climatic change. However, the distribution and variability of water vapor in the troposphere are not understood well—in particular, in China with the complex Tibetan Plateau and ...

Shuanggen Jin; Z. Li; J. Cho

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Antarctic Bottom Water Warming and Freshening: Contributions to Sea Level Rise, Ocean Freshwater Budgets, and Global Heat Gain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Freshening and warming of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) between the 1980s and 2000s are quantified, assessing the relative contributions of water-mass changes and isotherm heave. The analysis uses highly accurate, full-depth, ship-based, ...

Sarah G. Purkey; Gregory C. Johnson

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Implementation of Simple Measures for Savings Water and Energy Consumption in Kuwait Government Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives in details the efforts made by the Public Services Department (PSD) to reduce water and energy consumptions in the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour's (MOSAL) buildings in Kuwait. PSD manages around 125 buildings distributed over 6 governorates. PSD's efforts included the installation of programmable thermostats for A/C units, urging MOSAL's staff to switch off lighting after working hours, replacement of old A/C and lighting systems by newer systems and installation of shutters and solar films for windows, insulation materials for walls and roofs and low-flow water tools for faucets. These efforts reduced the overall water and energy consumptions by 15 and 25%, respectively, in all MOSAL's buildings. Additionally, MOSAL is planning to collaborate with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) to further reduce water and energy consumptions in MOSAL's buildings by optimizing operation strategies and utilizing new water and energy technologies.

Albaharani, H.; Al-Mulla, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Caged Gammarus fossarum (crustacea) as a robust tool for the characterization of bioavailable contamination levels in continental waters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, priority substances Author-produced version of the article published in Water Research, 2013, Vol. 47; Andral Author-produced version of the article published in Water Research, 2013, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp contamination at Author-produced version of the article published in Water Research, 2013, Vol. 47, Issue 2, pp

250

Properly synchronized measurements of droplet sizes for high-pressure intermittent coal-water slurry fuel sprays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation with a laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. A correlation of the SMD with the injection conditions was determined which should show a satisfactory agreement with the measured SMD data. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

Campbell, D.O., Collins, E.D., King, L.J., Knauer, J.B.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high-speed data acquisition system to measure low-level current from self-powered flux detectors in CANDU nuclear reactors

Lawrence, C B

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The effects of applied water at various fractions of measured evapotranspiration on water relations and vegetative growth of Thompson Seedless grapevines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on reproductive growth and water productivity of ThompsonPAPER The effects of applied water at various fractionsevapotranspiration on water relations and vegetative growth

Williams, L. E.; Grimes, D. W.; Phene, C. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Verification of numerical models for hydrothermal plume water through field measurements at TAG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrothermal vents discharge superheated, mineral rich water into our oceans, thereby providing a habitat for exotic chemosynthetic biological communities. Hydrothermal fluids are convected upwards until they cool and reach ...

Wichers, Sacha

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Precipitable Water Estimation from High-Resolution Split Window Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique that uses the spatial variance of image brightness temperature to derive total column Precipitable water is applied to high-resolution multispectral aircraft scanner data for the 19 June 1986 COHMEX day. The technique has several ...

Gary J. Jedlovec

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Water Vapor Measurements by Howard University Raman Lidar during the WAVES 2006 Campaign  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor mixing ratio retrieval using the Howard University Raman lidar is presented with emphasis on three aspects: (i) comparison of the lidar with collocated radiosondes and Raman lidar, (ii) investigation of the relationship between ...

M. Adam; B. B. Demoz; D. D. Venable; E. Joseph; R. Connell; D. N. Whiteman; A. Gambacorta; J. Wei; M. W. Shephard; L. M. Miloshevich; C. D. Barnet; R. L. Herman; J. Fitzgibbon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Formation, Manipulation, and Elasticity Measurement of a Nanometric Column of Water Molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanometer-sized columns of condensed water molecules are created by an atomic-resolution force microscope operated in ambient conditions. Unusual stepwise decrease of the force gradient associated with the thin water bridge in the tip-substrate gap is observed during its stretch, exhibiting regularity in step heights (~0.5 N/m) and plateau lengths (~1 nm). Such "quantized" elasticity is indicative of the atomic-scale stick-slip at the tip-water interface. A thermodynamic-instability-induced rupture of the water meniscus (5-nm long and 2.6-nm wide) is also found. This work opens a high-resolution study of the structure and the interface dynamics of a nanometric aqueous column.

H. Choe; M. -H. Hong; Y. Seo; K. Lee; G. Kim; Y. Cho; J. Ihm; and W. Jhe

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

259

Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Monitoring of Sahelian Aerosol and Atmospheric Water Vapor Content Characteristics from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric measurements in two Sahelian sites in West Africa are presented and analyzed. The measurements were performed using a sun photometer with five bands in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum. This instrument ...

C. A. Faizoun; A. Podaire; G. Dedieu

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Comparisons of Raman Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Water Vapor Profiles with Radiosondes, Hygrometers on the Meteorological Observation Tower, and GPS at Tsukuba, Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The vertical distribution profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio (w) were measured by Raman lidar at the Meteorological Research Institute, Japan, during the period from 2000 to 2004. The measured values were compared with those obtained with ...

Tetsu Sakai; Tomohiro Nagai; Masahisa Nakazato; Takatsugu Matsumura; Narihiro Orikasa; Yoshinori Shoji

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Measurement and Modeling of Algal Biokinetics in Highly EutrophicWaters  

SciTech Connect

Excessive growth of suspended algae in eutrophic surface waters can contribute to the degradation of water quality. The objective of this study was to understand the fundamental processes limiting algal growth in highly nutrient-rich agricultural drainage water. Studies examining algal biokinetics (growth rates, yields, and decay) were conducted in a twenty-eight mile long, hydraulically simple, open channel. Algae biokinetics were found to follow a growth limited model,despite monitoring data demonstrating the presence of nutrients at concentrations far in excess of those expected to be limiting. A mechanistic algal biokinetic model was written to assist in data interpretation. Results from the mechanistic model suggested that at different times, soluble phosphate, minerals, and inorganic carbon could limit growth rates, but that growth yield was most likely limited by zooplankton grazing. The implication of these finding for control of algal growth are discussed.

Stringfellow, William T.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

263

Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1983 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The lower Flathead River Canada goose study was initiated to determine goose population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on Canada goose nest and brood habitat, as a result of releases from Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1983 field season (15 February to 30 September, 1983) as part of an ongoing project. (DT)

Ball, I. Joseph

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Measurement of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor Using Ground-Based Millimeterwave Radiometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as low as 1–2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such dry atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy ...

Paul E. Racette; Ed R. Westwater; Yong Han; Albin J. Gasiewski; Marian Klein; Domenico Cimini; David C. Jones; Will Manning; Edward J. Kim; James R. Wang; Vladimir Leuski; Peter Kiedron

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Eulerian Measurements of the North Atlantic Deep Water Deep Western Boundary Current at 18°S  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An 18-month time series of moored current meter observations near 18°S in the Atlantic is used to study the deep western boundary current (DWBC) of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). This flow is taken to extend from about the shelf break seaward ...

Georges L. Weatherly; Yoo Yin Kim; Evgeny A. Kontar

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Ten Years of Measurements of Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor by MOZAIC. Part I: Climatology, Variability, Transport, and Relation to Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years (1994–2004) of measurements of tropical upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) are investigated over three regions—the tropical Atlantic, tropical Africa, ...

Zhengzhao Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; Herman Smit

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Aircraft Measurements of Icing in Supercooled and Water Droplet/Ice Crystal Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Icing measurements were carried out in Spain during the Precipitation Enhancement Project experiment in 1979, with an instrumented DC-7 aircraft.

M. Bain; J. F. Gayet

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Watering the slums : how a utility and its street-level bureaucrats connected the poor in Bangalore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation is about how urban water utilities behave and what makes them interested in serving the poor. The infrastructure literature tends to treat public service agencies as monolithic entities and to ignore the ...

Connors, Genevieve

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

New line classifications in Ho I based on high-precision hyperfine-structure measurement of low levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doppler-free laser-fluorescence and laser-rf double-resonance studies have been made of the hyperfine structure (hfs) of four strong, previously unclassified visible lines in Ho I; all are shown to connect with low levels. The hfs of the 4f/sup 11/6s/sup 2/ /sup 4/I/sub 11/2,9/2/ levels is measured in detail, allowing evaluation of the dipole (a/sup 01/, a/sup 12/, a/sup 10/) and quadrupole (b/sup 02/,b/sup 11/,b/sup 13/) hfs radial integrals. The results are in close agreement with the ab initio values of Lindgren and Rosen (Case Stud. Atom. Phys. 4, 93--292 (1974). The value found for b/sup 02/ in the 4f/sup 11/6s/sup 2/ configuration is in reasonable agreement with that of Wyart and Camus (Physica 93C, 227-236 (1978)), thereby confirming their finding of a substantial dependence of this parameter on the number of 4f electrons in the core.

Childs, W.J.; Cok, D.R.; Goodman, L.S.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Water Velocity Measurement on an Extended-Length Submerged Bar Screen at John Day Dam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a study of water velocity around an extended-length submerged bar screen (ESBS) at John Day Dam. The study was conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by AScI Corporation and MEVATEC Corporation in March of 2000. This report was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. ESBS are being studied as one method for diverting juvenile migrating fish from the dam's turbine intakes into the gate well and through the juvenile fish bypass channels.

Weiland, Mark A

2001-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

The effects of applied water at various fractions of measured evapotranspiration on reproductive growth and water productivity of Thompson Seedless grapevines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PAPER The eVects of applied water at various fractions ofon reproductive growth and water productivity of ThompsonThe reproductive growth and water productivity (WP b ) of

Williams, Larry E.; Grimes, D. W.; Phene, C. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on the effect of measures operation for oil-water well  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measures operation is an important component of borehole operation, and the operation effects directly affect the increase of oil and gas production. In perspective of the present reality of borehole operation company, the authors analyze the commonly ...

Zhi-Bin Liu; Wei Qing; Xin-Hai Kong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thermodynamics of Icing Cylinder for Measurements of Liquid Water Content in Supercooled Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Rosemount Icing Detector (RICE) has been used extensively over the last three decades for aircraft measurements of the rate of ice riming in supercooled liquid and mixed clouds. Because of difficulties related to calibration and ...

I. P. Mazin; A. V. Korolev; A. Heymsfield; G. A. Isaac; S. G. Cober

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Field Testing of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzers Measuring Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prevalent methods for making high-accuracy tower-based measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio, notably nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIR), require frequent system calibration and sample drying. Wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down ...

Scott J. Richardson; Natasha L. Miles; Kenneth J. Davis; Eric R. Crosson; Chris W. Rella; Arlyn E. Andrews

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

UV Absorption Hygrometer for Fast-Response Airborne Water Vapor Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A next-generation vacuum-ultraviolet (Lyman-alpha) absorption hygrometer for high-rate research aircraft humidity measurements designed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research is described. It retains the high data rate, optical and ...

Stuart P. Beaton; Mike Spowart

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Laboratory Measurements and Parameterizations of Supercooled Water Skin Temperatures and Bulk Properties of Gyrating Hailstones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accretional growth of gyrating hailstones was studied in a pressure- and temperature-controlled icing wind tunnel, starting with oblate ice spheroids, under cloud conditions and at free-fall speeds. Measured parameters were hailstone surface ...

F. García-García; Roland List

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Measurement of the Absorption of Liquid Argon Scintillation Light by Dissolved Nitrogen at the Part-Per-Million Level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume of liquid argon and monitor the light yield from an alpha source. The source is placed at different distances from a cryogenic photomultiplier tube assembly. By comparing the light yield from each position we extract the absorption cross section of nitrogen. We find that nitrogen absorbs argon scintillation light with strength of $(1.51\\pm 0.15)\\times10^{-4} \\;\\mathrm{cm^{-1} ppm^{-1}}$, corresponding to an absorption cross section of $(7.14 \\pm 0.74)\\times10^{-21}\\;\\mathrm{cm^{2} molecule^{-1}}$. We obtain the relationship between absorption length and nitrogen concentration over the 0 to 50 ppm range and discuss the implications for the design and data analysis of future large liquid argon time projection chamber (LArTPC) detectors. Our results indicate that for a current-generation LArTPC, where a concentration of 2 parts per million of nitrogen is expected, the attenuation length due to nitrogen will be $30 \\pm 3$ meters.

B. J. P. Jones; C. S. Chiu; J. M. Conrad; C. M. Ignarra; T. Katori; M. Toups

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

278

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels„The Ohio State University  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing Turbine Endwalls for Designing Turbine Endwalls for Deposition Resistance with 1,400 °C Combustor Exit Temperatures and Syngas Water Vapor Levels-The Ohio State University Background This University Turbine Systems Research (UTSR) project will explore a critical need for innovative turbine endwall designs that could increase turbine durability and mitigate the adverse effects of residue deposition from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). The Ohio State University (OSU), in cooperation with Brigham Young University (BYU),

279

Field monitoring of solar domestic hot water systems based on simple tank temperature measurement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By dynamically measuring solar storage tank temperature(s), the solar storage tank effectively becomes a dynamic calorimeter to measure the energy flows in a solar system. The energy flows include solar loop gain, tank losses, and potentially draw extraction. With one-channel temperature loggers storing data over several days to several weeks, this approach provides low-cost, modest-accuracy performance assessment, useful for determination of savings persistence and diagnostics. Analysis is based upon the tank energy balance, identifying solar gain during the day and tank losses at night. These gains and losses can be compared to expectations based upon prior knowledge, and estimated weather conditions. Diagnostics include controller and pump operation, and excessive nighttime losses. With one point temperature logger, solar gain accuracy is expected to be 20 to 50%, depending on draw frequency and volume. Two examples are shown, a properly operating system and a system with excessive nighttime losses.

