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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

Urban, P.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

SRD 134 Hydrogen Sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. HYDROGEN SULFIDE. MW [1]. 34.082. NBP [1]. 212.88 K. TP [1]. 187.7 K. H 2 S. Pc [1 ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hydrogen and Sulfur Production from Hydrogen Sulfide Wastes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a "nonequilibrium" plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show-that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.; Doctor, R. D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a nonequilibrium'' plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for the petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hydrogen and sulfur production from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment process that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology is currently under development in the Soviet Union and in the United States. Whereas the present waste treatment process only recovers sulfur at best, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur. The plasma process involves dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a ``nonequilibrium`` plasma in a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. After the dissociation process, sulfur is condensed and sold just as is currently done. The remaining gases are purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, the hydrogen sulfide to be recycled to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. This process has particular implications for the petroleum refining industry, in which hydrogen is a widely used reagent and must be produced from increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources. The modular nature of the new process may also offer economic advantages over small-scale waste treatment technologies widely used in the natural-gas industry. Laboratory-scale experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide indicate that conversions exceeding 90% are possible with appropriate reactor design and that the energy required to dissociate hydrogen sulfide is low enough for the plasma process to be economically competitive. In addition, the experiments show that typical refinery acid-gas streams are compatible with the plasma process and that all by-products can be treated with existing technology.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen sulfide concentration of a gas of relatively higher hydrogen sulfide concentration is reduced by introducing the gas to a fragmented permeable mass of oil shale for contacting the oil shale in the substantial absence of free oxygen. This yields a gas with relatively lower hydrogen sulfide concentration which is withdrawn from the fragmented permeable mass of oil shale.

Compton, L.E.

1978-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

Tests for Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A potential source of dangerous concentrations of hydrogen cyanide exists in the plating room of the Machine Shop where open plating baths containing cyanide salts are maintained and where solid cyanide salts are stored. Also the use of hydrogen sulfide in certain steps of the waste disposal process has lead to noticeable and sometimes objectionable concentrations of this gas in the air of the "WD" Building. In view of the toxic properties of these two gases, it was desirable to set up suitable tests to determine the actual concentrations present in the air of the respective working areas.

Joy, E. F.

1949-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

8

Hydrogen Sulfide, Oil and Gas, and People’s Health By  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2. Hydrogen Sulfide in the Environment.................................................................................... 4 3. Hydrogen Sulfide and Oil and Gas......................................................................................... 5

Lana Skrtic

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Method of washing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas by the ammonium sulfide method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved coke oven gas washing process for removing hydrogen sulfide is proposed wherein the coke oven gas is treated in a hydrogen sulfide scrubber by counterflow with an aqueous ammonia wash water. A stream of aqueous weak ammonia liquor is cooled and sprayed through nozzles in the mid-region of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber. A quantity of aqueous ammonia liquor, corresponding to the quantity which is sprayed through the said nozzles, is withdrawn from the hydrogen sulfide scrubber at a level below the nozzles and is introduced into the top of the said hydrogen sulfide scrubber. Ammonia vapor released at the nozzles has a higher partial pressure than the ammonia partial pressure of the coke oven gas in the region of the nozzle. The aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is the source of the cooled aqueous ammonia liquor which is introduced through the nozzles. A portion of the aqueous ammonia liquor from the deacidifier is introduced directly into the top of the hydrogen sulfide scrubber as a portion of the required aqueous ammonia wash water.

Ritter, H.

1985-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Molecular Cell Hydrogen Sulfide-Linked Sulfhydration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molecular Cell Article Hydrogen Sulfide-Linked Sulfhydration of NF-kB Mediates Its Antiapoptotic@jhmi.edu DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.10.021 SUMMARY Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is an antiapoptotic tran- scription factor. We show that the antiapoptotic actions of NF-kB are mediated by hydrogen sulfide (H2S

Dong, Xinzhong

13

Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Plasma-chemical conversion of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A waste-treatment process that recovers both hydrogen and sulfur from hydrogen-sulfide-contaminated industrial wastes is being developed to replace the Claus technology, which recovers only sulfur. The proposed process is based on research reported in the Soviet technical literature and uses microwave (or radio-frequency) energy to initiate plasma-chemical reactions that dissociate hydrogen sulfide into elemental hydrogen and sulfur. In the plasma-chemical process, the gaseous stream would be purified and separated into streams containing the product hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide for recycle to the plasma reactor, and the process purge containing carbon dioxide and water. Since unconverted hydrogen sulfide is recycled to the plasma reactor, the plasma-chemical process has the potential for sulfur recoveries in excess of 99% without the additional tail-gas clean-up processes associated with the Claus technology. Laboratory experiments with pure hydrogen sulfide have confirmed that conversions of over 90% per pass are possible. Experiments with impurities typical of petroleum refinery and natural gas production acid gases have demonstrated that these impurities are compatible with the plasma dissociation process and do not appear to create new waste-treatment problems. Other experiments show that the cyclonic-flow pattern hypothesized by the Russian theoretical analysis of the plasma-chemical process can substantially decrease energy requirements for hydrogen sulfide dissociation while increasing conversion. This process has several advantages over the current Claus-plus-tail-gas-cleanup technology. The primary advantage is the potential for recovering hydrogen more cheaply than the direct production of hydrogen. The difference could amount to an energy savings of 40 {times} 10{sup 15} to 70 {times} 10{sup 15} J/yr in the refining industry, for an annual savings of $500 million to $1,000 million.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method for direct production of carbon disulfide and hydrogen from hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide feedstock  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for converting hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide to carbon disulfide and hydrogen is provided comprising contacting the hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide to a bi-functional catalyst residing in a controlled atmosphere for a time and at a temperature sufficient to produce carbon disulfide and hydrogen. Also provided is a catalyst for converting carbon sulfides and hydrogen sulfides to gasoline range hydrocarbons comprising a mixture containing a zeolite catalyst and a hydrogenating catalyst.

Miao, Frank Q.; Erekson, Erek James

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Control of hydrogen sulfide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Sponsored by OSTI -- Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report...

17

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Control of hydrogen sulfide...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Sponsored by OSTI -- Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume II. Laboratory results and process...

18

Micro-aeration for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The presence of sulfur compounds (e.g. protein, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfite, etc.) in the feed stream generates highly corrosive and odorous hydrogen sulfide during anaerobic digestion.… (more)

Duangmanee, Thanapong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A New Method to Evaluate Hydrogen Sulfide Removal from Biogas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrogen sulfide in biogas fuel increases the speed at which the system utilizing the biogas corrodes. This corrosion may be prevented by separating and removing… (more)

Martin, Jerry H II

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 ) Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION FROM GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS Final Report Volume I Summary of Results F.C. Brown W.W. Harvey - . - ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Conversion of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen by reaction with a sulfided catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for removing ammonia from the sour water stream of a coal gasification process. The basic steps comprise stripping the ammonia from the sour water; heating the stripped ammonia to a temperature from between 400.degree. to 1,000.degree. F; passing the gaseous ammonia through a reactor containing a sulfided catalyst to produce elemental hydrogen and nitrogen; and scrubbing the reaction product to obtain an ammonia-free gas. The residual equilibrium ammonia produced by the reactor is recycled into the stripper. The ammonia-free gas may be advantageously treated in a Claus process to recover elemental sulfur. Iron sulfide or cobalt molybdenum sulfide catalysts are used.

Matthews, Charles W. (Denver, CO)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Regenerable Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent and Regenerable Multifunctional Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent for High Temperature Gas Streams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulfide Hydrogen Chloride and Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Sorbents for High Temperature Gas Streams Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,767,000 entitled "Regenerable Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent and Regenerable Multifunctional Hydrogen Sulfide and Hydrogen Chloride Removal Sorbent for High Temperature Gas Streams." Disclosed in this patent is the invention of a unique regenerable sorbent process that can remove contaminants from gas produced by the gasification of fossil fuels. Specifically, the process removes hydrogen chloride by using the regenerable sorbent and simultaneously extracts hydrogen chloride compounds and hydrogen

23

Method for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved sulfur-ammonia process is disclosed for removing hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gases. In the improved process, a concentrator formerly used for standby operation is used at all normal times as an ammonia scrubber to improve the efficiency of gas separation during normal operation and is used as a concentrator for its intended standby functions during the alternative operations. In its normal function, the concentrator/scrubber functions as a scrubber to strip ammonia gas from recirculating liquid streams and to permit introduction of an ammonia-rich gas into a hydrogen sulfide scrubber to increase the separation efficiency of that unit. In the standby operation, the same concentrator/scrubber serves as a concentrator to concentrate hydrogen sulfide in a ''strong liquor'' stream for separate recovery as a strong liquor.

Ritter, H.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

24

Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2) Distribution Category UC-66e CONTROL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE EMISSION FROM GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS F i n a l Report - Volume I I L a b o r a t o r y R e s u l t s and P...

25

Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

1983-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion cracking in materials for geothermal power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies to evaluate the performance of alloys used in geothermal power systems are reported. Alloys which are commercially available and those which have modified metallurgical structures and/or composition modifications were tested to determine the corrosive effects of the H/sub 2/S and thermal environments in geothermal fluids. Hydrogen embrittlement and sulfide stress corrosion cracking were tested. Test results showing the effects of alloy composition, tempering temperatures, fluid temperature and salt content, and ageing on sulfide stress cracking are tabulated. (LCL)

Hehemann, R.F.; Troiano, A.R.; Abu-Khater, B.; Ferrigno, S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydrogen Sulfide Dispersion Consequences Analysis in Different Wind Speeds: A CFD Based Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen sulfide (h2s) leakage and dispersion from a sulfide recycle installation in different wind speeds are simulated by implementing a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. H2s concentrations of monitor points which represent dispersion contours ... Keywords: CFD, hydrogen Sulfide, dispersion, concenquences analysis, different wind speeds

Bo Zhang; Guo-ming Chen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

MODELING OF SYNGAS REACTIONS AND HYDROGEN GENERATION OVER SULFIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. During this study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The relative stabilities of pure MoS{sub 2} edges were calculated and small clusters exhibiting properties of the edges were modeled. The results were finalized and published in the journal ''Surface Science''. Hydrogen adsorption energies on both the edges and the clusters were calculated, and the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption on both systems were evaluated. The adsorption locations and vibrational frequencies were also determined. These additional results were published in a second paper in ''Surface Science''. Most recently, the bonding and effect of alkali and transition metal ions was investigated on the MoS{sub 2} clusters. Potassium atoms bind to the clusters and increase the binding of hydrogen to the clusters while reducing the activation barriers for hydrogen adsorption. Silver attaches to the Mo7S14 cluster and donates its odd electron to the nearby Mo atoms and should have a similar effect to hydrogen as potassium does.

Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Removal of mercury from gas streams using hydrogen sulfide and amines  

SciTech Connect

Phillips Petroleum Co. has developed an integrated process for treating a natural-gas stream with a precipitating agent to remove mercury and introducing an absorption agent to control the amount of precipitating agent left in the gas stream. In the process, a gas (particularly a sulfur-free natural gas) that contains mercury is contacted with an amount of hydrogen sulfide in excess of the stoichiometric amount of hydrogen sulfide necessary to precipitate sulfides of mercury, with further contact with an amine that is an absorption agent for hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide precipitates sulfides of mercury from the gas stream while the amine absorbs the excess hydrogen sulfide to produce a gas stream of minimal sulfur content with a reduced mercury content that can be below the range of detection.

Miller, A.J.; Tuckett, W.F.

1977-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

31

Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A novel and cost-effective hydrogen sulfide removal technology using tire derived rubber particles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is corrosive, toxic, and produced during the anaerobic digestion process at wastewater treatment plants. Tire derived rubber particles (TDRPTM) and other rubber… (more)

Siefers, Andrea Mary

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factors Applicable to Wastewater Wet Wells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transport of wastewater in sewer networks causes potential problems associated with gases which include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and methane, in regard… (more)

Mudragaddam, Madhuri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY SUPERADIABATIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the membrane systems selected, additional equipment such as knockout drums, coalescing filters, and guard beds far and modeling predictions is quite reasonable. Methane 20% H2S/ 80%N2 Air MFC MFC MFC Proceedings of the 2002 U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Review NREL/CP-610-32405 #12;MFC-3 MFC-1 MFC-2 N2 H2S O2

35

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel May 5, 2011 - 1:27pm Addthis Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D. Damsgaard, Thomas Pedersen and Ole Hansen, Technical University of Denmark Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D.

36

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Sun and Water Into Hydrogen Fuel May 5, 2011 - 1:27pm Addthis Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D. Damsgaard, Thomas Pedersen and Ole Hansen, Technical University of Denmark Tiny silicon pillars, used to absorb light. When dotted with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately two micrometers in diameter. | Photo courtesy of Christian D.

37

Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

2002-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

Metal?organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

Allan, Phoebe K.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M. Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A.; Megson, Ian L.; Chapman, Karena W.; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E. (St Andrews)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

39

Household ceramic water filter evaluation using three simple low-cost methods : membrane filtration, 3M Petrifilm and hydrogen sulfide bacteria in northern region, Ghana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Drinking water continues to be a major source of waterborne diseases and death in the world because many points of water collection remain unsafe. This thesis reports high level of fecal contamination found in rivers and ...

Mattelet, Claire (Claire Eliane H. Y.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Mitigation of hydrogen sulfide emissions in The Geysers KGRA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Violations of the ambient air quality standard (AAQS) for hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) are currently being experienced in The Geysers KGRA and could significantly increase in the future. Attainment and maintenance of the H/sub 2/S AAQS is a potential constraint to optimum development of this resource. The availability of reliable H/sub 2/S controls and the development of a validated air dispersion model are critical to alleviating this constraint. The purpose of this report is to assess the performance capabilities for state-of-the-art controls, to identify potential cost-effective alternative controls, and to identify the California Energy Commission (CEC) staff's efforts to develop a validated air dispersion model. Currently available controls (Stretford, Hydrogen Peroxide, and EIC) are capable of abating H/sub 2/S emissions from a proposed facility to five lbs/hr. Alternative controls, such as condensate stripping and condensate pH control, appear to be promising, cost-effective control options.

Buell, R.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Updated cost estimates of meeting geothermal hydrogen sulfide emission regulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A means of estimating the cost of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emission control was investigated. This study was designed to derive H/sub 2/S emission abatement cost functions and illustrate the cost of H/sub 2/S emission abatement at a hydrothermal site. Four tasks were undertaken: document the release of H/sub 2/S associated with geothermal development; review H/sub 2/S environmental standards; develop functional relationships that may be used to estimate the most cose-effective available H/sub 2/S abatement process; and use the cost functions to generate abatement cost estimates for a specific site. The conclusions and recommendations derived from the research are presented. The definition of the term impacts as used in this research is discussed and current estimates of the highest expected H/sub 2/S concentrations of in geothermal reservoirs are provided. Regulations governing H/sub 2/S emissions are reviewed and a review of H/sub 2/S control technology and a summary of the control cost functions are included. A case study is presented to illustrate H/sub 2/S abatement costs at the Baca KGRA in New Mexico.

Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Weakley, S.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

44

Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

Sims, A.V.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

Sims, A.V.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates. Several different types of dual-phase membranes were fabricated and tested for their CO{sub 2} permeation in reducing conditions without the presence of oxygen. Although the flux was quite low, on the order of 0.01-0.001 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min, the selectivity of CO{sub 2}/He was almost infinite at temperatures of about 800 C. A different type of dual-phase membrane prepared by Arizona State University (ASU) was also tested at GTI for CO{sub 2} permeation. The measured CO{sub 2} fluxes were 0.015 and 0.02 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min at 750 and 830 C, respectively. These fluxes were higher than the previous flux obtained ({approx}0.01 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min) using the dual-phase membranes prepared by GTI. Further development in membrane development should be conducted to improve the CO{sub 2} flux. ASU has also focused on high temperature permeation/separation experiments to confirm the carbon dioxide separation capabilities of the dual-phase membranes with La{sup 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF6482) supports infiltrated with a Li/Na/K molten carbonate mixture (42.5/32.5/25.0 mole %). The permeation experiments indicated that the addition of O{sub 2} does improve the permeance of CO{sub 2} through the membrane. A simplified membrane reactor model was developed to evaluate the performance of the process. However, the simplified model did not allow the estimation of membrane transport area, an important parameter for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed membrane reactor technology. As a result, an improved model was developed. Results of the improved membrane reactor model show that the membrane shift reaction has promise as a means to simplify the production of a clean stream of hydrogen and a clean stream of carbon dioxide. The focus of additional development work should address the large area required for the CO{sub 2} membrane as identified in the modeling calculations. Also, a more detailed process flow diagram should be developed that includes integration of cooling and preheating feed streams as well as particulate removal so that stea

Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analysis of hypochlorite process for removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal gases  

SciTech Connect

Sodium hypochlorite reacts readily with hydrogen sulfide to convert the sulfide ion into free sulfur in a neutral or acid solution and to the sulfate ion in an alkaline solution. Sodium hypochlorite can be generated on site by processing geothermal brine in electrolytic cells. An investigation to determine if this reaction could be economically used to remove hydrogen sulfide from geothermal noncondensible gases is reported. Two processes, the LO-CAT Process and the Stretford Process, were selected for comparison with the hypochlorite process. Three geothermal reservoirs were considered for evaluation: Niland KGRA, Baca KGRA, and The Geysers KGRA. Because of the wide variation in the amount of hydrogen sulfide present at The Geysers, two different gas analyses were considered for treatment. Plants were designed to process the effluent noncondensible gases from a 10 MW/sub e/ geothermal power plant. The effluent gas from each plant was to contain a maximum hydrogen sulfide concentration of 35 ppb. Capital costs were estimated for each of the processes at each of the four sites selected. Operating costs were also calculated for each of the processes at each of the sites. The results of these studies are shown.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for controlling H/sub 2/S emissions at geothermal power plants was evaluated in laboratory scale equipment and by process engineering analysis. The process is based on scrubbing geothermal steam with a metal salt solution to selectively remove and precipitate the contained H/sub 2/S. The metal sulfide is roasted or oxygen/acid leached to regenerate the metal salt, and sulfur is rejected from the system as elemental sulfur or as sulfate. Up to 95 percent removal of H/sub 2/S from simulated geothermal steams was obtained in a 2'' diameter scrubbing column packed with 3 feet of 5/8'' Flexirings by use of a recirculating slurry of copper sulfate/copper sulfide. Information is included on the chemistry, thermodynamics, kinetics and process control aspects of the process, scrubber system design, operation, and corrosion, and design proposals and cost estimates for a H/sub 2/S removal system. (LCL)

Harvey, W.W.; Brown, F.C.; Turchan, M.J.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide in a Biotrickling Filter under Extremely Acidic Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an extremely corrosive and toxic gas, was commonly generated by urban treatment plants, gas and oil refineries, paper and pulp industries and so on. Biofiltration, which was considered as cost-effective and environment-friendly, ... Keywords: H2S, biotrickling filter, biodegradation, removal efficiency, elimination capacity

Jing Chen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

High-Temperature Nano-Derived Micro-Hydrogen Sulfide Sensors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperature Nano-Derived Micro- Temperature Nano-Derived Micro- Hydrogen and -Hydrogen Sulfide Sensors Background The Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) seeks applications for the University Coal Research (UCR) Program to further develop the understanding of coal utilization. Since the program's inception in 1979, its primary objectives have been to (1) improve our understanding of the chemical and physical processes involved in the conversion and utilization of coal in an environmentally

51

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from simulated geothermal brines by reaction with oxygen. Final report, October 6, 1975-February 4, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for controlling hydrogen sulfide emissions and corrosivity in geothermal systems has been evaluated on a small laboratory pilot plant scale and shown to be technically feasible. The hydrogen sulfide was oxidized by oxygen injected directly into a 11.4-liter-(3-gallon)-per-minute flowing stream of simulated geothermal brine. The oxidation of the sulfide was complete at oxygen:sulfide mole ratios of 1.25:1 to 1.5:1, depending on temperature and total dissolved solids in the brine. The reaction products were free sulfur, sulfite and sulfate. The ratio of these was dependent upon the oxygen:sulfide mole ratios; but, generally, more than 80% of the sulfide was converted to sulfate, approximately 10% to free sulfur and less than 10% to sulfite.

Wilson, J.S.; King, J.E.; Bullard, G.R.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Electrochemical polishing of hydrogen sulfide from coal synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced process has been developed for the separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane. This technology is developed for use in coal gasification facilities providing fuel for cogeneration coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas by reduction to the sulfide ion and H at the cathode. The sulfide ion migrates to the anode through a molten salt electrolyte suspended in an inert ceramic matrix. Once at the anode it is oxidized to elemental sulfur and swept away for condensation in an inert gas stream. The syn-gas is enriched with the H{sub 2}. Order-of-magnitude reductions in H{sub 2}S have been repeatably recorded (100 ppm to 10 ppm H{sub 2}S) on a single pass through the cell. This process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. Since there are no absorbents used, there is no absorption/regeneration step as with conventional technology. Elemental sulfur is produced as a by-product directly, so there is no need for a Claus process for sulfur recovery. This makes the process economically attractive since it is much less equipment intensive than conventional technology.

Gleason, E.F.; Winnick, J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

Sims, A.V.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are presented in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (Drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

60

The use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution showed the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be used in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Rezunenko, Y.I.; Popov, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Use of ethylenediamine to remove hydrogen sulfide from coke oven gas  

SciTech Connect

The investigations of the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S by an EDA solution which show that the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in ethylenediamine solutions is almost twice that in monoethanolamine solutions. Ethylenediamine may be used as an absorber for thorough removal of H/sub 2/S from coke oven gas in the presence of CO/sub 2/ and HCN. The hydrogen cyanide of coke oven gas, having practically no effect on the equilibrium absorption of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, may in this case be recovered in the form of ethylenethiourea - a marketable byproduct.

Marakhovskii, L.F.; Popov, A.A.; Rezunenko, Yu.I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide and health in Rotorua, New Zealand  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rotorua, New Zealand, lies inside a volcanic caldera. Natural steam is extensively used for space and water heating, and electric power generation. This report presents results of a preliminary reconnaissance survey of atmospheric H/sub 2/S levels in the area and attempts to relate these levels to health statistics in the region. 5 refs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

1984-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect

The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

64

Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Turning Water into Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin, Materials Science NERSC Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 PNNL Contacts: Loel Kathmann, Loel.Kathmann@pnnl.gov, +1 509 371 6068 Artwork from this catalysis research graced the cover of Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. Image reproduced by permission of Dr Igor Lyubinetsky and the PCCP Owner Societies from Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2012. Build a surface of titanium and oxygen atoms arranged just so, coat with water, and add sunshine. What do you get? In theory, energy-rich hydrogen produced by photolysis-a process by which water molecules placed on a catalytic surface and exposed to sunlight (electromagnetic radiation) are

65

Numerical Simulation of Making Hydrogen from Rich Filtration Combustion of Hydrogen Sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Filtration combustion in porous media offers good advantages such as super-adiabatic combustion temperature in making hydrogen from hydrogen sulfur which is extremely toxic and is vastly produced in industry. In order to study the mechanism of making ... Keywords: Filtration combustion, coupled chemistry-hydrodynamics, making hydrogen, computational fluid dynamics

Li Guoneng

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 184191 A solid oxide fuel cell system fed with hydrogen sulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as food processing, coke ovens, paper mills, tanneries, and petroleum refineries. Sometimes, a desulfurizer, and two recuperators. Natural gas is internally reformed, and the product, a hydrogen-rich gas sulfide and natural gas Yixin Lu, Laura Schaefer1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University

67

Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

Laufhutte, D.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide--Systems Analysis for IGCC Applications  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (SCOHS) has been evaluated conceptually for IGCC applications, and the theoretical limits of reaction performance, process performance, and economic potential in IGCC have been estimated. Syngas conditions that have high partial pressures of total sulfur result in substantial liquid sulfur retention within the catalyst bed, with relatively complex processing being required. Applications that have much lower total sulfur partial pressure in the process gas might permit SCOHS operation under conditions where little liquid sulfur is retained in the catalyst, reducing the processing complexity and possibly improving the desulfurization performance. The results from our recent IGCC process evaluations using the SCOHS technology and conventional syngas cleaning are presented, and alternative SCOHS process configurations and applications that provide greater performance and cost potential are identified.

Newby, R.A.; Keairns, D.L.; Alvin, M.A.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

75

Batch slurry photocatalytic reactors for the generation of hydrogen from sulfide and sulfite waste streams under solar irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In this study, two solar slurry photocatalytic reactors i.e., batch reactor (BR) and batch recycle reactor with continuous supply of inert gas (BRRwCG) were developed for comparing their performance. The performance of the photocatalytic reactors were evaluated based on the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from water containing sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) and sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) ions. The photoreactor of capacity 300 mL was developed with UV-vis transparent walls. The catalytic powders ((CdS/ZnS)/Ag{sub 2}S + (RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2})) were kept suspended by means of magnetic stirrer in the BR and gas bubbling and recycling of the suspension in the BRRwCG. The rate constant was found to be 120.86 (einstein{sup -1}) for the BRRwCG whereas, for the BR it was found to be only 10.92 (einstein{sup -1}). The higher rate constant was due to the fast desorption of products and suppression of e{sup -}/h{sup +} recombination. (author)

Priya, R.; Kanmani, S. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Influence of technological factors on statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the ammonia process  

SciTech Connect

The basic technological factors that determine the effectiveness of hydrogen sulfide absorption from coke-oven gas by the cyclic ammonia process are the initial H/sub 2/S content of the gas, the degree of purification, the absorption temperature and the NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ contents of the absorbent solution. The effects of these factors on the statics of hydrogen sulfide absorption are studied. The investigation is based on the phase-equilibrium distributions of components in the absorption-desorption gas-cleaning cycle. The mathematical model is presented which includes the solution of a system of chemical equilibrium equations for reactions in the solution, material balances, and electrical neutrality. 4 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

Nazarov, V.G.; Kamennykh, B.M.; Rus'yanov, N.D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability has not been observed. A new test cell specially designed to test the membranes has been constructed to provide basic science data on superpermeability.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a residence time of 18.8 s with a flow rate of 39.4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s (5 ft{sup 3}/h) and a specific energy of 13,000 J/l using niobium and platinum coated stainless steel tubes as cathodes. Under these conditions, the First Law efficiency for the system was 8%. Under similar reaction conditions, methane conversions were {approx}50% higher with niobium and platinum coated stainless steel cathodes than with a stainless steel cathode.

Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program of laboratory and pilot plant tests, detailed process and project engineering work, and process engineering and economic evaluation studies has been carried out in support of the design of a test facility for demonstration of the copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions. A demonstration plant has been designed which is capable of removing 99% of the H/sub 2/S, 90% of the NH/sub 3/, and significant amounts of H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ and particulates from 100,000 lb/hr of geothermal steam of The Geysers composition. Criteria for the mechanical and process design of the scrubber have been confirmed in field tests of fifty hours duration on an eight-inch diameter scrubber at PG and E's Unit No. 7, The Geysers. The background of the problem and the technical approach to its solution, the scope and results of the first-phase laboratory testing, the scope and results of the experimental and analytical studies carried out in the second phase, and a description of the configuration of the demonstration plant and the test plan for its operation are summarized. (MHR)

Brown, F.C.; Harvey, W.W.; Warren, R.B.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

HOW LINDE MAKES HEAVY WATER FROM HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect

A heavy water plant to be operated in conjunction with an ammonium nitrate fertilizer plant is described. Initial electrolytic deuterium enrichment of hydrogen takes place in a three-stage water electrolysis plant. A part of the hydrogen produced for the ammonia synthesis plant is run through the hydrogen distillation plant, the deuterium drained off, and the hydrogen returned. Natural water is used to scrub deuterium from electrolytic hydrogen before feeding to the cells. Contaminants such as water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen are frozen out, and the purified enriched hydrogen is fractionated following an interim step which catalyzes concentrated HD to an equilibrium mixture of D/sub 2/ , HD, and H/sub 2/. Pure oxygen burns the final fractionation product to water containing 99.8% deuterium oxide. (J.R.D.)

1959-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Modeling Hydrogen Water Chemistry for BWR Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedwater hydrogen injection can effectively reduce stress corrosion cracking in BWR recirculation systems. Simulations using a new water radiolysis model indicate that such injections produce different effects in various regions of the BWR primary circuit. For example, higher concentrations of hydrogen are necessary to suppress oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in the core bypass and bottom plenum than in the recirculation system.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use abundance, high- energy content, and large surface area, is able to combine with water to produce hydrogen

Barthelat, Francois

83

Hydrogen and water reactor safety: proceedings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas of interest: 1) hydrogen research programs; 2) hydrogen behavior during light water reactor accidents; 3) combustible gas generation; 4) hydrogen transport and mixing; 5) combustion modeling and experiments; 6) accelerated flames and detonations; 7) combustion mitigation and control; and 8) equipment survivability.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Investigation on Durability and Reactivity of Promising Metal Oxide Sorbents During Sulfidation and Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Research activities and efforts of this research project were concentrated on formulating various metal oxide sorbents with various additives under various formulation conditions, conducting experiments on initial reactivity of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide, and testing hardness of formulated sorbents. Experiments on reactivity of formulated metal oxide sorbents with wet hydrogen sulfide contained in a simulated coal gas mixture were carried out for 120 seconds at 550 o C (see Table 1) to evaluate reactivity of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide. Hardness of formulated sorbents was evaluated in addition to testing their reactivity with hydrogen sulfide. A typical simulated coal gas mixture consists of 9107-ppm hydrogen sulfide (0.005 g; 1 wt %), 0.085-g water (15.84 wt %), 0.0029-g hydrogen (0.58 wt %), and 0.4046-g nitrogen (81.34 wt%).

