Sample records for water intake structure

  1. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  2. ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASSESSING POWER PLANT COOLING WATER INTAKE SYSTEM ENTRAINMENT IMPACTS Prepared For: California be obvious that large studies like these require the coordinated work of many people. We would first like from the Duke Energy South Bay and Morro Bay power plants and the PG&E Diablo Canyon Power Plant

  3. activity water intake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    activity water intake First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 water intake Water sampling site...

  4. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act requires that cooling water intake structures must reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. Many existing power plants in the United States utilize once-through cooling systems to condense steam. Once-through systems withdraw large volumes (often hundreds of millions of gallons per day) of water from surface water bodies. As the water is withdrawn, fish and other aquatic organisms can be trapped against the screens or other parts of the intake structure (impingement) or if small enough, can pass through the intake structure and be transported through the cooling system to the condenser (entrainment). Both of these processes can injure or kill the organisms. EPA adopted 316(b) regulations for new facilities (Phase I) on December 18, 2001. Under the final rule, most new facilities could be expected to install recirculating cooling systems, primarily wet cooling towers. The EPA Administrator signed proposed 316(b) regulations for existing facilities (Phase II) on February 28, 2002. The lead option in this proposal would allow most existing facilities to achieve compliance without requiring them to convert once-through cooling systems to recirculating systems. However, one of the alternate options being proposed would require recirculating cooling in selected plants. EPA is considering various options to determine best technology available. Among the options under consideration are wet-cooling towers and dry-cooling towers. Both types of towers are considered to be part of recirculating cooling systems, in which the cooling water is continuously recycled from the condenser, where it absorbs heat by cooling and condensing steam, to the tower, where it rejects heat to the atmosphere before returning to the condenser. Some water is lost to evaporation (wet tower only) and other water is removed from the recirculating system as a blow down stream to control the building up of suspended and dissolved solids. Makeup water is withdrawn, usually from surface water bodies, to replace the lost water. The volume of makeup water is many times smaller than the volume needed to operate a once-through system. Although neither the final new facility rule nor the proposed existing facility rule require dry cooling towers as the national best technology available, the environmental community and several States have supported the use of dry-cooling technology as the appropriate technology for addressing adverse environmental impacts. It is possible that the requirements included in the new facility rule and the ongoing push for dry cooling systems by some stakeholders may have a role in shaping the rule for existing facilities. The temperature of the cooling water entering the condenser affects the performance of the turbine--the cooler the temperature, the better the performance. This is because the cooling water temperature affects the level of vacuum at the discharge of the steam turbine. As cooling water temperatures decrease, a higher vacuum can be produced and additional energy can be extracted. On an annual average, once-through cooling water has a lower temperature than recirculated water from a cooling tower. By switching a once-through cooling system to a cooling tower, less energy can be generated by the power plant from the same amount of fuel. This reduction in energy output is known as the energy penalty. If a switch away from once-through cooling is broadly implemented through a final 316(b) rule or other regulatory initiatives, the energy penalty could result in adverse effects on energy supplies. Therefore, in accordance with the recommendations of the Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group (better known as the May 2001 National Energy Policy), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), has studied the energy penalty resulting from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five l

  5. Entrainment sampling at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Savannah River water intakes (1991)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling water for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) L-Reactor, K-Reactor, and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pumphouses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water. They are passed through the reactor heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degree}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is presumably 100%. Apart from a small pilot study conducted in 1989, ichthyoplankton samples have not been collected from the vicinity of the SRS intake canals since 1985. The Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) resume ichthyoplankton sampling for the purpose of assessing entrainment at the SRS Savannah River intakes. This request is due to the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River. The following scope of work presents a sampling plan that will collect information on the spatial and temporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae near the SRS intake canal mouths. This data will be combined with information on water movement patterns near the canal mouths in order to determine the percentage of ichthyoplankton that are removed from the Savannah River by the SRS intakes. The following sampling plan incorporates improvements in experimental design that resulted from the findings of the 1989 pilot study. 1 fig.

  6. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces. Abstract: The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling...

  7. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  8. Aluminum and silica intake in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Aluminum and silica intake in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive,2 , Commenges Daniel1,2 , Helmer Catherine2,3 , Jean-François Dartigues2,3 . Abbreviations: Al, Aluminum; AD, Alzheimer's Disease; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination; Si, Silica Running head: Aluminum, silica in water

  9. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70[degrees]C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  10. Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milam, Kyle Zohn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN...

  11. Intake port

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  12. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor`s heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70{degrees}C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams & Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS.

  13. II. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Terry

    Heat Capacity 4. Solvent Properties 5. Dissociation: Acids & Bases / pH II. Organic Chemistry A transport in plants #12;Water has a high specific heat capacity specific heat capacity = amount of energyII. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure 2. Cohesion / Surface Tension 3. High

  14. Water intrusion in underground structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarchuk, Alex

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a study of the permissible groundwater infiltration rates in underground structures, the consequences of this leakage and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Design guides and codes do not restrict, ...

  15. Effects of drinking water temperature on respiration rates, body temperatures, dry matter intake, and milk production in lactating Holstein cows in summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milam, Kyle Zohn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1, and 1. 4X potassium respectively, with CR 2 fed during the barn adjustment and SP. Cows were fed ad libitum in individual tie-stalls twice daily from 0600 to 0900 h and from 1800 to 2100 h with access to barn water temperature (ca 28 C...EFFECTS OF DRINKING WATER TEMPERATURE ON RESPIRATION RATES, BODY TEMPERATURES, DRY MATTER INTAKE, AND MILK PRODUCTION IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by KYLE ZOHN MILAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University...

  16. Water and the changing structure of zeolites | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the changing structure of zeolites Water and the changing structure of zeolites Released: March 27, 2015 Atoms crowd and abandon catalyst's internal channel surfaces, changing...

  17. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed Print The structure of liquid water has been intensely studied, but until recently, it has not been clear what happens to...

  18. The Structure of Water in Crystalline Aluminophosphates: Isolated Water and Intermolecular Clusters Probed by Raman Spectroscopy, NMR and Structural Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    The Structure of Water in Crystalline Aluminophosphates: Isolated Water and Intermolecular Clusters are used to elucidate the properties of water in Metavariscite, AlPO4-H3, AlPO4-8 and VPI-5. The framework density of the aluminophosphates decreases along this sequence, the pore size increases, and the water

  19. Adsorption structure of water molecules on the Be(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yu; Li, Yanfang [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Shuangxi [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhang, Ping, E-mail: zhang-ping@iapcm.ac.cn [LCP, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    By using density functional theory calculations, we systematically investigate the adsorption of water molecules at different coverages on the Be(0001) surface. The coverage dependence of the prototype water structures and energetics for water adlayer growth are systematically studied. The structures, energetics, and electronic properties are calculated and compared with other available studies. Through our systematic investigations, we find that water molecules form clusters or chains on the Be(0001) surface at low coverages. When increasing the water coverage, water molecules tend to form a 2?×?2 hexagonal network on the Be(0001) surface.

  20. MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE. J. The essential role of water-ice clouds in shaping the thermal structure of the martian atmosphere has been long presumed [1] but neglected in GCMs because of the lack of observations and difficulty to predict

  1. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  2. Possible relation of water structural relaxation to water anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    to the dramatic indefinite increase at low temperature in the heat capacity, the compressibility heat capacity CP, and the thermal expansion coefficient P. Moreover, if one extrapolates the temperature, we find that the liquid undergoes a structural transformation coinciding with the onset of an ex

  3. Structural analysis of the Little Water syncline, Beaverhead County, Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponton, James Daniel

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE LITTLE WATER SYNCLINE, BEAVERHEAD COUNTY, MONTANA A Thesis by JAMES DANIEL PONTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject: Geology STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE LITTLE WATER SYNCLINE, BEAVERHEAD COUNTY, MONTANA A Thesis by JAMES DANIEL PONTON Approved as to style and content by: John H. Spa (Chairman of C mittee) Jo M. Logan (Member...

  4. Local Structure Analysis in $Ab$ $Initio$ Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Biswajit; Martelli, Fausto; Car, Roberto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$), was unimodal with most water molecules characterized by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P($I$) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies $among$ water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of th...

  5. ASSOCIATION AMONG FLUID, GRAIN INTAKE AND WEIGHT GAIN IN HOLSTEIN BULL CALVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Ferreira, Marcelo A.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to determine water intake. Forty-four Holstein bull calves were evaluated to investigate the effects of starter intake, body weight, temperature and time to predict water intake. A model was developed using PROC GLM in SAS...

  6. Structure order, local potentials, and physical anomalies of water ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen-bond forms a pair of asymmetric, coupled, H-bridged oscillators with ultra-short-range interactions and memory. hydrogen bond cooperative relaxation and the associated binding electron entrapment and nonbonding electron polarization discriminate water and ice from other usual materials in the physical anomalies. As a strongly correlated fluctuating system, water prefers the statistically mean of tetrahedrally-coordinated structure with a supersolid skin that is elastic, polarized, ice like, hydrophobic, with 3/4 density.

  7. Local Structure Analysis in $Ab$ $Initio$ Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biswajit Santra; Robert A. DiStasio Jr.; Fausto Martelli; Roberto Car

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$), was unimodal with most water molecules characterized by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P($I$) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies $among$ water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of the experimentally observed low- (LDA) and high-density (HDA) amorphous phases of ice are present in the IPES of ambient liquid water. Analysis of the LSI autocorrelation function uncovered a persistence time of $\\sim$ 4 ps---a finding consistent with the fact that natural thermal fluctuations are responsible for transitions between these distinct yet transient local aqueous environments in ambient liquid water.

  8. Thermodynamics, Structure, and Dynamics of Water Confined between Hydrophobic Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar; Sergey V. Buldyrev; Francis W. Starr; Nicolas Giovambattista; H. Eugene Stanley

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of 512 water-like molecules that interact via the TIP5P potential and are confined between two smooth hydrophobic plates that are separated by 1.10 nm. We find that the anomalous thermodynamic properties of water are shifted to lower temperatures relative to the bulk by $\\approx 40$ K. The dynamics and structure of the confined water resemble bulk water at higher temperatures, consistent with the shift of thermodynamic anomalies to lower temperature. Due to this $T$ shift, our confined water simulations (down to $T = 220$ K) do not reach sufficiently low temperature to observe a liquid-liquid phase transition found for bulk water at $T\\approx 215$ K using the TIP5P potential. We find that the different crystalline structures that can form for two different separations of the plates, 0.7 nm and 1.10 nm, have no counterparts in the bulk system, and discuss the relevance to experiments on confined water.

  9. Structural and dynamic properties of SPC/E water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. G. Campo

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    I have investigated the structural and dynamic properties of water by performing a series of molecular dynamic simulations in the range of temperatures from 213 K to 360 K, using the Simple Point Charge-Extended (SPC/E) model. I performed isobaric-isothermal simulations (1 bar) of 1185 water molecules using the GROMACS package. I quantified the structural properties using the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution functions, order parameters, and the hydrogen bond distribution functions, whereas, to analyze the dynamic properties I studied the behavior of the history-dependent bond correlation functions and the non-Gaussian parameter alpha_2(t) of the mean square displacement of water molecules. When the temperature decreases, the translational (tau) and orientational (Q) order parameters are linearly correlated, and both increase indicating an increasing structural order in the systems. The probability of occurrence of four hydrogen bonds and Q both have a reciprocal dependence with T, though the analysis of the hydrogen bond distributions permits to describe the changes in the dynamics and structure of water more reliably. Thus, an increase on the caging effect and the occurrence of long-time hydrogen bonds occur below 293 K, in the range of temperatures in which predominates a four hydrogen bond structure in the system.

  10. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay Kuznetsov; Oleg Motygin

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of $N \\geq 2$ bodies; every structure has the following properties: (i) a time-harmonic wave mode is trapped by it; (ii) some of its bodies (may be none) are motionless, whereas the rest of the bodies (may be none) are heaving at the same frequency as water. The construction of these structures is based on a generalization of the semi-inverse procedure applied earlier for obtaining trapping bodies that are motionless although float freely.

  11. Structural and Dielectric Properties of Quartz-Water Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wander, Matthew C.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure, orientation, and dielectric of water at the quartz|water interface has been examined under different hydration levels using classical molecular dynamics. The properties of 1H?O/10 Ų, 2H?O/10 Ų, 4H?O/10 Ų, and bulk water on quartz have been benchmarked against experimental data. Structurally, the simulations match existing sum-frequency spectroscopy data, which indicate the existence and orientation of both frozen and loosely bound water on the quartz surface. Good agreement has also been found with existing experimental dielectric data for the 1H?O/10 Ų level of hydration, and a clear difference has been found in the values of ?s = 48, ?| = 48, and ?? = 40 for the first slice of a bulk-water-solid interface and ?s= 30, ?| = 30, and ?? = 10 for that of 1H?O/10 Ų water coverage. Overall there is a fundamental difference in shielding between a single interface and the 1H?O/10 Å2 level of hydration.

  12. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  13. Structure and Controls of the Global Virtual Water Trade Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suweis, S; Dalin, C; Hanasaki, N; Rinaldo, A; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I; 10.1029/2011GL046837

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recurrent or ephemeral water shortages are a crucial global challenge, in particular because of their impacts on food production. The global character of this challenge is reflected in the trade among nations of virtual water, i.e. the amount of water used to produce a given commodity. We build, analyze and model the network describing the transfer of virtual water between world nations for staple food products. We find that all the key features of the network are well described by a model that reproduces both the topological and weighted properties of the global virtual water trade network, by assuming as sole controls each country's gross domestic product and yearly rainfall on agricultural areas. We capture and quantitatively describe the high degree of globalization of water trade and show that a small group of nations play a key role in the connectivity of the network and in the global redistribution of virtual water. Finally, we illustrate examples of prediction of the structure of the network under fut...

  14. Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik

    2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.

  15. activity fluid intake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CALVES Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: This study was conducted to determine water intake. Forty-four Holstein bull calves were evaluated to investigate the effects of...

  16. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'. WilliamEnergyMolecular Structure of Water at Gold

  17. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'. WilliamEnergyMolecular Structure of Water at

  18. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'. WilliamEnergyMolecular Structure of Water

  19. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'. WilliamEnergyMolecular Structure of WaterMolecular

  20. Detecting and characterizing mesoscale and submesoscale structures of Mediterranean water from joint seismic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Click Here for Full Article Detecting and characterizing mesoscale and submesoscale structures mesoscale and submesoscale structures of Mediterranean water from joint seismic and hydrographic the imaged structures in terms of mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, of homogeneous layers and of lateral

  1. Accurate Energies and Structures for Large Water Clusters Using the X3LYP Hybrid Density Functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Accurate Energies and Structures for Large Water Clusters Using the X3LYP Hybrid Density FunctionalVed: June 9, 2004; In Final Form: August 10, 2004 We predict structures and energies of water clusters containing up to 19 waters with X3LYP, an extended hybrid density functional designed to describe

  2. AIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the static pressure, / , the slope of the water waves, the air kinematic viscosity. Wave characteristics wereAIR-FLOW STRUCTURE IN THE VERY CLOSE VICINITY OF WIND GENERATED WATER-WAVES Hubert Branger1 the structure of the air flow in the very close vicinity of the water-surface above wind-generated waves. We

  3. The water-benzene interaction: Insight from electronic structure theories Jie Ma,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    The water-benzene interaction: Insight from electronic structure theories Jie Ma,1,2,3 Dario Alfè,2 theories is challenging. Here we assess the ability of a variety of theories to describe a water-benzene- tween water and benzene. Water benzene is an interesting model system because it is a reasonably small

  4. Effects of confinement on water structure and dynamics and on proton transport: a molecular simulation study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirunsit, Pussana

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study structural and dynamic properties of water confined within graphite surfaces. The surfaces are separated at distances varying between 7 and 14.5 Å and the water density is held...

  5. Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

  6. Water dynamics: dependence on local structure probed with vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water dynamics: dependence on local structure probed with vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy­D stretching band of HOD in H2O and molecular dynamics simulations are employed to investigate water dynamics. The wavelength dependence of the measured dynamics demonstrates that different hydrogen bonded water species

  7. Structure and controls of the global virtual water trade network S. Suweis,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konar, Megan

    2011; accepted 28 February 2011; published 17 May 2011. [1] Recurrent or ephemeral water shortages al., 2008]). Due to population growth and economic development, water shortage is thus subjectStructure and controls of the global virtual water trade network S. Suweis,1,2 M. Konar,2 C. Dalin

  8. Geometry and Nanolength Scales versus Interface Interactions: Water Dynamics in AOT Lamellar Structures and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    occur in the water structure and dynamics. At the same time, MD simulations have shown that the mostGeometry and Nanolength Scales versus Interface Interactions: Water Dynamics in AOT Lamellar Structures and Reverse Micelles David E. Moilanen, Emily E. Fenn, Daryl Wong, and M. D. Fayer* Department

  9. INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND WATER TRANSPORT IN THE COFFEE BEAN Ramirez-Martinez A.1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    INTERNAL STRUCTURE AND WATER TRANSPORT IN THE COFFEE BEAN Ramirez-Martinez A.1,2 , Benet J.C.1: Microscope observations gave evidence of the coffee bean structure heterogeneity, whereas, coffee bean, 2007). Morphologically, its beans are covered by different layers or structures (Fig. 1). At drying

  10. Structure and Dynamics of Monolayer Growth at Mineral-Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Structure and Dynamics of Monolayer Growth at Mineral-Water Interfaces Geri Richmond Department insights into structure and dynamics of these interfaces. The driving forces behind adsorption at mineral an important role. In this presentation I will describe our recent studies measuring the structure and dynamics

  11. Structural and dynamical properties of nanoconfined supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oriol Vilanova; Giancarlo Franzese

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk water presents a large number of crystalline and amorphous ices. Hydrophobic nanoconfinement is known to affect the tendency of water to form ice and to reduce the melting temperature. However, a systematic study of the ice phases in nanoconfinement is hampered by the computational cost of simulations at very low temperatures. Here we develop a coarse-grained model for a water monolayer in hydrophobic nanoconfinement and study the formation of ice by Mote Carlo simulations. We find two ice phases: low-density-crystal ice at low pressure and high-density hexatic ice at high pressure, an intermediate phase between liquid and high-density-crystal ice.

  12. Modeling the structure of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithiviraj, Manikandan

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a model of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays and presents new experimental data for CWS viscosities. The model is based on the aerodynamic theory of spray atomization which has been successfully used for Diesel sprays. However...

  13. Water and Solute Flow in a Highly-Structured Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallmark, C. Tom; Wilding, Larry P.; McInnes, Kevin J.; Heuvelman, Willem J.

    Prevention of groundwater contamination by agricultural activities is a high priority in the United States. Water and contaminants often follow particular flow paths through the soil that lead to rapid movement of pesticides out of the rootzone...

  14. Ultrafast structural fluctuations and rearrangements of water's hydrogen bonded network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loparo, Joseph J. (Joseph John)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous chemistry is strongly influenced by water's ability to form an extended network of hydrogen bonds. It is the fluctuations and rearrangements of this network that stabilize reaction products and drive the transport ...

  15. Electronic structure effects in liquid water studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordlund, Dennis; Odelius, Michael; Bluhm, Hendrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Pettersson, Lars G.M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present valence photoelectron emission spectra of liquid water in comparison with gas-phase water, ice close to the melting point, low temperature amorphous and crystalline ice. All aggregation states have major electronic structure changes relative to the free molecule, with rehybridization and development of bonding and anti-bonding states accompanying the hydrogen bond formation. Sensitivity to the local structural order, most prominent in the shape and splitting of the occupied 3a{sub 1} orbital, is understood from the electronic structure averaging over various geometrical structures, and reflects the local nature of the orbital interaction.

  16. Green Water Flow Kinematics and Impact Pressure on a Three Dimensional Model Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage Kusalika Suranjani

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow kinematics of green water due to plunging breaking waves interacting with a simplified, three-dimensional model structure was investigated in laboratory. Two breaking wave conditions were tested: one with waves impinging and breaking...

  17. Effects of Water Content and Alumino-Silicate Sources on the Structure and Properties of Geopolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lizcano, Maricela

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF WATER CONTENT AND ALUMINO-SILICATE SOURCES ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMERS A Dissertation by MARICELA LIZCANO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2011 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Effects of Water Content and Alumino-Silicate Sources on the Structure and Properties of Geopolymer...

  18. Water-wave propagation through an infinite array of floating structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water-wave propagation through an infinite array of floating structures Benjamin G. Carter and P Kingdom May 30, 2012 Abstract The frequency-domain problem of water-wave propagation through affect wave forces. The study of wave propagation through lattices has a long history in many research

  19. Water-wave propagation through an infinite array of cylindrical structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water-wave propagation through an infinite array of cylindrical structures P. McIver Department is made into water-wave propagation through a doubly-periodic array of vertical cylinders extending for which wave propagation without change of amplitude is possible (`passing bands'), and for which

  20. Hydrodynamic and Structural Performance of the Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    Hydrodynamic and Structural Performance of the Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine Prof. Guy across the flow THAWT Concept Transverse Horizontal Axis Water Turbine · Length limited only by stiffness;Options for tidal stream power (1) · Axial flow turbines ("underwater windmills") ­ "Unducted" » MCT (most

  1. Structural order in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    . One promising approach is to develop order metrics order parameters that quantify certain statistical classical molecular dynamics simulations using the extended simple point charge SPC/E model of water. We order. A well- defined theoretical and experimental framework is available for characterizing

  2. Evolutionary Computing for Detection of Retentive Structures in Coastal Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    ,robillia,poty,fonlupt}@lil.univ-littoral.fr, Abstract-- The demography of anchovy fishes in the Gulf of Biscay seems to be related to the presence of so- called "retentive" hydrodynamical structures, that keep fish eggs and larvae in a favorable environment be used to decide fishing quotas or bans for the sake of preserving the natural resource. We propose two

  3. Moisture burst structure in satellite water vapor imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulsh, David Joel

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The moisture burst is a tropical synoptic-scale weather event that typically originates along the ITCZ and has been defined previously in window-channel infrared imagery. This research uses 6. 7-micrometer water vapor absorption band imagery to composite 35... moisture burst events during the North Pacific cool season of 1983-1984. Composite maps are constructed at four times, each 24 h apart, during the life cycle of the moisture burst. A comparative baseline is provided by an additional composite of 35 dates...