Burch, J.; Xie, Yuantao [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Murley, C.S. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Direct measurements of the effects of salt and surfactant on interaction forces between colloidal particles at water-oil interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The forces between colloidal particles at a decane-water interface, in the presence of low concentrations of a monovalent salt (NaCl) and of the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in the aqueous subphase, have been studied using laser tweezers. In the absence of electrolyte and surfactant, particle interactions exhibit a long-range repulsion, yet the variation of the interaction for different particle pairs is found to be considerable. Averaging over several particle pairs was hence found to be necessary to obtain reliable assessment of the effects of salt and surfactant. It has previously been suggested that the repulsion is consistent with electrostatic interactions between a small number of dissociated charges in the oil phase, leading to a decay with distance to the power -4 and an absence of any effect of electrolyte concentration. However, the present work demonstrates that increasing the electrolyte concentration does yield, on average, a reduction of the magnitude of the interaction force with electrolyte concentration. This implies that charges on the water side also contribute significantly to the electrostatic interactions. An increase in the concentration of SDS leads to a similar decrease of the interaction force. Moreover the repulsion at fixed SDS concentrations decreases over longer times. Finally, measurements of three-body interactions provide insight into the anisotropic nature of the interactions. The unique time-dependent and anisotropic interactions between particles at the oil-water interface allow tailoring of the aggregation kinetics and structure of the suspension structure.

B. J. Park; J. P. Pantina; E. Furst; M. Oettel; S. Reynaert; J. Vermant

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Generating soil electrical conductivity maps at regional level by integrating measurements on the ground and remote sensing data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In arid and semi-arid areas, salinization of soil and water resources is one of the major threats to irrigated agriculture. For management purposes, quantifying both the extent and distribution of salinization is important, but accurate data with sufficient ...

P. Brunner; H. T. Li; W. Kinzelbach; W. P. Li

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Phase Transition in High Temperature Hydrogenated Water Using the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) Technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior studies of Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 have shown the existence of a maximum in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high temperature water (e.g., at 360 C), when testing is conducted over a range of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentrations. It has also been shown that this maximum in SCC susceptibility tends to occur in proximity to the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, suggesting that oxide phase stability may affect primary water SCC (PWSCC) resistance. Previous studies have estimated the Ni/NiO transition using thermodynamic calculations based on free energies of formation for NiO and H{sub 2}O. The present study reports experimental measurements of the Ni/NiO transition performed using a contact electric resistance (CER) instrument. The CER is capable of measuring the surface resistance of a metal to determine whether it is oxide-covered or oxide-free at a given condition. The transition aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentration corresponding to the Ni/NiO equilibrium was measured at 288, 316, 338 and 360 C using high purity Ni specimens. The results showed an appreciable deviation (i.e., 7 to 58 scc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O) between the measured Ni/NiO transition and the theoretical Ni/NiO transition previously calculated using free energy data from the Journal of Solution Chemistry. The CER-measured position of the Ni/NiO transition is in good agreement with the maxima in PWSCC susceptibility at 338 and 360 C. The measured Ni/NiO transition provides a reasonable basis for estimating the aqueous H{sub 2} level at which the maximum in SCC susceptibility is likely to be observed at temperatures lower than 338 to 360 C, at which SCC tests are time-consuming to perform. Limited SCC data are presented which are consistent with the observation that SCC susceptibility is maximized near the Ni/NiO transition at 288 C.

S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; M.A. Ando; N.F. Panayotou; C.D. Thompson

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

283

Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat  

SciTech Connect

The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Experimental Determination of Water Vapor Profiles from Ground-Based Radiometer Measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor profiles have been obtained from radiometer measurements at 21.0 and 31.4 GHz and ground values of humidity, temperature and pressure. The inversion technique was based on minimum variance estimation, including constraints derived ...

B. G. Skoog; J. I. H. Askne; G. Elgered

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

On-Site Calibration for High Precision Measurements of Water Vapor Isotope Ratios Using Off-Axis Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable isotope ratio measurements of atmospheric water vapor (?18Ov and ?2Hv) are scarce relative to those in precipitation. This limitation is rapidly changing due to advances in absorption spectroscopy technology and the development of ...

Joshua Rambo; Chun-Ta Lai; James Farlin; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Towards the reanalysis of void coefficients measurements at proteus for high conversion light water reactor lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Conversion Light Water Reactors (HCLWR) allows a better usage of fuel resources thanks to a higher breeding ratio than standard LWR. Their uses together with the current fleet of LWR constitute a fuel cycle thoroughly studied in Japan and the US today. However, one of the issues related to HCLWR is their void reactivity coefficient (VRC), which can be positive. Accurate predictions of void reactivity coefficient in HCLWR conditions and their comparisons with representative experiments are therefore required. In this paper an inter comparison of modern codes and cross-section libraries is performed for a former Benchmark on Void Reactivity Effect in PWRs conducted by the OECD/NEA. It shows an overview of the k-inf values and their associated VRC obtained for infinite lattice calculations with UO{sub 2} and highly enriched MOX fuel cells. The codes MCNPX2.5, TRIPOLI4.4 and CASMO-5 in conjunction with the libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, -VII.0, JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 are used. A non-negligible spread of results for voided conditions is found for the high content MOX fuel. The spread of eigenvalues for the moderated and voided UO{sub 2} fuel are about 200 pcm and 700 pcm, respectively. The standard deviation for the VRCs for the UO{sub 2} fuel is about 0.7% while the one for the MOX fuel is about 13%. This work shows that an appropriate treatment of the unresolved resonance energy range is an important issue for the accurate determination of the void reactivity effect for HCLWR. A comparison to experimental results is needed to resolve the presented discrepancies. (authors)

Hursin, M.; Koeberl, O.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Monitoring Free-Water Evaporation at Automated Weather Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The automation of weather stations necessitates an alternative approach to the traditional manual measure of free-water evaporation made using a class A pan. This study compared commercially available water-level sensing transducers mounted on ...

S. M. McGinn; H. D. J. McLean

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Measurements of actinides in soil, sediments, water and vegetation in Northern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken during 1991 - 1998 to identify the origin of plutonium uranium in northern New Mexico Rio Grande and tributary stream sediments. Isotopic fingerprinting techniques help distinguish radioactivity from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from global fallout or natural sources. The geographic area covered by the study extended from the headwaters of the Rio Grande in southern Colorado to Elephant Butte Reservoir in southern New Mexico. Over 100 samples of stream channel and reservoir bottom sediments were analyzed for the atom ratios of plutonium and uranium isotopes using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Comparison of these ratios against those for fallout or natural sources allowed for quantification of the Laboratory impact. Of the seven major drainages crossing LANL, movement of LANL plutonium into the Rio Grande can only be traced via Los Alamos Canyon. The majority of sampled locations within and adjacent to LANL have little or no input of plutonium from the Laboratory. Samples collected upstream and distant to L A N show an average (+ s.d.) fallout 240Pu/239Pauto m ratio of 0.169 + 0.012, consistent with published worldwide global fallout values. These regional background ratios differ significantly from the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio of 0.015 that is representative of LANL-derived plutonium entering the Rio Grande at Los Alamos Canyon. Mixing calculations of these sources indicate that the largest proportion (60% to 90%) of the plutonium in the Rio Grande sediments is from global atmospheric fallout, with an average of about 25% from the Laboratory. The LANL plutonium is identifiable intermittently along the 35-km reach of the Rio Grande to Cochiti Reservoir. The source of the LANL-derived plutonium in the Rio Grande was traced primarily to pre-1960 discharges of liquid effluents into a canyon bottom at a distance approximately 20 km upstream of the river. Plutonium levels decline exponentially with distance downstream after mixing with cleaner sediments, yet the LANL isotopic fingerprint remains distinct for at least 55 km from the effluent source. Plutonium isotopes in Rio Grande and Pajarito Plateau sediments are not at levels known to adversely affect public health. Activities of 239+240pwui thin this sample set ranged from 0.001- 0.046 pCUg in the Rio Grande to 3.7 pCi/g near the effluent discharge point. Levels in the Rio Grande are usually more than 1000 times. lower than prescribed cleanup standards. Uranium in stream and reservoir sediments is predominantly within natural concentration ranges and is of natural uranium isotopic composition. None of the sediments from the Rio Grande show identifiable Laboratory uranium, using the isotopic ratios. These results suggest that the mass of Laboratory-derived uranium entering the Rio Grande is small relative to the natural load carried with river sediments.

Gallaher, B. M. (Bruce M.); Efurd, D. W. (Deward W.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Accurate dipole polarizabilities for water clusters n=2-12 at the coupled-cluster level of theory and benchmarking of various density functionals.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The static dipole polarizabilities of water clusters (2 {le} N {le} 12) are determined at the coupled-cluster level of theory (CCSD). For the dipole polarizability of the water monomer it was determined that the role of the basis set is more important than that of electron correlation and that the basis set augmentation converges with two sets of diffuse functions. The CCSD results are used to benchmark a variety of density functionals while the performance of several families of basis sets (Dunning, Pople, and Sadlej) in producing accurate values for the polarizabilities was also examined. The Sadlej family of basis sets was found to produce accurate results when compared to the ones obtained with the much larger Dunning basis sets. It was furthermore determined that the PBE0 density functional with the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set produces overall remarkably accurate polarizabilities at a moderate computational cost.

Hammond, J.; Govind, N.; Kowalski, K.; Autschbach, J.; Xantheas, S.; PNNL; Univ. of Buffalo

2009-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

290

The Stabilized Radiometer Platform (STRAP)—An Actively Stabilized Horizontally Level Platform for Improved Aircraft Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of solar and infrared irradiance by instruments rigidly mounted to an aircraft have historically been plagued by the introduction of offsets and fluctuations into the data that are solely due to the pitch and roll movements of the ...

Anthony Bucholtz; Robert T. Bluth; Ben Kelly; Scott Taylor; Keir Batson; Anthony W. Sarto; Tim P. Tooman; Robert F. McCoy Jr.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

AUGUST 2008 VOLUME 46 NUMBER 8 IGRSD2 (ISSN 0196-2892) C-band Radarsat-1 InSAR image shows water-level changes over the swamp forest in southeastern Louisiana between May 22 and June 15, 2003.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-level changes of coastal wetlands over southeastern Louisiana. The InSAR image suggests that water-level changes, and other species combine to place the coastal wetlands of Louisiana among the nation's most productive-level changes over the swamp forest in southeastern Louisiana between May 22 and June 15, 2003. In

292

ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model Data RUC : Rapid Update Cycle Model Data WPDN : Wind Profiler Demo Network...

293

Measurement of highly enriched uranium metal buttons with the high-level neutron coincidence counter operating in the active mode  

SciTech Connect

The portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter is used in the active mode with the addition of AmLi neutron sources to assay the /sup 235/U content of highly enriched metal pieces or buttons. It is concluded that the portable instrument is a practical instrument for assaying uranium metal buttons with masses in the range 1.5 to 4 kg.

Foley, J.E.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Deployment and Evaluation of a System for Ground-Based Measurement of Cloud Liquid Water Turbulent Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct interception of windblown cloud water by forests has been dubbed “occult deposition” because it represents a hydrological input that is hidden from rain gauges. Eddy correlation studies of this phenomenon have estimated cloud water fluxes ...

Andrew S. Kowalski; Peter M. Anthoni; Richard J. Vong; Anthony C. Delany; Gordon D. Maclean

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Drag-disc turbine transducer data evaluation methods for dynamic steam-water mass flow measurements. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical design of a two-phase mass flow rate transducer for a highly corrosive, high temperature (651 K) hot water environment is presented. Performance data for transient steam-water flows are presented. Details of the applications of the device during loss-of-coolant experiments in a pressurized water reactor environment are discussed.

Winsel, C.E.; Fincke, J.R.; Deason, V.A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1984 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report reviews activities of the Hungry Horse Reservoir fisheries study from May 16-October 14, 1983. The first six months of the project were concerned with testing of equipment and developing methodologies for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, seasonal distribution and abundance of fish, migration patterns of westslope cutthroat trout and habitat quality in tributary streams. Suitable methods have been developed for most aspects of the study, but problems remain with determining the vertical distribution of fish. Catch rates of fish in vertical nets were insufficient to determine depth distribution during the fall. If catches remain low during the spring and summer of 1984, experimental netting will be conducted using gang sets of standard gill nets. Purse seining techniques also need to be refined in the spring of 1984, Sample design should be completed in 1984. A major activity for the report period was preparation of a prospectus which reviewed: (1) environmental factors limiting gamefish production; (2) flexibility in reservoir operation; (3) effects of reservoir operation on fish populations and (4) model development. Production of westslope cutthroat trout may be limited by spawning and rearing habitat in tributary streams, reservoir habitat suitability, predation during the first year of reservoir residence and fish food availability. Reservoir operation affects fish production by altering fish habitat and food production through changes in reservoir morphometrics such as surface area, volume, littoral area and shoreline length. The instability in the fish habitat caused by reservoir operation may produce an environment which is suitable for fish which can utilize several habitat types and feed upon a wide variety of food organisms. Analysis of factors governing reservoir operation indicated that some flexibility exists in Hungry Horse operation. Changes in operation to benefit gamefish populations would have little impact on total power production, but would entail shifts in the generation schedule. We hope to develop, in cooperation with the USGS, a model which will predict the effects of reservoir operation on fish production. The model will have a food component based on energy flow through successive trophic levels to fish and a habitat component based on habitat availability and habitat preferences of species by life-stage.

May, Bruce

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Accounting for Surface Wave Distortion of the Marine Wind Profile in Low-Level Ocean Storms Wind Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Marine wind measurements at three heights (3.0,4.5, and 5.0 m) from both moored and drifting buoys during the Ocean Storms Experiment are described. These winds are compared with each other, with winds from ships, from subsurface ambient acoustic ...