K. C. Kwon

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Cadmium sulfide membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Cadmium sulfide membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hydrogen isotope separation from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for separating tritium from tritium-containing water or deuterium enrichment from water is described. The process involves selective, laser-induced two-photon excitation and photodissociation of those water molecules containing deuterium or tritium followed by immediate reaction of the photodissociation products with a scavenger gas which does not substantially absorb the laser light. The reaction products are then separated from the undissociated water. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Ethanol synthesis and water gas shift over bifunctional sulfide catalysts. Final technical progress report, September 12, 1991--December 11, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to investigate sulfur-resistant catalysts for the conversion of synthesis gas having H{sub 2}/CO {le} 1 into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols, especially ethanol, by a highly selective and efficient pathway, while also promoting the water gas shift reaction (WGSR). The catalysts chosen are bifunctional, base-hydrogenation, sulfur-tolerant transition metal sulfides with heavy alkali, e.g. Cs{sup +}, promoter dispersed on their surfaces. The modes of activation of H{sub 2} and CO on MoS{sub 2} and alkali-doped MoS{sub 2} were considered, and computational analyses of the thermodynamic stability of transition metal sulfides and of the electronic structure of these sulfide catalysts were carried out. In the preparation of the cesium-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts, a variety of preparation methods using CsOOCH were examined. In all cases, doping with CsOOCH led to a lost of surface area. The undoped molybdenum disulfide catalyst only produced hydrocarbons. Cs-doped MoS{sub 2} catalysts all produced linear alcohols, along with smaller amounts of hydrocarbons. With a 20 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, temperature, pressure, and flow rate dependences of the synthesis reactions were investigated in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}/CO = 1/1 synthesis gas during short term testing experiments. It was shown that with a carefully prepared 10 wt% CsOOCH/MoS{sub 2} catalyst, reproducible and high alcohol synthesis activity could be obtained. For example, at 295 C with H{sub 2}/CO = 1 synthesis gas at 8.3 MPa and with GHSV = 7,760 l/kg cat/hr, the total alcohol space time yield was ca 300 g/kg cat/hr (accompanied with a hydrocarbon space time yield of ca 60 g/kg cat/hr). Over a testing period of ca 130 hr, no net deactivation of the catalyst was observed. 90 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Deemer, M.; Richards-Babb, M.; Carr, T.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide  

SciTech Connect

The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations < 0.6 at.% and hydrogen impurities of < 0.015 at.% have been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by Ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n=1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e. Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

McCloy, John S.; Wolf, Walter; Wimmer, Erich; Zelinski, Brian

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

90

NETL: Releases & Briefs - Producing hydrogen from water, without  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Producing Hydrogen from Water, without Electrolysis Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Electrochemical potential difference drives the reaction Researchers at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory have patented a "Method of Generating Hydrogen by Catalytic Decomposition of Water." The invention potentially leapfrogs current capital and energy intensive processes that produce hydrogen from fossil fuels or through the electrolysis of water. According to co-inventor Arun Bose, "Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis, but the high voltage requirements are a commercial barrier. The invention provides a new route for producing hydrogen from water by using mixed proton-electron conducting membranes." Water is

91

Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting  

SciTech Connect

This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.

Hollabaugh, Charles M. (Los Alamos, NM); Bowman, Melvin G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Control of hydrogen sulfide emission from geothermal power plants. Volume III. Final report: demonstration plant equipment descriptions, test plan, and operating instructions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The elements of the final, detailed design of the demonstration plant for the copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from geothermal steam are summarized. Descriptions are given of all items of equipment in sufficient detail that they can serve as purchase specifications. The process and mechanical design criteria which were used to develop the specifications, and the process descriptions and material and energy balance bases to which the design criteria were applied are included. (MHR)

Brown, F.C.; Harvey, W.W.; Warren, R.B.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Production of Hydrogen by Superadiabatic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide - Final Technical Report for the Period June 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to develop an economical process for hydrogen production, with no additional carbon dioxide emission, through the thermal decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in H{sub 2}S-rich waste streams to high-purity hydrogen and elemental sulfur. The novel feature of the process being developed is the superadiabatic combustion (SAC) of part of the H{sub 2}S in the waste stream to provide the thermal energy required for the decomposition reaction such that no additional energy is required. The program is divided into two phases. In Phase 1, detailed thermochemical and kinetic modeling of the SAC reactor with H{sub 2}S-rich fuel gas and air/enriched air feeds is undertaken to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on exit gas products and conversion efficiency, and to identify key process parameters. Preliminary modeling results are used as a basis to conduct a thorough evaluation of SAC process design options, including reactor configuration, operating conditions, and productivity-product separation schemes, with respect to potential product yields, thermal efficiency, capital and operating costs, and reliability, ultimately leading to the preparation of a design package and cost estimate for a bench-scale reactor testing system to be assembled and tested in Phase 2 of the program. A detailed parametric testing plan was also developed for process design optimization and model verification in Phase 2. During Phase 2 of this program, IGT, UIC, and industry advisors UOP and BP Amoco will validate the SAC concept through construction of the bench-scale unit and parametric testing. The computer model developed in Phase 1 will be updated with the experimental data and used in future scale-up efforts. The process design will be refined and the cost estimate updated. Market survey and assessment will continue so that a commercial demonstration project can be identified.

Rachid B. Slimane; Francis S. Lau; Javad Abbasian

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Effect of hydrogen-sulfide on the hydrogen permeance of palladium–copper alloys at elevated temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hydrogen permeance of several 0.1 mm thick Pd–Cu alloy foils (80 wt. % Pd–20 wt. % Cu, 60 wt. % Pd–40 wt. % Cu and 53 wt.% Pd–47 wt. % Cu) was evaluated using transient flux measurements at temperatures ranging from 603 to 1123 K and pressures up to 620 kPa both in the presence and absence of 1000 ppm H2S. Sulfur resistance, as evidenced by no significant change in permeance, was correlated with the temperatures associated with the face-centered-cubic crystalline structure for the alloys in this study. The permeance of the body-centered cubic phase, however, was up to two orders of magnitude lower when exposed to H2S. A smooth transition from sulfur poisoning to sulfur resistance with increasing temperature was correlated with the alloy transition from a body-centered-cubic structure to a face-centered-cubic structure. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

B. D. Morreale B; M. V. Ciocco B; B. H. Howard A

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

98

Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Version 2 -...

100

METHOD FOR PRODUCING WATER OR HYDROGEN ENRICHED IN DEUTERIUM  

SciTech Connect

A method for producing water or hydrogen enriched in deuterium is given in relation with generating hydrogen by electrolysis of water. The method is based on the fact that in equilibrium the deuterium content in water is higher than the deuterium content in gaseous hydrogen. The method comprises the steps of effecting continuously isotopic exchange in counter current and in the presence of a catalyzer, of circulating the water flowing out of the isotopic exchange device into the electrolytic cell, and of gathering the water or the hydrogen enriched in deuterium on the way from the isotopic exchange device to the electrolytic cell. (Gmelin Inst.)

Hesky, H.

1963-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Process for the production of hydrogen from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

102

Carbon promoted water electrolysis to produce hydrogen at room temperature.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of the work was to conduct water electrolysis at room temperature with reduced energy costs for hydrogen production. The electrochemical gasification of carbons… (more)

Ranganathan, Sukanya.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally regional commodity. Water resources vary in quality and qu

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

104

Hydrogen and Water: An Engineering, Economic and Environmental Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The multi-year program plan for the Department of Energy's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technology Program (USDOE, 2007a) calls for the development of system models to determine economic, environmental and cross-cutting impacts of the transition to a hydrogen economy. One component of the hydrogen production and delivery chain is water; water's use and disposal can incur costs and environmental consequences for almost any industrial product. It has become increasingly clear that due to factors such as competing water demands and climate change, the potential for a water-constrained world is real. Thus, any future hydrogen economy will need to be constructed so that any associated water impacts are minimized. This, in turn, requires the analysis and comparison of specific hydrogen production schemes in terms of their water use. Broadly speaking, two types of water are used in hydrogen production: process water and cooling water. In the production plant, process water is used as a direct input for the conversion processes (e.g. steam for Steam Methane Reforming {l_brace}SMR{r_brace}, water for electrolysis). Cooling water, by distinction, is used indirectly to cool related fluids or equipment, and is an important factor in making plant processes efficient and reliable. Hydrogen production further relies on water used indirectly to generate other feedstocks required by a hydrogen plant. This second order indirect water is referred to here as 'embedded' water. For example, electricity production uses significant quantities of water; this 'thermoelectric cooling' contributes significantly to the total water footprint of the hydrogen production chain. A comprehensive systems analysis of the hydrogen economy includes the aggregate of the water intensities from every step in the production chain including direct, indirect, and embedded water. Process and cooling waters have distinct technical quality requirements. Process water, which is typically high purity (limited dissolved solids) is used inside boilers, reactors or electrolyzers because as it changes phase or is consumed, it leaves very little residue behind. Pre-treatment of 'raw' source water to remove impurities not only enables efficient hydrogen production, but also reduces maintenance costs associated with component degradation due to those impurities. Cooling water has lower overall quality specifications, though it is required in larger volumes. Cooling water has distinct quality requirements aimed at preserving the cooling equipment by reducing scaling and fouling from untreated water. At least as important as the quantity, quality and cost of water inputs to a process are the quantity, quality and cost of water discharge. In many parts of the world, contamination from wastewater streams is a far greater threat to water supply than scarcity or drought (Brooks, 2002). Wastewater can be produced during the pre-treatment processes for process and cooling water, and is also sometimes generated during the hydrogen production and cooling operations themselves. Wastewater is, by definition, lower quality than supply water. Municipal wastewater treatment facilities can handle some industrial wastewaters; others must be treated on-site or recycled. Any of these options can incur additional cost and/or complexity. DOE's 'H2A' studies have developed cost and energy intensity estimates for a variety of hydrogen production pathways. These assessments, however, have not focused on the details of water use, treatment and disposal. As a result, relatively coarse consumption numbers have been used to estimate water intensities. The water intensity for hydrogen production ranges between 1.5-40 gallons per kilogram of hydrogen, including the embedded water due to electricity consumption and considering the wide variety of hydrogen production, water treatment, and cooling options. Understanding the consequences of water management choices enables stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding water use. Water is a fundamentally reg

Simon, A J; Daily, W; White, R G

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hydrogen production by water electrolysis: present status and future prospects  

SciTech Connect

Development of advanced alkaline water electrolysis cells operating at 120-150/sup 0/C, electrocatalysis of the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, and development of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell are discussed. (LK)

Srinivasan, S.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Modeling hydrogen water chemistry for BWR applications: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the results of calculated concentrations of O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ and other hydrogen-oxygen species in various regions of the primary circuit for 9 BWRs for various concentrations of feedwater hydrogen. The calculations were performed by computer simulation using the GE-Harwell radiolysis model and compared with hydrogen water chemistry test data and results from a mass balance model. 36 refs., 57 figs., 9 tabs.

Ruiz, C.P.; Lin, C.C.; Wong, T.L.; Robinson, R.N.; Law, R.J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

109

Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

Stevens, William H. (Deep River, CA)

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

110

Generating Hydrogen through Water Electrolysis using Concentrator Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be an important element in reducing global climate change if the feedstock and process to produce the hydrogen are carbon free. Using nuclear energy to power a high temperature water electrolysis process meets these constraints while another uses heat and electricity from solar electric concentrators. Nuclear researchers have estimated the cost of hydrogen generated in this fashion and we will compare their estimates with those we have made for generating hydrogen using electricity and waste heat from a dish concentrator photovoltaic system. The conclusion is that the costs are comparable and low enough to compete with gasoline costs in the not too distant future.

McConnell, R.; Thompson, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

112

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

113

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

114

Approaches to Enhancing Mitigation with Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting hydrogen into the reactor coolant via the feedwater system to control primary system intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) for over 30 years. This report investigates options for achieving BWR IGSCC mitigation at plants using noble metal catalysts at all temperatures above 200 °F (93.3 °C).BackgroundPlants currently do not initiate hydrogen injection until there is sufficient steam flow to ...

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

115

Formation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide in Electron Irradiated Crystalline Water Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water ice is abundant both astrophysically, for example in molecular clouds, and in planetary systems. The Kuiper belt objects, many satellites of the outer solar system, the nuclei of comets and some planetary rings are all known to be water-rich. Processing of water ice by energetic particles and ultraviolet photons plays an important role in astrochemistry. To explore the detailed nature of this processing, we have conducted a systematic laboratory study of the irradiation of crystalline water ice in an ultrahigh vacuum setup by energetic electrons holding a linear energy transfer of 4.3 +/- 0.1 keV mm-1. The irradiated samples were monitored during the experiment both on line and in situ via mass spectrometry (gas phase) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (solid state). We observed the production of hydrogen and oxygen, both molecular and atomic, and of hydrogen peroxide. The likely reaction mechanisms responsible for these species are discussed. Additional formation routes were derived from the sublimation profiles of molecular hydrogen (90-140 K), molecular oxygen (147 -151 K) and hydrogen peroxide (170 K). We also present evidence on the involvement of hydroxyl radicals and possibly oxygen atoms as building blocks to yield hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures (12 K) and via a diffusion-controlled mechanism in the warming up phase of the irradiated sample.

Weijun Zheng; David Jewitt; Ralf I. Kaiser

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

116

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

Ultrafast 2D IR anisotropy of water reveals reorientation during hydrogen-bond switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rearrangements of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water are believed to involve rapid and concerted hydrogen bond switching events, during which a hydrogen bond donor molecule undergoes large angle molecular reorientation ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

119

HYDROGEN ISOTOPE RECOVERY USING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed.

Fox, E; Scott Greenway, S; Amy Ekechukwu, A

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

120

Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water, a critical review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status of thermochemical hydrogen technology as regards process chemistry, preliminary chemical engineering design and techno-economics for a number of cycles undergoing active research and development efforts throughout the world at this time is assessed. Three cycles are receiving the bulk of the total effort and most of the funding: the hybrid sulfuric acid cycle; the sulfuric acid-hydrogen iodide cycle; and the hybrid sulfuric acid-hydrogen bromide cycle (Mark 13) . All three cycles are at the stage where a laboratory scale continuous plant can be or is in operation. The only plant in operation is at Ispra, Italy on the Mark 13 cycle. Materials problems are endemic to all cycles. In most cases reference materials for the sulfuric acid vaporization stages and the sulfuric acid or sulfur trioxide decomposition vessels have not yet been defined. A prime difficulty is the need for the vessel walls to transmit heat to interior fluids as well as withstand their corrosive effects. Serious efforts must be undertaken in the materials area prior to demonstration of any of the sulfuric acid-based cycles on a pilot plant scale under realistic pressure (30 atm) and temperature conditions. Improvements are being made in estimating the cost and efficiency of hydrogen produced from water and a thermal energy source either by thermochemical cycle technology or by water electrolysis. These include the heat penalty analysis and the OPTIMO computer code. Costs of thermochemical hydrogen have been found to fall in the $7 to $10/10/sup 16/ Btu range with efficiencies in the 35 to 45% bracket. A 10 to 15 year developmental effort with increased funding of both options (thermochemical and water electrolysis) should find a clear-cut solution and resolve the situation of the ''best'' option to use for producing synthetic hydrogen from water.

Cox, K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Early Hydrogen Water Chemistry Injection in Boiling Water Reactors: Impact on Fuel Performance and Reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Early injection of hydrogen during plant startup has been proposed to further mitigate intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in boiling water reactors (BWRs). To assess the effectiveness of early hydrogen water chemistry (EHWC), laboratory tests were performed under simulated BWR startup conditions at 200-400°F in the absence of radiation with pre-oxidized stainless steel specimens treated with noble metals to simulate plant surfaces. The ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

122

Solar-thermochemical production of hydrogen from water  

SciTech Connect

There is a widespread interest in the development of a ''hydrogen economy'' as an eventual solution to many of the problems associated with the growing energy crisis. Hydrogen is also valuable as a chemical intermediate. As fossil sources become inadequate, large scale hydrogen production must utilize energy sources such as solar energy for the decomposition of water by thermochemical cycles, electrolysis or perhaps, by a hybrid combination of these methods. The potential higher efficiency and lower cost for thermochemical methods, versus the overall electrolysis path has been rather widely recognized. The criteria for the selection of an appropriate thermochemical cycle for matching with a high temperature solar heat source are detailed. Advantages of a thermochemical cycle based on a solid sulfate decomposition that makes use of isothrmal high temperature energy is detailed and a plan for the implementation of such a cycle on a central tower solar receiver is given.