  4. Sandia Energy - Wind and Water Materials and Structures Database Download

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home DistributionTransportation Safety HomeWater PowerEnergy

  5. Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Mental Health Clinic Intake Assessment Welcome to the Mental Health Clinic at Boynton Health Clinic. The Medical Social Worker can provide you with resources if you require an evaluation-- 612 Clinic utilizes a short-term model of psychotherapy. This means that we are able to offer eleven

  6. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA /Ml'. WilliamEnergyMolecular Structure of

  7. The Inhomogeneous Structure of Water at Ambient Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed5,AuditTheImpactInforum LIFT Model

  8. Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily B. Moore; Valeria Molinero

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One of water's unsolved puzzles is the question of what determines the lowest temperature to which it can be cooled before freezing to ice. The supercooled liquid has been probed experimentally to near the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH{\\approx}232 K, yet the mechanism of ice crystallization - including the size and structure of critical nuclei - has not yet been resolved. The heat capacity and compressibility of liquid water anomalously increase upon moving into the supercooled region according to a power law that would diverge at Ts{\\approx}225 K,(1,2) so there may be a link between water's thermodynamic anomalies and the crystallization rate of ice. But probing this link is challenging because fast crystallization prevents experimental studies of the liquid below TH. And while atomistic studies have captured water crystallization(3), the computational costs involved have so far prevented an assessment of the rates and mechanism involved. Here we report coarse-grained molecular simulations with the mW water model(4) in the supercooled regime around TH, which reveal that a sharp increase in the fraction of four-coordinated molecules in supercooled liquid water explains its anomalous thermodynamics and also controls the rate and mechanism of ice formation. The simulations reveal that the crystallization rate of water reaches a maximum around 225 K, below which ice nuclei form faster than liquid water can equilibrate. This implies a lower limit of metastability of liquid water just below TH and well above its glass transition temperature Tg{\\approx}136 K. By providing a relationship between the structural transformation in liquid water, its anomalous thermodynamics and its crystallization rate, this work provides a microscopic foundation to the experimental finding that the thermodynamics of water determines the rates of homogeneous nucleation of ice.(5)

  9. The Structure and Transport of Water and Hydrated Ions Within Hydrophobic, Nanoscale Channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, J K; Herberg, J L; Wu, Y; Schwegler, E; Mehta, A

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project includes an experimental and modeling investigation into water and hydrated ion structure and transport at nanomaterials interfaces. This is a topic relevant to understanding the function of many biological systems such as aquaporins that efficiently shuttle water and ion channels that permit selective transport of specific ions across cell membranes. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are model nanoscale, hydrophobic channels that can be functionalized, making them artificial analogs for these biological channels. This project investigates the microscopic properties of water such as water density distributions and dynamics within CNTs using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and the structure of hydrated ions at CNT interfaces via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Another component of this work is molecular simulation, which can predict experimental measurables such as the proton relaxation times, chemical shifts, and can compute the electronic structure of CNTs. Some of the fundamental questions this work is addressing are: (1) what is the length scale below which nanoscale effects such as molecular ordering become important, (2) is there a relationship between molecular ordering and transport?, and (3) how do ions interact with CNT interfaces? These are questions of interest to the scientific community, but they also impact the future generation of sensors, filters, and other devices that operate on the nanometer length scale. To enable some of the proposed applications of CNTs as ion filtration media and electrolytic supercapacitors, a detailed knowledge of water and ion structure at CNT interfaces is critical.

  10. Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnoli, D.; Gilbert, B.; Waychunas, G.A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compared with macroscopic surfaces, the structure of water around nanoparticles is difficult to probe directly. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of particle size and morphology on the time-averaged structure and the dynamics of water molecules around two sizes of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. Interrogation of the simulations via atomic density maps, radial distribution functions and bound water residence times provide insight into the relationships between particle size and morphology and the behavior of interfacial water. Both 1.6 and 2.7 nm particles are predicted to cause the formation of ordered water regions close to the nanoparticle surface, but the extent of localization and ordering, the connectivity between regions of bound water, and the rates of molecular exchange between inner and outer regions are all affected by particle size and morphology. These findings are anticipated to be relevant to understanding the rates of interfacial processes involving water exchange and the transport of aqueous ions to surface sites.

  11. Structure and water permeability of fully hydrated diphytanoylPC Stephanie Tristram-Naglea,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    2010 Keywords: Lipid bilayer structure Volume measurements X-ray scattering Neutron scattering Water-ray scattering from oriented samples, and X-ray and neutron scattering from unilamellar vesicles at T = 30 C. We analysis of neutron and X-ray scattering data. Biophys. J. 95, 2356­2367); this is substantially larger

  12. Structure of water layers on hydrogen-covered Pt electrodes Tanglaw Roman and Axel Gro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universität

    - gies in energy conversion and storage. At the same time, modern electrochemistry becomes increasingly of Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm, Germany The structure of water layers above hydrogen of Theoretical Chemistry Ulm University D-89069 Ulm/Germany Tel.: +49 (0)731 50 22810 Fax: +49 (0)731 50 22819

  13. Structure andhydrogeochemicalfunctioningof a sparkling natural mineral1 water system determined usinga multidisciplinary approach: a case study2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    rootedhydraulically independent permeable structures that arefed by deep CO2-rich crustal20 fluids.The non sites.27 28 Keywords:thermal conditions, CO2, fractured rock, natural mineral water, France29 30 NOTE(Clemente and Villadolid-Abrigo 1993; Lachassagne et al. 2009).42 Sparklingnaturalmineral water systems comprise water, CO2

  14. Layered Organic Structure at the Carbon Tetrachloride-Water Interface Dennis K. Hore, Dave S. Walker, and Geraldine L. Richmond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Layered Organic Structure at the Carbon Tetrachloride-Water Interface Dennis K. Hore, Dave S remediation. The carbon tetrachloride-water interface in particular has been the subject of numerous the density profile across the interface. No detailed studies of the carbon tetrachloride structure

  15. Source waters Several factors influence the selection of source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    impacts of the concentrate dis- charge. Seawater Seawater is taken into a desalination plant ei- ther from have used surface intakes on the open sea. Although surface water intake can affect and be affected

  16. Protein folding mediated by solvation: water expelling and formation of the hydrophobic core occurs after the structure collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margaret S. Cheung; Angel E. Garcia; Jose N. Onuchic

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between structure-search of the native structure and desolvation in protein folding has been explored using a minimalist model. These results support a folding mechanism where most of the structural formation of the protein is achieved before water is expelled from the hydrophobic core. This view integrates water expulsion effects into the funnel energy landscape theory of protein folding. Comparisons to experimental results are shown for the SH3 protein. After the folding transition, a near-native intermediate with partially solvated hydrophobic core is found. This transition is followed by a final step that cooperatively squeezes out water molecules from the partially hydrated protein core.

  17. Structures, Energetics and Spectroscopic Fingerprints of Water Clusters n = 2-24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water's function as a universal solvent and its role in mediating several biological functions that are responsible for sustaining life has created tremendous interest in the understanding of its structure at the molecular level.1 Due to the size of the simulation cells and the sampling time needed to compute many macroscopic properties, most of the initial simulations are performed using a classical force field whereas several processes that involve chemistry are subsequently probed with electronic structure based methods. A significant effort has therefore been devoted towards the development of classical force fields for water.2 Clusters of water molecules are useful in probing the intermolecular interactions at the microscopic level as well as providing information about the subtle energy differences that are associated with different bonding arrangements within a hydrogen bonded network. They moreover render a quantitative picture of the nature and magnitude of the various components of the intermolecular interactions such as exchange, dispersion, induction etc. They can finally serve as a vehicle for the study of the convergence of properties with increasing size.

  18. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  19. Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Structural characterization of water-bearing silicate and aluminosilicate glasses by high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques have been applied to hydrous silicate and aluminosilicate glasses: simple as to completely exclude any of the different previously proposed models for water incorporation in silicate

  20. Water column structure during deposition of Middle DevonianLower Mississippian black and green/gray shales of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenig, Fabien

    26 August 2004 Abstract The extractable organic matter of organic-rich black shales and associated is analyzed to constrain the water column structure during their deposition. All black shale samples contain water euxinic conditions during black shale deposition. Analysis of green/gray shales also reveals

  1. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Geologic and geophysical investigation of a small water retention structure, Salado, Tx 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, James Lewis

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Small Earth Dam Caused by Piping Erosion Initiated by a Leak in Overflow Pipe, Bryan, TX. 4. Map Showing the Location of Roger's Pond . . 5 Structural Setting of the Balcones Fault Zone Along With the Divisions of the Edward's Aquifer 6 NNW... ? SSE Cross-Section of the Strata That Comprises the Water Table Portion of the Edwards Aquifer in Bell County. 12 7 Soils Map of Roger's Pond and Surrounding Area. 14 8 Observation Well Installed Below the Dam on the Downstremn Side. . . . . 9 Turf...

  3. Structure and Power in Multilateral Negotiations: An Application to French Water Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Leo K.; Goodhue, Rachael E; Rausser, Gordon C.; Thoyer, Sophie; Morardet, Sylvie; Rio, Patrick

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonfarmers care about residual water ?ows, which are gross ?specify minimum residual ?ows of water downstream of eachwould increase the residual ?ows of water. Such residual ?ow

  4. Reconstruction of Long-Lived Radionuclide Intakes for Techa Riverside Residents: Cesium-137

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Peremyslova, L. M.; Shagina, N. B.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive contamination of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) occurred from 1949–1956 due to routine and accidental releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak Production Association. The long-lived radionuclides in the releases were 90Sr and 137Cs. Contamination of the components of the Techa River system resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside villages. Data on radionuclide intake with diet are used to estimate internal dose in the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS), which was elaborated for the assessment of radiogenic risk for Techa Riverside residents. The 90Sri ntake function was recently improved taking into account the recently available archival data on radionuclide releases and in-depth analysis of the extensive data on 90Sr measurements in Techa Riverside residents. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dietary intake of 137Cs by Techa Riverside residents. The 137Cs intake with river water used for drinking was reconstructed on the basis of the 90Sr intake-function and the concentration ratio 137Cs/90Sr in river water. Intake via 137Cs transfer from floodplain soil to grass and cows’ milk was evaluated for the first time. As a result, the maximal 137Cs intake level was indicated near the site of releases in upper-Techa River settlements (8,000–9,000 kBq). For villages located on the lower Techa River the 137Cs intake was significantly less (down to 300 kBq). Cows’ milk was the main source of 137Cs in diet in the upper-Techa.

  5. High energy-density water: density functional theory calculations of structure and electrical conductivity.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the properties of water is essential for correctly describing the physics of shock waves in water as well as the behavior of giant planets. By using finite temperature density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure and electronic conductivity of water across three phase transitions (molecular liquid/ ionic liquid/super-ionic/electronic liquid). There is a rapid transition to ionic conduction at 2000 K and 2 g/cm{sup 3} while electronic conduction dominates at temperatures above 6000 K. We predict that the fluid bordering the super-ionic phase is conducting above 4000 K and 100 GPa. Earlier work instead has the super-ionic phase bordering an insulating fluid, with a transition to metallic fluid not until 7000 K and 250 GPa. The tools and expertise developed during the project can be applied to other molecular systems, for example, methane, ammonia, and CH foam. We are now well positioned to treat also complex molecular systems in the HEDP regime of phase-space.

  6. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  7. The Potential Impacts of OTEC Intakes on Aquatic Organisms at an OTEC Site under Development on Kauai, HI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oney, Stephen K. [OTE Corporation; Hogan, Timothy [Alden Research Laboratory; Steinbeck, John [Tenera Environmental

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a marine renewable energy technology with the potential to contribute significantly to the baseload power needs of tropical island communities and remote U.S. military installations. As with other renewable energy technologies, however, there are potential challenges to its commercialization: technological, financial, social, and environmental. Given the large volumes of seawater required to drive the electricity-producing cycle, there is potential for the intakes to negatively impact the marine resources of the source waterbody through the impingement and entrainment of marine organisms. The goal of this project was to identify feasible warm water intake designs for a land-based OTEC facility proposed for development in Port Allen, Kauai and to characterize the populations of ichthyoplankton near the proposed warm water intake location that could be at risk of entrainment. The specific objectives of this project were to: • Complete a site-specific assessment of available and feasible warm water intake technologies to determine the best intake designs for minimizing impacts to aquatic organisms at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. • Complete a field sampling program to collect biological data to characterize the baseline populations of ichthyoplankton near the sites being considered for the warm water intake at the proposed land-based OTEC site in Port Allen, Kauai. Various intake design options are presented with the focus on providing adequate environmental protection to the local ichthyoplankton population while providing an economically viable intake option to the OTEC developer. Further definition by NOAA and other environmental regulators is required to further refine the designs presented to meet all US regulations for future OTEC development.

  8. Surfactant Adsorption at the Salt/Water Interface: Comparing the Conformation and Interfacial Water Structure for Selected Surfactants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Surfactant Adsorption at the Salt/Water Interface: Comparing the Conformation and Interfacial Water in situ spectroscopic measurements monitoring the adsorption of a series of carboxylate surfactants onto, vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy (VSFS), to examine the effect that surfactant adsorption has

  9. Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick Spinney, and Heather C. Allen*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at the Air-Aqueous Interface of Divalent Cation and Nitrate Solutions Man Xu, Rick, Columbus, Ohio 43210 ReceiVed: July 24, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: December 4, 2008 The water surface structure of aqueous magnesium, calcium, and strontium nitrate solutions with six to seven water

  10. Understanding barotrauma in fish passing hydro structures: a global strategy for sustainable development of water resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Boys, Craig A.; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Silva, Luiz G.; Brauner, Colin J.; Mallen-Cooper, Martin; Phonekhampeng, Oudom; Thorncraft, Garry; Singhanouvong, Douangkham

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Freshwater fishes are one of the most imperiled groups of vertebrates and species declines have been linked to a number of anthropogenic influences. This is alarming as the diversity and stability of populations are at risk. In addition, freshwater fish serve as important protein sources, particularly in developing countries. One of the focal activities thought to influence freshwater fish population declines is water resource development, which is anticipated to increase over the next several decades. For fish encountering hydro structures, such as passing through hydroturbines, there may be a rapid decrease in pressure which can lead to injuries commonly referred to as barotraumas. The authors summarize the research to date that has examined the effects of rapid pressure changes on fish and outline the most important factors to consider (i.e., swim bladder morphology, depth of acclimation, migration pattern and life stage) when examining the susceptibility of barotraumas for fish of interest.

  11. Effects of water chemistry on NF/RO membrane structure and performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo, Yibing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    regulated some PAHs in the drinking water, but only Benzo-a-water of7 ppb, 700 ppb, 1ppm, 10 ppm, respectively [45]. PAHs

  12. EEO Intake Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOEDepartment1-E WholesaleEEO Intake Form EEO Intake

  13. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and dynamics in waters of the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aho, J.M.; Anderson, C.S.; Floyd, K.B.; Negus, M.T.; Meador, M.R.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research conducted as part of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) has elucidated many factors that are important to fish population and community dynamics in a variety of habitats on the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Information gained from these studies is useful in predicting fish responses to SRP operations. The overall objective of the CCWS was (1) to determine the environmental effects of SRP cooling water withdrawals and discharges and (2) to determine the significance of the cooling water impacts on the environment. The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine the effects of thermal plumes on anadromous and resident fishes, including overwintering effects, in the SRP swamp and associated tributary streams; (2) assess fish spawning and locate nursery grounds on the SRP; (3) examine the level of use of the SRP by spawning fish from the Savannah River, this objective was shared with the Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; and (4) determine impacts of cooling-water discharges on fish population and community attributes. Five studies were designed to address the above topics. The specific objectives and a summary of the findings of each study are presented.

  14. The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Thomas; Argyle, Morris; Popa, Tiberiu

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a component of conventional high temperature water gas shift iron oxide based catalysts. The catalysts contained Fe-Al-Cr-Cu-O and were synthesized by co-precipitation. A series of catalysts were prepared with 5 to 50 wt% Al2O3, with 8 wt% Cr2O3, 4 wt% CuO, and the balance Fe2O3. All of the catalysts were compared to a reference WGS catalyst (88 wt% FeOx, 8 wt% Cr2O3, and 4 wt% CuO) with no alumina. Alumina addition to conventional high temperature water gas shift catalysts at concentrations of approximately 15 wt% increased CO conversion rates and increase thermal stability. A series of high temperature water gas shift catalysts containing iron, chromia, and copper oxides were prepared with small amounts of added ceria in the system Fe-Cr-Cu-Ce-O. The catalysts were also tested kinetically under WGS conditions. 2-4 wt% ceria addition (at the expense of the iron oxide content) resulted in increased reaction rates (from 22-32% higher) compared to the reference catalyst. The project goal of a 10,000 liter per day WGS-membrane reactor was achieved by a device operating on coal derived syngas containing significant amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. The membrane flux was equivalent to 52 scfh/ft2 based on a 600 psi syngas inlet pressure and corresponded to membranes costing $191 per square foot. Over 40 hours of iv exposure time to syngas has been achieved for a double membrane reactor. Two modules of the Chart reactor were tested under coal syngas for over 75 hours with a single module tested for 50 hours. The permeance values for the Chart membranes were similar to the REB reactor though total flux was reduced due to significantly thicker membranes. Overall testing of membrane reactors on coal derived syngas was over 115 hours for all reactors tested. Testing of the REB double membrane device exceeded 40 hours. Performance of the double membrane reactor has been similar to the results for the single reactor with good maintenance of flux even after these long exposures to hydrogen sulfide. Of special interest is that the flux is highest at the start of each e

  15. Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Structure and Electronic Configurations of the Intermediates of Water Oxidation in Blue Ruthenium Dimer Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Jurss, Jonah W.; Concepcion, Javier J.; Zakharova, Taisiya; Alperovich, Igor; Meyer, Thomas J.; Pushkar, Yulia (Purdue); (UNC)

    2013-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic O{sub 2} evolution with cis,cis-[(bpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)Ru{sup III}ORu{sup III}(OH{sub 2})(bpy){sub 2}]{sup 4+} (bpy is 2,2-bipyridine), the so-called blue dimer, the first designed water oxidation catalyst, was monitored by UV-vis, EPR, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with ms time resolution. Two processes were identified, one of which occurs on a time scale of 100 ms to a few seconds and results in oxidation of the catalyst with the formation of an intermediate, here termed [3,4]'. A slower process occurring on the time scale of minutes results in the decay of this intermediate and O{sub 2} evolution. Spectroscopic data suggest that within the fast process there is a short-lived transient intermediate, which is a precursor of [3,4]'. When excess oxidant was used, a highly oxidized form of the blue dimer [4,5] was spectroscopically resolved within the time frame of the fast process. Its structure and electronic state were confirmed by EPR and XAS. As reported earlier, the [3,4]' intermediate likely results from reaction of [4,5] with water. While it is generated under strongly oxidizing conditions, it does not display oxidation of the Ru centers past [3,4] according to EPR and XAS. EXAFS analysis demonstrates a considerably modified ligand environment in [3,4]'. Raman measurements confirmed the presence of the O-O fragment by detecting a new vibration band in [3,4]' that undergoes a 46 cm{sup -1} shift to lower energy upon {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O exchange. Under the conditions of the experiment at pH 1, the [3,4]' intermediate is the catalytic steady state form of the blue dimer catalyst, suggesting that its oxidation is the rate-limiting step.

  17. Diverse and tunable electronic structures of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides for photocatalytic water splitting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Li, Xi-Bo; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: ppeng@hnu.edu.cn, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China) [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Peng, Ping, E-mail: ppeng@hnu.edu.cn, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The family of bulk metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (APX{sub 3}, A = M{sup II}, M{sub 0.5}{sup I}M{sub 0.5}{sup III}; X = S, Se; M{sup I}, M{sup II}, and M{sup III} represent Group-I, Group-II, and Group-III metals, respectively) has attracted great attentions because such materials not only own magnetic and ferroelectric properties, but also exhibit excellent properties in hydrogen storage and lithium battery because of the layered structures. Many layered materials have been exfoliated into two-dimensional (2D) materials, and they show distinct electronic properties compared with their bulks. Here we present a systematical study of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides by density functional theory calculations. The results show that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides have very low formation energies, which indicates that the exfoliation of single layer APX{sub 3} should not be difficult. The family of single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides exhibits a large range of band gaps from 1.77 to 3.94 eV, and the electronic structures are greatly affected by the metal or the chalcogenide atoms. The calculated band edges of metal phosphorus trichalcogenides further reveal that single-layer ZnPSe{sub 3}, CdPSe{sub 3}, Ag{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5}PSe{sub 3}, and Ag{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}PX{sub 3} (X = S and Se) have both suitable band gaps for visible-light driving and sufficient over-potentials for water splitting. More fascinatingly, single-layer Ag{sub 0.5}Sc{sub 0.5}PSe{sub 3} is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the calculated optical absorption further convinces that such materials own outstanding properties for light absorption. Such results demonstrate that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides own high stability, versatile electronic properties, and high optical absorption, thus such materials have great chances to be high efficient photocatalysts for water-splitting.