W. G. Large; J. Morzel; G. B. Crawford

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Measuring Firm Performance at the Network Level: A Nomology of the Business Impact of Digital Supply Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For decades, information technology has been posited to have a major impact on firm performance. Investigations into this line of inquiry have almost always used constructs related to individual firm performance as their dependent measures, ... Keywords: Business Networks, E-Business, E-Commerce, Firm Performance, Supply Chains, Supply Networks

Detmar Straub; Arun Rai; Richard Klein

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

MEASUREMENTS TAKEN IN SUPPORT OF QUALIFICATION OF PROCESSING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE LOW-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE INTO SALTSTONE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Saltstone Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) immobilizes low-level liquid waste into Saltstone to be disposed of in the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Class Three Landfill. In order to meet the permit conditions and regulatory limits set by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), both the low-level salt solution and Saltstone samples are analyzed quarterly. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) are designed to confirm the salt solution sample from the Tank Farm meets specific radioactive and chemical limits. The toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) is used to confirm that the treatment has immobilized the hazardous constituents of the salt solution. This paper discusses the methods used to characterize the salt solution and final Saltstone samples from 2007-2009.

Reigel, M.; Bibler, N.; Diprete, C.; Cozzi, A.; Staub, A.; Ray, J.

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

300

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interactions. Progress report, October 1990--September 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions is being designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing butterfly valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of all measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up.

Biney, P.O.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Development of a chemical kinetic measurement apparatus and the determination of the reaction rate constants for lithium-lead/water interactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental set-up for accurate measurement of hydrogen generation rate in Lithium-Lead (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}) Steam or water interactions is being designed. The most important features of the design include a pneumatic actuated quick opening and closing butterfly valve used to control the reaction time and the placement of all measuring devices below a water line to minimize leakage of the hydrogen collected. A PC based data acquisition and control system provides remote process sequencing, acquisition and control of all major components of the set-up.

Biney, P.O.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Comments on ''Accuracy of Raman lidar water vapor calibration and its applicability to long-term measurements''  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent publication, Leblanc and McDermid [Appl. Opt., 47, 5592 (2008)]APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.005592 proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios. Scanning of the full telescope aperture with the calibration lamp can circumvent most of these limitations. Based on the work done to date, it seems likely that the use of multiple calibration lamps in different fixed positions in front of the telescope may provide sufficient redundancy for long-term calibration needs. Further full-aperture scanning experiments, performed over an extended period of time, are needed to determine a ''best practice'' for the use of multiple calibration lamps in the hybrid technique.

Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Quantification of Hungry Horse Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries; Methods and Data, 1983-1987 Summary Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hungry Horse Reservoir study is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife plan. The plan is responsible for mitigating damages to the fish and wildlife resources caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The major goal of our study is to quantify seasonal water levels needed to maintain or enhance the reservoir fishery. This study began in May, 1983, and the initial phase will be completed July, 1988. This report summarizes limnological, fish abundance, fish distribution and fish food habits data collected from 1983 to 1988. The effect of reservoir operation upon fish habitat, fish food organisms and fish growth is discussed. 71 refs., 36 figs., 46 tabs.

May, Bruce; Michael, Gary; Wachsmuth, John (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Kalispell, MT)

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

Mackey, Dennis L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Elevated CO2 increases tree-level intrinsic water use efficiency: insights from carbon and oxygen isotope analyses in tree rings across three forest FACE sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated CO2 increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used 13C to assess carbon isotope discrimination ( 13C ci/ca) and changes in WUEi, while direct CO2 effects on stomatal conductance were explored using 18O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO2 increased 13C-derived WUEi on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting WUEi responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modeling elevated CO2 and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

Battipaglia, Giovanna [Second University of Naples; Saurer, Matthias [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, Switzerland; Cherubini, Paulo [WSL Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research; Califapietra, Carlo [University of Tuscia; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect

Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Relative Humidity Effect on the High-Frequency Attenuation of Water Vapor Flux Measured by a Closed-Path Eddy Covariance System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the high-frequency loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes, measured by a closed-path eddy covariance system, were studied, and the related correction factors through the cospectral transfer function method were ...

Ivan Mammarella; Samuli Launiainen; Tiia Gronholm; Petri Keronen; Jukka Pumpanen; Üllar Rannik; Timo Vesala

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Intercomparison of Water Vapor Data Measured with Lidar during IHOP_2002. Part I: Airborne to Ground-Based Lidar Systems and Comparisons with Chilled-Mirror Hygrometer Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water vapor data measured with airborne and ground-based lidar systems during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002), which took place in the Southern Great Plains during 13 May–25 June 2002 were investigated. So far, the data collected ...

Andreas Behrendt; Volker Wulfmeyer; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Thorsten Schaberl; Paolo Di Girolamo; Donato Summa; Christoph Kiemle; Gerhard Ehret; David N. Whiteman; Belay B. Demoz; Edward V. Browell; Syed Ismail; Richard Ferrare; Susan Kooi; Junhong Wang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Retrieval of Vertical Profiles of Liquid Water and Ice Content in Mixed Clouds from Doppler Radar and Microwave Radiometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to retrieve vertical profiles of liquid water content Mw(z), ice water content Mi(z), and ice particle size distribution Ni(D, z), (where D is the ice particle size and z the vertical coordinate) in mixed nonprecipitating clouds ...

Henri Sauvageot

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Measurement of single pi0 production in neutral current neutrino interactions with water by a 1.3 GeV wide band muon neutrino beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutral current single pi0 production induced by neutrinos with a mean energy of 1.3 GeV is measured at a 1000 ton water Cherenkov detector as a near detector of the K2K long baseline neutrino experiment. The cross section for this process relative to the total charged current cross section is measured to be 0.064 +- 0.001 (stat.) +- 0.007 (sys.). The momentum distribution of produced pi0s is measured and is found to be in good agreement with an expectation from the present knowledge of the neutrino cross sections.

K2K Collaboration; S. Nakayama

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

314

Lidar-Based Characterization of the Geometry and Structure of Water Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lidar remote sensing measurements of low-level water clouds in the form of vertical soundings and instantaneous (1 min) azimuth-over-elevation scans are reported. Retrievals are made of the liquid water content and effective droplet diameter at ...

Luc R. Bissonnette; Gilles Roy; Grégoire Tremblay

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Measurement of Water Vapor Flux Profiles in the Convective Boundary Layer with Lidar and Radar-RASS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A remote-sensing method to retrieve vertical profiles of water vapor flux in the convective boundary layer by using a differential absorption lidar and a radar-radio acoustic sounding system is described. The system's height range presently ...

Christoph Senff; Jens Bösenberg; Gerhard Peters

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Intercomparison of Water Vapor Data Measured with Lidar during IHOP_2002. Part II: Airborne-to-Airborne Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dataset of the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) gives the first opportunity for direct intercomparisons of airborne water vapor lidar systems and allows very important conclusions to be drawn for future field campaigns. Three airborne ...

Andreas Behrendt; Volker Wulfmeyer; Thorsten Schaberl; Hans-Stefan Bauer; Christoph Kiemle; Gerhard Ehret; Cyrille Flamant; Susan Kooi; Syed Ismail; Richard Ferrare; Edward V. Browell; David N. Whiteman

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

Commentary by Jerry S. Szymanski and C.B. Archambeau regarding ``Spring deposits and late pleistocene ground-water levels in southern Nevada``, by J. Quade. Special report number 16, Contract number 94/96.0003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a critical analysis of a paper presented at the 5th Annual International Conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management. The thrust of this paper was to determine the historic level of ground water in the vicinity of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. This author reviews conclusions reached by the former author and analyzes reference materials used to obtain his assessment of paleo-ground water levels. This author disagrees with the conclusions and analytical methods used. This author presents information relative to water table fluctuations as a result of intrusion of geothermal fluids and makes claim that such intrusion would jeopardize the integrity of the repository by flooding.

Szymanski, J.S.; Archambeau, C.B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low level TOC measurement method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the determination of total organic carbon in an aqueous sample by trapping the organic matter on a sorbent which is carbon free and analyzing the sorbent by combustion and determination of total CO.sub.2 by IR.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Wind Tunnel Measurements of the Response of Hot-Wire Liquid Water Content Instruments to Large Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet wind tunnel tests were performed on more than 23 cloud liquid water content (LWC) probes and drop spectrometers at the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, with a main objective to characterize their response to large-droplet conditions. As a part of ...

J. W. Strapp; J. Oldenburg; R. Ide; L. Lilie; S. Bacic; Z. Vukovic; M. Oleskiw; D. Miller; E. Emery; G. Leone

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Internal sources of heat are due to convection from flow of the heat transfer fluid through the pipes. Heat (material, diameter, spacing, and burial depth), (4) system flow rates, (5) heat transfer fluid properties · heat transfer fluid = 42% propylene glycol @ a flow rate of 350 gpm · heat pump model = Water Furnace

322

Transparent window size study of the water beam assisted form error in-process optical measurement method.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xxxii, 242 p. : ill. ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis MECH 2009 ZhangY In precision machining, it is desirable to measure workpiece form… (more)

Zhang, Yunfei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF RADIONUCLIDE ACTIVITIES IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE FOR ACCEPTANCE OF DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY GLASS IN A FEDERAL REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of the analyses of High Level Waste (HLW) sludge slurry samples and of the calculations necessary to decay the radionuclides to meet the reporting requirement in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) [1]. The concentrations of 45 radionuclides were measured. The results of these analyses provide input for radioactive decay calculations used to project the radionuclide inventory at the specified index years, 2015 and 3115. This information is necessary to complete the Production Records at Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so that the final glass product resulting from Macrobatch 5 (MB5) can eventually be submitted to a Federal Repository. Five of the necessary input radionuclides for the decay calculations could not be measured directly due to their low concentrations and/or analytical interferences. These isotopes are Nb-93m, Pd-107, Cd-113m, Cs-135, and Cm-248. Methods for calculating these species from concentrations of appropriate other radionuclides will be discussed. Also the average age of the MB5 HLW had to be calculated from decay of Sr-90 in order to predict the initial concentration of Nb-93m. As a result of the measurements and calculations, thirty-one WAPS reportable radioactive isotopes were identified for MB5. The total activity of MB5 sludge solids will decrease from 1.6E+04 {micro}Ci (1 {micro}Ci = 3.7E+04 Bq) per gram of total solids in 2008 to 2.3E+01 {micro}Ci per gram of total solids in 3115, a decrease of approximately 700 fold. Finally, evidence will be given for the low observed concentrations of the radionuclides Tc-99, I-129, and Sm-151 in the HLW sludges. These radionuclides were reduced in the MB5 sludge slurry to a fraction of their expected production levels due to SRS processing conditions.

Bannochie, C; David Diprete, D; Ned Bibler, N

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

The effects of sulfate fertilization and high levels of sulfate and salt drinking water on the growth and mineral status of ruminants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of sulfate (SO?˛?) in forage and drinking water on the performance and mineral status of cattle and sheep. In Experiment 1, forty-eight late gestation crossbred cows were grazed on twelve 10-acre oat pastures for 112 days (Jan 6 to Apr 28) to determine the effects of oat forage fertilized with ammonium sulfate ((NH?)?SO?) on serum Ca, Mg and P status of cows. Pastures were assigned to either an (NH?)?SO? (400 kg/ha) or ammonium nitrate (NH?NO?, 247 kg\\ha) fertilizer treatment. The forage sulfur (S) concentrations were higher (P water on the performance and mineral status of growing cattle. Twelve crossbred growing cattle were grazed on twelve 1.4-hectare native pastures for 56 d (from Jun 16 to Aug 11). The cattle were given a single source of water: tap water (n=4), SO?˛? water (1139 mg SO?˛?/L, n=4) and SO?˛?/NaCl water (1546mg SO?˛?/L and 3489 mg Na/L, n=4). The average daily gain (ADG) of cattle provided with tap water and SO?˛? water was greater than that of cattle drinking SO?˛?/NaCl water (Pwater sources (P>.05). There was no difference in serum Ca, P, Mg, K and Cu of the cattle due to source of water (P> .05). ne water intake of cattle with different treatments was associated with climatic factors differently. In Experiment 3, nine growing wethers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in the metallic laboratory to determine mineral balance in sheep provided with tap water, SO?˛? watwe or SO?˛?/NaCl water. The periods of the feeding and metabolic trial were 28 d and 12 d, respectively. There were no significant differences for ADG and feed efficiency of animals provided the treatments (P>.05). There was no difference for serum Na, Ca, P, Mg and Zn in sheep among the treatments (P> .05). But serum Cu of the sheep drinking tap water was Feater than that of the sheep drinking SO?˛?/NaCl water (Pwater and SO?˛?/NaCl water did not affect the OM intake, digestibility of OM and NDF, and ADG of sheep during the trial (P>.05).

Xie, Kehe

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1985-1986 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1985 field season. Goose use patterns were similar to those observed in 1984. From late summer through fall use of the river was low and use of the reservoirs was high. Use of the river increased as reservoirs began to freeze and by mid-December most geese were using the river. The lower half of the river froze in late January and most geese apparently left the valley. Use of the river increased during the nesting period and remained relatively stable through the brooding period. The indicated pairs/nest ratio was 1.2 for the entire river and 1.5 for the southern half of the river. Fifty percent (26 of 52) of the tree nest structures on the river were used by geese in 1985. Overall nesting success of geese using nest structures was 84%. Seventy-one nests were located on the river in 1985. The total number of nests found on the nesting islands of Flathead Lake was 166 during 1985. A riparian community type classification is currently being developed and will be used next year to map the study area. Nest and random sites as well as general island characteristics were investigated and comparisons were made between areas used and areas available to nesting geese. Activity budget analyses indicated that the two primary activities of goslings were feeding and resting while alert and feeding were the two primary activities of adults. Herbaceous habitats were used by broods more than any other type and were important for all activities.