Cox, K.E.; Bowman, M.G.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

SPENT SHALE AS A CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT WATER. ANNUAL REPORT FOR PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1978 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1979.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Procedure for Preparing Carbon Dioxide-Free Water. • Sampleammonia (NH 3), carbon dioxide (C0 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (Hbicarbonate (NaHC0 3 ) in carbon dioxide~free water and

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

125

Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis: Independent Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

Not Available

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Integration of a Structural Water Gas Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is in response to a requirement for a system that combines water gas shift technology with separation technology for coal derived synthesis gas. The justification of such a system would be improved efficiency for the overall hydrogen production. By removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas stream, the water gas shift equilibrium would force more carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and maximize the total hydrogen produced. Additional benefit would derive from the reduction in capital cost of plant by the removal of one step in the process by integrating water gas shift with the membrane separation device. The answer turns out to be that the integration of hydrogen separation and water gas shift catalysis is possible and desirable. There are no significant roadblocks to that combination of technologies. The problem becomes one of design and selection of materials to optimize, or at least maximize performance of the two integrated steps. A goal of the project was to investigate the effects of alloying elements on the performance of vanadium membranes with respect to hydrogen flux and fabricability. Vanadium was chosen as a compromise between performance and cost. It is clear that the vanadium alloys for this application can be produced, but the approach is not simple and the results inconsistent. For any future contracts, large single batches of alloy would be obtained and rolled with larger facilities to produce the most consistent thin foils possible. Brazing was identified as a very likely choice for sealing the membranes to structural components. As alloying was beneficial to hydrogen transport, it became important to identify where those alloying elements might be detrimental to brazing. Cataloging positive and negative alloying effects was a significant portion of the initial project work on vanadium alloying. A water gas shift catalyst with ceramic like structural characteristics was the second large goal of the project. Alumina was added as a component of conventional high temperature water gas shift iron oxide based catalysts. The catalysts contained Fe-Al-Cr-Cu-O and were synthesized by co-precipitation. A series of catalysts were prepared with 5 to 50 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with 8 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 4 wt% CuO, and the balance Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. All of the catalysts were compared to a reference WGS catalyst (88 wt% FeO{sub x}, 8 wt% Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 4 wt% CuO) with no alumina. Alumina addition to conventional high temperature water gas shift catalysts at concentrations of approximately 15 wt% increased CO conversion rates and increase thermal stability. A series of high temperature water gas shift catalysts containing iron, chromia, and copper oxides were prepared with small amounts of added ceria in the system Fe-Cr-Cu-Ce-O. The catalysts were also tested kinetically under WGS conditions. 2-4 wt% ceria addition (at the expense of the iron oxide content) resulted in increased reaction rates (from 22-32% higher) compared to the reference catalyst. The project goal of a 10,000 liter per day WGS-membrane reactor was achieved by a device operating on coal derived syngas containing significant amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide. The membrane flux was equivalent to 52 scfh/ft{sup 2} based on a 600 psi syngas inlet pressure and corresponded to membranes costing $191 per square foot. Over 40 hours of exposure time to syngas has been achieved for a double membrane reactor. Two modules of the Chart reactor were tested under coal syngas for over 75 hours with a single module tested for 50 hours. The permeance values for the Chart membranes were similar to the REB reactor though total flux was reduced due to significantly thicker membranes. Overall testing of membrane reactors on coal derived syngas was over 115 hours for all reactors tested. Testing of the REB double membrane device exceeded 40 hours. Performance of the double membrane reactor has been similar to the results for the single reactor with good maintenance of flux even after these long exposures to hydrogen sulfide. Of special in

Thomas Barton; Tiberiu Popa

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5040: 2005 Hydrogen Cost from Water Electrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

40 Date: December 12, 2008 40 Date: December 12, 2008 Title: 2005 Hydrogen Cost from Water Electrolysis Originator: Roxanne Garland Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: December 19, 2008 Item: The 2005 cost status for hydrogen produced from distributed water electrolysis is $5.90 / gge. Assumptions and References: The H2A analysis used to determine the projected cost of $5.88/gge (rounded up to $5.90/gge) was performed by Directed Technologies, Inc. and can be found in Record 5040a. The increase in cost compared to the 2004 analysis ($5.45/gge) is due to two assumptions changed in the model: (a) an increase in the industrial electricity price from 5¢/kWh to 5.5¢/kWh from the EIA Annual Energy Outlook, and (b) an increase in the capital cost estimate of the electrolyzer. The other assumptions in the analysis used standard values

129

Summary status of advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport R and D  

SciTech Connect

Major projects within the framework of the U.S. DOE Chemical/Hydrogen Energy Systems Program are described. Goals, accomplishments and status of investigations into advanced water electrolysis and hydrogen storage/transport are summarized. Electrolytic hydrogen production systems include: SPE electrolyzers; static feed water electrolysis; high temperature electrolysis; and other advanced concepts. Hydrogen transport studies have emphasized the characterization of hydrogen embrittlement effects on conventional natural gas pipeline steels.

Mezzina, A.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity on the behavior of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four scenarios have been proposed for the low--temperature phase behavior of liquid water, each predicting different thermodynamics. The physical mechanism which leads to each is debated. Moreover, it is still unclear which of the scenarios best describes water, as there is no definitive experimental test. Here we address both open issues within the framework of a microscopic cell model by performing a study combining mean field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a common physical mechanism underlies each of the four scenarios, and that two key physical quantities determine which of the four scenarios describes water: (i) the strength of the directional component of the hydrogen bond and (ii) the strength of the cooperative component of the hydrogen bond. The four scenarios may be mapped in the space of these two quantities. We argue that our conclusions are model-independent. Using estimates from experimental data for H bond properties the model predicts that the low-temperature phase diagram of water exhibits a liquid--liquid critical point at positive pressure.

Kevin Stokely; Marco G. Mazza; H. Eugene Stanley; Giancarlo Franzese

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effects of sulfide ions on the integrity of the protective film of benzotriazole on alpha brass in salt water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The addition of sulfide ions to a solution of 0.58 M NaCl containing benzotriazole (BTAH) results in a decrease of the inhibiting efficiency of BTAH and a momentary increase of the dissolution rate of alpha brass at potentials above the corrosion potential. The effect depends on the sulfide ion concentration and the potential selected for the tests. The results are explained by decomposition of the protective Cu(I)BTA film, caused by the extraction of Cu(I) ions from the film and formation of Cu{sub 2}S: nS{sup 2{minus}} + 2[Cu(I)BTA]{sub n} {yields} nCu{sub 2}S + 2nBTA{sup {minus}}. The breakdown of the film allows metal dissolution from the bare surface and further promotes the effects of sulfide ions.

Ashour, E.A.; Hegazy, H.S.; Ateya, B.G.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperatures to improve reaction kinetics and permeation. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. The first-year screening studies of WGS catalysts identified Cu-ceria as the most promising high-temperature shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}, and were thus eliminated from further consideration. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. Several catalyst formulations were prepared, characterized and tested in the first year of study. Details from the catalyst development and testing work were given in our first annual technical report. Hydrogen permeation through Pd and Pd-alloy foils was investigated in a small membrane reactor constructed during the first year of the project. The effect of temperature on the hydrogen flux through pure Pd, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25} alloy membranes, each 25 {micro}m thick, was evaluated in the temperature range from 250 C to 500 C at upstream pressure of 4.4 atm and permeate hydrogen pressure of 1 atm. Flux decay was observed for the Pd-Cu membrane above 500 C. From 350-450 C, an average hydrogen flux value of 0.2 mol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2}/s was measured over this Pd-alloy membrane. These results are in good agreement with literature data. In this year's report, we discuss reaction rate measurements, optimization of catalyst kinetics by proper choice of dopant oxide (lanthana) in ceria, long-term stability studies, and H{sub 2} permeation data collected with unsupported flat, 10 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu membranes over a wide temperature window and in various gas mixtures. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was further improved, by proper selection of dopant type and amount. The formulation 10 at%Cu-Ce(30 at%La)Ox was the best; this was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The stability of catalyst performance was examined in 40-hr long tests. A series of hydrogen permeation tests were conducted in a small flat-membrane reactor using the 10 m{micro}-thick Pd-Cu membranes. Small inhibitory effects of CO and CO{sub 2} were found at temperatures above 350 C, while H{sub 2}O vapor had no effect on hydrogen permeation. No carbon deposition took place during many hours of membrane operation. The reaction extent on the blank (catalyst-free) membrane was also negligible. A larger flat-membrane reactor will be used next year with the catalyst wash coated on screens close coupled with the Pd-Cu membrane.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, PI; Jerry Meldon, Co-PI; Xiaomei Qi

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Optimization of the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction system for hydrogen production for fuel cells is of particular interest to the energy industry. To this end, it is desirable to couple the WGS reaction to hydrogen separation using a semi-permeable membrane, with both processes carried out at high temperature to improve reaction kinetics. Reduced equilibrium conversion of the WGS reaction at high temperatures is overcome by product H{sub 2} removal via the membrane. This project involves fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2}-separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams will be examined in the project. In the first year of the project, we prepared a series of nanostructured Cu- and Fe-containing ceria catalysts by a special gelation/precipitation technique followed by air calcination at 650 C. Each sample was characterized by ICP for elemental composition analysis, BET-N2 desorption for surface area measurement, and by temperature-programmed reduction in H{sub 2} to evaluate catalyst reducibility. Screening WGS tests with catalyst powders were conducted in a flow microreactor at temperatures in the range of 200-550 C. On the basis of both activity and stability of catalysts in simulated coal gas, and in CO{sub 2}-rich gases, a Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalyst formulation was selected for further study in this project. Details from the catalyst development and testing work are given in this report. Also in this report, we present H{sub 2} permeation data collected with unsupported flat membranes of pure Pd and Pd-alloys over a wide temperature window.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Jerry Meldon; Xiaomei Qi

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2008.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. [Brief discussion of some cycles being investigated  

SciTech Connect

After a brief discussion of thermochemical efficiency and step-wise decomposition of water, some of the more promising thermochemical hydrogen cycles under investigation are described. (LK)

Cox, K.E.; Bowman, M.G.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

139

An Improved Model for Assessing the Effectiveness of Hydrogen Water Chemistry in Boiling Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For nearly two decades, hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) has been used as a remedial measure to protect boiling water reactor (BWR) structural components against intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). In this paper, computer modeling is used to evaluate the effectiveness of HWC for BWRs. The DEMACE computer code, equipped with an updated chemical reaction set, G values, and a Sherwood number, is adopted to predict the chemical species concentration and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) responses to HWC in the primary heat transport circuit of a typical BWR. In addition, plant-specific neutron and gamma dose rate profiles are reported. DEMACE is calibrated against the data of oxygen concentration variation as a function of feedwater hydrogen concentration in the recirculation system of the Chinshan Unit 2 BWR.The determinant result for assessing the effectiveness of HWC is the ECP. For a typical BWR/4-type reactor such as Chinshan Unit 2, it is found that protecting the core channel and the lower plenum outlet is quite difficult even though the feedwater hydrogen concentration is as high as 2 ppm, based on the predicted species concentration and ECP data. However, for regions other than those mentioned earlier, a moderate amount of hydrogen added to the feedwater (0.9 ppm) is enough to achieve the desired protection against IGSCC.

Yeh, T.-K. [National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chu Fang [Taiwan Power Company (China)

2001-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

140

Hydrogen bond reorganization and vibrational relaxation in water studied with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water consists of an extended hydrogen bond network that is constantly evolving. More than just a description of the time averaged structure is necessary to understand any process that occurs in water. In this thesis we ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca Anne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Water electrolysis vs. thermochemical production of hydrogen: a parametric assessment  

SciTech Connect

A general discussion of hydrogen production by electrolytic and thermochemical processes is presented. A hydrogen production cost computation and cost sensitivity data for the various production methods are reported. (LK)

Salzano, F.J.; Braun, C.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Modification of the EIC hydrogen sulfide abatement process to produce valuable by-products. Final report, May 4, 1981-May 4, 1982  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program of analytical and experimental studies has been carried out to develop modifications of the CUPROSUL process for the desulfurization of geothermal steam. The objective of the program was to devise practical means to manipulate the chemistry of the process so that the consumption of raw materials could be controlled and a variety of valuable by-products could be produced. The process had been demonstrated, at one-tenth commercial scale, for steam of the Geysers' average composition in a configuration which resulted in essentially complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The ability to control the extent of oxidation would increase process flexibility and extend its range of applicability to steams of widely varying composition. Preliminary market surveys of raw materials required for the process and by-products which could be produced indicated that controlling the oxidation of sulfides to produce elemental sulfur would probably be the preferred process option. Use of lime to treat sulfate-containing purge streams to produce by-product gypsum and ammonia for recycle or sale could also be justified for certain steam compositions. Recovery of ammonium sulfate alone from the purge stream would not normally be justified unless corecovery of other valuable by-products, such as boric acid, was possible at incremental cost. It was found that ferric sulfate was a highly effective, selective oxidant for the controlled oxidation of copper sulfide solids to produce elemental sulfur for sale and copper sulfate for recycle.

Offenhartz, P. O'D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

WATER-GAS SHIFT WITH INTEGRATED HYDROGEN SEPARATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involved fundamental research and development of novel cerium oxide-based catalysts for the water-gas-shift reaction and the integration of these catalysts with Pd-alloy H{sub 2} -separation membranes supplying high purity hydrogen for fuel cell use. Conditions matching the requirements of coal gasifier-exit gas streams were examined in the project. Cu-cerium oxide was identified as the most promising high-temperature water-gas shift catalyst for integration with H{sub 2}-selective membranes. Formulations containing iron oxide were found to deactivate in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Cu-containing ceria catalysts, on the other hand, showed high stability in CO{sub 2}-rich gases. This type gas will be present over much of the catalyst, as the membrane removes the hydrogen produced from the shift reaction. The high-temperature shift catalyst composition was optimized by proper selection of dopant type and amount in ceria. The formulation 10at%Cu-Ce(30at%La)O{sub x} showed the best performance, and was selected for further kinetic studies. WGS reaction rates were measured in a simulated coal-gas mixture. The apparent activation energy, measured over aged catalysts, was equal to 70.2 kJ/mol. Reaction orders in CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were found to be 0.8, 0.2, -0.3, and -0.3, respectively. This shows that H{sub 2}O has very little effect on the reaction rate, and that both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} weakly inhibit the reaction. Good stability of catalyst performance was found in 40-hr long tests. A flat (38 cm{sup 2}) Pd-Cu alloy membrane reactor was used with the catalyst washcoated on oxidized aluminum screens close coupled with the membrane. To achieve higher loadings, catalyst granules were layered on the membrane itself to test the combined HTS activity/ H{sub 2} -separation efficiency of the composite. Simulated coal gas mixtures were used and the effect of membrane on the conversion of CO over the catalyst was evidenced at high space velocities. Equilibrium CO conversion at 400 C was measured at a space velocity of 30,000 h{sup -1} with the 10{micro}m- thick Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} membrane operating under a pressure differential of 100 psi. No carbon deposition took place during operation. The performance of the coupled Cu-ceria catalyst/membrane system at 400 C was stable in {approx} 30 h of continuous operation. The overall conclusion from this project is that Cu-doped ceria catalysts are suitable for use in high-temperature water-gas shift membrane reactors. CO{sub 2}-rich operation does not affect the catalyst activity or stability; neither does it affect hydrogen permeation through the Pd-Cu membrane. Operation in the temperature range of 400-430 C is recommended.

Maria Flytzani-Stephanopoulos; Xiaomei Qi; Scott Kronewitter

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Method for heavy-water extraction from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams using a combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange system  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for heavy-water extraction from nonelectrolytic hydrogen streams using a modified combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange-heavy water process (Cecehwp). The method comprises contacting feed water in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas originating partly from such nonelectrolytic hydrogen stream and partly from an electrolytic hydrogen stream so as to enrich the feed water with deuterium extracted from both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic hydrogen gas, and passing the deuterium enriched water to an electrolyzer wherein the electrolytic hydrogen gas is generated and then fed through the catalyst column.