  18. alcohol intake myocardial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26 Feedback control 27 MathematicalU N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications 256 Is Withholding Moderate Wine Intake...

  19. alcohol intake cigarette: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26 Feedback control 27 MathematicalU N C O R R E C T E D P R O O F 1 Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications 288 Is Withholding Moderate Wine Intake...

  20. Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes on the Hydrogen Bond Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes emissions energy source is hydrogen. Hydrogen powered vehicles using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and hydrophilic aggregates.1-4 Hydrogen fuel cells operate through the oxidation of hydrogen gas at the anode

  1. Corrosion of Target and Structural Materials in Water Irradiated by an 800 MeV Proton Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrosion of Target and Structural Materials in Water Irradiated by an 800 MeV Proton Beam Darryl P National Laboratory Los Alamos, NM 87545 U.S.A. Abstract Radiation enhanced, aqueous corrosion of solid. In this paper we briefly describe our current methods for control and in situ monitoring of corrosion

  2. Detailed Hydration Maps of Benzene and Cyclohexane Reveal Distinct Water Structures Tanya M. Raschke* and Michael Levitt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raschke, Tanya M.

    Detailed Hydration Maps of Benzene and Cyclohexane Reveal Distinct Water Structures Tanya M of the hydrophobic solutes benzene and cyclohexane were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations O and H atoms surrounding either benzene or cyclohexane were generated from the simulation data. MD

  3. Sudden structural change at ati air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrile-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Sudden structural change at ati air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrile change in an air/acetonitrile-water interface as the solution composition varies; the abruptness of which and in the polarization of the signal from the acetonitrile molecules in the interface observed using infrared + visible

  4. Water Structure at Air/Acetonitrile Aqueous Solution Interfaces Yi Rao, Nicholas J. Turro, and Kenneth B. Eisenthal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Water Structure at Air/Acetonitrile Aqueous Solution Interfaces Yi Rao, Nicholas J. Turro organized beneath an acetonitrile monolayer at the air/acetonitrile aqueous solution interface? The method-like", and the non-hydrogen bonded "free" OD, responded differently as the acetonitrile bulk concentration

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of water structure and diffusion in silica nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourg, I.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model 64 forcoefficient of bulk liquid SPC/E water (D 0 = 2.4 ? 0.4 ?To account for the fact that the SPC/E model over- estimates

  6. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Lithium vanadyl oxalatophosphite: Influence of the water content on the crystal structures and the dehydration scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auguste, S.; Alonzo, V. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France); Bataille, T. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Université de Rennes 1, CNRS, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France); Le Pollès, L. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France); Cañón-Mancisidor, W.; Venegas-Yazigi, D. [Facultad de Quimia y Biologia, Universitad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla, 40 Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA (Chile); Le Fur, E., E-mail: eric.le-fur@ensc-rennes.fr [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new lithium vanadyl oxalatophosphites have been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The respective formula are Li{sub 2}(VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 6H{sub 2}O (1) and Li{sub 2}(VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 4H{sub 2}O (2). The structures of the compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic symmetry in space group P-1, a=6.3592(2) Å, b=8.0789(3) Å, c=9.1692(3) Å, ?=64.390(2), ?=87.277(2)°, ?=67.624(2) and, compound 2 in monoclinic symmetry, space group P2{sub 1}/a, a=6.3555(2) Å b=12.6368(7) Å c=9.0242(4) Å ?=105.167(3)°. The vanadium phosphite framework consists of infinite chains of corner-sharing vanadium octahedra and hydrogenophosphite tetrahedra. The oxalate groups ensure the connection between the chains. The lithium ions and the water molecules are located between the anionic [(VO){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sup 2?} layers. Thermal behavior of both compounds was carefully studied by combining thermogravimetric analyses and thermal dependant X-ray diffraction in order to study the thermal stability of the layered oxalatophosphites and to see the influence of the decomposition of the carbon-based anions into the final lithium vanadyl phosphate. Various intermediate phases were evidenced and for both compounds the final product was LiVOPO{sub 4}. -- Graphical abstract: Two new lithium vanadyl oxalatophosphites layered compounds, Li{sub 2} (VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 6H{sub 2}O (1) and Li{sub 2} (VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 4H{sub 2}O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized. Lithium ions and water molecules are located between the anionic [(VO){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sup 2?} layers. Thermal behaviors were carefully studied by thermogravimetric and thermal dependant X-ray diffraction. Various intermediate phases were evidenced and for both compounds the final product was LiVOPO{sub 4}. Highlights: • The first lithium vanadium oxalatophosphite have been synthesized hydrothermally. • The structure of these compounds is related to vanadium oxalato-phosphates. • Hydrogen bonding in starting material influences the intermediate phase structures. • Thermal decomposition evidences two Li{sub 2}[(VO){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}] anhydrous polymorphs.

  8. Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Methanesulfonic Acid Revealed by Phase-Sensitive Sum Frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Structure at Aqueous Solution Surfaces of Atmospherically Relevant Dimethyl Sulfoxide States ReceiVed: August 26, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 9, 2010 Interfacial water. Through isotopic dilution, we probed bulk water hydrogen bonding strength using the vibrational frequency

  9. Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties of Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullough, Richard D.

    Self-Assembly of Conjugated Polymers at the Air/Water Interface. Structure and Properties direct structural evidence describing conjugated polymer self-assembly at the air-water interface of amphiphilic regioregular polythiophenes (e.g., poly(3-dodecyl-3-(2,5,8- trioxanonyl)-2,5-bithiophene), polymer

  10. Correlating structure and thermodynamics of hydrophobicâ??hydrophilic ion pairs in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlating Structure and Thermodynamics of Hydrophobic-hydration structure and thermodynamics associated with thefunction) with the thermodynamics (potential of mean force

  11. Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Haidan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manifesting in fewer/weaker hydrogen bonds and structuralstructures with weaker hydrogen-bonding is recorded viais characteristic of the hydrogen bond network in water. The

  12. Reliability of concrete in the main structures of the Boguchany hydroelectric station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyadov, Yu.D.; Semenok, S.N.; Sukhotskaya, S.S. [and others

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the construction site of the Boguchany hydroelectric station more than half of the entire volume of concrete is being placed in the main structures. The stage related to the construction of the headwall of the water intakes and pressure conduits, formation of the downstream face, transfer of the diverted flow to the permanent bottom outlets, and start of concreting operations on the hydrostation powerhouse is coming.

  13. Ab initio Equation of State data for hydrogen, helium, and water and the internal structure of Jupiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Nettelmann; B. Holst; A. Kietzmann; M. French; R. Redmer; D. Blaschke

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The equation of state of hydrogen, helium, and water effects interior structure models of giant planets significantly. We present a new equation of state data table, LM-REOS, generated by large scale quantum molecular dynamics simulations for hydrogen, helium, and water in the warm dense matter regime, i.e.for megabar pressures and temperatures of several thousand Kelvin, and by advanced chemical methods in the complementary regions. The influence of LM-REOS on the structure of Jupiter is investigated and compared with state-of-the-art results within a standard three-layer model consistent with astrophysical observations of Jupiter. Our new Jupiter models predict an important impact of mixing effects of helium in hydrogen with respect to an altered compressibility and immiscibility.

  14. The Individual and Collective Effects of Exact Exchange and Dispersion Interactions on the Ab Initio Structure of Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert A. DiStasio Jr.; Biswajit Santra; Zhaofeng Li; Xifan Wu; Roberto Car

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we report the results of a series of density functional theory (DFT) based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of ambient liquid water using a hierarchy of exchange-correlation (XC) functionals to investigate the individual and collective effects of exact exchange (Exx), via the PBE0 hybrid functional, non-local vdW/dispersion interactions, via a fully self-consistent density-dependent dispersion correction, and approximate nuclear quantum effects (aNQE), via a 30 K increase in the simulation temperature, on the microscopic structure of liquid water. Based on these AIMD simulations, we found that the collective inclusion of Exx, vdW, and aNQE as resulting from a large-scale AIMD simulation of (H$_2$O)$_{128}$ at the PBE0+vdW level of theory, significantly softens the structure of ambient liquid water and yields an oxygen-oxygen structure factor, $S_{\\rm OO}(Q)$, and corresponding oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function, $g_{\\rm OO}(r)$, that are now in quantitative agreement with the best available experimental data. This level of agreement between simulation and experiment as demonstrated herein originates from an increase in the relative population of water molecules in the interstitial region between the first and second coordination shells, a collective reorganization in the liquid phase which is facilitated by a weakening of the hydrogen bond strength by the use of the PBE0 hybrid XC functional, coupled with a relative stabilization of the resultant disordered liquid water configurations by the inclusion of non-local vdW/dispersion interactions.

  15. Mineral balances, including in drinking water, estimated for Merced County dairy herds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Santos, Jose Eduardo P.; Tabone, Tom J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (1994). TABLE 3. Estimates of daily mineral intake,drinking-water mineral contributionand net mineral excretion in lactating cows on Merced County

  16. Non-intrusive water utility monitoring and free-space load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuman, Sabrina M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents a non-intrusive, single-point sensing scheme to monitor the water usage for various loads on a water utility pipe network through the vibration of a pipe near the water intake source. Experiments with ...

  17. Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

  18. Thermal desalination : structural optimization and integration in clean power and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zak, Gina Marie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large number of resources are dedicated to seawater desalination and will only grow as world-wide water scarcity increases. In arid areas with high temperature and salinity seawater, thermal desalination and power plants ...

  19. EEO Intake Form | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome | Documents MemorandumEEO Intake Form EEO

  20. Structure and Dynamics of the Instantaneous Water/Vapor Interface Revisited by Path-Integral and Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Jan; Spura, Thomas; Karhan, Kristof; Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Hassanali, Ali A; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and dynamics of the water/vapor interface is revisited by means of path-integral and second-generation Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with an instantaneous surface definition [A. P. Willard and D. Chandler, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 1954 (2010)]. In agreement with previous studies, we find that one of the OH bonds of the water molecules in the topmost layer is pointing out of the water into the vapor phase, while the orientation of the underlying layer is reversed. Therebetween, an additional water layer is detected, where the molecules are aligned parallel to the instantaneous water surface.

  1. amino acid intake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    protein intake (PDI) and net portal appearance rate of amino acids by continuous infusion of para-aminohippuric acid via the mesenteric catheter. The amino-acid appearance...

  2. Relationships between circadian rhythms and ethanol intake in mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.2.3. Ethanol Vapor Sessions . . . . . . . . .4.2.4.scheduling a?ects subsequent voluntary ethanol 2.1.of circadian period to ethanol intake . . . . . . . . . .

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors....

  4. Structure and Dynamics of Cold Water Super-Earths: The Case of Occluded CH4 and its Outgassing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Amit; Podolak, Morris

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the transport of methane in the external water envelopes surrounding water-rich super-Earths and estimate its outgassing into the atmosphere. We investigate the influence of methane on the thermodynamics and mechanics of the water mantle. We find that including methane in the water matrix introduces a new phase (filled ice) resulting in hotter planetary interiors. This effect renders the super-ionic and reticulating phases accessible to relatively low mass planets lacking a H/He atmosphere. We model the thermal and structural profile of the planetary crust and discuss five possible crustal regimes. The formation of methane clathrate in the subsurface is shown to inhibit the formation of a subterranean ocean. This effect results in increased stresses on the lithosphere making modes of ice plate tectonics possible. The dynamics of the tectonic plates are analysed. We derive overturn and resurfacing time scales as well as the melt fraction underneath spreading centers. Ice mantle dynamics is found to be...

  5. COOLING WATER ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES AT U.S. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Vine

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), for the purpose of providing a status report on the challenges and opportunities facing the U.S. commercial nuclear energy industry in the area of plant cooling water supply. The report was prompted in part by recent Second Circuit and Supreme Court decisions regarding cooling water system designs at existing thermo-electric power generating facilities in the U.S. (primarily fossil and nuclear plants). At issue in the courts have been Environmental Protection Agency regulations that define what constitutes “Best Technology Available” for intake structures that withdraw cooling water that is used to transfer and reject heat from the plant’s steam turbine via cooling water systems, while minimizing environmental impacts on aquatic life in nearby water bodies used to supply that cooling water. The report was also prompted by a growing recognition that cooling water availability and societal use conflicts are emerging as strategic energy and environmental issues, and that research and development (R&D) solutions to emerging water shortage issues are needed. In particular, cooling water availability is an important consideration in siting decisions for new nuclear power plants, and is an under-acknowledged issue in evaluating the pros and cons of retrofitting cooling towers at existing nuclear plants. Because of the significant ongoing research on water issues already being performed by industry, the national laboratories and other entities, this report relies heavily on ongoing work. In particular, this report has relied on collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), including its recent work in the area of EPA regulations governing intake structures in thermoelectric cooling water systems.

  6. Biofouling-resistant ceragenin-modified materials and structures for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  7. IN SITU STUDIES OF AQUEOUS CORROSION OF TARGET AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS IN WATER IRRADIATED BY AN 800 MeV PROTON BEAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have measured the corrosion rates of aluminum 6061, copper of corrosion. We will also discuss our ideas for making in situ measurements of water radiolysis using opticalIN SITU STUDIES OF AQUEOUS CORROSION OF TARGET AND STRUCTURAL MATERIALS IN WATER IRRADIATED

  8. Role of Specific Cations and Water Entropy on the Stability of Branched DNA Motif Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    energy barrier is dominated by entropic effects that result from the decreased surface area, Bangalore, India 560012 Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte computer simulations in explicit water and salt on a model TWJ and use free energy calculations to quantify

  9. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghose, S.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the (010) surface of goethite. Geochem. Trans. 9, 1–16.Con?rmation of the surface structure of goethite (a-FeOOH. ,phosphated goethite by infrared spectroscopy. Soil Sci. Soc.

  10. Original article Dynamic of voluntary intake, feeding behaviour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    square design, a late-cut mixed grass hay, an early-cut cocksfoot hay and an early-cut lucerne hay and lucerne respectively. Voluntary DM intake was 1000, 1484 and 1608 g (P and lucerne respectively. Differences in voluntary intake among hays were mostly related to differences

  11. Probabilistic modeling of the corrosion of steel structures in marine water-development works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekker, A. T.; Lyubimov, V. S.; Kovalenko, R. G.; Aleksandrov, A. V.

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering that corrosion takes place as a random process over time, a a probabilistic approach was utilized in this paper. The corrosion of metallic sheet piling employed in the fascia wall of a bulwerk is considered as an example. A stochastic model is constructed on the base of a modified Weibull distribution function with consideration of parameters of the corrosion process as a function of time. One of the factors defining the corrosion rate of the sheet piling is the degree of access of a section of the wall to the zone of variable water level, or the underwater zone. The type of corrosion-continuous or local-is another factor. The accuracy of corrosion prediction in the underwater zone is higher than that in the zone of variable water level.

  12. The detection and modelling of surface thermal structures and ground water discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Douglas Vincent

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , Southern Illinois University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Earl R. Hoskins On March 29, 1973, data were collected by a thermal infrared scanner mounted in a twin-engine aircraft over a 55-mile stretch of the Clark Fork River in northwestern... on a VAX Il/750 interfaced with an I'S Model 70 processing system. Both qualitative and quantitative processing techniques were employed to identify and describe the surface temperature patterns and ground water discharges into the river. Computer...

  13. High Throughput Identification, Purification and Structural Characterization of Water Soluble Protein Complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong,, Ming; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Liu, Hui-Hai; Malik, J.; Geller, Jil; Yang, Li; Choi, M.; Chandonia, John-Marc; Arbelaez, Pablo; Sterling, H. J.; Typke, Dieter; Shatsky, Max; Brenner, Steve; Fisher, Susan; Williams, Evan; Szakal, Evelin; Allen, S.; Hall, S. C.; Hazen, Terry; Witkowska, H. E.; Jin, Jiming; Glaeser, Robert; Biggin, Mark

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Our scheme for the tagless purification of water soluble complexes. 10 g of protein from a crude bacterial extract is first fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and then by a series of chromatographic steps: anion exchange (IEX), hydrophobic interaction (HIC), and finally size exclusion (Gel Filtration). Fractions from the last chromatography step are trypsin digested and peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagents to allow multiplexing and quantitation during mass spectrometric analysis. Elution profiles of identified proteins are then subjected to clustering analysis.

  14. Reynolds number dependence of the coherent structure in an axisymmetric water jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tonanont, Anake

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the flowfield by determining the mean flow profiles and the axial velocity fluctuation profiles. The flowfield measurements for three Reynolds numbers turbulent jets were undertaken using hot- film and laser anemometers. All the experimental work reported... LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 Schematic diagram of water jet test facility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Forward scattered light collection. 3 Complete dual beam LDU system. 13 4 Axial variation of jet half width, Re=120, 000...

  15. Interaction of Groundwater and Surface Water in the Williston and Powder River Structural Basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    , Rapid City, SD 57702, email: jbednar@usgs.gov Groundwater availability in the Lower Tertiary and Upper in parts of Montana and Wyoming. Both structural basins are in the forefront of energy development associated with measuring streamflow, only fall estimates of base flow were used in the study. A net balance

  16. Modeling water column structure and suspended particulate matter on the Middle Atlantic continental shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Grace C.

    that contributed to the evolution of observed thermal structure and resuspension of particulate matter during resuspension processes. It is concluded that wave-current bottom shear stress was clearly the most important process for sediment resuspension during and following both hurricanes. Discrepancies between modeled

  17. California Fruit & Vegetable Intake Calibration Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiSogra, Charles; Hudes, Mark

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SPINACH SALAD/CELERY/TOMATO SALAD/CORN SALAD/CORN/CARROT SALAD/CORN/LETTUCE SALAD/CORN/PEAS SALAD/CORN/TOMATO SALAD/CORN/WATER

  18. Preliminary structural design conceptualization for composite rotor for verdant power water current turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paquette, J. A.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Verdant Power Inc. (VPI) have partnered under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a new kinetic hydropower rotor. The rotor features an improved hydrodynamic and structural design which features state-of-the-art technology developed for the wind industry. The new rotor will have higher energy capture, increased system reliability, and reduction of overall cost of energy. This project was divided into six tasks: (1) Composite Rotor Project Planning and Design Specification; (2) Baseline Fatigue Testing and Failure analysis; (3) Develop Blade/Rotor Performance Model; (4) Hydrofoil Survey and Selection; (5) FEM Structural Design; and (6) Develop Candidate Rotor Designs and Prepare Final Report.

  19. Engine Air Intake Manifold Having Built In Intercooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles E. (Westland, MI)

    2000-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbocharged V type engine can be equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation cooler integrated into the intake manifold, so as to achieve efficiency, cost reductions and space economization improvements. The cooler can take the form of a tube-shell heat exchanger that utilizes a cylindrical chamber in the air intake manifold as the heat exchanger housing. The intake manifold depends into the central space formed by the two banks of cylinders on the V type engine, such that the central space is effectively utilized for containing the manifold and cooler.

  20. A Holistic Look at Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact Under Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Veil, John A.; Puder, Markus G.; Littleton, Debra J.; Johnson, Nancy

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that “the location, design, construction, and capacity of cooling water intake structures reflect the best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact.” As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) develops new regulations to implement Section 316(b), much of the debate has centered on adverse impingement and entrainment impacts of cooling-water intake structures. Depending on the specific location and intake layout, once-through cooling systems withdrawing many millions of gallons of water per day can, to a varying degree, harm fish and other aquatic organisms in the water bodies from which the coolingmore »water is withdrawn. Therefore, opponents of once-through cooling systems have encouraged the EPA to require wet or dry cooling tower systems as the best technology available (BTA), without considering site-specific conditions.However, within the context of the broader scope of the CWA mandate, this focus seems too narrow. Therefore, this article examines the phrase “minimizing adverse environmental impact” in a holistic light. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of the terms “environmental” and “minimizing.” Congress chose “environmental” in lieu of other more narrowly focused terms like “impingement and entrainment,” “water quality,” or “aquatic life.” In this light, BTA for cooling-water intake structures must minimize the entire suite of environmental impacts, as opposed to just those associated with impingement and entrainment. Wet and dry cooling tower systems work well to minimize entrainment and impingement, but they introduce other equally important impacts because they impose an energy penalty on the power output of the generating unit. The energy penalty results from a reduction in plant operating efficiency and an increase in internal power consumption. As a consequence of the energy penalty, power companies must generate additional electricity to achieve the same net output. This added production leads to additional environmental impacts associated with extraction and processing of the fuel, air emissions from burning the fuel, and additional evaporation of freshwater supplies during the cooling process. Wet towers also require the use of toxic biocides that are subsequently discharged or disposed. The other term under consideration, “minimizing,” does not equal “eliminating.” Technologies may be available to minimize but not totally eliminate adverse environmental impacts.« less

  1. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  3. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  4. Effect of hydrogel particle additives on water-accessible pore structure of sandy soils: A custom pressure plate apparatus and capillary bundle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Wei; D. J. Durian

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To probe the effects of hydrogel particle additives on the water-accessible pore structure of sandy soils, we introduce a custom pressure plate method in which the volume of water expelled from a wet granular packing is measured as a function of applied pressure. Using a capillary bundle model, we show that the differential change in retained water per pressure increment is directly related to the cumulative cross-sectional area distribution $f(r)$ of the water-accessible pores with radii less than $r$. This is validated by measurements of water expelled from a model sandy soil composed of 2 mm diameter glass beads. In particular, the expelled water is found to depend dramatically on sample height and that analysis using the capillary bundle model gives the same pore size distribution for all samples. The distribution is found to be approximately log-normal, and the total cross-sectional area fraction of the accessible pore space is found to be $f_0=0.34$. We then report on how the pore distribution and total water-accessible area fraction are affected by superabsorbent hydrogel particle additives, uniformly mixed into a fixed-height sample at varying concentrations. Under both fixed volume and free swelling conditions, the total area fraction of water-accessible pore space in a packing decreases exponentially as the gel concentration increases. The size distribution of the pores is significantly modified by the swollen hydrogel particles, such that large pores are clogged while small pores are formed.