Matthews, William; Claar, James; Ball, I. Joseph; Gregory, Shari; Mackey, Dennis

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Synchronized droplet size measurements of intermittent coal-water slurry diesel sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiments have been completed to characterize atomization of intermittent coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel fuel engine. A synchronized laser diffraction particle analyzer technique was used to measure the spray tip Sauter mean diameters (SMD). The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model was assumed for the droplet distribution. The measurements were made at the spray tip where laser obscuration was low and the chance of multiscattering bias was minimal. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading by mass containing 5gm volume mean diameter coal particles was used. Injection pressures were ranged from 28 to II 0 MPa. Three different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mm, four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm downstream of the nozzle tip were studied. Measurements were made for both pressurized (2.07 MPa, 300 psig) and unpressurized (ambient, 0 gage) chamber conditions. The spray tip SMD showed an increase with chamber gas density, and with axial measurement location, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. The effect of nozzle orifice diameter on spray tip SMDs of completely developed sprays for such high pressure injections was found to be negligible. A regression equation for CWS-50 spray tip SMDs was determined as SMD = 0.279-P(inj).?702 r(amb) 2?85 x .521 where Pinj is the injection pressure in Mpa, r(amb) is the ambient density in kg/m3, and x is the axial measurement location downstream of the nozzle tip in mm. The equation shows very good agreement with the measured SMD data by having a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The results were also compared with previous SMD regression equations that were originally obtained for diesel fuel sprays.

Terracina, Dwayne Paul

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

High sensitivity measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in water with an improved hydrous titanium oxide technique at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existing hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO) technique for the measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra in the water at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has been changed to make it faster and less sensitive to trace impurities in the HTiO eluate. Using HTiO-loaded filters followed by cation exchange adsorption and HTiO co-precipitation, Ra isotopes from 200-450 tonnes of heavy water can be extracted and concentrated into a single sample of a few millilitres with a total chemical efficiency of 50%. Combined with beta-alpha coincidence counting, this method is capable of measuring 2.0x10^3 uBq/kg of 224Ra and 3.7x10^3 uBq/kg of 226Ra from the 232Th and 238U decay chains, respectively, for a 275 tonne D2O assay, which are equivalent to 5x10^16 g Th/g and 3x10^16 g U/g in heavy water.

B. Aharmim; B. T. Cleveland; X. Dai; G. Doucas; J. Farine; H. Fergani; R. Ford; R. L. Hahn; E. D. Hallman; N. A. Jelley; R. Lange; S. Majerus; C. Mifflin; A. J. Noble; H. M. O'Keeffe; R. Rodriguez-Jimenez; D. Sinclair; M. Yeh

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2008.09.007 Measurement of the pure dissolution rate constant of a mineral in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — We present here a methodology, using holographic interferometry, enabling to measure the pure surface reaction rate constant of the dissolution of a mineral in water, unambiguously free from the influence of mass transport. We use that technique to access to this value for gypsum and we demonstrate that it was never measured before but could be deduced a posteriori from the literature results if hydrodynamics is taken into account with accuracy. It is found to be much smaller than expected. This method enables to provide reliable rate constants for the test of dissolution models and the interpretation of in situ measurements, and gives clues to explain the inconsistency between dissolution rates of calcite and aragonite, for instance, in the literature. 1

Jean Colombani

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Measurement and Calculation of Electrochemical Potentials in Hydrogenated High Temperature Water, including an Evaluation of the Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia/Iron-Iron Oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) Probe as Reference Electrode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The importance of knowing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP, also referred to as E{sub con}) of nickel-base alloys in hydrogenated water is related to the need to understand the effects of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen concentration ([H{sub 2}]) on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Also, the use of a reference electrode (RE) can improve test quality by heightening the ability to detect instances of out-of-specification or unexpected chemistry. Three methods are used to measure and calculate the ECP of nickel-based alloys in hydrogenated water containing {approx} 1 to 150 scc/kg H{sub 2} (0.1 to 13.6 ppm H{sub 2}) at 260 to 360 C. The three methods are referred to as the specimen/component method, the platinum (Pt) method, and the yttria-stabilized zirconia/iron-iron oxide (YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) RE method. The specimen/component method relies upon the assumption that the specimen or component behaves as a hydrogen electrode, and its E{sub corr} is calculated using the Nernst equation. The present work shows that this method is valid for aqueous H{sub 2} levels {ge} {approx} 5 to 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The Pt method uses a voltage measurement between the specimen or component and a Pt electrode, with the Pt assumed to behave as a hydrogen electrode; this method is valid as long as the aqueous H{sub 2}level is known. The YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which represents a relatively new approach for measuring E{sub corr} in this environment, can be used even if the aqueous H{sub 2} level is unknown. The electrochemical performance of the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} probe supports its viability as a RE for use in high temperature hydrogenated water. Recent design modifications incorporating a teflon sealant have improved the durability of this RE (however, some of the REs do still fail prematurely due to water in-leakage). The Pt method is judged to represent the best overall approach, though there are cases where the other methods are superior. For example, the specimen/component method provides the simplest approach for calculating the E{sub corr} of plant components, and the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} RE method provides the best approach if the H{sub 2} level is unknown, or in off-nominal chemistry conditions. The present paper describes the use of these methods to determine the ECP of a specimen or component versus the ECP of the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, which is important since prior work has shown that this parameter (ECP-ECP{sub Ni/NiO}) can be used to assess aqueous H{sub 2} effects on PWSCC.

Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton; Mark A. Ando

2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

330

Statistical Parameters of the Air Turbulent Boundary Layer over Steep Water Waves Measured by the PIV Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A turbulent airflow with a centerline velocity of 4 m s?1 above 2.5-Hz mechanically generated gravity waves of different amplitudes has been studied in experiments using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Direct measurements of the ...

Yu. Troitskaya; D. Sergeev; O. Ermakova; G. Balandina

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Optical Depth Measurements of Aerosol Cloud, and Water Vapor Using Sun Photometers during FIRE Cirrus IFO II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optical depths in the visible to infrared spectral region were obtained from solar extinction measurements with two sun photometers during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment Phase II Cirrus Intensive Field Observation in Kansas.

Masataka Shiobara; James D. Spinhirne; Akihiro Uchiyama; Shoji Asano

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Review of water, lighting, and cooling energy efficiency measures for low-income homes located in warm climates  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Weatherization Assistance Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has performed a literature review of weatherization measures applicable for homes located in warm climate regions. Sources for this information included: (1) documented engineering estimates, (2) vendor information, (3) reported performance from research and field tests, and (4) direct discussions with researchers, vendors, and field reporters. Estimated savings are extrapolated from reported energy savings and applied to the end-use energy consumption for low-income homes reported by the Energy Information Administration. Additionally, installation costs, savings-to-investment ratios, and parameters indicating performance sensitivity to issues such as occupancy, construction, client education, and maintenance requirements are presented. The report is comprised of two sections: (1) an overview of measure performance, and (2) an appendix. The overview of measures is in a tabular format, which allows for quick reference. More detailed discussions and references for each measure are presented in the Appendix and it is highly recommended that these be reviewed prior to measure selection.

Martin, M.A.; Gettings, M.B.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Evidence of Atmospheric Contamination on the Measurement of the Spectral Response of the GMS-5 Water Vapor Channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GMS-5 geostationary satellite carries a channel centered at 6.7 ?m for the measurement of upper-tropospheric humidity. This channel’s spectral response shows structures that are similar to those shown by the atmospheric transmission. This ...

Francois-Marie Bréon; Darren Jackson; John Bates

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Portable instrument for inspecting irradiated nuclear-fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond by measurement of induced Cerenkov radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable instrument for measuring induced Cerenkov radiation associated with irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies in a water-filled storage pond is disclosed. The instrument includes a photomultiplier tube and an image intensifier which are operable in parallel and simultaneously by means of a field lens assembly and an associated beam splitter. The image intensifier permits an operator to aim and focus the apparatus on a submerged fuel assembly. Once the instrument is aimed and focused, an illumination reading can be obtained with the photomultiplier tube. The instrument includes a lens cap with a carbon-14/phosphor light source for calibrating the apparatus in the field.

Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E.J.; Holt, D.M.; Stump, C.J. Jr.

1982-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

335

Measurements of the summer surface heat budget of the Northeast Water Polynya. USCGC Polar Sea cruise, July 15--August 15, 1992  

SciTech Connect

A research cruise of the USCGC Polar Sea to the Northeast Water Polynya, off the eastern coast of Greenland (77--81{degree}N, 6--17{degree}W), was made from mid-July to mid-August of 1992 (NEWP `92) as the first field component of the multi-disciplinary study of a high-Arctic polynya funded by the NSF as part of the Arctic Systems Science program. Instruments to measure the components of the surface heat budget of the polynya were installed on a foremast at the bow of the ship. This report presents the measured variables and derived surface fluxes in graphical and tabulated form. Profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity were taken using radiosondes, and these are also presented.

Minnett, P.J.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Measurement and modeling of energetic material mass transfer to soil pore water :project CP-1227 FY03 annual technical report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Military test and training ranges operate with live fire engagements to provide realism important to the maintenance of key tactical skills. Ordnance detonations during these operations typically produce minute residues of parent explosive chemical compounds. Occasional low order detonations also disperse solid phase energetic material onto the surface soil. These detonation remnants are implicated in chemical contamination impacts to groundwater on a limited set of ranges where environmental characterization projects have occurred. Key questions arise regarding how these residues and the environmental conditions (e.g., weather and geostratigraphy) contribute to groundwater pollution impacts. This report documents interim results of experimental work evaluating mass transfer processes from solid phase energetics to soil pore water. The experimental work is used as a basis to formulate a mass transfer numerical model, which has been incorporated into the porous media simulation code T2TNT. This report documents the results of the Phase III experimental effort, which evaluated the impacts of surface deposits versus buried deposits, energetic material particle size, and low order detonation debris. Next year, the energetic material mass transfer model will be refined and a 2-d screening model will be developed for initial site-specific applications. A technology development roadmap was created to show how specific R&D efforts are linked to technology and products for key customers.

Phelan, James M.; Barnett, James L.; Kerr, Dayle R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal zone management  

SciTech Connect

Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century by a mechanism known as the greenhouse effect. Such a warming could cause sea level to rise two to five feet by expanding ocean water, melting mountain glaciers, and perhaps eventually causing polar glaciers to melt and slide into the oceans. A rise in sea level of even three feet could cause substantial erosion of beaches and coastal wetlands, increased flooding, and intrusion of salt water into rivers, bays, and aquifer. Fortunately, many of the adverse consequences can be avoided by taking timely measures in anticipation of sea level rise. Nevertheless, many coastal zone managers are reluctant to take these measures until the prospect of sea level rise becomes more certain. This article examines the implications of future sea level rise and identifies anticipatory measures that may be appropriate today in spite of current uncertainties. 46 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Titus, J.G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Measurement of Vertical Liquid Water Path by Means of an Airborne Radiometer and the Shortwave Albedo of Marine Low-Level Clouds during WENPEX in Japan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Special observations were made over the southwest island area of the East China Sea from 12 to 27 January 1991 as part of the World Climate Research Program in Japan (WENPEX?Western North Pacific Cloud?Radiation Experiment). Two aircraft were ...

Y. Fujiyoshi; Y. Ishizaka; T. Takeda; T. Hayasaka; M. Tanaka

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Optimal geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the global minima of water clusters (H2O)n, n=2-6, and several hexamer local minima at the CCSD(T) level of theory  

SciTech Connect

We report the first optimum geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies for the ring pentamer and several water hexamer (prism, cage, cyclic and two book) at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. All five hexamer isomer minima previously reported by MP2 are also minima on the CCSD(T) potential energy surface (PES). In addition, all CCSD(T) minimum energy structures for the n=2-6 cluster isomers are quite close to the ones previously obtained by MP2 on the respective PESs, as confirmed by a modified Procrustes analysis that quantifies the difference between any two cluster geometries. The CCSD(T) results confirm the cooperative effect of the homodromic ring networks (systematic contraction of the nearest-neighbor (nn) intermolecular separations with cluster size) previously reported by MP2, albeit with O-O distances shorter by ~0.02 Ĺ, indicating that MP2 overcorrects this effect. The harmonic frequencies at the minimum geometries were obtained by the double differentiation of the CCSD(T) energy using an efficient scheme based on internal coordinates that reduces the number of required single point energy evaluations by ~15% when compared to the corresponding double differentiation using Cartesian coordinates. Negligible differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are found for the librational modes, while uniform increases of ~15 and ~25 cm-1 are observed for the bending and “free” OH harmonic frequencies. The largest differences between MP2 and CCSD(T) are observed for the harmonic hydrogen bonded frequencies. The CCSD(T) red shifts from the monomer frequencies (??) are smaller than the MP2 ones, due to the fact that the former produces shorter elongations (?R) of the respective hydrogen bonded OH lengths from the monomer value with respect to the latter. Both the MP2 and CCSD(T) results for the hydrogen bonded frequencies were found to closely follow the relation - ?? = s ? ?R, with a rate of s = 20.3 cm-1 / 0.001 Ĺ. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies, when corrected using the MP2 anharmonicities obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2), produce anharmonicCCSD(T) estimates that are within < 60 cm-1 from the measured infrared (IR) active bands of the n=2-6 clusters and furthermore trace the observed red shifts with respect to the monomer (??) quite accurately. The energetic order between the various hexamer isomers on the PES (prism has the lowest energy) previously reported at MP2 was found to be preserved at the CCSD(T) level, whereas the inclusion of anharmonic corrections further stabilizes the cage among the hexamer isomers.