Butler, J.P.; Hammerli, M.; Leroy, R.L.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

145

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

DOE Annual Progress Report: Water Needs and Constraints for Hydrogen Pathways  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water is a critical feedstock in the production of hydrogen. In fact, water and many of the energy transformations upon which society depends are inextricably linked. Approximately 39% of freshwater withdrawals are used for cooling of power plants, and another 8% are used in industry and mining (including oil and gas extraction and refining). Major changes in the energy infrastructure (as envisioned in a transformation to a hydrogen economy) will necessarily result in changes to the water infrastructure. Depending on the manner in which a hydrogen economy evolves, these changes could be large or small, detrimental or benign. Water is used as a chemical feedstock for hydrogen production and as a coolant for the production process. Process and cooling water must meet minimum quality specifications (limits on mineral and organic contaminants) at both the inlet to the process and at the point of discharge. If these specifications are not met, then the water must be treated, which involves extra expenditure on equipment and energy. There are multiple options for water treatment and cooling systems, each of which has a different profile of equipment cost and operational requirements. The engineering decisions that are made when building out the hydrogen infrastructure will play an important role in the cost of producing hydrogen, and those decisions will be influenced by the regional and national policies that help to manage water resources. In order to evaluate the impacts of water on hydrogen production and of a hydrogen economy on water resources, this project takes a narrowly-scoped lifecycle analysis approach. We begin with a process model of hydrogen production and calculate the process water, cooling, electricity and energy feedstock demands. We expand beyond the production process itself by analyzing the details of the cooling system and water treatment system. At a regional scale, we also consider the water use associated with the electricity and fuel that feed hydrogen production and distribution. The narrow scope of the lifecycle analysis enables economic optimization at the plant level with respect to cooling and water treatment technologies. As water withdrawal and disposal costs increase, more expensive, but more water-efficient technologies become more attractive. Some of the benefits of these technologies are offset by their increased energy usage. We use the H2A hydrogen production model to determine the overall cost of hydrogen under a range of water cost and technology scenarios. At the regional level, we are planning on following the hydrogen roll-out scenarios envisioned by Greene and Leiby (2008) to determine the impact of hydrogen market penetration on various watersheds. The economics of various water technologies will eventually be incorporated into the temporal and geographic Macro System Model via a water module that automates the spreadsheet models described. At the time of this progress report, the major achievement for FY2009 has been the completion of the framework and analytical results of the economic optimization of water technology for hydrogen production. This accomplishment required the collection of cost and performance data for multiple cooling and water treatment technologies, as well as the integration of a water and energy balance model with the H2A framework. 22 (twenty-two) different combinations of production method (SMR, electrolysis), scale (centralized, forecourt), cooling (evaporative tower, dry) and water treatment (reverse osmosis, ion exchange) were evaluated. The following data were collected: water withdrawal, water discharge, electricity consumption, equipment footprint, equipment cost, installation cost, annual equipment and material costs and annual labor costs. These data, when consolidated, fit into a small number of input cells in H2A. Items such as capital cost end up as line-items for which there is space in the existing H2A spreadsheets. Items such as electricity use are added to the values that already exist in H2A. Table 1 lists eight potential technology combina

Simon, A; Daily, W

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

148

Molecular studies of the structural properties of hydrogen gas in bulk water.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on our studies of the structural properties of a hydrogen molecule dissolved in liquid water. The radial distribution function, coordination number and coordination number distribution are calculated using different representations of the interatomic forces within molecular dynamics (MD), Monte Carlo (MC) and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation frameworks. Although structural details differ in the radial distribution functions generated from the different force fields, all approaches agree that the average and most probable number of water molecules occupying the inner hydration sphere around hydrogen is 16. Furthermore, all results exclude the possibility of clathrate-like organization of water molecules around the hydrophobic molecular hydrogen solute.

Rempe, Susan L.; Sabo, Dubravko; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Martin, Marcus Gary

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Enhancing hydrogen evolution activities in water splitting by tailoring Li+/Ni(OH){<_2}/Pt interfaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improving the sluggish kinetics for the electrochemical reduction of water to molecular hydrogen in alkaline environments is one key to reducing the high overpotentials and associated energy losses in water-alkali and chlor-alkali electrolyzers. We found that a controlled arrangement of nanometer-scale Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters on platinum electrode surfaces manifests a factor of 8 activity increase in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction relative to state-of-the-art metal and metal-oxide catalysts. In a bifunctional effect, the edges of the Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters promoted the dissociation of water and the production of hydrogen intermediates that then adsorbed on the nearby Pt surfaces and recombined into molecular hydrogen. The generation of these hydrogen intermediates could be further enhanced via Li{sup +}-induced destabilization of the HO-H bond, resulting in a factor of 10 total increase in activity.

Subbaraman, S.; Tripkovic, D.; Strmcnik, D.; Chang, K-C.; Uchimura, M.; Paulikas, A. P.; Stamenkovic, V.; Markovic, N. M. (Materials Science Division); ( NE); (Nissan Res. Ctr.)

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

150

Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Economic comparison of hydrogen production using sulfuric acid electrolysis and sulfur cycle water decomposition. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the relative economics of hydrogen production using two advanced techniques was performed. The hydrogen production systems considered were the Westinghouse Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System and a water electrolysis system employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte. The former is a hybrid system in which hydrogen is produced in an electrolyzer which uses sulfur dioxide to depolarize the anode. The electrolyte is sulfuric acid. Development and demonstration efforts have shown that extremely low cell voltages can be achieved. The second system uses a similar sulfuric acid electrolyte technology in water electrolysis cells. The comparative technoeconomics of hydrogen produced by the hybrid Sulfur Cycle and by water electrolysis using a sulfuric acid electrolyte were determined by assessing the performance and economics of 380 million SCFD plants, each energized by a very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). The evaluation concluded that the overall efficiencies of hydrogen production, for operating parameters that appear reasonable for both systems, are approximately 41% for the sulfuric acid electrolysis and 47% for the hybrid Sulfur Cycle. The economic evaluation of hydrogen production, based on a 1976 cost basis and assuming a developed technology for both hydrogen production systems and the VHTRs, indicated that the hybrid Sulfur Cycle could generate hydrogen for a total cost approximately 6 to 7% less than the cost from the sulfuric acid electrolysis plant.

Farbman, G.H.; Krasicki, B.R.; Hardman, C.C.; Lin, S.S.; Parker, G.H.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

153

Hydrogen  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Hydrogen production ...

154

Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

Alonso, Gabriel (Chihuahua, MX); Chianelli, Russell R. (El Paso, TX); Fuentes, Sergio (Ensenada, MX); Torres, Brenda (El Paso, TX)

2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Study of four new, field-based, microbiological tests : verification of the hydrogen sulfide (H?S), Easygel®, Colilert and Petrifilm(tm) tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently, the U.N. defines water sources as "improved" (e.g. public taps, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater collection) and "unimproved" (e.g. surface waters, unprotected dug well and spring, and vended water). ...

Trottier, Stephanie (Stephanie Marie Gisele)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Fuel Cell Water Transport Mechanism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Transport Mechanism Project Summary Full Title: Neutron Imaging Study of the Water Transport Mechanism in a Working Fuel Cell Project ID: 183 Principal Investigator: Muhammad...

157

Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water ...  

Clean and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels; Can be used with sea water and other abundant, untreated water sources; Applications and Industries.

158

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Water Use for Power Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Use for Power Production Water Use for Power Production Project Summary Full Title: Consumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production Project ID: 205 Principal Investigator: Paul Torcellini Keywords: Water, energy use, electricity generation Purpose Estimate the water consumption at power plants to provide a metric for determining water efficiency in building cooling systems. Performer Principal Investigator: Paul Torcellini Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Address: 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 Telephone: 303-384-7528 Email: paul_torcellini@nrel.gov Additional Performers: R. Judkoff, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; N. Long, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Period of Performance End: December 2003 Project Description Type of Project: Analysis

159

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Energy, Carbon and Water Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory has provided qualitative (structural visualizations) and quantitative (energy statistics) descriptions of energy, carbon and water systems at multiple scales....

160

High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Solar Thermochemical Splitting of Water  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to identify economically feasible concepts for the production of hydrogen from water using solar energy. The ultimate project objective was to select one or more competitive concepts for pilot-scale demonstration using concentrated solar energy. Results of pilot scale plant performance would be used as foundation for seeking public and private resources for full-scale plant development and testing. Economical success in this venture would afford the public with a renewable and limitless source of energy carrier for use in electric power load-leveling and as a carbon-free transportation fuel. The Solar Hydrogen Generation Research (SHGR) project embraces technologies relevant to hydrogen research under the Office of Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology (HFCIT) as well as concentrated solar power under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Although the photoelectrochemical work is aligned with HFCIT, some of the technologies in this effort are also consistent with the skills and technologies found in concentrated solar power and photovoltaic technology under the Office of Solar Energy Technologies (SET). Hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water-splitting is a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or a combination of heat and electrolysis instead of pure electrolysis and meets the goals for hydrogen production using only water and renewable solar energy as feed-stocks. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production also meets these goals by implementing photo-electrolysis at the surface of a semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte with bias provided by a photovoltaic source. Here, water splitting is a photo-electrolytic process in which hydrogen is produced using only solar photons and water as feed-stocks. The thermochemical hydrogen task engendered formal collaborations among two universities, three national laboratories and two private sector entities. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen task included formal collaborations with three universities and one national laboratory. The formal participants in these two tasks are listed above. Informal collaborations in both projects included one additional university (the University of Nevada, Reno) and two additional national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory).

Heske, Clemens; Moujaes, Samir; Weimer, Alan; Wong, Bunsen; Siegal, Nathan; McFarland, Eric; Miller, Eric; Lewis, Michele; Bingham, Carl; Roth, Kurth; Sabacky, Bruce; Steinfeld, Aldo

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Control of nitrogen-16 in BWR (boiling water reactor) main steam lines under hydrogen water chemistry conditions: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary aim of this work was to attempt to identify methods to limit or control the N-16 main steam increases which occur as a result of plant operation under hydrogen water chemistry. The hydrogen water chemistry test data for 8 plants, N-13 chemistry measurements performed at three plants and N-16 main steam concentration measurements made at five plants were analyzed and correlations established. As a result of this study, potential chemical and physical control methods were identified. The test data compilations for the eight plants are included in this report. 6 figs.

Ruiz, C.P.; Lin, C.C.; Wong, T.L.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Water Implications of Biofuels Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Implications of Biofuels Production Water Implications of Biofuels Production Project Summary Full Title: Water Implications of Biofuels Production in the United States Project ID: 227 Principal Investigator: William S. Logan Brief Description: The National Research Council conducted a workshop and wrote a report examining the potential effects of biofuels production in the U.S. on water and related land resources. Purpose Examine the possible effects of biofuel development on water and related land resources. The central questions are how water use and water quality are expected to change as the U.S. agricultural portfolio shifts to include more energy crops and as overall agricultural production potentially increases. Such questions are considered within the context of U.S. policy and also the expected advances in technology and agricultural practices

163

Study of Hydrogen Bonding in Small Water Clusters with Density Functional Theory Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The unique characteristics of hydrogen bonding have left our understanding of liquid water far from complete in terms of its structure and properties. In order to better describe the hydrogen bond in water, we seek to understand the electronic states which show sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. We investigate the structure of unoccupied valence states by performing X-ray Absorption calculations on water clusters using Density Functional Theory. For each water cluster, studying how valence electronic structure is perturbed by changes in the local hydrogen bonding environment facilitates our description of the hydrogen bond. Also in this framework, we move toward a depiction of local structures in liquid water by comparison to experimental X-ray absorption spectra. We find consistent localization along internal bonds in the electronic structures of pre- and post-edge states for single-donor species. In addition, we propose a molecular orbital bonding-antibonding picture to explain this directional localization from dimer calculations, and show that the pre- and post-edge spectral regions have a resulting relationship.

Wendlandt, Johanna; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC, SSRL

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Variational transition state theory calculations of tunneling effects on concerted hydrogen motion in water clusters and formaldehyde/water clusters  

SciTech Connect

The direct participation of water molecules in aqueous phase reaction processes has been postulated to occur via both single-step mechanisms as well as concerted hydrogen atom or proton shifts. In the present work, simple prototypes of concerted hydrogen atom transfer processes are examined for small hydrogen-bonded water clusters -- cyclic trimers and tetramers -- and hydrogen-bonded clusters of formaldehyde with one and two water molecules. Rate constants for the rearrangement processes are computed using variational transition state theory, accounting for quantum mechanical tunneling effects by semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients. The variational transition state theory calculations directly utilize selected information about the potential energy surface along the minimum energy path as parameters of the reaction path Hamiltonian. The potential energy information is obtained from ab ignite electronic structure calculations with an empirical bond additivity correction (the BAC-MP4 method). Tunneling is found to be very important for these concerted rearrangement processes -- the semiclassical ground-state adiabatic transmission coefficients are estimated to be as high as four order of magnitude at room temperature. Effects of the size of the cluster (number of water molecules in the cyclic complex) are also dramatic -- addition of a water molecule is seen to change the calculated rates by orders of magnitude. 36 refs., 10 figs.

Garrett, B.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Melius, C.F. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Influence of dissolved hydrogen on nickel alloy SCC in high temperature water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Stress corrosion crack growth rate (SCCGR) tests of nickel alloys were conducted at 338 C and 360 C as a function of the hydrogen concentration in high purity water. Test results identified up to a 7 x effect of hydrogen levels in the water on crack growth rate, where the lowest growth rates were associated with the highest hydrogen levels. At 338 C, the crack growth rate decreased as the hydrogen levels were increased. However, different results were observed for the test conducted at 360 C. As the hydrogen level was increased in the 360 C tests, the crack growth rate initially increased, a maximum was exhibited at a hydrogen level of {approximately} 20 scc/kg, and thereafter the crack growth rate decreased. Based on this testing and a review of the commercial literature, the thermodynamic stability of nickel oxide, not the dissolved hydrogen concentration, was identified as a fundamental parameter influencing the susceptibility of nickel alloys to SCC. These test results are discussed in relation to the accuracy of extrapolating high temperature SCC results to lower temperatures.

Morton, D.S.; Attanasio, S.A.; Fish, J.S.; Schurman, M.K. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for bioremediation. It is known that some organics promote aggregation. Amine-bearing molecules, for example, can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals in the biofilms. Their examination yielded excellent results and some surprises. They were able to prove that natural organic matter promotes dense aggregation of the zinc sulfide nanocrystals into much larger spheroids and that the organic matter is preserved in nanometer-scale pores in the spheroids. What was not expected was the presence of proteins in the spheroids, making them a key component in aggregation and an example of extracellular biomineralization.

167

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extracellular Proteins Promote Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Wednesday, 26 September 2007 00:00 Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for bioremediation. It is known that some organics promote aggregation. Amine-bearing molecules, for example, can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals in the biofilms. Their examination yielded excellent results and some surprises. They were able to prove that natural organic matter promotes dense aggregation of the zinc sulfide nanocrystals into much larger spheroids and that the organic matter is preserved in nanometer-scale pores in the spheroids. What was not expected was the presence of proteins in the spheroids, making them a key component in aggregation and an example of extracellular biomineralization.