  5. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates into Existing Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10 percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15 percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100 percent, and were often greater than 25 percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  6. EA-1523: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modifications at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's West Hackberry Raw Water Intake Structure Site, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana

  7. Water ice permafrost on Mars: Layering structure and subsurface distribution according to HEND/Odyssey and MOLA/MGS data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuber, Maria

    . The first dataset measures the content of hydrogen (in the form of water or hydroxyl) in the soil previously analyzed neutron and gamma-ray data that subsurface water ice is present within this region of heavy water nuclei, D, and 2.2-MeV gamma-ray photons. Measurements of neutrons and 2.2-MeV gamma-rays

  8. Intake retention functions and derived investigation levels for selected radioelements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buitron Sanchez, Susana

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for radionuclide exposure control. Here, both routes of entry into the body are considered, i. e. , inhalation and ingestion, and ALI values are tabulated for both. 2. Introduction of the term Derived Air Concentration (DAC) instead of the term (MPC)a to prevent... per unit intake of the various quantities that can be measured: i. e. , activity in the body or an organ, or activity excreted per unit time, at time t, after a uni( intake. The derived investigation level for routine monitoring is then: DILR...

  9. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon tomography : a calibration experiment using a water tower tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin Jourde; Dominique Gibert; Jacques Marteau; Jean de Bremond d'Ars; Serge Gardien; Claude Girerd; Jean-Christophe Ianigro

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of using secondary cosmic muons to scan the internal structure of a given body has known significant developments since the first archaeological application by Alvarez and collaborators on the Gizah pyramids. Recent applications cover the fields of volcanology, hydrology, civil engineering, mining, archaeology etc. Muon radiography features are essentially identical to those of medical X-ray imaging techniques. It is a contrast densitometry method using the screening effect of the body under study on the natural flux of cosmic muons. This technique is non-invasive and complements the standard geophysical techniques, e.g. electrical tomography or gravimetry. It may be applied to a large variety of geological targets, among which the domes of active volcanoes. In this context muon tomography presents the noticeable advantage to perform measurements of large volumes, with a large aperture, from a distant point, far from the potentially dangerous zones. The same conclusions apply regarding the monitoring of the volcano's activity since muon tomography provides continuous data taking, provided the muon detectors are sufficiently well designed and autonomous. Recent measurements on La Soufri\\`ere of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles, France) show, over a one year period, large modulations of the crossing muon flux, correlated with an increase of the activity in the dome. In order to firmly establish the sensitivity of the method and of our detectors and to disentangle the effects on the muon flux modulations induced by the volcano's hydrothermal system from those induced by other sources, e.g. atmospheric temperature and pressure, we perform a dedicated calibration experiment inside a water tower tank. We show how the method is fully capable of dynamically following fast variations in the density.

  10. Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Intake and digestibility of four forages by Ilamas and sheep R Cordesse M Inesta, JL Gaubert ENSA of llamas to ingest and digest forages. We measured these capacities on 4 forages in comparison with sheep. The digestibility was measured by total col- lection of feces on the last 10 days of each period. Sheep had

  11. Robust Strategy for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Robust Strategy for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines Riccardo Ceccarelli , Philippe are provided using advanced Diesel engine developed under AMEsim. I. INTRODUCTION The modern Diesel engine has of the functioning of a air-path in a Diesel engine with exhaust gas recirculation circuit is presented. More

  12. ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 decreases ethanol intake in mice Wei Hu Rationale Cyclic AMP (cAMP)­protein kinase A signal- ing has been implicated in the regulation of ethanol intracellular cAMP levels in the brain. However, the role of PDE4 in ethanol consumption remains unknown

  13. Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 Montpellier, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Does monetary poverty reflect caloric intake? Ibrahima BOCOUM CIRAD, UMR MOISA, F-34398 poverty. Using a Maliansurvey thatincorporatesexceptionally detailed information on food consumption, we: poverty, food insecurity, caloric intake, household surveys, Mali 1 Introduction Estimating the number

  14. Mesoscopic structuring and dynamics of alcohol/water solutions probed by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ruoyu; D'Agostino, Carmine; McGregor, James; Mantle, Michael D.; Zeitler, J. Axel; Gladden, Lynn F.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    , and engineering applications; examples include protein folding, membrane self-assembly, electron transfer reactions, heterogeneous catalysis, and fuel cell technology.1?4 Despite this, however, the influence of the solute molecules upon the structure of water... -Domain Spectroscopy. The THz-TDS transmission setup used in this study has been described previously.32 The liquid samples were contained within a liquid cell (PIKE Technologies, Madison U.S.A.) contained between 3 mm thick z-cut quartz windows, which are transparent...

  15. Effects of Crude Protein Content on Intake and Digestion of Coastal Bermudagrass Hay by Horses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spurgin, Chelsey L.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    between both the plant and animal and how the animal responds to the offered diet. Forage characteristics such as caloric density, nitrogen content, and digestibility can positively or negatively impact intake (Van Soest, 1994). The physiologic status... greater intake by the animal. Caloric density is the concentration of energy in a feedstuff and has been reported to modulate intake in swine. Intake of diets high in digestibility energy (DE) are often less than diets containing less DE because...

  16. The Adjustment of Avian Metabolic Rates and Water Fluxes to Desert Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jos. B.

    ambient air temperatures (Ta), low primary productivity, and lack of surface water place deserts among and Seely 1982; Williams and Tieleman 2000b). Likewise, lack of surface water ostensibly limits water intake461 The Adjustment of Avian Metabolic Rates and Water Fluxes to Desert Environments B. Irene

  17. Digestibility and energy retention by young rabbits fed different levels of intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Digestibility and energy retention by young rabbits fed different levels of intake Fernando in digestibility cages, were fed a standard diet at four levels of intake: ad libitum (AL), 60, 40 and 10 % of the AL intake. Digestibility of dietary dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and ash

  18. Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delany, Mary E.

    Influence of Fluctuating Feed Intake on Feedlot Cattle Growth-Performance and Digestive Function R the influence of a 20% fluctuation in daily feed intake on performance and digestive function in Holstein steers-performance and digestive function were similar for both treatment groups. Implications A daily fluctuation in feed intake

  19. Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of air-drying of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. leaves on intake and digestion by sheep H Abdouli-dried. The aim of the present study was to compare fresh to air-dried leaves for their intake, digestibility to the diets for the first 15 days and intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters were measured

  20. Numerical and physical modeling of hydraulic structures Hydraulic structures are used to control the flow of water in hydropower developments, urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Numerical and physical modeling of hydraulic structures Hydraulic structures are used to control, their solution is found either by physical hydraulic modeling or, more recently, by numerical modeling significantly reduce turbine efficiency and cause premature mechanical failure when they occur at hydropower

  1. Management of the aging of critical safety-related concrete structures in light-water reactor plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Arndt, E.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant safety-related structures for continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued-service determinations. Objectives, accomplishments, and planned activities under each of these tasks are presented. Major program accomplishments include development of a materials property data base for structural materials as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, a review and assessment of inservice inspection techniques for concrete materials and structures has been complete, and work on development of a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future condition assessment of concrete structures is well under way. 43 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Forebay and Turbine Intakes Flows for the Bonneville Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Ebner, Laurie L.

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural resource applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are becoming more frequent with the advances in computational power and the availability of commercial meshing software and verified CFD solver applications. The Bonneville Lock and Dam Project, constructed and operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, is the westernmost dam on the Columbia River, and is located about 40 miles upstream of Portland, Oregon. A set of 3D CFD models have been developed for the Bonneville Project forebay and turbine intakes; the CFD models provide a tool to predict the impact of proposed changes in operational rules both for the overall river flow patterns and near the turbine intakes. These models also offer rapid insight into the performance of proposed or existing hydraulic structures. The creation of a computational domain for Bonneville was complex and required the use of many software tools to integrate the diverse data sources that described the river and powerhouse geometry into a single computational domain. Once the computational mesh was created, flows were simulated by solving the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations together with a two-equation (k-epsilon) turbulence model. The model was validated using velocity data measured in reduced scale physical models and in the field.

  3. Civil Works Planning Overview Civil Works (CW) Planning offers a structured, rational approach to solving water resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    , the current design and construction program is largely a result of project authorizations. · Planning); and several implementing policies. · CW Planning is the start of the "pipeline" for addressing water resources

  4. Synergetic effects of II-VI sensitization upon TiO{sub 2} for photoelectrochemical water splitting; a tri-layered structured scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumtaz, Asad, E-mail: asad-032@yahoo.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, University Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Mohamed, Norani Muti, E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices (COINN), Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    World's energy demands are growing on a higher scale increasing the need of more reliable and long term renewable energy resources. Efficient photo-electrochemical (PEC) devices based on novel nano-structured designs for solar-hydrogen generation need to be developed. This study provides an insight of the tri-layered-TiO2 based nanostructures. Observing the mechanism of hydrogen production, the comparison of the structural order during the synthesis is pronounced. The sequence in the tri-layered structure affects the photogenerated electron (e{sup ?}) and hole (h{sup +}) pair transfer and separation. It is also discussed that not only the semiconductors band gaps alignment is important with respect to the water redox potential but also the interfacial regions. Quasi-Fermi-level adjustment at the interfacial regions plays a key role in deciding the solar to hydrogen efficiency. More efficient multicomponent semiconductor nano-design (MCSN) could be developed with the approach given in this study.

  5. The Structure of Hydrated Electron. Part 1. Magnetic Resonance of Internally Trapping Water Anions: A Density Functional Theory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Shkrob

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to rationalize magnetic parameters of hydrated electron trapped in alkaline glasses as observed using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. To this end, model water cluster anions (n=4-8 and n=20,24) that localize the electron internally are examined. It is shown that EPR parameters of such water anions (such as hyperfine coupling tensors of H/D nuclei in the water molecules) are defined mainly by the cavity size and the coordination number of the electron; the water molecules in the second solvation shell play a relatively minor role. An idealized model of hydrated electron (that is usually attributed to L. Kevan) in which six hydroxyl groups arranged in an octahedral pattern point towards the common center is shown to provide the closest match to the experimental parameters, such as isotropic and anisotropic hyperfine coupling constants for the protons (estimated from ESEEM), the second moment of the EPR spectra, and the radius of gyration. The salient feature of these DFT models is the significant transfer (10-20%) of spin density into the frontal O 2p orbitals of water molecules. Spin bond polarization involving these oxygen orbitals accounts for small, negative hyperfine coupling constants for protons in hydroxyl groups that form the electron-trapping cavity. In Part 2, these results are generalized for more realistic geometries of core anions obtained using a dynamic one-electron mixed qunatum/classical molecular dynamics model.

  6. Water quantity and quality model for the evaluation of water-management strategies in the Netherlands: application to the province of Friesland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, J.J.; Griffioen, P.S.; Groot, S.; Los, F.J.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Netherlands have a rather complex water-management system consisting of a number of major rivers, canals, lakes and ditches. Water-quantity management on a regional scale is necessary for an effective water-quality policy. To support water management, a computer model was developed that includes both water quality and water quantity, based on three submodels: ABOPOL for the water movement, DELWAQ for the calculation of water quality variables and BLOOM-II for the phytoplankton growth. The northern province of Friesland was chosen as a test case for the integrated model to be developed, where water quality is highly related to the water distribution and the main trade-off is minimizing the intake of (eutrophicated) alien water in order to minimize external nutrient load and maximizing the intake in order to flush channels and lakes. The results of the application of these models to this and to a number of hypothetical future situations are described.

  7. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 085425 (2012) Influence of water on the electronic structure of metal-supported graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -supported graphene: Insights from van der Waals density functional theory Xiao Li ( ),1 Ji Feng ( ),1,* Enge Wang-supported graphene through van der Waals density functional theory calculations. Our results show a systematic increase in the adsorption energy of water on graphene in the presence of underlying metal substrates

  9. Copyright 2009 IBM Global Business Services A Smarter Approach to Water Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assets and maintaining existing ones overseen by the government's regulator OFWAT. The sector is asset an active role in managing their water usage Water Supply Surface Water Treatment Plant Service reservoirs Groundwater/ Treatment Plant District Metering Area (DMAs) River intake Wastewater Treatment Storm retention

  10. Intake retention functions and derived investigation levels for selected radioelements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buitron Sanchez, Susana

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these metabolic processes as well as those that occur in all compartments that feed the systemic circulation. 16 INHALATION I INGESTION ST (1) SI (2) ULI (3) j j LYMPH NODES UPTAKE LLI (4) 1S 2S . . . . iS . " nS F f WOUND E SYSTEMIC EXCRETION 1-F..., Sr. (Chair of Committee) Milton . McLain (Member) Wesl E. Bolch (Member) Dan ightower (Member) ohn W. oston, Sr (Department Head) August 1990 ABSTRACT Intake Retention Functions and Derived Investigation Levels for Selected Radioelements...

  11. Effect of Intake on Compressor Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune-YearEffect of Intake on Compressor

  12. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  13. Measuring Outdoor Air Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisk, William

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow StraightenersSensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straightenersprobes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver

  14. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  15. The Application of Structural Materials Data From the BN-350 Fast Reactor to Life Extension of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanenko, O.G. [Nuclear Technology Safety Center, Liza Chaikina 4, Almaty 050020 (Kazakhstan); Kislitsin, S.B.; Maksimkin, O.P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1 Ibragimova St., Almaty, 050032 (Kazakhstan); Shiganakov, Sh.B.; Chumakov, Ye.V. [Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee, Liza Chaikina 4, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Dumchev, I.V. [MAEC Kazatomprom, Aktau, 130000 (Kazakhstan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of investigations of 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 (AISI 316 steel analogue) austenitic stainless steel irradiated in BN-350 breeder reactor at irradiation conditions close to that for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Internals. The pores were found in 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 steel irradiated at temperature 280 deg. C up to rather low damage 1.3 dpa and with dose rate 3.9 x 10{sup -9} dpa/s. There were obtained dose rate dependencies of yield strength, ultimate strength and ductility for 08Cr16Ni11Mo3 steel irradiated up to 7-13 dpa at 302-311 deg. C. These dependencies show a decrease in both yield strength and ultimate strength when dose rate decreases. There was observed an apparent decrease in total elongation when dose rate decreases, which was presumably connected with the pores formation in the steel at low dose rates. (authors)

  16. Nuclear reactor with low-level core coolant intake

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Townsend, Harold E. (Campbell, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A natural-circulation boiling-water reactor has skirts extending downward from control rod guide tubes to about 10 centimeters from the reactor vessel bottom. The skirts define annular channels about control rod drive housings that extend through the reactor vessel bottom. Recirculating water is forced in through the low-level entrances to these channels, sweeping bottom water into the channels in the process. The sweeping action prevents cooler water from accumulating at the bottom. This in turn minimizes thermal shock to bottom-dwelling components as would occur when accumulated cool water is swept away and suddenly replaced by warmer water.

  17. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Securing Texas water: Experts call for additional planning, policies, expanding "new" water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2012 Story by Kathy Wythe The backside of Mansfield Dam on Lake Travis clearly shows the effect of drought with the water level low enough to expose turbine intakes. ?Jeff Gardner; iStockPhoto. With the #25...;#24;#23;#23; drought exposing the strengths and weaknesses in Texas? water supply systems and the accompanying planning and policies, water security has become a buzzword in Texas water resources circles. #31;e need to move forward in research, planning...

  19. Securing Texas water: Experts call for additional planning, policies, expanding "new" water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2012 Story by Kathy Wythe The backside of Mansfield Dam on Lake Travis clearly shows the effect of drought with the water level low enough to expose turbine intakes. ?Jeff Gardner; iStockPhoto. With the #25...;#24;#23;#23; drought exposing the strengths and weaknesses in Texas? water supply systems and the accompanying planning and policies, water security has become a buzzword in Texas water resources circles. #31;e need to move forward in research, planning...

  20. Ion and water transport in a Nafion{reg_sign} membrane pore: A statistical mechanical model with molecular structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paddison, S.J.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices Group; Paul, R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the well established importance of the coupling of water and protons through electroosmotic drag in operating PEFCs the authors present here a derivation of a mathematical model that focuses on the computation of the mobility of an hydronium ion through an arbitrary cylindrical pore of a PEM with a non-uniform charge distribution on the walls of the pore. The total Hamiltonian is derived for the hydronium ion as it moves through the hydrated pore and is effected by the net potential due to interaction with the solvent molecules and the pendant side chains. The corresponding probability density is derived through solution of the Liouville equation. This probability density is then used to compute the friction tensor for the hydronium ion. The authors find two types of contributions: (a) due to the solvent-ion interactions for which they adopt the conventional continuum model; (b) due to the interaction between the pendant charges and the hydronium ion. The latter is a new result and displays the role of the non-uniform nature of the charge distribution on the pore wall.

  1. Intake and digestibility of different forages in Hamas compared to sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Note Intake and digestibility of different forages in Hamas compared to sheep Jean-Pierre Dulphy 1997) Abstract - Results of four trials, in which intake and digestibility of nine roughages had been ingest more straw and a lower quantity of high-graded forages than sheep. Overall mean digestibility

  2. Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Intake and digestibility of hay supplemented with Chamaecytisus palmensis (tree lucerne) by sheep was to compare the effect of Tagasaste supplementation on intake and digestibility of good, medium and low with rumen, abomasal and ileal cannulae. Partial digestion of organic matter and disappearance of non ammonia

  3. An investigation into the use of biokinetic models when assessing intakes of plutonium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    and ICRP-66 respiratory tract models can only be interchanged at specific times post intake to give similar excretion results from an inhalation intake. It is feasible to interchange the ICRP-67 plutonium systemic model or the newer Luciani and Polig...

  4. Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution ALEXANDER Y. BIGAZZI- clists may experience increased inhalation of traffic-related air pollutants. Bicyclists have two to five regarding urban bicyclists' intake and uptake of traffic-related air pollution and to identify key knowledge

  5. Using cuticular wax alkanes to estimate herbage intake in animals fed supplements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) were offered diets of lucerne chaff : oat grain in the ratios 593 : 107, 488 : 214 and 378 : 322 g DM Res, 43, 1711-1724). Intakes of lucerne chaff were then calculated from the concentrations of adjacent and the diet components. Three estimates of lucerne intake were thus possible, based on the alkane pairs C28/C

  6. The relationship between parental labor force participation and adolescents' dietary intake and risks to cardiovascular health 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, Anne Louise

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 60 Regression coefficients, standard error, p-values, and adjusted R' of sons' caloric intake regressed on mothers' weekly work schedule irregularity, and mothers' absence of work... of caloric intake from monounsaturated fat regressed on fathers' work autonomy and fathers' work history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 65 Regression coefficients, standard error, p-values, and adjusted R' of daughters...

  7. An investigation into the use of biokinetic models when assessing intakes of plutonium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hrycushko, Brian Andrew

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    and ICRP-66 respiratory tract models can only be interchanged at specific times post intake to give similar excretion results from an inhalation intake. It is feasible to interchange the ICRP-67 plutonium systemic model or the newer Luciani and Polig...

  8. DIEL MOVEMENT AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE ANADROMOUS FISH IN TURBINE INTAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIEL MOVEMENT AND VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF JUVENILE ANADROMOUS FISH IN TURBINE INTAKES BY CLIFFORD, WASH. 98102 ABSTRACT The behavior of fingerling salmonids was measured in turbine intakes of The Dalles in Kaplan turbines. At The Dalles Dam, diel movement and vertical distribution were sampled at both ends

  9. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  10. Monitoring temporal opacity fluctuations of large structures with muon tomography : a calibration experiment using a water tower tank

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jourde, Kevin; Marteau, Jacques; d'Ars, Jean de Bremond; Gardien, Serge; Girerd, Claude; Ianigro, Jean-Christophe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of using secondary cosmic muons to scan the internal structure of a given body has known significant developments since the first archaeological application by Alvarez and collaborators on the Gizah pyramids. Recent applications cover the fields of volcanology, hydrology, civil engineering, mining, archaeology etc. Muon radiography features are essentially identical to those of medical X-ray imaging techniques. It is a contrast densitometry method using the screening effect of the body under study on the natural flux of cosmic muons. This technique is non-invasive and complements the standard geophysical techniques, e.g. electrical tomography or gravimetry. It may be applied to a large variety of geological targets, among which the domes of active volcanoes. In this context muon tomography presents the noticeable advantage to perform measurements of large volumes, with a large aperture, from a distant point, far from the potentially dangerous zones. The same conclusions apply regarding the monitoring...

  11. Method and apparatus to clean the intake system of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, S.R.; Clack, S.R.; Burrows, J.L.