Miliordos, Evangelos; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2013-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

340

Reco level Smin and subsystem Smin: improved global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in MET events at hadron colliders  

SciTech Connect

The variable {radical}s{sub min} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {radical}s{sub min}, however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {radical}s{sub min} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {radical}s{sub min} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the {radical}s{sub min}{sup (reco)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {radical}s{sub min} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem {radical}s{sub min}{sup (sub)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {radical}s{sub min} to other popular inclusive variables such as H{sub T}, M{sub Tgen} and M{sub TTgen}. We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

Konar, Partha; /Florida U.; Kong, Kyoungchul; /SLAC; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Drinking Water Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water, and the potential health effects of each contaminant regulated. People who use water from private sources such as wells can also use these standards as a guide in checking whether their water is safe.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

342

Measured Performance and Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pumps for Space Conditioning and for Water Heating in a Low-Energy Test House Operated under Simulated Occupancy Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present measured performance and efficiency metrics of Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) for space conditioning and for water heating connected to a horizontal ground heat exchanger (GHX) loop. The units were installed in a 345m2 (3700ft2) high-efficiency test house built with structural insulated panels (SIPs), operated under simulated occupancy conditions, and located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (USA) in US Climate Zone 4 . The paper describes distinctive features of the building envelope, ground loop, and equipment, and provides detailed monthly performance of the GSHP system. Space conditioning needs of the house were completely satisfied by a nominal 2-ton (7.0 kW) water-to-air GSHP (WA-GSHP) unit with almost no auxiliary heat usage. Recommendations for further improvement through engineering design changes are identified. The comprehensive set of data and analyses demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of GSHPs in residential applications and their potential to help achieve source energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets set under the IECC 2012 Standard.

Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to Global Heat and Sea Level Rise Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abyssal global and deep Southern Ocean temperature trends are quantified between the 1990s and 2000s to assess the role of recent warming of these regions in global heat and sea level budgets. The authors 1) compute warming rates with ...

Sarah G. Purkey; Gregory C. Johnson

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

IEP - Water-Energy Interface: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers Several legislative acts are in place that could potentially impact water quality requirements and water use for fossil energy production as well as electricity generation. These acts regulate pollutant discharge and water intake directly and indirectly. Under regulations established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), these Acts serve to maintain and improve the Nation's water resources for uses including but not limited to agricultural, industrial, nutritional, and recreational purposes. The Clean Water Act - The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act, provides for the regulation of discharges to the nation's surface waters. To address pollution, the act specifies that the discharge of any pollutant by any person is unlawful except when in compliance with applicable permitting requirements. Initial emphasis was placed on "point source" pollutant discharge, but 1987 amendments authorized measures to address "non-point source" discharges, including stormwater runoff from industrial facilities. Permits are issued under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), which designates the highest level of water pollution or lowest acceptable standards for water discharges. NPDES permits are typically administered by the individual states. With EPA approval, the states may implement standards more stringent than federal water quality standards, but may not be less stringent. Certain sections of the Act are particularly applicable to water issues related to power generation. These include:

345

Measuring circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic gain control circuit functions to adjust the magnitude of an input signal supplied to a measuring circuit to a level within the dynamic range of the measuring circuit while a log-ratio circuit adjusts the magnitude of the output signal from the measuring circuit to the level of the input signal and optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio performance of the measuring circuit.

Sun, Shan C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Chaprnka, Anthony G. (Cockeysville, MD)

1977-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

346

Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 23, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an ... managing water resources for hydroelectric power generation.

348

ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instruments ETA : Eta Model Runs ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model...

349

VHF-ST Radar Observations of an Upper-Level Front Using Vertical and Oblique-Beam C2N Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoscale aspects of an upper-level front that moved over Brittany (France) during the Mesoscale Frontal Dynamical Project 1987 experiment are investigated using very high frequency stratospheric–tropospheric (VHF-ST) radar data and European ...

J-L. Caccia; J-P. Cammas

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Handbook of Water Use and Conservation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

more of the myriad water conservation measures described inthe 21st century, water conservation is looking far moreup her claim that water conservation represents "The Great

Cohen, Russell A.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Feature - WATER Tool Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Argonne National Laboratory recently released an open access online tool called WATER (Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources), which quantifies water footprint of fuel production stages from feedstock production to conversion process for biofuel with county, state, and regional level spatial resolution. WATER provides analysis on water consumption and its impact on water quality. It contains biofuel pathways for corn grain ethanol, soybean biodiesel, and cellulosic ethanol produced from corn stover and wheat straw. Perennial grass (Switchgrass and Miscanthus) and forest wood residue-based biofuel pathways are currently under development. The WATER tool enables users to conduct pathway comparison, scenario development, and regional specific feedstock analysis in supporting of biofuel industry development and planning. It is available at http://water.es.anl.gov/.

352

Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Decreasing aqueous mercury concentrations to achieve safe levels in fish: examining the water-fish relationship in two point-source contaminated streams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) and White Oak Creek (WOC) are two mercury-contaminated streams located on the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. East Fork Poplar Creek is the larger and more contaminated of the two, with average aqueous mercury (Hg) concentrations exceeding those in reference streams by several hundred-fold. Remedial actions over the past 20 years have decreased aqueous Hg concentrations in EFPC by 85 %. Fish fillet concentrations, however, have not responded to this decrease in aqueous Hg and remain above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency s ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) of 0.3 mg/kg. The lack of correlation between aqueous and fish tissue Hg concentrations in this creek has led to questions regarding the usefulness of target aqueous Hg concentrations and strategies for future remediation efforts. White Oak Creek has a similar contamination history but aqueous Hg concentrations in WOC are an order of magnitude lower than in EFPC. Despite the lower aqueous Hg concentrations, fish fillet concentrations in WOC have also been above the AWQC, making the most recent aqueous Hg target of 200 ng/L in EFPC seem unlikely to result in an effective decrease in fillet Hg concentrations. Recent monitoring efforts in WOC, however, suggest an aqueous total Hg threshold above which Hg bioaccumulation in fish may not respond. This new information could be useful in guiding remedial actions in EFPC and in other point-source contaminated streams.

Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Southworth, George R [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Valentine, Charles S [ORNL; Gregory, Scott M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Water Resources. Water Conservation in California. DWRUse ENERGY CONSERVATION Water Conservation Pump Efficienciescussion of load Water Conservation some of these measures in

Krieg, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Fermilab | Tritium at Fermilab | Tritium in Surface Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Water Surface Water Fermilab map Fermilab has conducted an environmental monitoring program on site for roughly 40 years. In November of 2005, for the first time, we detected low levels of tritium in Indian Creek, one of three creeks that travel through the Fermilab site. Low but measurable levels of tritium continue to be detected in Indian Creek. All tritium levels found on site are well below any federal health and environmental standards. The Department of Energy standard for surface water is 1,900 picocuries per milliliter, and our readings to date have remained in the single digits. The levels of tritium detected in Indian Creek are extremely low compared to what is safe for a lifetime of continuous exposure to tritium in surface water. The low levels of tritium in Indian Creek stem from particle beams produced

356

Mapping of a reactor coolant effluent ground disposal test using an infrared imaging system and ground water potential and temperature measurements  

SciTech Connect

The concept of reactor effluent disposal to ground in infiltration trenches was proposed by Nelson and Alkire in 1963. At that time the available data indicated that radionuclide infiltration rates were probably adequate for trench disposal and that decontamination factors of 10 to 100 should be obtainable. Field tests at 100-F Area 1965 and 100-D Area 1967 have indicated that the infiltration rates are adequate and DF`s of from 2.5 for {sup 51}Cr to 7276 for {sup 65}Zn were obtained during the 100-D test. The purpose of this report is to present the results and interpretations of data from studies conducted over a reactor coolant effluent disposal test site. Data presented in this report were collected over the 100-C Area test in which a significant percentage of the reactor coolant effluent was disposed to an existing trench for a five-month period. Results of infrared thermal surveys and ground water temperature and potential measurements collected during this test are presented.

Eliason, J.R.

1969-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change. Volume II, Part 8. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on agricultural growing seasons and crop water use efficiencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The researchable areas addressed relate to the possible impacts of climate change on agricultural growing seasons and crop adaptation responses on a global basis. The research activities proposed are divided into the following two main areas of investigation: anticipated climate change impacts on the physical environmental characteristics of the agricultural growing seasons and, the most probable food crop responses to the possible changes in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels in plant environments. The main physical environmental impacts considered are the changes in temperature, or more directly, thermal energy levels and the growing season evapotranspiration-precipitation balances. The resulting food crop, commercial forest and rangeland species response impacts addressed relate to potential geographical shifts in agricultural growing seasons as determined by the length in days of the frost free period, thermal energy changes and water balance changes. In addition, the interaction of possible changes in plant water use efficiencies during the growing season in relationship to changing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations, is also considered under the scenario of global warming due to increases in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration. These proposed research investigations are followed by adaptive response evaluations.

Newman, J. E.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Field, laboratory, and modeling studies of water infiltration and runoff in subfreezing snow on regional scales to estimate future greenhouse-induced changes in sea-level. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The current DOE-supported research program (Reduce Uncertainty in Future Sea-Level Change Due to Ice Wastage) addressed the question of how the refreezing of meltwater in cold snow affects sea-level changes in a future changing climate. The continuation of that research, proposed here, takes an additional new approach by focusing on processes which can be defined and characterized by measurements on regional scales. This new emphasis is intended to be directly applicable to a large-scale analysis from which runoff forecasts (and consequent sea level change) from the entire arctic region can be made. The research proposed here addresses the problem of forecasting future sea-level change due to greenhouse-induced changes in runoff from polar glaciers and ice caps. The objectives of this work are (1) to observe in the field the processes of infiltration and refreezing which lead to the formation of impermeable firn layers; (2) to reproduce these observed processes in the laboratory to confirm and further quantify their understanding; (3) to develop and calibrate a regional scale numerical model which can simulate these processes, based on measured parameters and driven by boundary conditions determined by climate; and (4) to apply this model to predict the development of impermeable firn (and consequent runoff and discharge to the ocean) in response to predicted future climate change.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes "C, 'IN, and 110. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1 988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly overpredict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of hoizontal dispersion.

Hoak, William Vandergrift

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

GLP 10 Good Laboratory Practice for the Purity of Water Water ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... GLP 10 Good Laboratory Practice for the Purity of Water Water is used in two ways in the metrology laboratory. ... Water Density Measurements ...

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Transition in Ni-Cr-Fe Alloys and Updated Data and Correlations to Quantify the Effect of Aqueous Hydrogen on Primary Water SCC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alloys 600 and X-750 have been shown to exhibit a maximum in primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) susceptibility, when testing is conducted over a range of aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) levels. Contact electric resistance (CER) and corrosion coupon testing using nickel specimens has shown that the maximum in SCC susceptibility occurs in proximity to the nickel-nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition. The measured location of the Ni/NiO transition has been shown to vary with temperature, from 25 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 360 C to 4 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 288 C. New CER measurements show that the Ni/NiO transition is located at 2 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 260 C. An updated correlation of the phase transition is provided. The present work also reports CER testing conducted using an Alloy 600 specimen at 316 C. A large change in resistance occurred between 5 and 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}, similar to the results obtained at 316 C using a nickel specimen. This result adds confidence in applying the Ni/NiO transition measurements to Ni-Cr-Fe alloys. The understanding of the importance of the Ni/NiO transition to PWSCC has been used previously to quantify H{sub 2} effects on SCC growth rate (SCCGR). Specifically, the difference in the electrochemical potential (EcP) of the specimen or component from the Ni/NiO transition (i.e., EcP{sub Ni/NiO}-EcP) has been used as a correlating parameter. In the present work, these SCCGR-H{sub 2} correlations, which were based on SCCGR data obtained at relatively high test temperatures (338 and 360 C), are evaluated via SCCGR tests at a reduced temperature (316 C). The 316 C data are in good agreement with the predictions, implying that the SCCGR-H{sub 2} correlations extrapolate well to reduced temperatures. The SCCGR-H{sub 2} correlations have been revised to reflect the updated Ni/NiO phase transition correlation. New data are presented for EN82H weld metal (also known as Alloy 82) at 338 C. Similar to other nickel alloys, SCC of EN82H is a function of the aqueous H{sub 2} level, with the SCCGR exhibiting a maximum near the Ni/NiO transition. For example, the SCCGR at 8 scc/kg H{sub 2} is {approx} 81 x higher than at 60 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The 8 scc/kg H{sub 2} condition is near the Ni/NiO transition (located at {approx} 14 scc/kg H{sub 2} at 338 C), while 60 scc/kg H{sub 2} is well into the nickel metal regime. A hydrogen-SCCGR correlation is provided for EN82H. The data and understanding obtained from the present work show that SCC can be mitigated by adjusting the aqueous H{sub 2} level. For example, SCCGR is typically minimized at relatively high aqueous H{sub 2} levels, that are well into the nickel metal regime (i.e., far from the Ni/NiO transition).

Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

12/2011 12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air monitoring as of December 31, 2000. Groundwater has been routinely monitored at the site since 1986. Separate groundwater monitoring programs were established for the Chemical Plant and Quarry sites because of geographic separation and differences in the hydrogeologic features that influence

363

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water to remove them.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

364

Impacts of Water Level Fluctuations on Kokanee Reproduction in Flathead Lake; Effects of Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on Reproductive Success, 1983 Annual Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Koktneesalmon (Oncorhvnchusnerka), the land-locked form of sockeye salmon, were originally introduced to Flathead Lake in 1916. My 1933, kokanee had become established in the lake and provided a popular summer trolling fishery as well as a fall snagging fishery in shoreline areas. Presently, Flathead Lake supports the second highest fishing pressure of any lake or reservoir in Montana (Montana Department of Fish and Game 1976). During 1981-82, the lake provided 168,792 man-days of fishing pressure. Ninety-two percent of the estimated 536,870 fish caught in Flathead Lake in 1981-82 were kokanee salmon. Kokanee also provided forage for bull trout seasonally and year round for lake trout. Kokanee rear to maturity in Flathead Lake, then return to various total grounds to spawn. Spawning occurred in lake outlet streams, springs, larger rivers and lake shoreline areas in suitable but often limited habitat. Shoreline spawning in Flathead Lake was first documented in the mid-1930's. Spawning kokanee were seized from shoreline areas in 1933 and 21,000 cans were processed and packed for distribution to the needy. Stefanich (1953 and 1954) later documented extensive but an unquantified amount of spawning along the shoreline as well as runs in Whitefish River and McDonald Creek in the 1950's. A creel census conducted in 1962-63 determined 11 to 13 percent of the kokanee caught annually were taken during the spawning period (Robbins 1966). During a 1981-82 creel census, less than one percent of the fishermen on Flathead Lake were snagging kokanee (Graham and Fredenberg 1982). The operation of Kerr Dam, located below Flathead Lake on the Flathead River, has altered seasonal fluctuations of Flathead Lake. Lake levels presently remain high during kokanee spawning in November and decline during the incubation and emergence periods. Groundwater plays an important role in embryo and fry survival in redds of shoreline areas exposed by lake drawdown. Stefanich (1954) and Domrose (1968) found live eggs and fry only in shoreline spawning areas wetted by groundwater seeps. Impacts of the operation of Kerr Dam on lakeshore spawning have not been quantified. Recent studies have revealed that operation of Hungry Horse Dam severely impacted successful kokanee spawning and incubation in the Flathead River above Flathead Lake (Graham et al. 1980, McMullin and Graham 1981, Fraley and Graham 1982 and Fraley and McMullin 1983). Flows from Hungry Horse Dam to enhance kokanee reproduction in the river system have been voluntarily met by the Bureau of Reclamation since 1981. In lakeshore spawning areas in other Pacific Northwest systems, spawning habitat for kokanee and sockeye salmon was characterized by seepage or groundwater flow where suitable substrate composition existed (Foerster 1968). Spawning primarily occurred in shallower depths (<6 m) where gravels were cleaned by wave action (Hassemer and Rieman 1979 and 1980, Stober et al. 1979a). Seasonal drawdown of reservoirs can adversely affect survival of incubating kokanee eggs and fry spawned in shallow shoreline areas. Jeppon (1955 and 1960) and Whitt (1957) estimated 10-75 percent kokanee egg loss in shoreline areas of Pend Oreille Lake, Idaho after regulation of the upper three meters occurred in 1952. After 20 years of operation, Bowler (1979) found Pend Oreille shoreline spawning to occur in fewer areas with generally lower numbers of adults. In studies on Priest Lake, Idaho, Bjornn (1957) attributed frozen eggs and stranded fry to winter fluctuations of the upper three meters of the lake. Eggs and fry frozen during winter drawdown accounted for a 90 percent loss to shoreline spawning kokanee in Donner Lake, California (Kimsey 1951). Stober et al. (1979a) determined irrigation drawdown of Banks Lake, Washington reduced shoreline survival during five of the seven years the system was studied. The goal of this phase of the study was to evaluate and document effects of the operation of Kerr Dam on kokanee shoreline reproduction in Flathead Lake. Specific objectives to meet this goal are: (1) Del

Decker-Hess, Janet; McMullin, Steve L.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Point Defects in Pb-, Bi-, and In-Doped CdZnTe Detectors:Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) Measurements  

SciTech Connect

We studied, by current deep-level transient spectroscopy (I-DLTS), point defects induced in CdZnTe detectors by three dopants: Pb, Bi, and In. Pb-doped CdZnTe detectors have a new acceptor trap at around 0.48 eV. The absence of a V{sub Cd} trap suggests that all Cd vacancies are compensated by Pb interstitials after they form a deep-acceptor complex [[Pb{sub Cd}]{sup +}-V{sub Cd}{sup 2-}]{sup -}. Bi-doped CdZnTe detectors had two distinct traps: a shallow trap at around 36 meV and a deep donor trap at around 0.82 eV. In detectors doped with In, we noted three well-known traps: two acceptor levels at around 0.18 eV (A-centers) and 0.31 eV (V{sub Cd}), and a deep trap at around 1.1 eV.

Bolotnikov A.; GUL, R.; KEETER, K.; RODRIGUEZ, R.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; HOSSAIN, A.; CAMARDA, G.S.; KIM, K.H.; YANG, Y.; CUI, Y.; CARCELEN, V.; FRANC, J.; LI, Z.; JAMES, R.B.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table.

Faybishenko, Boris (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

An evaluation of the Gilian TRACEAIR Organic Vapor Monitoring Diffusive Badge in measuring short-term exposure levels of benzene under field conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of the Gilian TRACEAIR Organic Vapor Monitoring I (OVMI) Diffusive Badge in measuring short-term benzene exposures under field conditions. In general, a diffusive badge is a device which is capable of taking samples of gas or vapor pollutants from the atmosphere at a rate controlled by a physical process such as diffusion through a static layer. Diffusive badges continue to flood the industrial hygiene market as an alternative means to charcoal tubes for sampling organic vapors. The OVMI badge has been on the market since 1990, and is the only diffusive sampler that offers dual sampling rates for measuring organic vapors. This dual sampling rate feature allows one the flexibility of sampling at 3 5 to I 00 mL/@n depending on the vapors being sampled. The OVM I badge has been designed to monitor short-term exposure limits (STEL) and long-term limits with only negligible modifications to the badge housing. Side-by-side benzene STEL concentrations were measured in a Texas Gulf Coast refinery implementing two OVM I badges, an SKC charcoal tube, and a Tedlar bag used for gas chromatograph analyses. The results of the study indicated that a) no significant concentration differences were found between the badges; b) the badges overestimated the charcoal tube on average by 54%, although their performance comparisons were highly predictable based on linear regression; and c) the results of the Tedlar baga?s chromatograph comparisons were inconclusive. Factors which might have contributed to the discrepancy between the charcoal tube and badges are possible concentration gradients and starvation effects occurring at the samplers' inlet face, interference from other competing vapors, and an overestimated badge sampling rate when sampling at the maximum uptake rate. Collectively, the outcomes of this research suggests that a correction factor in the badge's sampling rate might prove useful as a means of correcting for short-term overestimations when sampling for benzene under field conditions. It is hoped that the contents of this research serve as an useful aid for those specifically interested in the OVMI badge and for those whose line of work involve passive sampling.

Pierce, Mark Edward

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Water Prism Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the design and implementation of Water Prism, a decision support system that evaluates alternative management plans to obtain water resource sustainability at the regional, watershed or local levels. It considers surface, ground and impoundment waters, and all water using sectors (industrial, agricultural, municipal, electric power and the environment). This report will be of value to environment, generation, and planning managers within power companies, government agencies, ...

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

369

What's In My Water?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

You can learn about the quality of your water by sending a sample to a laboratory for analysis. This publication will help you understand the lab report by explaining the properties, components and contaminants often found in water. It describes the sources of water contaminants, problems that can be caused by those contaminants, suggestions for correcting problems, and the safe levels of each contaminant in water for household use, for irrigation and for livestock.

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Comparison of Column Water Vapor Measurements Using Downward-looking Near-Infrared and Infrared Imaging Systems and Upward-looking Microwave Radiometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote soundings of precipitable water vapor from three systems are compared with each other and with ground truth from radiosondes. Ancillary data from a mesoscale network of surface observing stations and from wind-profiling radars are also ...

Bo-Cai Gao; Alexander F. H. Goetz; Ed R. Westwater; B. Boba Stankov; D. Birkenheuer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The Validation of AIRS Retrievals of Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Using Measurements from a Network of Ground-Based GPS Receivers over the Contiguous United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A robust and easily implemented verification procedure based on the column-integrated precipitable water (IPW) vapor estimates derived from a network of ground-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers has been used to assess the quality of ...

M. K. Rama Varma Raja; Seth I. Gutman; James G. Yoe; Larry M. McMillin; Jiang Zhao

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evaluation of Water Stress Impact on the Parameter Values in Stomatal Conductance Models Using Tower Flux Measurement of a Boreal Aspen Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of water stress on plant stomatal conductance (g) has been widely studied but with little consensus as to the processes governing its responses. The photosynthesis-driven stomatal conductance models usually employ constant model ...

Shusen Wang

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Uranium favorability of tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Pend Oreille River valley, Washington. [Measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water logs  

SciTech Connect

Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Pend Oreille River valley were investigated in a regional study to determine the favorability for potential uranium resources of northeastern Washington. This project involved measurement and sampling of surface sections, collection of samples from isolated outcrops, chemical and mineralogical analyses of samples, and examination of available water well logs. The Box Canyon Dam area north of Ione is judged to have very high favorability. Thick-bedded conglomerates interbedded with sandstones and silty sandstones compose the Tiger Formation in this area, and high radioactivity levels are found near the base of the formation. Uranophane is found along fracture surfaces or in veins. Carbonaceous material is present throughout the Tiger Formation in the area. Part of the broad Pend Oreille valley surrounding Cusick, Washington, is an area of high favorability. Potential host rocks in the Tiger Formation, consisting of arkosic sandstones interbedded with radioactive shales, probably extend throughout the subsurface part of this area. Carbonaceous material is present and some samples contain high concentrations of uranium. In addition, several other possible chemical indicators were found. The Tiger-Lost Creek area is rated as having medium favorability. The Tiger Formation contains very hard, poorly sorted granite conglomerate with some beds of arkosic sandstone and silty sandstone. The granite conglomerate was apparently derived from source rocks having relatively high uranium content. The lower part of the formation is more favorable than the upper part because of the presence of carbonaceous material, anomalously high concentrations of uranium, and other possible chemical indicators. The area west of Ione is judged to have low favorability, because of the very low permeability of the rocks and the very low uranium content. (auth)

Marjaniemi, D.K.; Robins, J.W.

1975-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

ii Produced Water Pretreatment for Water Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal drilling and slickwater hydrofracturing have enabled shale gas to become a significant contributor to the United States ’ energy supply. Hydrofracturing typically requires 2MM – 6.5MM gallons of water per shale gas well. About 15-25 % of this water returns to the surface as “flowback ” within 30 days after hydrofracturing. “Produced water ” continues to flow at a much reduced rate, e.g. 2-10 bbl/day, for the life of the well. In addition to high salinity and hardness levels (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), much Marcellus produced water also contains significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), particularly radium. The near absence of disposal wells in Pennsylvania initially forced much of the produced water to be trucked into Ohio for disposal by deep-well injection (UIC). Currently up to 95 % of the

Principal Investigator; James M. Silva; James M. Silva; Hope Matis; William L. Kostedt Iv; Vicki Watkins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Water Well Data Elements Well Header Tab Page  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water producing from Lithologic formation from which water is produced. at depth Top of water producing formation (ft) to Base of water producing formation (ft) Static water level Static water level below casingWater Well Data Elements Well Header Tab Page: This list contains location and identification

Frank, Thomas D.

376

Direct measurements of the nonlinear index of refraction of water at 815 and 407 nm using single-shot supercontinuum spectral interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA 2 Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC window 2 ps for measurement of the non- linear response of an optical medium. Such measurements can show windows, chosen to minimize self-phase modulation of the pump and cross phase modulation of the probe

Milchberg, Howard

377

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, and D. D. Turner University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction An overview of the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) is given. This field experiment was conducted during November-December 2000 near the central ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in north central Oklahoma, and was sponsored jointly by the ARM, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE), and the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs. Its primary goal was to collect accurate measurements of upper-level (~8 to 12 km) water vapor near the ground-based ARM site. These data are being used to determine the accuracy of measurements that are

378

Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Snow water equivalent estimation using blackbox optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2011 ... Abstract: Accurate measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in managing water resources for hydroelectric power ...

380

Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them.

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Water Flux in a Cashew Orchard during a Wet-to-Dry Transition Period: Analysis of Sap Flow and Eddy Correlation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information regarding biosphere–atmosphere interactions is important in the study of a hydrological cycle. To this purpose, xylem sap flow (SF) using the Granier system and evapotranspiration (ET) using the eddy correlation method were measured ...

P. G. Oguntunde; N. C. van de Giesen; P. L. G. Vlek; H. Eggers

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

An Eight-Year (1987–1994) Time Series of Rainfall, Clouds, Water Vapor, Snow Cover, and Sea Ice Derived from SSM/I Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), first placed into operation in July 1987, has been making measurements of earth-emitted radiation for over eight years. These data are used to estimate both atmospheric and surface hydrological ...

Ralph R. Ferraro; Norman C. Grody; Fuzhong Weng; Alan Basist

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Greenhouse effect, sea level and drought  

SciTech Connect

Four parts of this book relate successively to greenhouse effects, sea level, drought and water deficiency, and management techniques and case studies.

Paepe, R.; Fairbridge, R.W.; Jelgersma, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

WATER FOR LIFE Module on Life in the Water and the Water Sanitation Process Created for SPICE GK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water for Life ” module which includes topic areas on bacterial life in the water, water borne pathogens, and water sanitation. Students will be exposed to and learn about the importance of water to life on earth, the concerns with water borne pathogens worldwide, and processes of water sanitation. Lesson 1 “We Need Clean Water”. Students are introduced to terminology and basic facts on water sanitation and water borne pathogens in order to provide a purpose as to why we should study water quality. Lesson 2 “ What is in that water? Bacterial load and Water Quality Experiment. ” In this lesson students conduct an experiment in which they measure the bacterial load (amount of bacteria) in 4 different types of water and examine the effect of UV disinfection on the water samples bacterial populations. Lesson 3 “Water Sanitation Article and Research Essay. ” Students gain background knowledge from reading an article on water sanitation. They will

Program Elisa Livengood; Carmella O’steen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Turbid water Clear water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

Jaffe, Jules

386

ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS (WALBAUM) IN FRESH WATER AND AFTER SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE TO SEA WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Freshwater Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts were abruptly transferred to sea water in May and over 3 days blood plasma ion concentrations were determined together with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and plasma renin activity (PRA) using antibodies raised against human ANP and angiotensin I. Blood plasma Na + and Cl ~ levels in smolts increased and, between 24 and 72 h, PRA increased significantly to O.Qngml"^ " 1, while there was a gradual rise in ANP levels to lOpmoll " 1 at 72 h. Similar measurements were made on parr transferred to sea water in September; in these fish Na + and Cl ~ levels increased as in smolts, PRA remained unchanged at about 0.6ngml ~ 1 h ~ 1 and ANP levels increased significantly to about 20pmoir ' at 24 and 72 h. After 2h in sea water parr showed wide variability in ANP levels, in keeping with circulatory stress, hypoxia and increased atrial stretching. Parr transferred to sea water in December showed low drinking rates of 1.95 ml kg " 1 h " 1, even after 20 days, compared to a

Salmon Salmo; Salar L.; Rainbow Trout; N. F. Smith; F. B. Eddyt; A. D. Struthers; C. Talbot

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement  

SciTech Connect

A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Pharmaceutical Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Water treatment process for water for injection (WFI)...deionization WFI production Evaporation still or vapor compression...