168

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for bioremediation. It is known that some organics promote aggregation. Amine-bearing molecules, for example, can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals in the biofilms. Their examination yielded excellent results and some surprises. They were able to prove that natural organic matter promotes dense aggregation of the zinc sulfide nanocrystals into much larger spheroids and that the organic matter is preserved in nanometer-scale pores in the spheroids. What was not expected was the presence of proteins in the spheroids, making them a key component in aggregation and an example of extracellular biomineralization.

169

Hydrogen bonding and coordination in normal and supercritical water from X-ray inelastic scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct measure of hydrogen bonding in water under conditions ranging from the normal state to the supercritical regime is derived from the Compton scattering of inelastically-scattered X-rays. First, we show that a measure of the number of electrons $n_e$ involved in hydrogen bonding at varying thermodynamic conditions can be directly obtained from Compton profile differences. Then, we use first-principles simulations to provide a connection between $n_e$ and the number of hydrogen bonds $n_{HB}$. Our study shows that over the broad range studied the relationship between $n_e$ and $n_{HB}$ is linear, allowing for a direct experimental measure of bonding and coordination in water. In particular, the transition to supercritical state is characterized by a sharp increase in the number of water monomers, but also displays a significant number of residual dimers and trimers.

Patrick H. -L. Sit; Christophe Bellin; Bernardo Barbiellini; D. Testemale; J. -L. Hazemann; T. Buslaps; Nicola Marzari; Abhay Shukla

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

170

Hotcell Postirradiation Examination of Dresden-2 Fuel and Water Rods After Four Cycles of Hydrogen Water Chemistry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) has been monitored to evaluate its impact on the performance of Zircaloy fuel cladding and components. This report presents the results of poolside and hotcell postirradiation examinations of several Dresden-2 fuel and water rods after four cycles of HWC injection. The results indicate that the corrosion and hydriding characteristics of the fuel rods were within the expected ranges, and HWC did not adversely affect cladding material properties.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

171

A new perspective on hydrogen production by photosynthetic water-splitting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Present energy systems are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This will eventually lead to the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and, according to some reports, global climate changes due to the emission of carbon dioxide. In principle, hydrogen production by biophotolysis of water can be an ideal solar energy conversion system for sustainable development of human activities in harmony with the global environment. In photosynthetic hydrogen production research, there are currently two main efforts: (1) Direct photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen by photosynthetic water splitting using the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway; (2) Dark hydrogen production by fermentation of organic reserves such as starch that are generated by photosynthesis during the light period. In this chapter, the advantages and challenges of the two approaches for hydrogen production will be discussed, in relation to a new opportunity brought by our recent discovery of a new photosynthetic water-splitting reaction which, potentially, has twice the energy efficiency of conventional watersplitting via the two light reaction Z-scheme of photosynthesis.

Lee, J.W.; Greenbaum, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Hydrogen Water Chemistry Effects on BWR Radiation Buildup: Volume 1: Laboratory Results and Plant Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diverse laboratory experiments and a review of the most recent dose rate data from operating plants identify some of the key factors responsible for the increase in shutdown radiation fields at a number of BWRs following implementation of hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). These insights suggest strategies to minimize radiation field increases under HWC and to avoid possible problems during chemical decontamination.

1994-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

173

SIC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the first two years of this project, we focused on the membrane synthesis, characterization and optimization. In the past year, we have concentrated on the product development for improving the efficiency of hydrogen recovery from coal gasifier off-gas via water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction. A mathematical simulation study has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed rector for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that >99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and >97% hydrogen recovery and <200 ppm CO can be accomplished according to the mathematical simulation. Thus, we believe that the operating economics of WGS can be improved significantly based upon the proposed MR concept. In parallel, gas separations and hydrothermal and long-term-storage stability of the hydrogen selected membrane have been experimentally demonstrated using a pilot-scale tubular membrane under a simulated WGS environment. For the remaining period of this project, we will conduct experimental study using the hydrogen selective membrane to verify the performance projected by the mathematical simulation.

Paul K.T. Liu

2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents  

SciTech Connect

A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

Tarrer, Arthur R. (Auburn, AL); Shridharani, Ketan G. (Auburn, AL)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

Solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual bed photosystem. Task 2 report; Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work is an investigation into the use of photocatalytic particles in a dual bed configuration, so as to effect the solar-driven decomposition of water to its constituent elements, particularly hydrogen. The system envisioned would consist of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which micron-sized photocatalytic particles are immobilized. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers. Different photoparticles and catalysts are chosen for their respective modules so as to effect oxidative water-splitting in one vessel to evolve oxygen gas, and reductive water-splitting in the other to evolve hydrogen. This is a direct photoconversion scheme that breaks down the energetic requirement for water decomposition into a 2-photon process, and enables separate production of hydrogen and oxygen. Titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, and indium phosphide, InP, were employed as photoparticles in the O{sub 2}- and H{sub 2}-evolving beds, respectively. Platinum catalysts were evaluated to prompt H{sub 2}-evolution. Calculations on the energy band structure of free and immobilized particles provided guidance as to how the microstructure of the particles should be configured. A series of redox mediators, spanning a range of redox potentials, were tested. While many electron donors facilitated H{sub 2}-evolution, only the most oxidizing ones enabled O{sub 2}-evolution. A single redox couple, capable of charge exchange in both modules, is desirable to avoid system design complexity.

Linkous, C.A.; McKaige, G.T.; Slattery, D.K.; Ouellette, A.J.A.; Austin, B.C.N.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hydrogen bond rearrangements and the motion of charge defects in water viewed using multidimensional ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared with other molecular liquids, water is highly structured due to its ability to form up to four hydrogen bonds to its nearest neighbors, resulting in a tetrahedral network of molecules. However, this network is ...

Roberts, Sean T. (Sean Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

REVISED HYDROGEN SULFIDE DRILLING CONTINGENCY PLAN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as appropriate acknowledgement of this source. Technical Note No. 19 First Printing 1993 Distribution Copies, this plan defines safety equipment and procedures that must be in place in the event H2S and/or steam on steam-flash cond

179

Hydrogen sulfide conversion with nanophase titania  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for disassociating H.sub.2 S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275.degree. C. with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 nanometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1-100 nm range.

Beck, Donald D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Hydrogen sulfide conversion with nanophase titania  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for disassociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275 C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 nanometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1-100 nm range. 5 figs.

Beck, D.D.; Siegel, R.W.

1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)  

SciTech Connect

The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

182

SIC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. SiC macro-porous membranes have been successfully fabricated via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder. Also, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was prepared via our CVD/I technique. This composite membrane demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers and sol-gel techniques. Building upon the positive progress made in the membrane development study, we conducted an optimization study to develop an H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment. In addition, mathematical simulation has been performed to compare the performance of the membrane reactor (MR) vs conventional packed bed reactor for WGS reaction. Our result demonstrates that >99.999% conversion can be accomplished via WGS-MR using the hydrogen selective membrane developed by us. Further, water/CO ratio can be reduced, and >97% hydrogen recovery and <200 ppm CO can be accomplished according to the mathematical simulation. Thus, we believe that the operating economics of WGS can be improved significantly based upon the proposed MR concept. In parallel, gas separations and hydrothermal and long-term-storage stability of the hydrogen selected membrane have been experimentally demonstrated using a pilot-scale tubular membrane under a simulated WGS environment.

Paul K.T. Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Integration of a Structural Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 The InTegraTIon of a STrucTural WaTer- gaS-ShIfT caTalyST WITh a VanadIum alloy hydrogen TranSporT deVIce Description The purpose of this project is to produce a scalable device that simultaneously performs both water-gas-shift (WGS) and hydrogen separation from a coal-derived synthesis gas stream. The justification of such a system is the improved efficiency for the overall production of hydrogen. Removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas (syngas) stream allows the WGS reaction to convert more carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and maximizes the total hydrogen produced. An additional benefit is the reduction in capital cost of plant construction due to the removal of one step in the process by integrating WGS with the membrane separation device.

185

Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

OAK B188 Initial Screening of Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles for High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels Using Nuclear Power There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process, nor is such a process available for commercialization. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Fossil fuels are polluting and carbon dioxide emissions from their combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. Almost 800 literature references were located which pertain to thermochemical production of hydrogen from water and over 100 thermochemical watersplitting cycles were examined. Using defined criteria and quantifiable metrics, 25 cycles have been selected for more detailed study.

Brown, L.C.; Funk, J.F.; Showalter, S.K.

1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Mitigation of SCC Initiation on BWR Core Internals by Means of Hydrogen Water Chemistry During Start-Up  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen injection has been applied as a preventive measure against the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) phenomenon in many boiling water reactors. However, it can be applied only during normal plant operation since hydrogen is usually injected into the feedwater and this system is in standby mode during start-up operations. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Therefore, it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation.For this purpose, we installed an additional hydrogen injection system to be used during plant start-up at the Tokai-2 power station. This trial Hydrogen water chemistry During Start-up (HDS) system was applied following the 19th refueling and maintenance outage in December 2002. By comparing results obtained during this start-up with HDS to previous start-up data using normal water chemistry, we made the following observations. First, as the reactor water temperature increased from initial conditions up to 180 deg. C via nuclear heating, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations decreased to levels lower than previously observed. Second, during subsequent nuclear heating, up to 250 deg. C, the dissolved oxygen concentration did not exceed 1 ppb, and the electrochemical corrosion potential was maintained in a low range near -400 mV versus the standard hydrogen electrode.

Abe, Ayumi; Tobita, Hidehiro; Nagata, Nobuaki; Dozaki, Koji; Takiguchi, Hideki [Japan Atomic Power Company (Japan)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Hydrogen Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These...

188

Pt loaded carbon aerogel catalyst for catalytic exchange reactions between water and hydrogen gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report development and characterization of platinum doped carbon aerogel catalyst for catalytic exchange reactions between water and hydrogen gas. The carbon aerogel with uniformly dispersed platinum nanoparticles was prepared by adding platinum precursor during the sol-gel process. Thereafter colloidal PTFE was mixed with the platinum doped carbon aerogel powder and coated on Dixon rings to obtain hydrophobic catalyst with required mechanical strength. Detailed studies have been carried out to observe the effect of physical characteristics of the catalyst powder (surface area and pore size of aerogels

P. K. Gupta

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Study of hydrogen in coals, polymers, oxides, and muscle water by nuclear magnetic resonance; extension of solid-state high-resolution techniques. [Hydrogen molybdenum bronze  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been an important analytical and physical research tool for several decades. One area of NMR which has undergone considerable development in recent years is high resolution NMR of solids. In particular, high resolution solid state /sup 13/C NMR spectra exhibiting features similar to those observed in liquids are currently achievable using sophisticated pulse techniques. The work described in this thesis develops analogous methods for high resolution /sup 1/H NMR of rigid solids. Applications include characterization of hydrogen aromaticities in fossil fuels, and studies of hydrogen in oxides and bound water in muscle.

Ryan, L.M.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Engineering design and testing of a ground water remediation system using electrolytically generated hydrogen with a palladium catalyst for dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent studies have shown that dissolved hydrogen causes rapid dehalogenation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the presence of a palladium catalyst. The speed and completeness of these reactions offer advantages in designing remediation technologies for certain ground water contamination problems. However, a practical design challenge arises in the need to saturate the aqueous phase with hydrogen in an expeditious manner. To address this issue, a two-stage treatment reactor has been developed. The first stage consists of an electrolytic cell that generates hydrogen by applying a voltage potential across the influent water stream. The second stage consists of a catalyst column of palladium metal supported on alumina beads. A bench-scale reactor has been used to test this design for treating ground water contaminated with trichloroethene and other chlorinated hydrocarbons. In influent streams containing contaminant concentrations up to 4 ppm, initial results confirm that destruction efficiencies greater than 95% may be achieved with residence times short enough to allow practical implementation in specially designed flow-through treatment wells. Results from the bench-scale tests are being used to design a pilot ground water treatment system.

Ruiz, R.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Froth flotation of oil-bearing metal sulfide wastes  

SciTech Connect

An industrial wastewater, including plating wastes, is treated with sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate to form a sulfide-oxide precipitate containing chromium and other toxic metals. Hydrocarbons, in the water, coat the sulfide-oxide particles, impeding metal recovery. Froth flotation, without reagent addition, was found to recover 93.9% of the solids from the sludge with simultaneous rejection of 89% of the water. Methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) improved recovery and potassium amyl xanthate improved both recovery and grade. The process design has wastewater feed (without MIBC) to the rougher circuit. The rougher concentrate is conditioned with MIBC and fed to a cleaner circuit to achieve a high grade concentrate. About 95% of the water is recirculated to the waste treatment plant. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Miller, R.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Atwood, R.L.; Ye, Yi [Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Froth flotation of oil-bearing metal sulfide wastes  

SciTech Connect

An industrial wastewater, including plating wastes, is treated with sodium sulfide and ferrous sulfate to form a sulfide-oxide precipitate containing chromium and other toxic metals. Hydrocarbons, in the water, coat the sulfide-oxide particles, impeding metal recovery. Froth flotation, without reagent addition, was found to recover 93.9% of the solids from the sludge with simultaneous rejection of 89% of the water. Methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC) improved recovery and potassium amyl xanthate improved both recovery and grade. The process design has wastewater feed (without MIBC) to the rougher circuit. The rougher concentrate is conditioned with MIBC and fed to a cleaner circuit to achieve a high grade concentrate. About 95% of the water is recirculated to the waste treatment plant. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Miller, R.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Atwood, R.L.; Ye, Yi (Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

PRODUCTION OF HEAVY WATER SAVANNAH RIVER AND DANA PLANTS. Technical Manual  

SciTech Connect

A summary is presented of the basic technical iniormation that pertains to processes that are used at the Dana and Savannah River Plants for the production of heavy water. The manual is intended primarily for plant operating and technical personnel and was prepared to supplement and provide technical support for detailed operating procedures. Introductory sections contain some background information on the history, uses, available processes, and analytical procedures for heavy water. They also include a general comparison of the design and laserformance of the two plants and an analysis of their differences. The technology of the heavy water separation processes used, namely hydrogen sulfide exchange, distillation of water, and electrolysis is discussed in detail. The manufacture and storage of hydrogen sulfide gas and the process water treatment facilities are also discussed. (auth)

Bebbington, W.P.; Thayer, V.R. eds.; Proctor, J.F. comp.

1959-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen with compressed natural gas before dispensing theindustry. Both compressed natural gas, CNG, and hydrogen arenatural gas reformers or water electrolysers. The hydrogen must be compressed

Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Incorporation of parametric uncertainty into complex kinetic mechanisms: Application to hydrogen oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

In this study, uncertainty analysis is applied to a supercritical water hydrogen oxidation mechanism to determine the effect of uncertainties in reaction rate constants and species thermochemistry on predicted species concentrations. Forward rate constants and species thermochemistry are assumed to be the sole contributors to uncertainty in the reaction model with all other model parameters and inputs treated as deterministic quantities. Uncertainty propagation is performed using traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a new, more computationally efficient, probabilistic collocation method called the Deterministic Equivalent Modeling Method (DEMM). The results of both analyses show that there is considerable uncertainty in all predicted species concentrations. The predicted H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} concentrations vary {+-}70% from their median values. Similarly, the HO{sub 2} concentration ranges from +90 to {minus}70% of its median, while the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration varies by +180 to {minus}80%. In addition, the DEMM methodology identified two key model parameters, the standard-state heat of formation of HO{sub 2} radical and the forward rate constant for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dissociation, as the largest contributors to the uncertainty in the predicted hydrogen and oxygen species concentrations. The analyses further show that the change in model predictions due to the inclusion of real-gas effects, which are potentially important for SCWO process modeling, is small relative to the uncertainty introduced by the model parameters themselves.