    1991-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for cleaning the intake system of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: an air metering block having air passage means therein including an air outlet; an adapter means to connect the outlet of the air metering block to the intake system of the engine; air inlet means in the block communicating with the air passage means, an adjustment means within the air metering block for controlling the amount of air introduced into the air passage means; an injector means for connection to the intake system of an engine for injecting a solvent into the intake system of the engine; and a control means for controlling the injector means to vary the amount of solvent injected into the intake system of the engine by the injector means.

  12. Do measures of plant intake and digestibility from captive feeding trials align with foraging patterns of free-ranging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do measures of plant intake and digestibility from captive feeding trials align with foraging. Email: wirsinga@uw.edu Abstract Context. Measures of intake and digestibility from captive feeding of snowshoe hares in captive intake and digestion trials with those of free-living conspecifics in the species

  13. Drinking Water Implications of Cyanobacteria on the Kansas River to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the presence of Blue Green Algae By-products in the river. The data is stimulating further discussion,000 service connections Directly supply 16 cities Treatment capacity of 180 mgd #12;Page 3 Other Utilities products were being transported from Milford Lake to their intakes. Utilities and Kansas Water Office agree

  14. Abundance and distribution of macro-crustaceans in the intake and discharge areas before and during early operation of the Cedar Bayou Generating Station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Monroe

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on November 5, 1970. Intake water from Cedar Bayou and Tabbs Bay was dis- charged into Trinity Bay. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crabs (Callinectes sa~idus), and a grass shrimp (Palaemonetes ~u io), made up 98. 2... of electri- city produced is doubling every 6 to 10 years (Federal Power Commission, 1969a). To meet this growing demand, many new plants must be constructed. Since most power plants are, and The citations on the following pages will follow the style...

  15. Spatial Water Balance in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Seann; Maidment, David; Patoux, Jerome

    Water availability is critical to the economy in the state of Texas. Numerous reservoirs and conveyance structures have been constructed across the State to meet the water supply needs of farmers, municipalities, industries, and power generating...

  16. A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the downtown area of Austin, it is planned to build a new naturally stratified chilled water storage tank and share it among four separated chilled water plants. An underground piping system is to be established to ...

  17. EA-1523: Final Environmental Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Address Proposed Site Modifications at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's West Hackberry Raw Water Intake Structure Site, Parish, Louisiana

  18. The relationship between parental labor force participation and adolescents' dietary intake and risks to cardiovascular health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, Anne Louise

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' intake of vitamin Biq regressed on mothers' work history and mothers' work importance 104 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Aspects of occupational life and family life interact in a variety of complex manners For many people in the American society, labor...

  19. Effects of Dietary Energy Density and Intake on Maintenance Energy Requirements in Beef Cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trubenbach, Levi Anthony

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    nutritional manipulation strategies to optimize cow efficiency. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of dietary energy density and intake on maintenance energy requirements in beef cows. In a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement, thirty...

  20. Examining the Relationship Between Plasma Choline Status and Dietary Intake of Choline in Pregnant Women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mortimer, Deanna Vaughn

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Choline is an essential nutrient for maternal health and fetal development of which eggs are the richest source in the typical American diet. A single egg could make a significant difference in choline intake and ultimately plasma...

  1. Comparison of sheep and goats under stall-feeding conditions : roughage intake and feed selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    than sheep. In Experiment 1 with long lucerne (Medicago sativa) hay over 14 days, intake of dry matter rapeseed oilmeal (Feed R), or 15 p. 100 lucerne meal (Feed L) or 5 p. 100 animal fat (Feed F

  2. Variation in energy expenditures between growing steers with divergent residual feed intakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Monte Blaine III

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this study were to determine if variation in energy expenditures contributed to differences in feed efficiency between low and high RFI steers. Nine steers with the lowest and highest residual feed intakes ...

  3. Relationships Between Residual Feed Intake and Performance of Heifers of Diverse Breedtypes and Brahman Cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loyd, Andrea N.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    et al., 1990) and can be manipulated to influence reproductive performance. Residual feed intake reflects differences in how cattle use nutrients for life processes such as maintenance, growth, gestation and lactation (Kennedy et al., 1993). As a...

  4. Sources of biological variation in residual feed intake in growing and finishing steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Erin Gwen

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this research were to characterize residual feed intake (RFI) in growing and finishing steers and examine phenotypic correlations between performance, feed efficiency, carcass, digestib ility, and physiological ...

  5. Population strategies to decrease sodium intake : a global cost-effectiveness analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Michael William, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excessive sodium consumption is both prevalent and very costly in many countries around the world. Recent research has found that more than 90% of the world's adult population live in countries with mean intakes exceeding ...

  6. Evaluation of a mathematical model in predicting intake of growing and finishing cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourg, Brandi Marie

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATIONS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN PREDICTING INTAKE OF GROWING AND FINISHING CATTLE A Thesis by BRANDI MARIE BOURG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2007 Major Subject: Animal Science EVALUATIONS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN PREDICTING INTAKE OF GROWING AND FINISHING CATTLE A Thesis by BRANDI MARIE BOURG Submitted...

  7. Evaluation of a mathematical model in predicting intake of growing and finishing cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourg, Brandi Marie

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATIONS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN PREDICTING INTAKE OF GROWING AND FINISHING CATTLE A Thesis by BRANDI MARIE BOURG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2007 Major Subject: Animal Science EVALUATIONS OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL IN PREDICTING INTAKE OF GROWING AND FINISHING CATTLE A Thesis by BRANDI MARIE BOURG Submitted...

  8. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SU S AN ELA I NE EDGAR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8rM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Nutrition MAGNESIUM AND PYRIDOXINE INTAKE MINERAL CONTENT OF SELECTED TISSUES PHYS ICAL DEVELOPMENT IN RATS A Thesis by SUSAN ELAINE EDGAR Approved as to style and content by: 'KAREN...

  9. Effects of Crude Protein Content on Intake and Digestion of Coastal Bermudagrass Hay by Horses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spurgin, Chelsey L.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    intakes of ruminants and equines consuming alfalfa compared to grass hay. While alfalfa is often higher in lignin than grasses, intake of alfalfa is higher because of a smaller cell wall fraction and higher digestibility (Van Soest, 1965; LaCasha et al... and not yet lignified and thus highly digestible (Iiyama et al., 1993). Lignin deposition begins in the middle lamella and primary cell wall only after expansion has ceased (Terashima et al., 1993). Once cellular expansion is complete, the secondary wall...

  10. Effects of supplemental fats on intake, production, and heat stress in lactating Holstein cows in summer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Richard Glynn

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FATS ON INTAKE, PRODUCTION, AND HEAT STRESS IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by RICHARD GLYNN SAUNDERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Dairy Science EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL FATS ON INTAKE, PRODUCTION, AND HEAT STRESS IN LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS IN SUMMER A Thesis by RICHARD GLYNN SAUNDERS Approved...

  11. A comparison of dietary intakes and obstetric performances among low income adolescents and women 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna DeBaun

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    those participants enrolled in WIC and those not enrolled. However, those not reporting pica had significantly higher calcium and magnesium intakes than those reporting pica. Nine of the adolescents and six of the adults gave birth to healthy... correlation between the dietary intakes of calcium and magnesium and length of pregnancy was determined in the adult group. Pregnancy-induced hypertension was found more often in adults than adolescents, while the presence of meconium was found more often...

  12. antioxidant vitamins intake: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of methanol, water, ammonia 7.3.1 (VV) as mobile phase on HPTLC plates impregnated with boric acid. The effect of other mobile phases on the separation of vitamins was also...

  13. antioxidant vitamins intakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of methanol, water, ammonia 7.3.1 (VV) as mobile phase on HPTLC plates impregnated with boric acid. The effect of other mobile phases on the separation of vitamins was also...

  14. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  15. The Mystery of Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsson, Anders

    2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

  16. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  17. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  18. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  19. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  20. The effects of ruminal and duodenal casein infusion on dry matter (DM) intake of red clover silage and rumen pool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The effects of ruminal and duodenal casein infusion on dry matter (DM) intake of red clover silage) infused continuously into rumen (R), duodenum (D) or both (RD) on forage intake, milk yield, chewing, J Anim Sci, 70, 3528-3540). Ruminal casein infusion tended to increase (P

  1. 1 Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for 2 human body weight regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, United States 5 6 balance 23 Food intake 24 Energy intake 25 Body weight regulation 26 Feedback control 27 Mathematical physical work. Therefore, even weight-stable humans are 48 practically always in a state of energy

  2. R. E. Estell, E. L. Fredrickson, D. M. Anderson and M. D. Remmenga mixtures on alfalfa pellet intake by lambs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. E. Estell, E. L. Fredrickson, D. M. Anderson and M. D. Remmenga mixtures on alfalfa pellet and sesquiterpene mixtures on alfalfa pellet intake by lambs1 R. E. Estell,*2 E. L. Fredrickson,* D. M. Anderson. Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of terpenes on intake of alfalfa pellets

  3. ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCED MATERIALS Membranes for Clean Water Objective This project provides measurement solutions that probe the surface and internal structure of polymer membranes used in water purification, and correlate that structure to the transport of water and other species through the membrane. Our methods are focused

  4. Effects of Protein Supplementation and Forage Quality on Intake and Digestion in Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Jamie

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    .4, or 13.4% CP) and either 0 or 156 mg N/kg BW supplemented as cottonseed meal once daily. No significant Hay x CSM interactions were observed for hay OMI, total OMI, TDOMI, or digestible NDF intake (P >= 0.67). Hay OMI and total OMI increased linearly (P...

  5. Control of voluntary intake of precision-chopped silages by ruminants: a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    level, the physical control of intake is generally not involved. On the other hand the fermentation between amino acids and energy, and high levels of acids to be metab- olized). Fermentation products induce most of the observed reactions. For well-preserved silages, high quantities of lactic and acetic

  6. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  7. Obesity results from an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Obesity results from an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, which is partly proteins of the brown adi- pose tissue (BAT) involved in thermo-gen- esis. Subjects: 238 morbidly obese and 911 non-obese Caucasians subjects. Results: A high prevalence (27%) in French Caucasians of the A

  8. An Exploration of Biological Mechanisms that Impact Intake and Feed Efficiency in the Grazing Animal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiley, Leanne

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. Linear regressions were obtained using PROC REG to estimate RFI. In 2009, there was a difference for LRFIc bulls in F:G (P=0.032), and HRFIg bulls on LSTK had an interaction for ADG (P=0.043). HRFIg bulls had greater intakes...

  9. Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    1 Review of Urban Bicyclists' Intake and Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Alexander Y of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Abstract Bicycling as a mode of transportation is enjoying a boost in many while bicycling, bicyclists may experience increased inhalation of traffic-related air pollutants

  10. Evaluation of Intake Limiting Agents in a Self-fed Dried Distillers' Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugg, Joel D

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and initial rates consisted of sodium chloride (NACL, 10%), urea (UREA, 2%), sodium bicarbonate (LIME, 1.68%), DL-malic acid (MLAC, 3%), calcium propionate (CAPR, 3%), and sodium bicarbonate plus urea (LIUR, 1.68% + 2%). Supplement intake was recorded daily...

  11. Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Influence of three types of treated straw on intake and growth rate in beef cattle WX Zhang JK Yuan treated wheat straw (AS), an untreated wheat straw (US), and a microbe-fermented wheat straw (MS). Thirty.544 (AS), 0.479 (US) and 0.551 (MS). It is concluded that both urea and microbe treated straw can

  12. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  13. Nutrient intake of steers in a continuous and a rotational grazing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKown, Charles David

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Baker, R. D. , F. Alvaren, and T. L. P. Le Du. 1981. The effect of herbage allowanoe upon the herbage intake and performance of suckler cows and calves. Grass and Forage Soi. 36: 189-199 ~ Blaser, R. E. , E. John, and R. C. Hammer, Jr. 1974. Evaluation...

  14. 3-D Characterization of the Structure of Paper and Paperboard and Their Application to Optimize Drying and Water Removal Processes and End-Use Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shri Ramaswamy, University of Minnesota; B.V. Ramarao, State University of New York

    2004-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The three dimensional structure of paper materials plays a critical role in the paper manufacturing process especially via its impact on the transport properties for fluids. Dewatering of the wet web, pressing and drying will benefit from knowledge of the relationships between the web structure and its transport coefficients. The structure of the pore space within a paper sheet is imaged in serial sections using x-ray micro computed tomography. The three dimensional structure is reconstructed from these sections using digital image processing techniques. The structure is then analyzed by measuring traditional descriptors for the pore space such as specific surface area and porosity. A sequence of microtomographs was imaged at approximately 2 ?m intervals and the three-dimensional pore-fiber structure was reconstructed. The pore size distributions for both in-plane as well as transverse pores were measured. Significant differences in the in-plane (XY) and the transverse directions in pore characteristics are found and may help partly explain the different liquid and vapor transport properties in the in-plane and transverse directions. Results with varying sheet structures compare favorably with conventional mercury intrusion porosimetry data. Interestingly, the transverse pore structure appears to be more open with larger pore size distribution compared to the in plane pore structure. This may help explain the differences in liquid and vapor transport through the in plane and transverse structures during the paper manufacturing process and during end-use application. Comparison of Z-directional structural details of hand sheet and commercially made fine paper samples show a distinct difference in pore size distribution both in the in-plane and transverse direction. Method presented here may provide a useful tool to the papermaker to truly engineer the structure of paper and board tailored to specific end-use applications. The difference in surface structure between the top and bottom sides of the porous material, i.e. "two-sidedness" due to processing and raw material characteristics may lead to differences in end-use performance. The measurements of surface structure characteristics include thickness distribution, surface volume distribution, contact fraction distribution and surface pit distribution. This complements our earlier method to analyze the bulk structure and Z-D structure of porous materials. As one would expect, the surface structure characteristics will be critically dependent on the quality and resolution of the images. This presents a useful tool to characterize and engineer the surface structure of porous materials such as paper and board tailored to specific end-use applications. This will also help troubleshoot problems related to manufacturing and end-use applications. This study attempted to identify the optimal resolution through a comparison between 3D images obtained by monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-?CT in phase contrast mode (resolution ? 1 ?m) and polychromatic radiation X-?CT in absorption mode (res. ? 5 ?m). It was found that both resolutions have the ability to show the expected trends when comparing different paper samples. The low resolution technique shows fewer details resulting in lower specific surface area, larger pore channels, characterized as hydraulic radii, and lower tortuosities, where differences between samples and principal directions are more difficult to detect. The disadvantages of the high resolution images are high cost and limited availability of hard x-ray beam time as well as the small size of the sample volumes imaged. The results show that the low resolution images can be used for comparative studies, whereas the high resolution images may be better suited for fundamental research on the paper structure and its influence on paper properties, as one gets more accurate physical measurements. In addition, pore space diffusion model has been developed to simulate simultaneous diffusion in heterogeneous porous materials such as paper containing cellu

  15. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  16. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  17. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; Wissink, martin [University of Wisconsin; DelVescovo, Dan [University of Wisconsin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  18. Dynamic characteristics of gas-water interfacial plasma under water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, S. J.; Zhang, Y. C.; Ke, B.; Ding, F.; Tang, Z. L.; Yang, K.; Zhu, X. D. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-water interfacial plasmas under water were generated in a compact space in a tube with a sandglass-like structure, where two metal wires were employed as electrodes with an applied 35 kHz ac power source. The dynamic behaviors of voltage/current were investigated for the powered electrode with/without water cover to understand the effect of the gas-water interface. It is found that the discharge exhibits periodic pulsed currents after breakdown as the powered electrode is covered with water, whereas the electrical current reveals a damped oscillation with time with a frequency about 10{sup 6} Hz as the powered electrode is in a vapor bubble. By increasing water conductivity, a discharge current waveform transition from pulse to oscillation presents in the water covering case. These suggest that the gas-water interface has a significant influence on the discharge property.

  19. A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Turner, W. D.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the operating costs by shifting cooling production from higher cost periods to low cost periods. The electricity energy savings can also be achived by shifting the cooling load from less efficient chillers (CHLR) to more efficient chillers (such as new... electric centrifugal chillers) or loading chillers at the optimal Part Load Ratio (PLA). In an energy retrofit project, a chilled water (ChW) storage system is ofen prefered since existing equipment can be kept and the least system changes...

  20. Simulated effects of changes in the infiltration rate and the hydraulic conductivity structure on the location and configuration of the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasek, Noreen Ann

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which define the head over individual elements in a piecewise fashion (Wang and Anderson, 1982) . THE COMPUTER PROGRAM Introduction to FREESURF I Mathematical modeling of the ground water flow system at Yucca Mountain was undertaken using the finite... conditions at Yucca Mountain. The effect of increased infiltration within the Yucca Mountain block was also examined. The region of flow defined for Yucca Mountain was numerically modeled using a finite element model known as FREESURF I. Neither...

  1. The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

  2. Coupled-cluster, Möller Plesset (MP2), Density Fitted Local MP2, and Density Functional Theory Examination of the Energetic and Structural Features of Hydrophobic Solvation: Water and Pentane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghadar, Yasaman; Clark, Aurora E.

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction potentials between immiscible polar and non-polar solvents are a major driving force behind the formation of liquid:liquid interfaces. In this work, the interaction energy of water–pentane dimer has been determined using coupled-cluster theory with single double (triple) excitations [CCSD(T)], 2nd order Möller Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), density fitted local MP2 (DF-LMP2), as well as density functional theory using a wide variety of density functionals and several different basis sets. The M05-2X exchange correlation functionals exhibit excellent agreement with CCSD(T) and DF-LMP2 after taking into account basis set superposition error. The gas phase water–pentane interaction energy is found to be quite sensitive to the specific pentane isomer (2,2- dimethylpropane vs. n-pentane) and relative orientation of the monomeric constituents. Subsequent solution phase cluster calculations of 2,2-dimethylpropane and n-pentane solvated by water indicate a positive free energy of solvation that is in good agreement with available experimental data. Structural parameters are quite sensitive to the density functional employed and reflect differences in the two-body interaction energy calculated by each method. In contrast, cluster calculations of pentane solvation of H2O solute are found to be inadequate for describing the organic solvent, likely due to limitations associated with the functionals employed (B3LYP, BHandH, and M05-2X).

  3. Changing Western water institutions: energy's role

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, F.L.; Roach, F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the institutional mechanisms through which physical availability of water, historical pattern of water use, and unresolved water issues combine to constrain and channel the energy industry's use of water. These institutional mechanisms include the developing markets for water rights, the legal and administrative structure governing water allocation, the formation of social attitudes about water, and the political process that often implements concensus. Within this context, the narrow physical interpretation commonly given to the question, Is there enough water, broadens greatly to include the institutional dimension that is the most important component of the question.

  4. Impacts of Motor Vehicle Operation on Water Quality in the United States - Clean-up Costs and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of structural storm-water best management practices. Waterbest management practices (BMPs) for removing them. Storm-water

  5. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  6. Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Supernatant Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Headspace Supernatant Water Schmutzdecke Raw water Supernatant drain Filter drain & backfill Sand media Support gravel Drain tile Adjustable weir Overflow weir Vent Control valve Treated Water Effluent flow control structure Overflow Assessing Temperature

  7. Integrated Planning and Management for Urban Water Supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Positions for Water Supply Reliability ................................. 15 4 Shortage Management Modeling.2: Diagram of Water Supply Reliability Model Structure ..................49 5.3: Steps Used in ShortageIntegrated Planning and Management for Urban Water Supplies Considering Multiple Uncertainties Jay

  8. Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Water and Gold: A Promising Mix for Future Batteries Berkeley Lab Study Reveals Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes...

  9. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    field receiving repeated urban waste compost application Vilim Filipovi1,2,3 , Yves Coquet2 , Valérie properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence

  10. Risk analysis study of non-routine turbine/generator shutdown events and intake gate evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardy, D.M. [Hydroelectric Design Center, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Corps of Engineers has undertaken a study to perform a reliability and risk analysis for evaluating non-routine turbine/generator shutdown scenarios. The study will evaluate the risks associated with events that would require a powerhouse to shut down a turbine/generator by using intake gates. The goal of this project is to estimate any potential damage that could occur for various intake gate configurations and closure times. The data obtained can also be used to evaluate any of the systems that affect reliability of the turbine/generator using established methods of risk analysis. This paper will briefly outline the study objectives and describe the progress of the study to this point.

  11. A comparison of dietary intakes and obstetric performances among low income adolescents and women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna DeBaun

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , defined as low income by their participation in federally-funded programs (such as Medicaid or WIC). Dietary intake was measured by use of a three-day food record. A questionnaire completed by all participants supplied socioeconomic and medical... was gathered from the participants' medical records. Infant birthweight, length of pregnancy, one- and five-minute Apgar scores, method of infant delivery and the presence of labor and delivery complications were compared between the two subject groups...

  12. Internal combustion engine with rotary valve assembly having variable intake valve timing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig N. (Eden Prairie, MN); Cross, Paul C. (Shorewood, MN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion engine has rotary valves associated with movable shutters operable to vary the closing of intake air/fuel port sections to obtain peak volumetric efficiency over the entire range of speed of the engine. The shutters are moved automatically by a control mechanism that is responsive to the RPM of the engine. A foot-operated lever associated with the control mechanism is also used to move the shutters between their open and closed positions.