390

Water Snakes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER SNAKES Contrary to popular belief, the Water Moccasin commonly known as the...

391

HEMI AL FREE WATER ANALYSIS WITH NANOELE TRODE ARRAYS  

hemi al free water analysis with nanoele trode arrays te hnology summary te hnology readiness level:

392

Measuring Total Dissolved Methylmercury: Comparison of a Novel Method With a Standard Method for Extracting and Quantitating Methylmercury in Stream Water Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In most environmental systems, mercury (Hg) occurs in one or more of the following distinct chemical forms: elemental (Hg0), divalent (Hg2+), monomethyl (MMHg), methyl (MeHg), and dimethyl (DMHg). The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard method of measuring dissolved MMHg uses distillation to extract MeHg from freshwater samples in preparation for Hg speciation analysis by aqueous ethylation and gas chromatography. Recently, a novel method of Hg ...

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

393

GLP 10 Good Laboratory Practice for the Purity of Water Water ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... resistivity (along with other water quality measurements) are often used to assess the water quality used in cooling towers, boilers, relative humidity ...

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides (Spanish)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water to remove them.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

395

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity and record sheets for hands-on learning experiences. This curriculum is intended for students in about 4th to 8th grades.

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

396

Study on radon and radium concentrations in drinking water in west region of Iran  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most important characterizations of social health is existence the availability of safe drinking water. Since one of the sources of water contamination is nuclear contamination from radon gas, so in this research radon 222 concentration levels in water supplies in the Toyserkan (a region located in the west of Iran) is investigated. For measuring radon gas in water wells and springs Lucas chamber method is used. Review the results of these measurements that taken from 15th place show that, only five sites have radon concentrations above the limit dose. To reduce radon concentration, it is better to keep water in open pools in contact with air before the water is delivered to users.

Forozani, Ghasem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand  

SciTech Connect

Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved water delivery and irrigation system efficiencies. These could potentially reduce demands substantially. However, overall demands remained high under our fossil-fuel-only tax policy. In contrast, when all carbon was priced, increases in agricultural water demands were smaller than under the fossil-fuel-only policy and were driven primarily by increased demands for water by non-biomass crops such as rice. Finally we estimate the geospatial pattern of water demands and find that regions such as China, India and other countries in south and east Asia might be expected to experience greatest increases in water demands.?

Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

398

Autonomous ocean turbulence measurements using shear probes on a moored instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An internally recording, autonomous instrument has been tested for measurements of ocean turbulence from a mooring line. Measurements were made at a single level in the water column, but for an extended period of time, at a pre-determined duty ...

Ilker Fer; Mostafa Bakhoday Paskyabi

399

Ultrasonic liquid-level detector for varying temperature and pressure environments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use in varying temperature and pressure environments, such as a pressurized water nuclear reactor vessel, is provided. The detector employs ultrasonic extensional and torsional waves launched in a multiplexed alternating sequence into a common sensor. The sensor is a rectangular cross section stainless steel rod which extends into the liquid medium whose level is to be detected. The sensor temperature derived from the extensional wave velocity measurements is used to compensate for the temperature dependence of the torsional wave velocity measurements which are also level dependent. The torsional wave velocity measurements of a multiple reflection sensor then provide a measurement of liquid level over a range of several meters with a small uncertainty over a temperature range of 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressures up to 15 MPa.

Anderson, R.L.; Miller, G.N.

1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

400

Development and use of an apparatus to measure the dynamic surface properties of coal-water slurry fuels for applications to atomization characteristics. Final report, September 1, 1992--December 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to measure the dynamic surface tension of coal-water slurry (CWS) mixtures containing various types of surfactants and with varied coal loadings. The dynamic properties will affect CWS fuel atomization, which constitutes highly dynamic processes. A maximum air bubble pressure technique measured the dynamic surface tension. The dynamic surface tension, which can be much higher than the corresponding static surface tension, was measured for the CWS made from the coal mined from the Upper Elkhorn seam in Virginia. The coal had 50 {mu}m volume mean diameter (VMD). Five surfactants were selected for the study: one nonionic Alkylphenol Ethoxylate (NP-100), and four anionic surfactants; Branched Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (DDBS-hard), Linear Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (DDBS-soft), a Sodium Salt of a Branched Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (1223H), and a Sodium Salt of Sulfonated Fatty Acid (1840X). A du-Nouy ring tensiometer measured the static surface tension to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Measured values of dynamic surface tension are presented for 40% and 50% CWS mixtures with surfactant concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 5.0% in weight. The experiment found that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of CWS was considerably higher than an aqueous solution because of the absorption of surfactant by coal particles. In addition, the dynamic surface tension continuously decreased beyond the CMC because suspended coal particles retarded the surfactant migration. The CWS dynamic surface tension showed wide variations of up to a factor of two depending on the type of surfactant whilst all the selected surfactants exhibited a same range of static surface tension values. The dynamic surface tension increased with increasing coal loadings in CWS. The primary reason for this is believed to be because of the increased absorption and physical blockings of coal particles.

Kihm, K.D.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

An Evaluation of Above- and In-Water Methods for Determining Water-Leaving Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-quality dataset collected at an oceanographic tower was used to compare water-leaving radiances derived from simultaneous above- and in-water optical measurements. The former involved two different above-water systems and four different ...

Stanford B. Hooker; Gordana Lazin; Giuseppe Zibordi; Scott McLean

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Solar-hot-water-heater lease program  

SciTech Connect

Ten domestic hot-water solar systems were installed, leased to homeowners, and monitored for two years. All of the systems were installed as back-ups to electric water heaters. The systems consist of two to four collectors, a solar storage tank (as well as the existing non-solar heater), and a heat exchanger package. Eight are three-collector systems, one is a four-collector and one a two-collector system. The systems were sized according to family size and predicted hot water demand. The monitoring consists of a separate KW reading on the non-solar water heater, a reading of gallons of how water consumed, and hot and cold outlet temperatures. The purpose for the study was fourfold: (1) to determine the level of acceptance by the general public of solar water heaters if available on a lease rather than a purchase basis; (2) to measure the actual energy savings to the average homeowner in central Illinois with a solar water heater; (3) to measure the potential reduction of Cilco's energy production requirements, should there be widespread utilization of these systems; and (4) to determine the feasibility of an entrepreneur making these systems available on a rental basis and remaining a going concern. The results of this study indicate that the leasing of solar equipment to homeowners has a more widespread acceptance than the direct purchase of such systems. Homeowners, however, do not want to spend as much money on monthly lease payments as the supplier of the equipment would deem necessary. This seriously questions the feasibility of an entrepreneurial leasing program.

Rutherford, S.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

404

Minisodar Measurements of Rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of raindrop fall velocity spectra have been made with a minisodar. Amplitude calibration of the system enables the calculation of drop size parameters such as number density, water density, and surface area using methods similar to ...

R. L. Coulter; T. J. Martin; T. M. Weckwerth

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Nature Bulletin No. 408-A February 27, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation GROUND WATER We take...

406

Water Dogs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NA Question: I'd like to know about the water dogs and their life cycle? Replies: Water dog, or mud puppy, is a common name for a type of salamander that never develops lungs, but...

407

Water Efficiency Program Prioritization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Program Efficiency Program Prioritization Federal Energy Management Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy January 2009 Will Lintner (william.lintner@ee.doe.gov) Federal Energy Management The Goal - EO 13423 Beginning in 2008, Federal agencies must reduce water consumption intensity through life- effective measures, relative to the baseline of the agency's water consumption in fiscal year 2007 by 2 percent annually through the end of FY 2015 or 16 percent by the end of FY 2015. 2 Water Use Intensit ty (gal/sqft) Federal Sector Glide-Path to Meeting WUI Reduction Goal 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 FY 07 FY 08 FY 09 FY 10 FY 11 FY 12 FY 13 FY 14 FY 15 Total Federal sector FY07 WUI Glide-Path for meeting WUI reduction goal (16%) 3 Next Steps * Compile Water Data FY 2008. The baseline for water

408

Impact of “Non-Behavioral Fixed Effects” on Water Use: Weather and Economic Construction Differences on Residential Water Use in Austin, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1995). Residential water use and conservation effectiveness:s guide to water use and conservation. Austin, Texas. Theeffective measures for water conservation. A problem with

Tinker, Audrey; Bame, Sherry; Burt, Richard; Speed, Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Pulse Waveform Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... be provided on diskette, along with a report of measurement ... be measured with respect to the final level in a ... and the dc value-also will be reported. ...

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

410

Biological pretreatment of produced water for reuse applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry represents a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced water is characterized by high levels of… (more)

Kwon, Soondong, 1973-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Excess water production diagnosis in oil fields using ensemble classifiers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In hydrocarbon production, more often than not, oil is produced commingled with water. As long as the water production rate is below the economic level… (more)

Rabiei, Minou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Water Bugs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

413

An automatic water management system for large-scale rice paddy fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic water management system for large-scale paddy fields has been developed. The purposes of that are to supply the paddy fields with water or drain water from that automatically, to decrease water consumption, and to have a good harvest. To ... Keywords: estimating mean water level, optimal water allocation, paddy field, predict field consumption, prediction of growth stages, water level control

Teruji Sekozawa

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Slatton, Clint

415

Measurement Science Needs for Advancing Infrastructure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Measurement Science Needs for Advancing Infrastructure Delivery Industry Sector Baseline Profiles: Bridges, Roads, Power, and Water ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

416

Typical Clothing Ensemble Insulation Levels for Sixteen Body Parts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Comfort.1994 CLO Insulation Levels For Sixteen Bodya mesh arm chair whose insulation level was measured. FigureExperimental Conditions. CLO Insulation Levels For Sixteen

Lee, Juyoun; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Optical resonant nanoprobes for the measurements of biomolecular interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.5. Measured spectral peaks for air, oil and water and2.5. Measured spectral peaks for air, oil and water andpeaks for three samples: air, water, and silicon oil. An

Zlatanovic, Sanja

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Lidar and radiosonde measurement campaign for the validation of ENVISAT atmospheric products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An intensive aerosol and water vapour lidar measurement campaign, started on July 2002, is in progress at IMAA in Tito Scalo (PZ) (Southern Italy, 40°36’N, 15°44’E, 820 m above sea level) in the frame of the validation program of ENVISAT. A Raman lidar system is used to perform both aerosol and water vapour measurements; aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients are retrieved from simultaneous elastic signals at 355 nm and inelastic N2 Raman backscatter lidar signals at 386.6 nm, whereas, water vapour mixing ratio measurements are retrieved from simultaneous H2O and N2 Raman signals. All the observations are complemented with radiosonde launches. First results of the intercomparison between water vapour lidar profiles and MIPAS profiles are presented. Radiosonde measurements of pressure and temperature have been compared with MIPAS and GOMOS profiles.

V. Cuomo; A. Amodeo; C. Cornacchia; L. Mona

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-169 Constant-Pressure Measurement of Steam- Water Relative Permeability Peter A. O by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. Mobile steam mass fraction was established by separate steam and water inlets or by correlating with previous results. The measured steam-water relative

Stanford University

420

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Measurement of Water Transport from Saturated Pumice ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... A thin slice of polished granite stone (about fo mm x 4 mm x 3 mm) was insened first into the cuvette, providing a support for the pumice that was ...

2003-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Why Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequence Algae from Acidic Waters? Strains of green algae from isolated acidic waters are being sequenced to understand how they adapt to variable levels of carbon dioxide, as well...

423

Reusing Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

424

Water protection in coke-plant design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Water Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning EUEC Energy & Environment Conference 2008, EPS,1292008 2 * Water Scarcity Seen Dampening Case...

426

Water and Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water in swimming pool Water and Energy The water and energy technology research focuses on improving the efficiency of energy and water use in water delivery, supply and...

427

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

428

Reservoir Management in Mediterranean Climates through the European Water Framework Directive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the EuropeanWater Framework Directive? ” Elsevier Cabecinha,Under the Water Framework Directive. Conacher, A.J. , Sala,The EU Water Framework Directive: measures and implications.

O'Reilly, Clare; Silberblatt, Rafael

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Urban Water Conservation along the Rio Grande  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Not long ago, conversations on urban water demand were not only rare but dull. Today, especially in the West and Southwest, these conversations can turn into heated debates. The question of who has enough water for the future has pitted urban interests against agriculture and financial resources against cultural values. Water supply is finite, even if it is part of a cycle. Water may be plentiful in some places and scarce in others. Until we are ready to make water conservation a pattern of behavior to use less water, our demand will continue to grow as our population grows. Although water conservation is not an answer to all growth, it does offer an alternative to acquiring some new water supplies. Water conservation is almost always the least expensive water supply alternative. Water conservation can have two definitions. First and most often, conservation is considered a reduction in the amount of water used. Each person uses less. An alternative definition implies more efficient use of water. We waste less. Less waste can be attributed to best management practices, more efficient hardware or literally less water running into the streets from irrigation systems. Urban water conservation incorporates watersaving measures and incentives for the home, on the landscape and throughout the city water distribution system. It is easy to differentiate between water-saving measures and incentives. A water-saving measure such as a water-efficient toilet reduces the amount used each and every time it is flushed. Or, a rain sensor turns off a sprinkler system during rain showers. In contrast, incentives encourage the wise use of water through education, ordinances or scheduling. Educational programs suggest water reductions in the landscape, ordinances mandate how much turf is planted, and schedules tell homeowners when to irrigate. Combined, measures and incentives provide a water conservation program.