Phenix, B.D.; Dinaro, J.L.; Tatang, M.A.; Tester, J.W.; Howard, J.B.; McRae, G.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Energy Lab.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Automotive storage of hydrogen as a mixture of methanol and water. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The concept of steam-reforming methanol on-board an automobile was evaluated as a candidate method of storing fuel for the hydrogen engine. This method uses low-temperature, engine waste heat to evaporate a 1:1 molar water-methanol mixture at 373/sup 0/K (212/sup 0/F) and to provide endothermic reaction heat at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F) to convert this mixture to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. By using engine waste heat, a fuel combustion enrichment of 8% (LHV) or 18% (HHV) is obtained when the reactor effluents are compared with those from the tanked fuel. Defining system efficiency as the product of the generator chemical efficiency (108%) and the engine thermal efficiency (assumed to be 30%) yields a value of 32.4%. Conservative estimates indicate that an additional volume of 44 to 49 liters and an additional weight of 110 to 140 kg would be required, compared with a conventional 20 gal gasoline tank. A 500 hour endurance test of this system with a Girdler G-66B catalyst was conducted at 505/sup 0/K (450/sup 0/F), atmospheric pressure, and low space velocity--compared with automotive requirements--at wide-open-throttle conditions with laboratory-grade methanol; there was no loss of activity. However, when fuel-grade methanol containing small amounts of higher alcohols was substituted for the laboratory-grade methanol, significant catalyst deactivation occurred. (auth)

Kester, F.L.; Konopka, A.J.; Camara, E.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

High Efficiency Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy: Laboratory Demonstration of S-I Water-Splitting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the French CEA, US-DOE INERI project is to perform a lab scale demonstration of the sulfur iodine (S-I) water splitting cycle, and assess the potential of this cycle for application to nuclear hydrogen production. The project will design, construct and test the three major component reaction sections that make up the S-I cycle. The CEA will design and test the prime (Bunsen) reaction section. General Atomics will develop and test the HI decomposition section, and SNL will develop and test the H2SO4 decomposition section. Activities for this period included initial program coordination and information exchange, the development of models and analyses that will support the design of the component sections, and preliminary designs for the component reaction sections. The sections are being designed to facilitate integration into a closed loop demonstration in a later stage of the program.

Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Brown, L.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Gelbard, F.; Pickard F.S.; Leybros, J.; Le Duigou, A.; Borgard, J.M.

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Water Under the Extreme Conditions of Planetary Interiors: Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding in the Superionic Phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34 -115 GPa) along the 2000K isotherm.We find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. We find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Water Under the Extreme Conditions of Planetary Interiors: Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding in the Superionic Phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000 K isotherm. They find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. They find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

202

HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A likely membrane for future testing of high-temperature hydrogen separation from a gasification product stream was targeted as an inorganic analog of a dense-metal membrane, where the hydrogen would dissolve into and diffuse through the membrane structure. An amorphous membrane such as zinc sulfide appeared to be promising. Previously, ZnS film coating tests had been performed using an electron-beam vacuum coating instrument, with zinc films successfully applied to glass substrates. The coatings appeared relatively stable in air and in a simple simulated gasification atmosphere at elevated temperature. Because the electron-beam coating instrument suffered irreparable breakdown, several alternative methods were tested in an effort to produce a nitrogen-impermeable, hydrogen-permeable membrane on porous sintered steel substrates. None of the preparation methods proved successful in sealing the porous substrate against nitrogen gas. To provide a nitrogen-impermeable ZnS material to test for hydrogen permeability, two ZnS infrared sample windows were purchased. These relatively thick ''membranes'' did not show measurable permeation of hydrogen, either due to lack of absorption or a negligible permeation rate due to their thickness. To determine if hydrogen was indeed adsorbed, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses tests were performed on samples of ZnS powder. A significant uptake of hydrogen gas occurred, corresponding to a maximum of 1 mole H{sub 2} per 1 mole ZnS at a temperature of 175 C. The hydrogen remained in the material at ambient temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere, but approximately 50% would be removed in argon. Reheating in a hydrogen atmosphere resulted in no additional hydrogen uptake. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the hydrogen uptake was probably due to the formation of a zinc-sulfur-hydrogen species resulting in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The zinc sulfide was found to be unstable above approximately 200 C, probably with the reduction to metallic zinc with the evolution of hydrogen sulfide. The work has shown that ZnS is not a viable candidate for a high-temperature hydrogen separation membrane.

Donald P. McCollor; John P. Kay

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An{sub x}Z{sub y} wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effective amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

Van Der Sluys, W.G.; Burns, C.J.; Smith, D.C.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

204

Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

Van Der Sluys, William G. (Missoula, MT); Burns, Carol J. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and ground water at selected sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Relative stable isotopic ratios for hydrogen and oxygen compared to standard mean ocean water are presented for water from 4 surface-water sites and 38 ground-water sites on or near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The surface-water samples were collected monthly from March 1991 through April 1992 and after a storm event on June 18, 1992. The ground-water samples either were collected during 1991 or 1992. These data were collected as part of the US Geological Survey`s continuing hydrogeological investigations at the INEL. The relative isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are reported as delta {sup 2}H ({delta}{sup 2}H) and as delta {sup 18}O ({delta}{sup 18}O), respectively. The values of {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O in water from the four surface-water sites ranged from -143.0 to -122 and from -18.75 to -15.55, respectively. The values of {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O in water from the 38 ground-water sites ranged from -141.0 to -120.0 and from -18.55 to -14.95, respectively.

Ott, D.S.; Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, combined heat and power, materials handling, and backup power. Power Generation & Electric Grid support· Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat The demand for multi-megawatt (MW) fuel cell systems for power generation and utility grid support applica

207

Effect of H2 on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Nickel Alloys in BWR Water in Relation to Moderate Hydrogen Water Chemistry and NobleCh em  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work confirms that there is a peak in the crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 182 (and Ni-based alloys) in the boiling water reactor (BWR) environment and temperatures that are associated with the Ni/NiO phase boundary as there is in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment and temperatures. To optimize intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mitigation, plants should maintain their hydrogen concentration to avoid the peak in CGR associated with the Ni/NiO phase ...

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Probabilistic approach to the length-scale dependence of the effect of water hydrogen bonding on hydrophobic hydration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a probabilistic approach to water-water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a hydrophobic particle and hydrophobe radius. This approach can be used in the density functional theory (DFT) and computer simulations to examine particle size effects on the hydration of particles and on their solvent-mediated interaction. For example, it allows one to explicitly identify a water hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential whereto a water molecule is subjected near a hydrophobe. The DFT implementation of the model predicts the hydration free energy per unit area of a spherical hydrophobe to be sharply sensitive to the hydropobe radius for small radii and weakly sensitive thereto for large ones; this corroborates the vision of the hydration of small and large length-scale particles as occurring via different mechanisms. On the other hand, the model predicts that the hydration of even apolar particles of small enough radii may become thermodynamically favorable owing to the interplay of the energies of pairwise (dispersion) water-water and water-hydrophobe interactions. This sheds light on previous counterintuitive observations (both theoretical and simulational) that two inert gas molecules would prefer to form a solvent-separated pair rather than a contact one.

Yuri S. Djikaev; Eli Ruckenstein

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

209

Generic Assessment for Optimized Reactor Coolant System Hydrogen of a Four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Chemistry, Fuel Reliability, and Material Reliability Programs at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have developed a comprehensive elevated reactor coolant system (RCS) hydrogen program that is focused on qualification of plant operation with dissolved hydrogen concentration in the RCS greater than 50 standard cubic centimeters per kilogram (scc/kg) (1.38 in.3/lbm), up to 60 scc/kg (1.66 in.3/lbm), to mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in nickel-based alloys. Currentl...

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

Origin of the Ocean on the Earth: Early Evolution of Water D/H in a Hydrogen-rich Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origin of the Earth's ocean has been discussed on the basis of deuterium/hydrogen ratios (D/H) of several sources of water in the solar system. The average D/H of carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) is known to be close to the current D/H of the Earth's ocean, while those of comets and the solar nebula are larger by about a factor of two and smaller by about a factor of seven, respectively, than that of the Earth's ocean. Thus, the main source of the Earth's ocean has been thought to be CC's or adequate mixing of comets and the solar nebula. However, those conclusions are correct only if D/H of water on the Earth has remained unchanged for the past 4.5 Gyr. In this paper, we investigate evolution of D/H in the ocean in the case that the early Earth had a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the existence of which is predicted by recent theories of planet formation no matter whether the nebula remains or not. Then we show that D/H in the ocean increases by a factor of 2-9, which is caused by the mass fractionation during atmospheric hydrogen loss, followed by deuterium exchange between hydrogen gas and water vapor during ocean formation. This result suggests that the apparent similarity in D/H of water between CC's and the current Earth's ocean does not necessarily support the CC's origin of water and that the apparent discrepancy in D/H is not a good reason for excluding the nebular origin of water.

Hidenori Genda; Masahiro Ikoma

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

211

Determination of the Effect of Coal/Biomass-Derived Syngas Contaminants on the Performance of Fischer-Tropsch and Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To investigate the impact of CB gasification on the production of transportation fuels by FT synthesis, RTI International conducted thermodynamic studies to identify trace contaminants that will react with water-gas-shift and FT catalysts and built several automated microreactor systems to investigate the effect of single components and the synergistic effects of multiple contaminants on water-gas-shift and FT catalyst performance. The contaminants investigated were sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and combinations thereof. This report details the thermodynamic studies and the individual and multi-contaminant results from this testing program.

Trembly, Jason; Cooper, Matthew; Farmer, Justin; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

nist23  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... heptane, hexane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, isobutane, isopentane, methane, nitrogen, nonane, octane, oxygen, pentane, propane, and water. ...

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

213

nist23old  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... heptane, hexane, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, isobutane, isopentane, methane, nitrogen, nonane, octane, oxygen, pentane, propane, and water. ...

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

214

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal,...

215

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

216

Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

217

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

218

Hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen by reacting an ash containing material with water and at least one halogen selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and iodine to form reaction products including carbon dioxide and a corresponding hydrogen halide is claimed. The hydrogen halide is decomposed to separately release the hydrogen and the halogen. The halogen is recovered for reaction with additional carbonaceous materials and water, and the hydrogen is recovered as a salable product. In a preferred embodiment the carbonaceous material, water and halogen are reacted at an elevated temperature. In accordance with another embodiment, a continuous method for the production of hydrogen is provided wherein the carbonaceous material, water and at least one selected halogen are reacted in one zone, and the hydrogen halide produced from the reaction is decomposed in a second zone, preferably by electrolytic decomposition, to release the hydrogen for recovery and the halogen for recycle to the first zone. There also is provided a method for recovering any halogen which reacts with or is retained in the ash constituents of the carbonaceous material.

Darnell, A.J.; Parkins, W.E.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

219

Corrosion Behavior of NiCrFe Alloy 600 in High Temperature, Hydrogenated Water  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion behavior of Alloy 600 (UNS N06600) is investigated in hydrogenated water at 260 C. The corrosion kinetics are observed to be parabolic, the parabolic rate constant being determined by chemical descaling to be 0.055 mg dm{sup -2} hr{sup -1/2}. A combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, supplemented by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, are used to identify the oxide phases present (i.e., spinel) and to characterize their morphology and thickness. Two oxide layers are identified: an outer, ferrite-rich layer and an inner, chromite-rich layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with argon ion milling and target factor analysis is applied to determine spinel stoichiometry; the inner layer is (Ni{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.3})(Fe{sub 0.3}Cr{sub 0.7}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, while the outer layer is (Ni{sub 0.9}Fe{sub 0.1})(Fe{sub 0.85}Cr{sub 0.15}){sub 2}O{sub 4}. The distribution of trivalent iron and chromium cations in the inner and outer oxide layers is essentially the same as that found previously in stainless steel corrosion oxides, thus confirming their invariant nature as solvi in the immiscible spinel binary Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} (or NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Although oxidation occurred non-selectively, excess quantities of nickel(II) oxide were not found. Instead, the excess nickel was accounted for as recrystallized nickel metal in the inner layer, as additional nickel ferrite in the outer layer, formed by pickup of iron ions from the aqueous phase, and by selective release to the aqueous phase.

SE Ziemniak; ME Hanson

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

220

SiC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical report summarizes our activities conducted in Yr II. In Yr I we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of preparing the hydrogen selective SiC membrane with a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. In addition, a SiC macroporous membrane was fabricated as a substrate candidate for the proposed SiC membrane. In Yr II we have focused on the development of a microporous SiC membrane as an intermediate layer between the substrate and the final membrane layer prepared from CVD. Powders and supported thin silicon carbide films (membranes) were prepared by a sol-gel technique using silica sol precursors as the source of silicon, and phenolic resin as the source of carbon. The powders and films were prepared by the carbothermal reduction reaction between the silica and the carbon source. The XRD analysis indicates that the powders and films consist of SiC, while the surface area measurement indicates that they contain micropores. SEM and AFM studies of the same films also validate this observation. The powders and membranes were also stable under different corrosive and harsh environments. The effects of these different treatments on the internal surface area, pore size distribution, and transport properties, were studied for both the powders and the membranes using the aforementioned techniques and XPS. Finally the SiC membrane materials are shown to have satisfactory hydrothermal stability for the proposed application. In Yr III, we will focus on the demonstration of the potential benefit using the SiC membrane developed from Yr I and II for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction.

Paul K.T. Liu

2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Wet oxidation of oil-bearing sulfide wastes  

SciTech Connect

Oil-bearing metal sulfide sludges produced in treatment of an industrial wastewater, which includes plating wastes, have yielded to treatment by electrooxidation and hydrogen peroxide processes. The oxidation can be controlled to be mild enough to avoid decomposition of the organic phase while oxidizing the sulfides to sulfates. The pH is controlled to near neutral conditions where iron, aluminum and chromium(III) precipitate as hydrous oxides. Other metals, such as lead and barium, may be present as sulfate precipitates with limited solubility, while metals such as nickel and cadmium would be present as complexed ions in a sulfate solution. The oxidations were found to proceed smoothly, without vigorous reaction; heat liberation was minimal. 2 refs., 12 figs.

Miller, R.L.; Hotz, N.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Speeding up solar disinfection : effects of hydrogen peroxide, temperature, and copper plus ascorbate on the photoinactivation of E. coli in Charles River water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sunlight efficiently disinfects drinking water in plastic bottles over two days, but simple additives may show promise for reducing this time to several hours. This study found that adding up to 500 [micro]M hydrogen ...

Fisher, Michael Benjamin, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

224

Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Excess molar enthalpies of (water + alkanolamine) systems and some thermodynamic calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several (water + alkanolamine) systems are used for removal of acidic gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from gas streams in the natural gas and petroleum industries and are of increasing importance in treating streams in the chemical production industries. The authors have made calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of mixing of (water + monoethanolamine), (water + diethanolamine), and (water + triethanolamine) at T = 298.15 K and of (water + methyldiethanolamine) at T = 298.15 and 313.15 K. Results of these measurements have been used in some thermodynamic calculations to illustrate general principals that are applicable to many systems of mixed liquids.

Maham, Y.; Mather, A.E.; Hepler, L.G. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)] [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Introduction to hydrogen energy  

SciTech Connect

The book comprises the following papers: primary energy sources suitable for hydrogen production, thermochemical and electrolytic production of hydrogen from water, hydrogen storage and transmission methods, hydrogen-oxygen utilization devices, residential and industrial utilization of energy, industrial utilization of hydrogen, use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation, an assessment of hydrogen-fueled navy ships, mechanisms and strategies of market penetration for hydrogen, and fossil/hydrogen energy mix and population control. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (LK)

Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Proceedings of the workshop on the impact of hydrogen on water reactor safety. Volume IV of IV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts were prepared for papers presented in the following areas: (1) hydrogen mitigation, and (2) hydrogen research programs.