  13. Evaluation of Postpartum Reproductive Performance in Brahman Females with Divergent Residual Feed Intake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poovey, Anna Kathryn

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    - day trials have become the most common practice. Robinson et al. (1997) observed distinct differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle in feeding patterns when maintained in the same feedlot environment. Therefore, Archer and Bergh... by development of a functional corpus luteum (Short, 1984; Kinder et al., 1987). After this point, reproduction can occur and puberty is achieved (Robinson, 1977). Placement of heifers in an environment of limited dietary intake or on a low plane...

  14. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  15. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  16. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  17. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices Guide: Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guide describes general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions.

  18. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  19. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  20. Cellulose and psyllium supplementation in 10 females: the effect on food intake and in vitro fermentation variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haynes, Susan Renee

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CELLULOSE AND PSYLLIUM SUPPLEMENTATION IN 10 FEMALES: THE EFFECT ON FOOD INTAKE AND IN VITRO FERMENTATION VARIABLES A Thesis by SUSAN RENEE HAYNES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER QF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Nutrition CELLULOSE AND PSYLLIUM SUPPLEMENTATION IN 10 FEMAI ES: THE EFFECT ON FOOD INTAKE AND IN VITRO FERMENTATION VARIABLES A Thesis by SUSAN RENEE HAYNES Approved...

  1. Inhalation and Ingestion Intakes with Associated Dose Estimates for Level II and Level III Personnel Using Capstone Study Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Lodde, Gordon M.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Daxon, Eric G.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Depleted uranium (DU) intake rates and subsequent dose rates were estimated for personnel entering armored combat vehicles perforated with DU penetrators (level II and level III personnel) using data generated during the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. Inhalation intake rates and associated dose rates were estimated from cascade impactors worn by sample recovery personnel and from cascade impactors that served as area monitors. Ingestion intake rates and associated dose rates were estimated from cotton gloves worn by sample recovery personnel and from wipe test samples from the interior of vehicles perforated with large caliber DU munitions. The mean DU inhalation intake rate for level II personnel ranged from 0.447 mg h-1 based on breathing zone monitor data (in and around a perforated vehicle) to 14.5 mg h-1 based on area monitor data (in a perforated vehicle). The mean DU ingestion intake rate for level II ranged from 4.8 mg h-1 to 38.9 mg h-1 based on the wipe test data including surface to glove transfer factors derived from the Capstone data. Based on glove contamination data, the mean DU ingestion intake rates for level II and level III personnel were 10.6 mg h-1 was and 1.78 mg h-1, respectively. Effective dose rates and peak kidney uranium concentration rates were calculated based on the intake rates. The peak kidney uranium concentration rate cannot be multiplied by the total exposure duration when multiple intakes occur because uranium will clear from the kidney between the exposures.

  2. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity indicators in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omarova, A. [Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES (United Kingdom); Institute of Human and Animal Physiology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Phillips, C.J.C. [Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) intake and cadmium toxicity indicators by meta-analysis of literature data, in particular {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2MC), and to compare the results with the current Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. The literature survey identified 79 feeding trials involving 27,537 people that were suitable for extraction of cadmium intake, levels in blood and urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine. There was an exponential increase in {beta}2-microglobulin with increases in cadmium intake above 302 {mu}g/day, which corresponds to a PTWI of 3.02 {mu}g/kg of body weight, when a safety margin of 10 is included. This compares with the current level set by FAO/WHO of 7 {mu}g/kg of body weight. Cadmium in blood and urine were also positively related to cadmium intake and participants' age. There were two principal components of variation in the data set, first: cadmium intake, concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine, and second: duration and age of exposure.

  4. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  5. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed action and three alternatives, including a No Build alternative, were evaluated along the existing RWIPL alignment to accommodate the placement of the proposed RWIPL. Construction feasibility, reasonableness and potential environmental impacts were considered during the evaluation of the four actions (and action alternatives) for the proposed RWIPL activities. Reasonable actions were identified as those actions which were considered to be supported by common sense and sound technical principles. Feasible actions were those actions which were considered to be capable of being accomplished, practicable and non-excessive in terms of cost. The evaluation process considered the following design specifications, which were determined to be important to the feasibility of the overall project. The proposed RWIPL replacement project must therefore: (1) Comply with the existing design basis and criteria, (2) Maintain continuity of operation of the facility during construction, (3)Provide the required service life, (4) Be cost effective, (5)Improve the operation and maintenance of the pipeline, and (6) Maintain minimal environmental impact while meeting the performance requirements. Sizing of the pipe, piping construction materials, construction method (e.g., open-cut trench, directional drilling, etc.) and the acquisition of new Right-of-Way (ROW) were additionally evaluated in the preliminary alternative identification, selection and screening process.

  7. The effects of source of supplemental protein on intake and digestibility in calves grazing bermudagrass pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Steven David

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) or cottonseed meal (CSM). Supplements were formulated with ground corn, protein source, fish oil, salt, minerals and Bovatec. An energy/non-protein N control (EN) was formulated with ground corn, fish oil, salt, minerals and Bovatec. The EN was fed... and 1028 for CSN, FI, FE and EN respectively. Treatment means for percent ON digestibility were 40, 40, 39 and 38 for FE, CSN, FI and EN respectively. Treatment means for daily ON intake in g OM/100 kg BW were 1866, 1765, 1762 and 1665 for CSM, FE, FI...

  8. Peer and parental influences on adolescent body composition, nutrient intake, and food preference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazarou, Emily Elizabeth

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    '/o reduction in CHD (4). There is also a growing body of evidence that consumption of foods high in dietary fiber may reduce the risk of colon cancer (5-6). In addition, it has been widely reported that excessive fat intake is a risk factor... smoking as evidenced by the observation that adolescents who smoke are likely to have friends who smoke (99-104). Dupre, et al. found that eighty-four percent of adolescents in their study tried drugs (marijuana and cocaine) because of peer pressure...

  9. Magnesium and pyridoxine intake and mineral content of selected tissues and physical development in rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, Susan Elaine

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lower f eed intake s than did rats from other dietary treatments. During lactation, dai ly feed consumpt ion was lower in an ima1 s depr ived of magnesium. Approximately 24 hr postpartum, in dams who consumed a magnesium-deficient diet, the heart... and kidney contained significantly more calcium, 150'% and 300% respectively. During lactation, mild magnesium restriction resulted in increased weight loss by dams and decreased weight gain by pupa. In the of f spring of rats dep1 et ed o f magnesium...

  10. Measuring OutdoorAir Intake Rates Using Electronic Velocity Sensors at Louvers and Downstream of Airflow Straighteners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William; Sullivan, Douglas; Cohen, Sebastian; Han, Hwataik

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical and accurate technologies are needed for continuously measuring and controlling outdoor air (OA) intake rates in commercial building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. This project evaluated two new measurement approaches. Laboratory experiments determined that OA flow rates were measurable with errors generally less than 10percent using electronic air velocity probes installed between OA intake louver blades or at the outlet face of louvers. High accuracy was maintained with OA flow rates as low as 15percent of the maximum for the louvers. Thus, with this measurement approach HVAC systems do not need separate OA intakes for minimum OA supply. System calibration parameters are required for each unique combination of louver type and velocity sensor location but calibrations are not necessary for each system installation. The research also determined that the accuracy of measuring OA flow rates with velocity probes located in the duct downstream of the intake louver was not improved by installing honeycomb airflow straighteners upstream of the probes. Errors varied with type of upstream louver, were as high as 100percent, and were often greater than 25percent. In conclusion, use of electronic air velocity probes between the blades of OA intake louvers or at the outlet face of louvers is a highly promising means of accurately measuring rates of OA flow into HVAC systems. The use of electronic velocity probes downstream of airflow straighteners is less promising, at least with the relatively small OA HVAC inlet systems employed in this research.

  11. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  12. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  13. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  15. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  16. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  17. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  18. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  19. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  20. Effects of participation in a university meal plan and other factors on the dietary intake of university students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davros, Tina

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN A UNIVERSITY MEAL PLAN AND OTHER FACTORS ON THE DIETARY INTAKE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS A Thesis by Tina Davros Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Nutrition EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION IN A UNI VERSITY MEAL PLAN AND OTHER FACTORS ON THE DIETARY iNTAKE OF UNIVERSITY STUDEI'ITS A Thesis by Tina Davros Approved as to style...

  1. Influence of herbage/browse allowance on nutritive intake of cattle grazing a Commiphora savannah in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mnene, William Ngoyawu

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INFLUENCE OF HERBAGE/BROWSE ALLOWANCE ON NUTRITIVE INTAKE OF CATTLE GRAZING A CDMMIMORA SAVANNAH IN KENYA A Thesis WILLIAN NGOYAWU NNENE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH L'niversity in pa, tial fulfillment of the requirement... . or ne degree of MASTER OF SCIENCF Oecemoer 19BS I'!a?'or Subject: Range Science INFLUENCE OF HERBAGE/BROWSE ALLOWANCE ON NUTRITIVE INTAKE OF CATTLE GRAZING A COMM1THORA SAVANNAH IN KENYA A Thesis by WILLIAM NGOYAWU MNENE Approved as to style...

  2. Dietary fiber and food energy intakes of women and their children at breakfast, snacks and food away from home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracey, Colleen Anne

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIETARY FIBER AND FOOD ENERGY INTAKES OF WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN AT BREAKFAST, SNACKS AND FOOD AWAY FROM HOME A Thesis COLLEEN ANNE TRACEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Nutrition DIETARY FIBER AND FOOD ENERGY INTAKES OF WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN AT BREAKFAST, SNACKS AND FOOD AWAY FROM HOME A Thesis by COLLEEN ANNE TRACEY Approved as to style...

  3. The effect of dietary fat, caloric intake, and protein level on the development of fatty livers in the mature hen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Archie Hugh

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fc h. M CUlLcUE Or ] tXA? THE EFFECT OF DIETARY FAT, CALORIC INTAKE, AND PROTEIN LEVEL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY LIVERS IN THE MATURE HEN A Dissertation By Archie Hugh McDaniel Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 1958 Major Subject: Poultry Science (Nutrition) THE EFFECT OF DIETARY FAT, CALORIC INTAKE, AND PROTEIN LEVEL ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF FATTY...

  4. The effects of a marginal intake of magnesium with soy protein concentrate on growth, gestation, and lactation in the rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Cynthia Anne

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF A MARGINAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON GROWTH, GESTATION, AND LACTATION IN THE RAT A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNE MCLAUGHLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 19B6 Major Subject: Nutrrtion THE EFFECTS OF A MARGINAL INTAKE OF MAGNESIUM WITH SOY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE ON GROWTH, GESTATION, AND LACTATION IN THE RAT A Thesis by CYNTHIA ANNE MCLAUGHLIN Approved...

  5. Introduction Water conservation is becoming increasingly important to many utilities worldwide. Not only are water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangel, Marc

    , to conserve. Utilities often use price structure and other demand side management tools to send a conservation on water demand. Ward (2012) discusses the management of residential water demand. Through survey data for managing residential consumption. Klaiber et al. (2010) estimate price elasticity of water demand using

  6. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  7. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  8. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  9. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  10. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  11. Variation in energy expenditures between growing steers with divergent residual feed intakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Monte Blaine III

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    .32 -0.01 0.15 -0.03 -0.25 ND ND Feed intake 0.72 0.69 0.60 0.79 0.70 0.64 0.56 ND .09 .43 Feed conversion ratio 0.53 0.66 0.57 0.85 0.61 0.70 ND ND ND ND Feed conversion ratio: ADG -0.74 -0.62 -0.46 ND c ND ND ND ND ND ND BW b 0... efficiency of ME use for protein deposition and (or) maintaining these tissues once they were deposited. Oddy and Herd (2001) summarized that energy retention in the body accounts for only 5 to 12% of the variation in RFI, but the remaining 88-95...

  12. An analysis of the nutrition messages in the mass media and dietary intake of high and low media users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usry, Cheryl Lynne

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'use of the media and dietary intake. Twenty-eight news programs about food or nutrition, 1071 food advertisements, 36 prime-time programs that mentioned food or nutrition and 37 nutrition articles from newspapers and magazines were analyzed by content analysis...

  13. The differential effects of supplementation with fodder from different tree legumes on feed intake and digestibility of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and digestibility of nutrients in sheep fed on maize stover E Masama JH Topps NT Ngongoni BV Maasdorp 1 Department protein content and poor digestibility due to high neutral detergent fibre content. Supplementation with affordable forage legumes is expected to improve both intake and digestibility. Fodder from Leucaena

  14. Effects of undegraded intake protein supplementation on milk production, calf weight gain and reproductive performance in Brahman cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Triplett, Brian Lee

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eighty multiparous and 51 primiparous Brahman females were allotted to one of three diets based on; parity, sex of calf and breed of calf sire (Angus, Brahman or Tuli). Diets contained either 38.1% Undegraded Intake Protein (UIP) (Low), 56.3% UIP...

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOOD SECURITY STATUS AND DIETARY INTAKE AND WEIGHT FLUCTUATIONS WITHIN INDIVIDUALS WITH SERIOUS MENTAL ILLNESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Lauren Olivia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    weekly, and dietary recalls were taken at the beginning and end of each month (at weeks 1, 4, 5, and 8). The healthy eating index (HEI) was used to determine diet quality. All dietary recalls were entered into NDSR and HEI, and energy intake...

  16. Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating or dry cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of digestive infusions of volatile fatty acids or glucose on food intake in lactating lactating (30 kg of milk/d) and 3 non pregnant dry dairy cows. The effect of each energetic infusion) control solutions of VFA and glucose treatments were infused at the same vol, pH and osmolarity

  17. Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Water Act Section 401 Water Quality Certification: A Water Quality Protection Tool for States and Tribes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  18. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus afternoon NWRA board of director's meeting. Plains farmers survey their land in western Nebraska, probably

  19. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1CS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  20. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  1. Biological Water Dynamics and Entropy: A Biophysical Origin of Cancer and Other Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Robert

    This paper postulates that water structure is altered by biomolecules as well as by disease-enabling entities such as certain solvated ions, and in turn water dynamics and structure affect the function of biomolecular ...

  2. Water Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm On December 12, 2014, in Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water...

  4. Water Management Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act regulates and registers water withdrawals in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts to enable effective planning and management of water use and conservation. The Act establishes a Water...

  5. Efficient Water Use & Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary concern at LANL. Energy...

  6. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1The heating and cooling system used in Osaka’s Nakanoshima district uses heat pumps and river water to achieve the efficient use of the heat source and mitigate the heat... source -Utilize waste heat discharged from substation, and supply in large difference of temperature Water intake Heat exchangers Water discharge Turbo chiller Screw heat pump pumps ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  7. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  8. Sensor Networks for Monitoring and Control of Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittle, Andrew

    Water distribution systems present a significant challenge for structural monitoring. They comprise a complex network of pipelines buried underground that are relatively inaccessible. Maintaining the integrity of these ...

  9. Variety more than quantity of fruit and vegetable intake varies by socioeconomic status and financial hardship: Findings from older adults in the EPIC cohort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    as top and bottom 0.5 percentile of energy intake relative to basal metabolic rate values) were excluded (n=353). Average daily consumption of each fruit and vegetable item (g/d) was estimated from self- reported frequencies and imputed standard... , with nine standard response categories (between never or less than once/month and ?6/day) (Willett, 2013). FFQ respondents with extreme estimated energy intakes (defined as top and bottom 0.5 percentile of energy intake relative to basal metabolic rate...

  10. Drinking Water Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  11. ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cadeddu, Maria

    Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

  12. Structuring Structural Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus, prof.dr.ir. C.J. van.A. Reniers CIP­DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN Mousavi, MohammadReza Structuring Structural Operational Semantics / MohammadReza Mousavi. ­ Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005

  13. Structuring Structural Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reniers, Michel

    aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus, prof.dr.ir. C.J. van.A. Reniers CIP-DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN Mousavi, MohammadReza Structuring Structural Operational Semantics / MohammadReza Mousavi. - Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005

  14. Water Footprint | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint Blue water represents water withdrawn from surface water and groundwater for feedstock irrigation and refinery processing. Blue water represents water withdrawn from...

  15. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism in steers as affected by feed intake and dietary urea concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firkins, J.L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.; Mulvaney, R.L.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four multiple-cannulated steers (340 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were fed a diet of 50% ground hay and 50% concentrate at two intakes (1.4 and 2.1% of BW), with urea and /sup 15/N-enriched ammonium sulfate infused continuously into the rumen at .4 or 1.2% of diet DM. Ratios of purines and diaminopimelic acid-N to N in fluid-associated and particulate-associated bacteria and in protozoa were similar among treatments but were lower for protozoa than for bacteria. Diaminopimelic acid-N:N was higher for fluid-associated vs. particulate-associated bacteria. Enrichment of /sup 15/N was similar between bacteria among treatments and was 30% lower for protozoa. Turnover rates of /sup 15/N in bacteria, NH/sub 3/N, and non-HN/sub 3/N pools were faster for steers infused with 1.2 than those infused with .4% urea, indicating less efficient usage of ammonia with higher urea. A method is described to estimate the proportion of duodenal nitrogen comprising bacterial and protozoal nitrogen.

  16. Adjusting Milk Replacer Intake During Heat Stress and Non-heat Stress as a Means of Improving Dairy Calf Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavez, Theresa Marie

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ADJUSTING MILK REPLACER INTAKE DURING HEAT STRESS AND NON-HEAT STRESS AS A MEANS OF IMPROVING DAIRY CALF PERFORMANCE A Thesis by THERESA MARIE CHAVEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... A Thesis by THERESA MARIE CHAVEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Glenn Holub...

  17. Statistical analysis of dietary mineral intake, blood serum, and urine constituents in the occurrence of urolithiasis in sheep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamprecht, William Otto

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and understanding which made it ail worth while. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V Vl Chapter I. INTRODUCTIOiN II. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE III. MULTIPLE REGRFSSION ANALYSIS ON DIETARY FEED INTAKE IV. DISCRIMINANT... Including Periods 8. Discriminant Analysis - Preliminary Analysis (17 Discriminants) 28 35 9. Oiscriminant Analysis Lambda \\lalues and Analysis of Variance . 38 10. Discriminant Analysis Lambda Values and Analysis of Variance on Log Transformed Data...

  18. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  19. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  20. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P. (Montpelier, VT)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  1. Comparison Of Intake Gate Closure Methods At Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, And Mcnary Dams Using Risk-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, Bryan F.; Blackburn, Tyrone R.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mara, Neil L.; Phan, Hahn K.; Bardy, David M.; Hollenbeck, Robert E.

    2001-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to compare the benefits and costs of modifications proposed for intake gate closure systems at four hydroelectric stations on the Lower Snake and Upper Columbia Rivers in the Walla Walla District that are unable to meet the COE 10-minute closure rule due to the installation of fish screens. The primary benefit of the proposed modifications is to reduce the risk of damage to the station and environs when emergency intake gate closure is required. Consequently, this report presents the results and methodology of an extensive risk analysis performed to assess the reliability of powerhouse systems and the costs and timing of potential damages resulting from events requiring emergency intake gate closure. As part of this analysis, the level of protection provided by the nitrogen emergency closure system was also evaluated. The nitrogen system was the basis for the original recommendation to partially disable the intake gate systems. The risk analysis quantifies this protection level.

  2. Does Increased Exercise or Physical Activity Alter Ad-Libitum Daily Energy Intake or Macronutrient Composition in Healthy Adults? A Systematic Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo, Amanda N.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background The magnitude of the negative energy balance induced by exercise may be reduced due to compensatory increases in energy intake. Objective To address the question: Does increased exercise or physical activity alter ad-libitum daily...

  3. Understanding Beef Cattle Efficiency: I) Understanding Physiological and Digestive Factors Affecting Residual Feed Intake and II) Tannin Supplementation: Effects on Animal Performance, Fermentation, and Carcass Traits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, Wimberley K.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this study were 1) to characterize the relationship between beef cattle efficiency, namely residual feed intake (RFI), and digestive, microbial, and fermentation parameters in growing beef calves and 2) to ...

  4. Understanding Beef Cattle Efficiency: I) Understanding Physiological and Digestive Factors Affecting Residual Feed Intake and II) Tannin Supplementation: Effects on Animal Performance, Fermentation, and Carcass Traits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, Wimberley K.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of this study were 1) to characterize the relationship between beef cattle efficiency, namely residual feed intake (RFI), and digestive, microbial, and fermentation parameters in growing beef calves and 2) to examine the effects of added...

  5. Serum carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as potential biomarkers of dietary intake and their relation with incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Pinal S.; Cooper, Andrew J.M.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.; Kuhnle, Gunter G.C.; Kneale, Catherine K.; Mulligan, Angela M.; Luben, Robert N.; Brage, Soren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Forouhi, Nita G.

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    as potential nutritional biomarkers for dis- tinguishing between meat, fish, and plant-based foods, which are isotopically distinct. The technique has a long history in ar- cheology and ecology as a method of dietary analysis (14, 15), but few epidemiologic... intake (g/d) was calculated from the frequency and amount (medium serving size) of each reported food by using in- house software (30). Protein intake from different food sources (fish, meat, dairy products, egg, vegetables, and cereal) was calculated...

  6. Comparison of the rate of DDT residue depletion in sheep with normal dietary energy intake, reduced dietary energy intake, and by administration of glucagon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childers, Asa Bill

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    led to residues in water, plants, animals and man. There are very few places on earth today where DDT residues cannot be de- tected (Fine, 1967). This world-wide distribution of DDT has led to the finding of residues in every area...(1965). Edwards, C. A. , New Sci, 19, 282(1963). 9 6 1 ~R 34, 1882718 8 23, 19691. Fine, Sam, Food and Drug Administration, Dallas, Texas, personal communication, 1967. Fitzhugh, 0. G. , Nelson, A, A. , J. Pharmacol. ExJ3, Ther. 89, 18 (1947) . Foa, P. P...