Silvey, Valeen; Kaiser, Ronald; Lesikar, Bruce; Runyan, Craig

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) Provides...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) Provides total and average annual residential energy consumption for water heating in U.S. households in 2005, measured in...

431

Trace Metals Determination in Flue Gas Desulfurization Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers are used on coal-fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to air. While effective for this purpose, wet FGD scrubbers produce an aqueous blowdown stream that contains trace levels of metals adsorbed from flue gas. Power plant owners need to measure concentrations of these metals for purposes of process control, discharge monitoring, or design and operation of wastewater treatment systems. FGD water has proven to be a very difficult matrix to analyze a...

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

432

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

433

Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs.

Gluntz, D.M.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

435

Water Prism, Volume 2: Prototype Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water Prism is a decision support system (DSS) that evaluates alternative management plans to obtain water resource sustainability at the regional, watershed, or local levels. It considers surface, ground, and impoundment waters and all water-using sectors (industrial, agricultural, municipal, electric power, and the environment). This technical update illustrates how Water Prism is used by applying it to two large watersheds: the Muskingum River Basin (Ohio) and the Green River Basin ...

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Water Conservation Best Practices | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Conservation Best Practices Water Conservation Best Practices Water Conservation Best Practices October 24, 2013 - 2:35pm Addthis Federal sites across the country are incorporating water efficiency measures as part of their overall comprehensive UESC projects. As it becomes more difficult to secure internal funding for efficiency projects, working with your local utility can be a very effective way to implement a comprehensive program that incorporates water efficiency measures. Why Water Conservation? The rising cost of water and sewer services is one reason sites should include water efficiency measures as part of their overall efficiency program. The General Services Administration (GSA) water and sewer rates have increased, on average, by 23% between 1993 and 1999. In the GSA Rocky

437

Database of radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water, fish, waterfowl, gamebirds, and shellfish downstream of Hanford`s single-pass production reactors, 1960--1970. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The goal of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from radionuclide emissions since 1944 at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The HEDR Project is conducted by Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The time periods of greatest interest to the HEDR study vary depending on the type of environmental media concerned. Concentrations of radionuclides in Columbia River media from 1960--1970 provide the best historical data for validation of the Columbia River pathway computer models. This report provides the historical radionuclide measurements in Columbia River water (1960--1970), fish (1960--1967), waterfowl (1960--1970), gamebirds (1967--1970), and shellfish (1960--1970). Because of the large size of the databases (845 pages), this report is being published on diskette. A diskette of this report is available from the Technical Steering Panel (c/o K. CharLee, Office of Nuclear Waste Management, Department of Ecology, Technical Support and Publication Information Section, P.O. Box 47651, Olympia, Washington 98504-7651).

Thiede, M.E.; Duncan, J.P.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Be ŤSun-sible? about Heating Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Be "Sun-sible" about Heating Water Curriculum: Solar Power; (Electromagnetic radiation, conductionconvection, efficiency, Energy transformation, thermodynamics) Grade level: K-4...

439

Estimated Farm Level Benefits of Improved Irrigation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are about 15 million acres of cropland in the U.S. that are irrigated from aquifers which are incurring declining water levels (sloggett). This is primarily in the Great Plains Region where irrigation water is pumped from the Ogallala Aquifer. Mining from the aquifer is estimated at 14 million acre feet per year (Frederick and Hanson). The declining groundwater supply increases pumping lift and reduces well yields. Concurrently, there has been a dramatic increase in the cost of energy for pumping since 1973. For example, in the Trans Pecos Region of Texas, natural gas prices increased 450% from 1972 to 1975. Energy has become one of the most important factors in irrigated crop production. A 1975 study showed that 53% of the total variable costs of producing corn in the Great Plains was energy related (Skold). The sensitivity of irrigated agriculture to increased fuel costs and declining groundwater levels has provided incentives for irrigated farmers to investigate alternative crop rotations and opportunities to improve irrigation water pumping and distributional efficiencies. The emphasis of this report is to estimate the value to an irrigated farmer on the Texas High Plains of improving irrigation water distribution efficiency. One means of improving the water use efficiency is to implement water conserving techniques. The main purpose of these techniques is to maximize crop production by minimizing the amount of water lost through the production systems. The major sources of water loss in a crop production system are runoff, percolation, and evaporation. Examples of water conserving techniques include terracing, furrow dams, reduced tillage, and crop rotations. In addition, improved irrigation application techniques can enhance the efficiency of water used for irrigation in the region. On-farm irrigation efficiency statewide for Texas has been estimated between 60 and 708 (Wyatt,1981). The implementation of advanced irrigation application techniques could potentially increase this efficiency up to 98% (Lyle & Bordovsky,1980). Furrow irrigation and sprinkler irrigation are the two major irrigation systems currently in use. Techniques designed to improve furrow efficiency include alternate furrow irrigation, furrow diking, and surge flow. Alternate furrow irrigation improves the timeliness of irrigation applications and increases lateral water movement thereby reducing deep percolation losses. Alternate furrow irrigation can be used with furrow diking or row dams on non-irrigated furrows to reduce rainfall runoff and soil erosion. The surge flow technique delivers large surges of water into the furrow on an intermittent cycle to reduce percolation losses at the upper end of the field. Sprinkler irrigation is the second major distribution system used for crop production primarily on mixed and sandy soils in the region. The use of these systems have increased tremendously over the past 25 years. This growth in the use of sprinkler irrigation systems is reflected in the increase for Texas from 668 thousand acres in 1958 to 2.2 million acres in 1979 (Texas Department of Water Resources). With the rapid rise in the relative price of energy during the 1970's, the emphasis of improving sprinkler efficiency has focused on both reducing their energy requirements and decreasing the amount of water lost through evaporation. One system which has been developed to meet these needs is the LEPA system or Low Energy Precision Application system (Lyle and Bordovsky,1980). This system operates by distributing water through drop tubes and low pressure emitters directly into the furrow as opposed to high pressure systems which utilize overhead sprinklers to distribute the water. In field trials of the LEPA system, measured application and distribution efficiencies averaged 98% and 96% respectively (Lyle et al., 1981).

Lee, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Ellis, John R.; Reneau, Duane R.

1984-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

retort waters. Process waters are produced within the retortorganics. Process waters are produced in large quantities.Measurements Retort waters are co-produced with shale oil

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A Particle-Water Based Model for Water Retention Hysteresis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A particle-water discrete element-based approach to describe water movement in partially saturated granular media is presented and tested. Water potential is governed by both capillary bridges, dominant at low saturations, and pressure of entrapped air, dominant at high saturations. The approach captures the hysteresis of water retention during wetting and drainage by introducing local evolution of liquid-solid contact angles at the level of pores and grains. Next, extensive comparisons against experimental data are presented. While this is made without involving any fitting parameters, the method demonstrates relative high success by achieving a correlation coefficient of at least 82%, and mostly above 90%.

Yixiang Gan; Federico Maggi; Giuseppe Buscarnera; Itai Einav

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

442

Federal energy efficiency and water conservation funding study  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of a study required by section 162 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). It outlines options for financing energy and water conservation measures at Federal facilities as required by Part 3 of Title V of the National Energy Policy and Conservation Act (NECPA) (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.) as amended by EPAct. It addresses: (1) the estimated Federal financial investment necessary to install energy and water conservation measures to meet NECPA and Executive Order requirements; (2) the use of revolving funds and other funding mechanisms which offer stable, long-term financing of energy and water conservation measures; and (3) the means for capitalizing such funds. On March 8, 1994, President Clinton signed Executive Order 12902. This Executive Order is an aggressive mandate to improve energy efficiency and water conservation in Federal buildings nationwide. This Executive Order is designed to meet and exceed requirements for Federal energy and water efficiency that were contained in section 152 of EPAct. Section 152 mandated that Federal agencies use all cost effective measures with less than a ten year payback to reduce energy consumption in their facilities by 20% by the year 2000 compared to 1985 levels. In addition, Executive Order 12902 established a requirement to use cost effective measures to reduce energy use by fiscal year 2005 by 30% compared to 1985 energy use. This report provides estimates for the energy and water conservation investments needed to achieve the NECPA and Executive Order goals as well as estimates for the contribution from various funding sources and a review of the mechanisms for funding these investments.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Relational measures and integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Work in fuzzy modeling has recently made its way from the interval $[0,1]\\subseteq {\\mathord{\\rm I \\! R}}$ to the ordinal or even to the qualitative level. We proceed further and introduce relational measures and relational integration. First ideas of ... Keywords: Choquet integral, evidence and belief, measure, necessity, plausibility, possibility measures, relation algebra, relational, sugeno integral

Gunther Schmidt

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Sensible Heat Observations Reveal Soil-Water Evaporation Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil-water evaporation is important at scales ranging from microbial ecology to large-scale climate. Yet routine measurements are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in soil-water evaporation. ...

J. L. Heitman; R. Horton; T. J. Sauer; T. M. DeSutter

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Low-Level Waste Branch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enclosed please find five copies of an application for ground water Alternate Concentration Limits (ACLs) for the Shirley Basin mill and tailings site. Pathfinder requests that the NRC amend the above referenced license to incorporate the proposed ACLs. Pathfinder has been endeavoring for over fifteen years to accomplish a ground water restoration at the site with overall favorable results. Of the thirteen constituents assigned ground water protection standards in the license, only two continue to exceed the site standard limits: uranium and thorium-230. While both of these parameters have been dramatically reduced in the ground water over the years, they remain at levels which have become very difficult to further reduce. Additionally, it is noteworthy that over the period of record these two constituents have routinely exceeded the site standards in the designated site background well. This would suggest that the site standards for uranium and thorium-230 originally were set unrealistically low. We have concluded that we have essentially reached the point of ALARA relative to ground water restoration at the Shirley Basin site, prompting this application for ACLs. The enclosed application discusses the attainment of ALARA, presents sound technical justification for the proposed ACLs, and ably demonstrates the minimal public health risk associated with the proposed ACLs.

Mr. Thomas; H. Essig

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Platform and Environmental Effects on Above-Water Determinations of Water-Leaving Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison of above- and in-water spectral measurements in Case-1 conditions showed the uncertainty in above-water determinations of water-leaving radiances depended on the pointing angle of the above-water instruments with respect to the side ...

Stanford B. Hooker; André Morel

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

How to Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into National-Level...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

How to Integrate Climate Change Adaptation into National-Level Policy and Planning in the Water Sector Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: How to Integrate Climate...

450

Stretches of Upper Mississippi River near record-low levels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

As a result of last year's drought, stretches of the Upper Mississippi River have approached record lows. These low water levels have jeopardized commercial barge ...

451

Water Heating | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heating Water Heating Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Avg.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 69.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

452

ARM - Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Select below to highlight measurements in specified measurement categories. Aerosols The effect of aerosols is measured by instrument systems and lidars that provide data...

453

Water Boatman  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Boatman Water Boatman Name: Joshua Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a research on water boatman. I go through your web, I only find little information about it. Can you give me its habitat, its appearance, life cycles and communication between themselves and they defenses themselves? Replies: Find a good book in the library on insects, also on pond biology/ecology, as boatmen live in ponds and marshes. It should be easy to find. J.Elliott Try this web site: http://www.dnr.state.il.us/ctap.ctaphome.htm or http://www.dnr.state.il.us/nredu/nredpage.htm this is the state of Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources homepage and somewhere on there is a page called "bugpage". They have pictures and characteristics of aquatic insects there. good luck

454

Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

455

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residentialgas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Measuring Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Compressed Natural Gas Retail Motor-Fuel Dispensers; Hydrogen Measuring Devices; Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid-Measuring Devices; Loading ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

457

Session 2A Water and Gas Transport Through Cementitious Materials  

Water and Gas Transport Through Cementitious Materials • State of the art ... – Novel methods for liquid permeability measurement of saturated ...

458

Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill  

SciTech Connect

Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

NETL: Water-Energy Interface - Power Plant Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands Nanofiltration Treatment Options for Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Treatment Demands Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting a study on the use of nanofiltration (NF) treatment options to enable use of non-traditional water sources as an alternative to freshwater make-up for thermoelectric power plants. The project includes a technical and economic evaluation of NF for two types of water that contain moderate to high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS): (1) cooling tower recirculating water and (2) produced waters from oil & gas extraction operations. Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most mature and commonly considered option for high TDS water treatment. However, RO is generally considered to be too expensive to make treatment of produced waters for power plant use a feasible application. Therefore, SNL is investigating the use of NF, which could be a more cost effective treatment option than RO. Similar to RO, NF is a membrane-based process. Although NF is not as effective as RO for the removal of TDS (typical salt rejection is ~85 percent, compared to >95 percent for RO), its performance should be sufficient for typical power plant applications. In addition to its lower capital cost, an NF system should have lower operating costs because it requires less pressure to achieve an equivalent flux of product water.

460

Nonintrusive Measurement of Ocean Waves: Lidar Wave Gauge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In December 1999, a nonintrusive directional lidar wave gauge (LWG) was field tested at the Field Research Facility (FRF) in North Carolina. The LWG uses proven lidar technology to directly measure water surface elevation from above the water’s ...

Jennifer L. Irish; Jennifer M. Wozencraft; A. Grant Cunningham; Claudine Giroud

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water level measurement" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte membrane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operation. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and neutron radiography were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells under various operating conditions. Variables examined include: sub-freezing conditions, inlet relative humidities, cell temperature, current density and response transients, different flow field orientations and different component materials (membranes, GDLs and MEAs). Quantification of the water within the membrane was made by neutron radiography after equilibration to different humidified gases, during fuel cell operation and in hydrogen pump mode. The water