  7. Comparison of the rate of DDT residue depletion in sheep with normal dietary energy intake, reduced dietary energy intake, and by administration of glucagon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childers, Asa Bill

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    led to residues in water, plants, animals and man. There are very few places on earth today where DDT residues cannot be de- tected (Fine, 1967). This world-wide distribution of DDT has led to the finding of residues in every area...(1965). Edwards, C. A. , New Sci, 19, 282(1963). 9 6 1 ~R 34, 1882718 8 23, 19691. Fine, Sam, Food and Drug Administration, Dallas, Texas, personal communication, 1967. Fitzhugh, 0. G. , Nelson, A, A. , J. Pharmacol. ExJ3, Ther. 89, 18 (1947) . Foa, P. P...

  8. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  9. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  10. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  11. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Water Pollution #12;Factory-style hog farms in North Carolina Each pig produces, September 1999. #12;Hogs killed by flooding #12; Water pollution Common water pollutants Treating water pollution Wastewater treatment and renovation Learning Objectives #12; Water pollution refers

  12. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    of common minerals and contaminants found in Arizona water sources. · Adescriptionofdrinkingwaterregulations...............................................15 2. Properties of Water 2.1 Minerals in Water...............................................23 2.2 Contaminants in Water......................................27 3. Water Quality and Regulations 3.1 Major Water

  13. Water Usage Law, Major Water Users (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any water user with the capability to withdraw or divert 100,000 gallons or more per day from any stream, river, lake, well, spring or other water source must register and file for a permit for...

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  15. Water in the Half Shell: Structure of Water, Focusing on Angular Structure and Solvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Kim

    and in the heat capacity of the solution provide a measure of the changes in the strength and distribution hydration heat capacity (Cp) of, respectively, apolar and polar sol- utes or protein groups. Experimentally density in the solid phase compared with the liquid phase. Its ability to serve as both a hydrogen bond

  16. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of transportation, urban blight, agricultural practices, land use, etc. Water resources problems often result fromWATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING formulate sound policy without a good deal of knowledge not presently available. Without adequate models

  17. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension impurities can be corrected if they are a nuisance. Before beginning any treatment plan, have water tested select the most effective and economical treatment method. www.ext.vt.edu Produced by Communications

  18. Water Use Permitting (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Withdrawers in the Great Lakes Basin who withdraw water in quantities that average 100,000 gallons per day or more in any 30-day period are required to get a water use permit. Two types of water...

  19. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  20. Water Rights (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality regulates the water rights for the state of Texas. Water and state water may be appropriated, stored, or diverted in the state of Texas for beneficial...

  1. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  2. Lawn Water Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  3. Water Quality Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Quality Act establishes water conservation and protection, as well as the prevention, abatement, and control of water pollution, as the policy of the state of Montana. The Act establishes...

  4. Review: Globalization of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

  5. Lawn Water Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  6. Saving Water Saves Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of California’s Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

  7. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power plants, water withdrawals for electricity generationelectricity generation in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric power plantsplant with CCS technologies requires roughly 1,000 gallons of water for every megawatt-hour of electricity generation (

  8. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

  9. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold water to the water heater and hot water from the waterinduced draft water heaters, water heaters with flue designsInput Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tank

  10. Report on Produced Water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    purposes include water for hydraulic fracturing at oil and gas sites, water for power generation, dust control, and fire control. To initiate production Johnston et al....

  11. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requires water for land reclamation and revegetation (2).energy from coal. Land reclamation and coal burning tomain water uses are for land reclamation and revegetation.

  12. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  13. Storm Water Analytical Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection Obeying Environmental Laws Individual Permit Storm Water Analytical Period Storm Water Analytical Period The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm...

  14. Water Quality Standards (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter of the law that establishes the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency outlines the minimum water quality requirements for all surface waters of the state.

  15. Drinking Water Problems: Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  16. Water Efficiency Goal Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) issued water efficiency goal guidance in Federal Agency Implementation of Water Efficiency and Management Provisions of Executive Order 13514. This...

  17. Growth and mortality of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) in an electric generating station cooling lake receiving heated discharge water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oja, Robert Kenneth

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    throughout the tudy. STUDY ARZA AND ?)vTHODS Studg Area Thi. study was conducted at the Houston Lighting and Power Camp- y's Cedar Bayou Generating Station in Baytown, Texas. The plant comprises two 750-mcg watt units with individual water circulating... group, was located at the . intake canal of the power plant. The remaining four stations were located within the cooling lake (I'ig. 2, p. ll ). The station oositions were selected to encompass th maximum water temperature range within the lake. Prior...

  18. FOOD INTAKE AND RUMEN OSMOLALITY IN SHEEP S. KATO Y. SASAKI T. TSUDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    warmed to 40 °C and infused into the rumen in order to change the osmolality of the rumen fluid and lasted 2 h, during which time the infusion rate was decreased gradually from 60 to 10 ml/min. Samples observed in the control experiments, in which no solutions or water were added to the rumen. The infusion

  19. Sandia Energy - Water Infrastructure Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Security Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Water Infrastructure Security Water Infrastructure...

  20. Effects of monensin on intake, digestibility, and turnover of organic matter and bacterial protein in grazing cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLaney, David Scott

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    l 11A) quality forage. In vivo d i g e s t i b i l i t i e s were determined using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an i n t e r n a l , indigestible marker. Fecal outputs (and hence intakes) were determined by both a continuous (Erbium... T r i a l 7 began on May 6, 1979. Animals were penned daily (1 p.m.) and fed a 454 g cracked corn (80%) and cottonseed meal (20%) supplement which was mixed to contain 1.11 g of the rare earth Erbium (Er) (a fecal output marker) and the assigned...

  1. Effect of body condition and dietary lipid intake on lipid metabolism, gonadotropin secretion and luteal activity in postpartum beef cows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Allan Rae

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF BODY CONDITION AND DIETARY LIPID INTAKE ON LIPID METABOLISM, GONADOTROPIN SECRETION AND LUTEAL ACTIVITY IN POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by ALLAN RAE MORGAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... IN POSTPARTUM BEEF COWS A Thesis by ALLAN RAE MORGAN Approved as to style and content by: ary L. Williams (Co-chair of Committee) David W. Forrest (Co-chair of Committee) James G. Anderson (Member) Gary C. Smith (Head of Department) December 1989...

  2. Dietary intake differences of depressed and nondepressed individuals and the mood altering effect of sucrose and caffeine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houck, Sharla Dean

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    intake between depressed and nondepressed individuals and to determine whether carbohydrate and caffeine induce a mood altering effect in a group of depressed individuals. MATERIALS Af40 METHODS Incl si n/Ex lusion Criteria All depressed subjects... in subjects. This instrument contains 21, self-reported symptoms of depression rated on a four-point scale ranging from 0 to 3 in terms of severity. Generally, the cut off scores include 0 to 9, 10 to 18, 19 to 29 and 30 to 63 indicating asymptomatic, mild...

  3. Determining biological sources of variation in residual feed intake in Brahman heifers during confinement feeding and on pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittmar (III), Robert Otto

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    there was little decrease in the variation of RFI. Accuracy of measurements decreased when BW estimates were taken greater than two weeks apart. As would be expected, increasing the number of measurements taken decreases variability. Wang et al. (2006) supported... 56 d 79 d 70 d 70 d Simmental Bull 63 d 35 d 42 d 63 d Bos taurus Steers Wang et al. (2006) a FCR = Feed intake required to produce one unit of weight gain. b RFI = Difference in expected DMI for maintenance and growth at a given level...

  4. Determining biological sources of variation in residual feed intake in Brahman heifers during confinement feeding and on pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dittmar (III), Robert Otto

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    there was little decrease in the variation of RFI. Accuracy of measurements decreased when BW estimates were taken greater than two weeks apart. As would be expected, increasing the number of measurements taken decreases variability. Wang et al. (2006) supported... 56 d 79 d 70 d 70 d Simmental Bull 63 d 35 d 42 d 63 d Bos taurus Steers Wang et al. (2006) a FCR = Feed intake required to produce one unit of weight gain. b RFI = Difference in expected DMI for maintenance and growth at a given level...

  5. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  6. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  7. WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fixtures Market Overview: Water Savings Potential forNew Jersey. American Water Works Association ResearchResidential End Uses of Water (REUWS). 1999. American Water

  8. Contribution of cod liver oil related nutrients –vitamins A, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid- to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Mulligan, Angela A.; Welch, Ailsa A.; Bhaniani, Amit; Luben, Robert N.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    supplements). Among women, CLO was 195 taken by 26.3% and supplementation with vitamin A, D and/or E was 33.0%, 30.0% and 24.3% 196 respectively. 197 Distribution of food intake and TNI 198 The cumulative percentile distributions of nutrient intake... percentile distributions of nutrient intake are shown in Figs 1–4. The median supplement dose in the SU+ group for each decile in the food sourced distri- bution did not show significant differences (data not shown): median supplement intake of vitamin A...

  9. Irrigation Water Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles

    2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Irrigation water quality is determined by the total amounts of salts and the types of salts the water contains. In this publication you'll learn why well water can be salty, what problems salty water can cause, what tests should be done...

  10. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    table The water table itself may cross many layers. Extraction of water from confined and unconfinedTD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration

  11. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    , effectiveness of best management practices and trends in water quality. SCOPE This report is for continued water Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station with auto- sampler and data sonde. The Portland site. Garret Bridge site. 2 #12;Figure 2 Portland site. METHODS The Garrett Bridge site is a full storm-water

  12. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    for the training of scientists in water resources. Through the years, projects have included irrigation, ground water modeling, non-point source pollution, quality of ground water and surface water, efficient septic heavy metals from pasture soil amended with varying rates of poultry litter Basic Information Title

  13. Water Waves Roger Grimshaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,2) provide a kinematic description of water waves, which to this point means that the conditionsWater Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves

  14. Water Conservation Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Martha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beans Carrots Cucumbers Eggplant Peas Peppers Summer Squash Pumpkins Tomatoes Watermelon Winter Squash Water

  15. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ?15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  16. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships development. (2) Water Pollution and Water Quality Control - Nonpoint Source Pollution Definition: Degradation of water quality from nonpoint source pollution. (3) Water Use Efficiency Definition: Minimize water use

  17. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Modeling Exhaust Dispersion for Specifying Acceptable Exhaust/Intake Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides general information on specifying acceptable exhaust and intake designs. It also provides various quantitative approaches that can be used to determine expected concentration levels resulting from exhaust system emissions. In addition, the guide describes methodologies that can be employed to operate laboratory exhaust systems in a safe and energy efficient manner by using variable air volume (VAV) technology. The guide, one in a series on best practices for laboratories, was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, the guides contain information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories. Studies show a direct relationship between indoor air quality and the health and productivity of building occupants. Historically, the study and protection of indoor air quality focused on emission sources emanating from within the building. For example, to ensure that the worker is not exposed to toxic chemicals, 'as manufactured' and 'as installed' containment specifications are required for fume hoods. However, emissions from external sources, which may be re-ingested into the building through closed circuiting between the building's exhaust stacks and air intakes, are an often overlooked aspect of indoor air quality.

  18. Multiphoton ionization of large water clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apicella, B., E-mail: apicella@irc.cnr.it [Combustion Research Institute, IRC–C.N.R., P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Li, X. [Key Laboratory of Power Machinery and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Passaro, M. [CNISM and Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production Department, University of Naples “Federico II,” P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Spinelli, N. [CNISM and Physics Department, University of Naples “Federico II,” Via Cintia, 80124 Napoli (Italy); Wang, X. [SPIN–C.N.R., Via Cintia, 80124 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Water clusters are multimers of water molecules held together by hydrogen bonds. In the present work, multiphoton ionization in the UV range coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry has been applied to water clusters with up to 160 molecules in order to obtain information on the electronic states of clusters of different sizes up to dimensions that can approximate the bulk phase. The dependence of ion intensities of water clusters and their metastable fragments produced by laser ionization at 355 nm on laser power density indicates a (3+1)-photon resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization process. It also explains the large increase of ionization efficiency at 355 nm compared to that at 266 nm. Indeed, it was found, by applying both nanosecond and picosecond laser ionization with the two different UV wavelengths, that no water cluster sequences after n = 9 could be observed at 266 nm, whereas water clusters up to m/z 2000 Th in reflectron mode and m/z 3000 Th in linear mode were detected at 355 nm. The agreement between our findings on clusters of water, especially true in the range with n > 10, and reported data for liquid water supports the hypothesis that clusters above a critical dimension can approximate the liquid phase. It should thus be possible to study clusters just above 10 water molecules, for getting information on the bulk phase structure.

  19. Be Water Smart 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W aterSmart, a water conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain... gardens as just one method of demonstrating how water conservation can function in an attractive landscape. In December of 2005, the first demonstration WaterSmart rain garden was established at the Bay Area Courthouse Annex in Clear Lake City...

  20. Be Water Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W aterSmart, a water conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain... gardens as just one method of demonstrating how water conservation can function in an attractive landscape. In December of 2005, the first demonstration WaterSmart rain garden was established at the Bay Area Courthouse Annex in Clear Lake City...

  1. Report on fuel pool water loss tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalenski, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To resolve potential concerns on the integrity of the fuel storage pool at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a highly accurate testing technique was developed to quantify water losses from the pool. The fuel pool is an unlined, single wall, reinforced concrete structure containing approximately 818,000 gallons of water. Since an initial test indicated that water losses could possibly be attributed solely to evaporation, a cover was suspended and sealed over the pool to block evaporation losses. High accuracy water level and temperature instrumentation was procured and installed. The conclusions of this report indicate that unaccounted-for water losses from the pool are insignificant and there is no detectable leakage within the range of test accuracy.

  2. Thermal Conductivity of Ordered Molecular Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W Evans; J Fish; P Keblinski

    2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate thermal transport characteristics of water with various degree of orientational and translational order induced by the application of an electric field. We observe that orientational ordering of the water dipole moments has a minor effect on the thermal conductivity. However, electric-field induced crystallization and associated translational order results in approximately a 3-fold increase of thermal conductivity with respect to the base water, i.e., to values comparable with those characterizing ice crystal structures.

  3. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)] [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil)] [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase?mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ? Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ? RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation. ? Translocation of p47phox and MAPKs phosphorylation are downstream effectors. ? Acute ethanol consumption increases the risk for acute vascular injury.

  4. Water oxidation reaction in natural and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the structure and mechanism of water oxidation catalysts is an essential component for developing artificial photosynthetic devices. In the natural water oxidation catalyst, the geometric and electronic structure of its inorganic core, the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5} cluster, has been studied by spectroscopic and diffraction measurements. In inorganic systems, metal oxides seem to be good candidates for water oxidation catalysts. Understanding the reaction mechanism in both natural and oxide-based catalysts will helpin further developing efficient and robust water oxidation catalysts.

  5. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  6. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  7. What's your water footprint? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Leslie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower..., the time of day you run your sprinkler system, and how long the water runs while you brush your teeth. Conservation in such everyday tasks is important, but water experts have begun to use a more all-encompassing survey of water use by calculating...

  8. What's your water footprint?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Leslie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower..., the time of day you run your sprinkler system, and how long the water runs while you brush your teeth. Conservation in such everyday tasks is important, but water experts have begun to use a more all-encompassing survey of water use by calculating...

  9. Hydrogen bond reorganization and vibrational relaxation in water studied with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca Anne

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water consists of an extended hydrogen bond network that is constantly evolving. More than just a description of the time averaged structure is necessary to understand any process that occurs in water. In this thesis we ...

  10. Dynamics of water and aqueous protons studied using ultrafast multi-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramasesha, Krupa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid water consists of a highly dynamic network of hydrogen bonds, which evolves on timescales ranging from tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds. The fast structural evolution of water's hydrogen bond network is at ...

  11. Water & Energy Conservation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Poornima Group of Colleges, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India #12;Executive Summary This document for Poornima Group's conservation efforts over the next eight years. PGC currently maintains an unsustainable method of water use Environmental Crisis Poornima Group of Colleges Water

  12. A gathering of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

  13. General Water Quality (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this water quality rule is to protect, maintain and improve the quality of waters of the State. Any applicant for a federal license, permit or project to conduct any activity...

  14. Water Quality (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Quality Act establishes cumulative remedies to prevent, abate and control the pollution of the waters of the state. The act establishes responsibilities of the Oklahoma Department of...

  15. State Water Quality (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the Commonwealth of Virginia to: (1) protect existing high quality state waters and restore the quality of all other state waters to permit all reasonable public uses and...

  16. Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Perchlorate is a potential contaminate of well water that can have harmful effects on human health. Methods of removing perchlorate from water are described and illustrated. There is information to help well owners select and maintain treatment...

  17. Water Pollution Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Water Pollution Control Board are tasked with the prevention of pollution in the waters of the state. The Board may adopt rules and...

  18. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  19. Federal Water Use Indices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides water use indices as a guide for Federal agencies. Note that each is a rough estimate of water usage at different types of sites. Your site may vary considerably.

  20. Water, Sun, Energy | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water, Sun, Energy Water, Sun, Energy Released: March 20, 2012 Novel method yields highly reactive, highly hydroxylated TiO2 surface The team's new method is a two-step...

  1. Electrophoretic Clarification of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiler, E. A.; Lyle, W. M.

    There is an ever growing need for new and superior water treatment methods which will remove the alarming growth and variety of pollutants present in our waters. Suspended particulate matter such as clay, algae, and bacteria are troublesome...

  2. Indian Water 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Indian Water is a call to help plan a national water summit. This strategic session consist of a facilitated dialog with tribal leaders on important opportunities, challenges and tactics, which...

  3. Walking on water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

  4. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storage. Power towers capture energy from the sun reflectedtower where water or molten salt is flowing to absorb the solar energy.towers or ponds). For liquid fuels, increased reliance on bioenergy will increase the correlation of water and energy

  5. Water Conservation Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Martha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Needs breath. Adding compost to sandy soils helps thesoil retain water longer—the compost acts like a sponge,from applications of compost and other organic matter. For

  6. Drinking Water Problems: Benzene 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Drinking water in Texas sometimes contains potentially harmful chemicals, including benzene. Well owners can learn how to treat their well water to remove these chemicals. 4 pages, 3 images...

  7. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE...

  8. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    23 4.5 Water-Energy SustainabilityWater Distribution System Water-energy Sustainability ToolWastewater-energy Sustainability Tool v   Acknowledgements

  9. Degradation of Structural Alloys Under Thermal Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, D. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources...

  10. Degradation of Structural Alloys Under Thermal Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, D. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources...

  11. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    with WaterGAP 2.1, Universities of Frankfurt & Kassel 2007; Population data based on GPW - Version 3, Center

  12. Water Conservation Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Martha

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinach Beets Bush, Pole Beans Carrots Cucumbers Eggplant Peas Peppers Summer Squash Pumpkins Tomatoes Watermelon Winter Squash Water

  13. Water Management Best Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Energy Star Programs ? www.epa.gov/watersense www.energystar.gov ? Conserve Florida Water Clearinghouse ? http://www.conservefloridawater.org/ ? Arizona Department of Water Resources ? www.azwater.gov/conservation The True Cost of Water... Future Demands Municipal Manufacturing Mining Steam Electric Agriculture New Codes & Standards Green Certification& Labeling Programs ? Green Restaurants, Hotels, etc. ? Green Guide for Health Care ? LEED ? GBI ? EPA Water Sense ? EPA...

  14. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    -photosynthesis, energy transfer in animals, and so on. Life as we know it is water-centric (and organic carbon 20, 2012 6 / 17 #12;Water availability Total renewable (defined using the water cycle) per-capita, per year. Country cu. m. Congo 275,000 Canada 94,000 Brazil 48,000 Mongolia, Indonesia 13,000 Japan

  15. STORM WATER Residential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE UCSC Residential Car Washing http THAT MAY CAUSE ENVIRONMENTAL HARM TO THE STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE: (831) 459-2553. LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AT UCSC STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM! DID YOU KNOW? PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS > USE A COMMERCIAL CAR WASH

  16. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  17. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    of best management practices and trends in water quality. SCOPE This project is a cooperative effort Bridge, AR and near Portland, AR. The Garret Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station with auto;METHODS The Garret Bridge site is a full storm-water sampling station. It uses an automatic sampler

  18. California's Water Energy Relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support The California's Water-Energy Relationship report is the product of contributions by many California Energy, Lorraine White and Zhiqin Zhang. Staff would also like to thank the members of the Water-Energy Working

  19. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  20. PROCEEDINGS Stockholm Water Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    -0127 The Joint Conference 7th Stockholm Water Symposium1 3rd InternationalConference a11 tlie Enviro~~mnent;~l Ma.A.G.M, a Systematic Approach to Lake Water Pollution Assessment, - Eindhoven: University of Technology, Eindhoven Assessment, Water Pollution in the Catchment of Lake Victoria, Dares Salaam, Tanzania, August, 1994

  1. Water treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  2. Model-based Adaptive Observers for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Riccardo Ceccarelli, Carlos Canudas-de-Wit, Philippe Moulin and Antonio Sciarretta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model-based Adaptive Observers for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines Riccardo Ceccarelli of diesel en- gine diagnosis by means of model-based adaptive observers. The problem is motivated Diesel engine testbed. I. INTRODUCTION Modern diesel engine has the potential of a significant reduction

  3. Model-based Adaptive Observers for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Riccardo Ceccarelli , Carlos Canudas-de-Wit, Philippe Moulin and Antonio Sciarretta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Model-based Adaptive Observers for Intake Leakage Detection in Diesel Engines Riccardo Ceccarelli of diesel en- gine diagnosis by means of model-based adaptive observers. The problem is motivated diesel engine professional simulator AMEsim. I. INTRODUCTION Modern diesel engine has the potential

  4. Effects on food intake following stimulation of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of dietary-obese and dietary-resistant rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Lance Richard

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -obesity) following intra-PVN injections of the adrenergic compounds norepinephrine (25 nmol), cirazoline (10, 20, and 30 nmol), and phenylpropanolamine (160 nmol) . Experiment 2 investigates food intake of DIO-prone and DR-prone rats (pre-obesity) following intra...

  5. Effects of Residual Feed Intake Classification on Feed Efficiency, Feeding Behavior, Carcass Traits, and Net Revenue in Angus-Based Composite Steers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Joel

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and high (n = 158) RFI groups. Following the feed-intake measurement periods, steers were fed the same diet in group pens and harvested at an average backfat thickness of 1.14 cm. Net revenue (NR) was calculated as carcass value minus feeder calf, yardage...

  6. Safety of light water reactor fuel with silicon carbide cladding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Youho

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural aspects of the performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod with triplex silicon carbide (SiC) cladding - an emerging option to replace the zirconium alloy cladding - are assessed. Its behavior under accident ...

  7. Breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Water displays breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation at low temperatures. We hypothesize that the breakdown is a result of the structural changes and a sharp rise in dynamic heterogeneities that occurs low T upon crossing the Widom line.

  8. Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lee-Ping

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

  9. Water Quality Control Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Quality Control Act (WQCA) establishes the water pollution control program. The WQCA identifies the responsibilities and extent of authority for the Commissioner of the Water Quality...

  10. Super recycled water: quenching computers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Super recycled water: quenching computers Super recycled water: quenching computers New facility and methods support conserving water and creating recycled products. Using reverse...

  11. Planning Water Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenstein, William; Kondolf, G. Mathias

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the University of Maryland Water Policy Collaborative, 2006.FURTH ER READ ING California Department of Water Resources.California Water Plan Update 2005: A Framework for Action.

  12. Ground Water Management Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Ground Water Management Act of 1992, Virginia manages ground water through a program regulating the withdrawals in certain areas called Ground Water Management Areas (GWMA). Currently,...

  13. atomic-scale intracellular water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small structural changes in molecular surfaces can evoke large changes in the contact energy of hydrated surfaces; surface hydration and the energetics of water displacement are a...

  14. Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems, private water well screening, and soil nutrient management. Water conservation programs of Agri, efficient use, sustainable practices, watershed management and environmental stewardship. Through 660 and utilizing water-conservation practices will be essential to sustain the state's water supply

  15. The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent...

  16. Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table 5: Public supply water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000.

  17. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  18. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  19. WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    103 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;105 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 106­580, Dec. 29, 2000 planning of water and related land resources, through the establishment of a water resources council

  20. SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

  1. SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

  2. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Input Screens SCREEN D1: WATER HEATER SPECIFICATIONS 1. Tankthe house. Supply pipe – this is the water heater inlet pipewith refills the water heater with cold water Note: The TANK

  3. Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

  4. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air. For a storage tank water heater, the greater the hotthe water heater with cold water Note: The TANK program usesof a natural draft tank type water heater can be without

  5. Mitigation, Adaptation, Uncertainty -- Growing Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felsen, Martin; Dunn, Sarah

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system for harvesting and returning clean water to Lakeharvesting for landscape and species health, and surface water and

  6. Ninebrane structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hisham Sati

    2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    String structures in degree four are associated with cancellation of anomalies of string theory in ten dimensions. Fivebrane structures in degree eight have recently been shown to be associated with cancellation of anomalies associated to the NS5-brane in string theory as well as the M5-brane in M-theory. We introduce and describe "Ninebrane structures" in degree twelve and demonstrate how they capture some anomaly cancellation phenomena in M-theory. Along the way we also define certain variants, considered as intermediate cases in degree nine and ten, which we call "2-Orientation" and "2-Spin structures", respectively. As in the lower degree cases, we also discuss the natural twists of these structures and characterize the corresponding topological groups associated to each of the structures, which likewise admit refinements to differential cohomology.

  7. Selecting a new water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

  8. Arsenic removal from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  9. Solvation of positive ions in water: The dominant role of water-water interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Krekeler; Luigi Delle Site

    2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Local polarization effects, induced by mono and divalent positive ions in water, influence (and in turn are influenced by) the large scale structural properties of the solvent. Experiments can only distinguish this process of interplay in a generic qualitative way. Instead, first principles quantum calculations can address the question at both electronic and atomistic scale, accounting for electronic polarization as well as geometrical conformations. For this reason we study the extension of the scales' interconnection by means of first principle Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics applied to systems of different size. In this way we identify the general aspects dominating the physics of the first solvation shell and their connection to the effects related to the formation of the outer shells and eventually the bulk. We show that while the influence of the ions is extended to the first shell only, the water-water interaction is instead playing a dominant role even within the first shell independently from the size or the charge of the ion.

  10. Technology in water conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... conservation, however, is just as dependent on technological factors. #27;e technology does not have to be complex to be important #20; consider high e#23;ciency toilets and showerheads. #27;ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies...

  11. Technology in water conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... conservation, however, is just as dependent on technological factors. #27;e technology does not have to be complex to be important #20; consider high e#23;ciency toilets and showerheads. #27;ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies...

  12. Global Climate Modeling of the Martian water cycle with improved microphysics and radiatively active water ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Thomas; Forget, François; Spiga, Aymeric; Millour, Ehouarn; Montmessin, Franck

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative effects of water ice clouds have noteworthy consequences on the Martian atmosphere, its thermal structure and circulation. Accordingly, the inclusion of such effects in the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (GCM) greatly modifies the simulated Martian water cycle. The intent of this paper is to address the impact of radiatively active clouds on atmospheric water vapor and ice in the GCM and improve its representation. We propose a new enhanced modeling of the water cycle, consisting of detailed cloud microphysics with dynamic condensation nuclei and a better implementation of perennial surface water ice. This physical modeling is based on tunable parameters. This new version of the GCM is compared to the Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations of the water cycle. Satisfying results are reached for both vapor and cloud opacities. However, simulations yield a lack of water vapor in the tropics after Ls=180{\\deg} which is persistent in simulations compared to observations, as a consequence of aphelion c...

  13. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Meng [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Huaiqiu, E-mail: hqzhu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yao, Xin-Qiu [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University, Sakyo Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); She, Zhen-Su, E-mail: she@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Center for Theoretical Biology, and Center for Protein Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  14. Water Pollution Fee (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Groundwater Program regulates discharge to groundwater under Part 31, Water Resources Protection, of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Act, 1994 PA 451 and Part 22 Rules....

  15. Water Pollution (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for water quality standards, effluent standards, monitoring and reporting methods, sewer discharge criteria and information about permits. It is the purpose of...

  16. Water Conservation Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal sites across the country are incorporating water efficiency measures as part of their overall comprehensive UESC projects. As it becomes more difficult to secure internal funding for...

  17. Water and Energy Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation of 17,445 TWh (69). 4.2 Thermal Electric Powergeneration in 2009 (33). Water used in thermal electric

  18. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  19. What's In My Water?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .The salts in conductivity levels are conductivity levels. allow for too much water to evaporate water are not just table high, evaluate other from the surface, or where soils are salt, but are often a individual characteristics naturally high in salts...- tive safety margin. You can have your water analyzed by a government agency or a private company. 13 Salt: an organic or inorganic com- pound that is subject to dissociation when water is added, resulting in a dis- tinct increase in specific anions...

  20. Fuel traps: mapping stability via water association.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan L.; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Alam, Todd M; Leung, Kevin; Varma, Sameer; Sabo, Dubravko; Martin, Marcus Gary; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology required for attaining a hydrogen-based economy. Fundamental research can reveal the underlying principles controlling hydrogen uptake and release by storage materials, and also aid in characterizing and designing novel storage materials. New ideas for hydrogen storage materials come from exploiting the properties of hydrophobic hydration, which refers to water s ability to stabilize, by its mode of association, specific structures under specific conditions. Although hydrogen was always considered too small to support the formation of solid clathrate hydrate structures, exciting new experiments show that water traps hydrogen molecules at conditions of low temperatures and moderate pressures. Hydrogen release is accomplished by simple warming. While these experiments lend credibility to the idea that water could form an environmentally attractive alternative storage compound for hydrogen fuel, which would advance our nation s goals of attaining a hydrogen-based economy, much work is yet required to understand and realize the full potential of clathrate hydrates for hydrogen storage. Here we undertake theoretical studies of hydrogen in water to establish a firm foundation for predictive work on clathrate hydrate H{sub 2} storage capabilities. Using molecular simulation and statistical mechanical theories based in part on quantum mechanical descriptions of molecular interactions, we characterize the interactions between hydrogen and liquid water in terms of structural and thermodynamic properties. In the process we validate classical force field models of hydrogen in water and discover new features of hydrophobic hydration that impact problems in both energy technology and biology. Finally, we predict hydrogen occupancy in the small and large cages of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, a property unresolved by previous experimental and theoretical work.

  1. Use of caged fish for mariculture and environmental monitoring in a power-plant cooling-water system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamberlain, George William

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fishes were cultured in cages in the intake area, at the head of the 9. S-km discharge canal, and at three locations in the 1053-ha ccoling lake of a power plant near upper Galveston Bay, fran 1 September 1975 to 11 September 1976 both to explore... species of fish within cages, and water and tissue concen- trations of heavy metals and pesticides. Major hydrological characteristics of the cooling system were as follows: (1) temperature in the discharge canal averaged 8-9 C higher than those...

  2. How large is the subducted water flux? New constraints on mantle regassing1 R. Parai and S. Mukhopadhyay4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    the exosphere at subduction zones,36 carried as pore water and chemically-bound water in sediments, altered referred to as the post-arc subducted water flux (Figure 1). A quantitative43 assessment of the long), structure and style of47 convection (Crowley et al., 2011), and a return flux of exospheric water

  3. Water content of 1997 vulcanian pumices at Soufriere Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and implications on pre-eruptive conduit conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Water content of 1997 vulcanian pumices at Soufriere Hills Volcano (Montserrat) and implications of the eruptive products. We used quantitative analysis of water content in residual glasses (matrix glass. To better link water content to structural level, we performed new water solubility experiments at low

  4. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. King

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

  5. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Computational design of a water-soluble analog of phospholamban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summa, Christopher M.

    membranes (Stevens and Arkin 2000). To date, roughly 13,000 X-ray or NMR derived structures of water. Such a technique would allow us to bypass the membrane to study membrane protein structures, while addressing These authors contributed equally to this work. Article and publication are at http

  7. PoS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunthaler, Andreas

    PoS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and water masers Luca VLBA and VERA results in measuring trigonometric parallaxes of methanol and water maser sourcesS(IXEVNSymposium)036 Mapping the Milky Way structure with methanol and water masers Luca Moscadelli 1. Introduction

  8. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ) Grand Island, Chadron, Oconto, Valentine. NIOBRARA, NEBRASKA--nOVING The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is moving the small tovm of Niobrara, i4ebraska. The town is in danger of flooding by Gavins Point Dam in irrigation water on agriculture throughout Colorado River~s 1,400 mile long system was announced by Secretary

  9. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Arkansas Water Resources Center WATER RESOURCES ASPECTS OF COAL TRANSPORTATION BY SLURRY PIPELINE Electric Power Production with Transmission by EHV Power lines 8 Coal Slurry Pipelining versus Rail Shipment. 10 General Description of the Coal Slurry Pipelining Process. 14 History of Coal Slurry Pipelines

  10. Watering the Sun Corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Watering the Sun Corridor Managing Choices in Arizona's Megapolitan Area #12;#12;Managing ChoicesSored by Printing generously provided by SRP. Watering the Sun Corridor Tom Buschatzke, City of Phoenix Peter Culp i C y | 5 Introduction............................................7 I. The Sun Corridor

  11. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    states. Recycling of nutrients and organic matter is essential in reducing the need for fertilization closely with colleges, universities and other organizations in Arkansas to address the states water Descriptors: animal waste, feed additive, water quality, land application, non-point source pollution

  12. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

  13. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

  14. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    Arkan- sas in order to determine the effect of local manganese, phosphate, pyrite, lead-zinc and uranium manganese district. Hydrogeochemical exploration for these types of manganese deposits appears possible .,.:;, Water Quality. 18 Comparison of Water Chemistry. 27 Geochemical Exploration. 30 Four Minera 1i zed Areas

  15. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  16. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    . Agricultural, Industrial and Domestic 4 Annexure III: Water recycling technologies Wastewater and Industrial water re-treatment Tariff mechanism. 5 Annexure IV and V: Non-agricultural and agricultural tariffs. 6, accessibility, Quantity and timeliness. Agriculture Domestic Industry 21 % 23 % 56 % pg. 12: Principles, tariff

  17. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soerens, Thomas

    officials on the new Phase II Storm Water NPDES regulations and Best Management Practices available requirements. In addition, they are typically unaware of Best Management Practices (BMPs) that are availableArkansas Water Resources Center STORMWATER POLLUTION PREVENTION BMP WORKSHOP, DEMONSTRATION

  18. Water Waves and Integrability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossen I. Ivanov

    2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

  19. Purge water management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  20. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

  1. Derivation and implementation of an annual limit on intake and a derived air concentration value for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reif, R.H. [Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Andrews, D.W. [RUST Federal Services, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring workers and work areas at the Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is complex because all radionuclides in the {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U decay chains may be present in an airborne uranium mill tillings matrix. Previous monitoring practices involved isotopic analysis of the air filter to determine the activity of each radionuclide of concern and comparing the results to the specified derived air concentration. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values have been derived here for the uranium mill tailings matrix to simplify the procedure for evaluation of air monitoring results and assessment of the need for individual monitoring. Implementation of the derived air concentration for uranium mill tailings involves analyzing air samples for long-lived gross alpha activity and comparing the activity concentration to the derived air concentration. Health physics decisions regarding assessment of airborne concentrations is more cost-effective because isotopic analysis of air samples is not necessary. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Trapping and Assembly of Living Colloids at Water/Water Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarah D. Hann; Mark Goulian; Daeyeon Lee; Kathleen J. Stebe

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the assembly of colloids in a two phase water-water system that provides an environment that can sustain bacteria, providing a new structure with rich potential to confine and structure living colloids. The water-water system, formed via phase separation of a casein and xanthan mixture, forms a 3-D structure of coexisting casein-rich and xanthan-rich phases. Fluorescent labelling and confocal microscopy reveal the attachment of these living colloids, including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, at the interface between the two phases. Inert colloids also become trapped at the interfaces, suggesting that the observed attachment can be attributed to capillarity. Over time, these structures coarsen and eventually degrade, illustrating the dynamic nature of these systems. This system lays the foundation for future studies of the interplay of physicochemical properties of the fluid interfaces and bulk phases and microbial responses they provoke to induce complex spatial organization, to study species which occupy distinct niches, and to optimize efficient microbial cross-feeding or protection from competitors.

  3. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING . . . July 1973 The final report of the National Water Commission entitled Water Policies for the Future has been issued. Because its con- cluslons -a-rid -re-commend-atlOnsmay have far-reaching effects on water

  4. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING OF THE DIRECTOR . . . April 1973 NEBRASKA AND THE NATIONAL WATER COMMISSION REPORT The National Water Commission grew out of con t r-ovc rey over water resource deve lopment in the Colorado River Basin. Rp

  5. Achievements and Outlook 2012 SA Water Centre for Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Wolfgang

    Achievements and Outlook 2012 SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;Contents Our Breaking News 35 SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse University of South Australia Mawson Lakes Campus Mawson Lakes SA 5095 Telephone: +61 (08) 8302 3338 Fax: +61 (08) 8302 3386 Web: unisa.edu.au/water

  6. Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout Kentucky's 39,486 square miles. Surface water occurs as rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, and wetlands. Ground- water occurs underlain by soluble carbonate rocks (for example, limestone). Water Supply · Approximately 49 inches

  7. The floating water bridge The floating water bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    The floating water bridge The floating water bridge Elmar C. Fuchs1 , Jakob Woisetschläger2 , Karl ____________________________________________ Abstract When high voltage is applied to distilled water filled into two glass beakers which are in contact, a stable water connection forms spontaneously, giving the impression of a floating water bridge. A detailed

  8. Hardness of water.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Oza

    This project is helpful to those people who live in the coastal based and they are suffering every year with problem of safe drinking water and not available throughout the year. It has given ideas, technology and economical way of solution for water crisis and it’s also solving problem of scare by use of different methods to development evelopment new water source in water scare area of Saurashtra and Kutch in Gujarat. Saurashtra land is containing of different types of minerals specially bauxite, calcite, fluoride so many mineral based industries are developed here and those who continuous nuous need this as raw materials and they used many mines and processes units. These minerals are creating problem to polluted ground water some are melting and increasing TDS more than 6000 mg/l and

  9. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

  10. Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Measurement of Liquid Water Accumulation in a PEMFC with Dead-Ended Anode Jason B. Siegel,a, *,z, Maryland 20899, USA The operation and accumulation of liquid water within the cell structure of a polymer, accumulation of liquid water in the anode gas distribution channels was observed in most tested conditions

  11. Author's personal copy How large is the subducted water flux? New constraints on mantle regassing rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    as pore water and chemically- bound water in sediments, altered oceanic crust and serpentinized lith (Fig. 1). A quantitative assessment of the long-term water cycle is critical to our understanding and Kohlstedt, 1996; Karato and Jung, 2003; Mei and Kohlstedt, 2000), structure and style of convection (Crowley

  12. Proton transfer via a transient linear water-molecule chain in a membrane protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerwert, Klaus

    Proton transfer via a transient linear water-molecule chain in a membrane protein Erik Freiera,1-resolution protein ground-state structures of proton pumps and channels have revealed internal protein-bound water. An illustration of the formation of a pro- tonated protein-bound water cluster that is actively involved in proton

  13. Dynamic control of slow water transport by aquaporin 0: Implications for hydration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, David E.

    Dynamic control of slow water transport by aquaporin 0: Implications for hydration and junction as the primary water channel in this tissue but also appears to mediate the formation of thin junctions between fiber cells. AQP0 is remarkably less water perme- able than other aquaporins, but the structural basis

  14. A water displacement system for simulating the effects of reduced gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Alvin Winfred

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gang of Five Tanks in Operation. 10. Nitrogen Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. 30 31 32 11. Calcium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. . . 33 12. Phosphorus Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine... and Feces 34 13. Magnesium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. 35 14. Sodium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces 15. Potassium Balance. Intake Minus Output in the Urine and Feces. 37 16. Urine Output. 38 17. Feces...

  15. Deployable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández Merchan, Carlos Henrique

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis has the purpose of describing the meaning and applications of deployable structures (making emphasis in the scissor-hinged and sliding mechanisms.) and the development of new geometries, details, and mechanisms ...

  16. Computational optimization of synthetic water channels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, David Michael; Rempe, Susan L. B.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Membranes for liquid and gas separations and ion transport are critical to water purification, osmotic energy generation, fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. Often these membranes lack pore uniformity and robustness under operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in performance. The lack of uniformity means that many pores are non-functional. Traditional membranes overcome these limitations by using thick membrane materials that impede transport and selectivity, which results in decreased performance and increased operating costs. For example, limitations in membrane performance demand high applied pressures to deionize water using reverse osmosis. In contrast, cellular membranes combine high flux and selective transport using membrane-bound protein channels operating at small pressure differences. Pore size and chemistry in the cellular channels is defined uniformly and with sub-nanometer precision through protein folding. The thickness of these cellular membranes is limited to that of the cellular membrane bilayer, about 4 nm thick, which enhances transport. Pores in the cellular membranes are robust under operating conditions in the body. Recent efforts to mimic cellular water channels for efficient water deionization produced a significant advance in membrane function. The novel biomimetic design achieved a 10-fold increase in membrane permeability to water flow compared to commercial membranes and still maintained high salt rejection. Despite this success, there is a lack of understanding about why this membrane performs so well. To address this lack of knowledge, we used highperformance computing to interrogate the structural and chemical environments experienced by water and electrolytes in the newly created biomimetic membranes. We also compared the solvation environments between the biomimetic membrane and cellular water channels. These results will help inform future efforts to optimize and tune the performance of synthetic biomimetic membranes for applications in water purification, energy, and catalysis.

  17. WATER SUPPLY A Handbook on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    WATER SUPPLY HANDBOOK A Handbook on Water Supply Planning and Resource Management Institute for Water Resources Water Resources Support Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 7701 Telegraph Road Studies Division December 1998 Revised IWR Report 96-PS-4 #12;U.S. Army Institute for Water Resources

  18. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for consumption, for producing food, and for manufacturing; we also are attracted to water for its esthetic value pets and livestock--all depend on water. Competition for water among humans and between humans

  19. Water Scarcity, Climate Change, and Water Quality: Three Economic Essays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Yongxia

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    essay examines water scarcity under climate change scenarios in Texas. The third essay discusses arsenic-related water quality issues in the drinking water. An integrated economic, hydrological, and environmental model is developed for the first two...

  20. Burbank Water and Power- Solar Water Heater Rebate Program (California)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Burbank Water and Power is providing incentives for the purchase of solar water heaters. Incentives are only available to residential customers with electric water heaters. There is a limit of one...