Berman, M. (ed.)

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

SiC-BASED HYDROGEN SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen selective membrane as a membrane reactor (MR) can significantly improve the power generation efficiency with a reduced capital and operating cost for the waster-gas-shift reaction. Existing hydrogen selective ceramic membranes are not suitable for the proposed MR due to their poor hydrothermal stability. In this project we have focused on the development of innovative silicon carbide (SiC) based hydrogen selective membranes, which can potentially overcome this technical barrier. During Year I, we have successfully fabricated SiC macro porous membranes via extrusion of commercially available SiC powder, which were then deposited with thin, micro-porous (6 to 40{angstrom} in pore size) films via sol-gel technique as intermediate layers. Finally, an SiC hydrogen selective thin film was deposited on this substrate via our CVD/I technique. The composite membrane thus prepared demonstrated excellent hydrogen selectivity at high temperature ({approx}600 C). More importantly, this membrane also exhibited a much improved hydrothermal stability at 600 C with 50% steam (atmospheric pressure) for nearly 100 hours. In parallel, we have explored an alternative approach to develop a H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane via pyrolysis of selected pre-ceramic polymers. Building upon the positive progress made in the Year I preliminary study, we will conduct an optimization study in Year II to develop an optimized H{sub 2} selective SiC membrane with sufficient hydrothermal stability suitable for the WGS environment.

Unknown

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Glycol-Water Interactions and co-existing phases and Temperature Dependent Solubility. An Example Of Carbon-Hydrogen Chemistry In Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently there has been great interest in Glycol-Water chemistry and solubility and temperature dependent phase dynamics. The Glycol-Water biochemistry of interactions is present in plant biology and chemistry, is of great interest to chemical engineers and biochemists as it is a paradigm of Carbon-Hydrogen Water organic chemistry. There is an interest moreover in formulating a simpler theory and computation model for the Glycol-Water interaction and phase dynamics, that is not fully quantum mechanical yet has the high accuracy available from a fully quantum mechanical theory of phase transitions of fluids and Fermi systems. Along these lines of research interest we have derived a Lennard-Jones -like theory of interacting molecules-Water in a dissolved adducts of Glycol-Water system interacting by Hydrogen bonds whose validity is supported at the scale of interactions by other independent molecular dynamics investigations that utilize force fields dependent on their experimental fittings to the Lennard-Jones potential and where we have relaxed or generalized the potential to arbitrary and possibly fractional powers. The theory then is a semi-classical theory as the repulsion of particles is incorporated in the Lennard-Jones -like potential's energy required to bring two molecules together, a repulsion of sorts. We derive distributions for the molecular species that are exactly solved, and are derived from maximum entropy, here the semi-classical analogue of the Hamiltonian superposition of quantum phase theory of fluids. We also derive the similar statistics from the microscopic SDEs stochastic differential dynamics equations, verifying the macroscopic state function entropic-thermodynamic derivation.

Fredrick Michael

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

230

Prospects for hydrogen production by water electrolysis to be competitive with conventional methods. [Areas of research to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies  

SciTech Connect

With the impending unavailability of oil and natural gas, hydrogen will be produced on a large scale in the United States (1) from coal, or (2) by water electrolysis using electricity derived from nuclear or solar energy. In many parts of the world which lack fossil fuels, the latter will be the only possible method. The cost of purification of hydrogen produced from fossil fuels will increase its cost to about the same level as that of electrolytic hydrogen. When hydrogen is required in relatively small quantities too, the electrolytic method is advantageous. To minimize the cost of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis, it is necessary to reduce capital costs and approach 100 percent energy efficiencies. Areas of research, which will be necessary to achieve these goals are: (1) maximization of surface areas of electrodes; (2) use of thin electrolyte layers; (3) increase of operating temperature in alkaline water electrolysis cells to about 120-150/sup 0/C; (4) selection and evaluation of separator materials; (5) electrocatalysis of the hydrogen and oxygen electrode reaction; (6) mixed oxides as oxygen electrodes; and (7) photoelectrochemical effects. The progress made to date and proposed studies on these topics are briefly dealt with in this paper. The General Electric Solid Polymer Water Electrolyzer and Teledyne Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells, both operating at about 120-150/sup 0/C, look mostpromising in achieving the goals of low capital cost and high energy efficiency. (auth)

Srinivasan, S.; Salzano, F.J.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Hydrogen Production and Delivery Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen Dinh, focus on the following topics: Biological Water Splitting Fermentation Conversion of Biomass and Wastes Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Solar Thermal Water Splitting Renewable Electrolysis Hydrogen Dispenser Hose Reliability Hydrogen Production and Delivery Pathway Analysis. Biological Water Splitting Certain photosynthetic microbes use light energy to produce hydrogen from

232

Commercial Activated Carbon for the Catalytic Production of Hydrogen via the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Water Splitting Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eight activated carbon catalysts were examined for their catalytic activity to decompose hydroiodic acid (HI) to produce hydrogen; a key reaction in the sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle. Activity was examined under a temperature ramp from 473 to 773 K. No statistically significant correlation was found between catalyst sample properties and catalytic activity. Four of the eight samples were examined for one week of continuous operation at 723 K. All samples appeared to be stable over the period of examination.

Daniel M. Ginosar; Lucia M. Petkovic; Kyle C. Burch

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Materials in the Oil and Gas Industry. Presentation Title, Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review.

234

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm...

235

Origin of the Ocean on the Earth: Early Evolution of Water D/H in a Hydrogen-rich Atmosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origin of the Earth's ocean has been discussed on the basis of deuterium/hydrogen ratios (D/H) of several sources of water in the solar system. The average D/H of carbonaceous chondrites (CC's) is known to be close to the current D/H of the Earth's ocean, while those of comets and the solar nebula are larger by about a factor of two and smaller by about a factor of seven, respectively, than that of the Earth's ocean. Thus, the main source of the Earth's ocean has been thought to be CC's or adequate mixing of comets and the solar nebula. However, those conclusions are correct only if D/H of water on the Earth has remained unchanged for the past 4.5 Gyr. In this paper, we investigate evolution of D/H in the ocean in the case that the early Earth had a hydrogen-rich atmosphere, the existence of which is predicted by recent theories of planet formation no matter whether the nebula remains or not. Then we show that D/H in the ocean increases by a factor of 2-9, which is caused by the mass fractionation during ...

Genda, Hidenori

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

NONE

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. [Chemistry of experimentally valid cycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of hydrogen as a medium for energy storage, energy transmission and possible large-scale use as a non-polluting fuel have led to the concept of a ''hydrogen economy.'' However, even if this does not fully materialize, accelerating requirements for hydrogen demonstrate that efficient, low cost methods for production based on non-fossil heat sources will become extremely valuable. Theoretical advantages for thermochemical production methods have led to the publication of many conceptual cycles prior to experimental testing and to efficiency and cost estimates based on assumed data for non-verified processes. Finally, however, laboratories in several countries have published details of cycles that have been demonstrated by experimental studies. The chemistry of experimentally valid cycles is discussed in some detail. Thermochemical criteria for efficient cycles are also presented. It seems probable that the development of low-cost processes must be the result of experiments not yet performed. However, valid cycles have been demonstrated in a variety of chemical systems and one may hope that an efficient low-cost process will be developed. Some cost estimates have finally been made on valid cycles, although mostly on assumed conditions. At the present time, such studies are most useful for guiding process improvement, and also to develop methodology for process evaluation.

Bowman, M.G.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Electrolytic production of hydrogen. [from carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

A cyclic electrolytic process is claimed for the manufacture of hydrogen from carbonaceous material such as coal, agricultural wastes and garbage to produce commercial hydrogen. An alakli metal sulfate is reduced to an alkali metal sulfide by reaction of the sulfate and carbonaceous fuel at an elevated temperature. The sulfide and impurities derived from the fuel are digested with an aqueous solution to dissolve the sulfide and separate out the impurities. The solution of the alkali sulfide is added to electrolytic cells in which an electric current is utilized to generate hydrogen at the cathode while oxidizing the sulfide substantially to sulfate at the anode. The cell electrolyte temperature is greater than 150/sup 0/C and less than 350/sup 0/C. Under these conditions the polarization problem encountered in hydrogen/oxygen cells is substantially avoided. The alkali sulfate is then separated from the electrolyte stream exiting from the electrolytic cells, reduced again by burning with fuel and recycled to the electrolytic cell.

Spitzer, R.

1978-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

240

Sulfidation of mixed metal oxides in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Mixed metal oxides were used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a hot gas stream. Sorbents were prepared according to the dry and wet impregnation techniques. The desulfurization performance of the metal oxide sorbents was experimentally tested in a fluidized-bed reactor system. Sulfidation experiments performed under reaction conditions similar to those at the exit of a coal gasifier showed that the preparation procedure and technique, the type and the amount of the impregnated metal oxide, the type of the solid carrier, and the size of the solid reactant affect the H[sub 2]S removal capacity of the sorbents. The pore structure of fresh and sulfided sorbents was analyzed using mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy.

Christoforou, S.C.; Efthimiadis, E.A.; Vasalos, I.A. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Proceedings of the workshop on the impact of hydrogen on water reactor safety. Volume I of IV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts are presented for each of the papers concerning hydrogen behavior during LWR accidents.

Berman, M. (ed.)

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Proceedings of the workshop on the impact of hydrogen on water reactor safety. Volume II of IV  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the subject area: hydrogen sources and detection.

Berman, M. (ed.)

1981-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production by water decomposition. Progress report, April 1--December 31, 1975  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interest in hydrogen as a chemical feedstock and as a possible non-polluting fuel has continued to be high, affected by recent estimates of 1980 prices for imported natural gas in the range of $3.00/MM Btu. Our exhaustive survey of multi-step thermochemical and hybrid cycles concluded that the most promising prospects to date are (1) a modification of Abraham's ANL-4 cycle, and (2) the Rohm and Haas multi-reaction, single reactor cycle. Both sequences utilize iodine-based oxidation-reduction chemistry and each ultimately produces hydrogen via an iodide vapor decomposition, in the first case from NH/sub 4/I, in the second from HI. Process feasibility depends on demonstration of separation steps of relatively low energy requirements. Further research is proposed along four lines: (1) modeling and computation focusing on selectivity in gas-solid reactions, (2) experimental studies of solids flow and mixing, as well as mass transfer and chemical reaction in rotating and/or oscillating kiln reactors, (3) kinetics of the crucial reactions in the ANL-4 and Rohm and Haas cycles, and gas separations associated with these processes, and (4) flow sheet evaluations and preliminary economics.

Perlmutter, D.D.; Myers, A.L.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Soluble Hydrogen-bonding Interpolymer Complexes in Water: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hydrogen-bonding interpolymer complexation between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAM) side chains of the negatively charged graft copolymer poly(acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid)-graft-poly(N, N dimethylacrylamide) (P(AA-co-AMPSA)-g-PDMAM), containing 48 wt % of PDMAM, and shortly designated as G48, has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering in aqueous solution. Complexation occurs at low pH (pH hydrogen-bonding interpolymer complexes, whose radius is estimated to be around 165 A. As these particles involve more than five graft copolymer chains, they act as stickers between the anionic chains of the graft copolymer backbone. This can explain the characteristic thickening observed in past rheological measurements with these mixtures in the semidilute solution, with decreasing pH. We have also examined the influence of pH and PAA molecular weight on the formation of these nanoparticles.

Maria Sotiropoulou; Julian Oberdisse; Georgios Staikos

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

Renewable Hydrogen: Technology Review and Policy Recommendations for State-Level Sustainable Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical water splitting and hydrogen producing algae. Clean Energy Group Hydrogen from Biomass Biomass conversion

Lipman, Timothy; Edwards, Jennifer Lynn; Brooks, Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Sulfidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...Coal gasification is an important process, providing material challenges. Reference 81 describes the evaluation of alloys

248

Method and Apparatus for separation of heavy and tritiated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An object of the present invention is to provide a method for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes that avoids the disadvantages of the prior art, is more simple, and allows for continuous hydrogen isotope separation and recovery. The disclosed invention does not require the use of isotope exchange reaction catalysts and/or hydrogen sulfide gas. The present invention achieves the advantages of the thermal diffusion and the chemical exchange processes. The disclosed invention provides a method for separating and recovering hydrogen isotopes from a fluid containing the hydrogen isotopes by providing counter-current cold and hot streams of the fluid containing the hydrogen isotopes separated by a proton exchange membrane made of thermally insulating and chemically transparent material that allows exchange of heavy and light hydrogen isotopes there through. The heavier isotopes migrate to the cold stream producing a deuterium and tritium-enriched fluid, while lighter isotopes migrate to the hot stream producing a lighter isotope-enriched fluid. The heavy and light isotopes are withdrawn from the cold and hot streams respectively. According to the present invention, the fluid is water or hydrogen gas, and the desired hydrogen isotope species are deuterium and/or tritium. Further, according to the present invention, the streams of said high and low temperature fluids are interconnected at their respective top and bottom ends forming a continuous loop, and a feed stream is provided at an intermediate portion of either hot or cold stream to feed the process.

Lee, Myung, W.

2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

249

Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

characterization of produced water from four offshore oilOrganic matrix in produced water from the Osage-Skiatookfrom sulfide-rich produced water using gas chromatography/

Zheng, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Richardson, Donald M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

DEUTERIUM-HYDROGEN EXCHANGE IN BOEHMITE CORROSION PRODUCT FORMED ON PURE ALUMINUM IN BOILING WATER  

SciTech Connect

Proton-deuteron exchange is rapid in boehmite corrosion product formed on pure aluminum in boiling water. In addition, deuterated boehmite films undergo rapid exchange with the humidity of the atmosphere. This explains the previously reported anomaly in the H-D exchange rate for the growing corrosion product on 1100 aluminum. (auh)

Mori, S.; Draley, J.E.; Bernstein, R.B.

1961-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to develop an O{sub 2}-tolerant cyanobacterial system for continuous light-driven H{sub 2} production from water. The overall goal is to produce a cyanobacterial recombinant to produce H{sub 2} continuously.

Xu, Q.; Smith, H. O.; Maness, P.-C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Interactions of Plutonium Dioxide with Water and Oxygen-Hydrogen Mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pressure-volume-temperature data and mass spectrometric results obtained during exposure of PuO{sub 2} to D{sub 2}O show that the dioxide reacts with water at room temperature to produce a higher oxide (PuO{sub 2+x})and H{sub 2}. Results demonstrate that PuO{sub 2+x} is the thermodynamically stable oxide in air. The absence of O{sub 2} at detectable levels in the gas phase implies that radiolytic decomposition of water to the elements is not a significant reaction. The rate of the PuO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O reaction is 6{+-}4 nmol H{sub 2}/m{sup 2} day, a value that is independent of the H{sub 2}O concentration on the oxide over a range that extends from fractional monolayer coverage to saturation by liquid water. Evaluation of literature data shows that oxide compositions in excess of PuO{sub 2.25} are attained, but the maximum value of x is unknown. During exposure of PuO{sub 2} to a 2:1 D{sub 2}:O{sub 2} mixture at room temperature, the elements combine by a process consistent with a surface-catalyzed reaction. Water is simultaneously formed by the H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction and consumed by the PuO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O reaction and accumulates until the opposing rates are equal. Thereafter, PuO{sub 2+x} is formed at a constant rate by the water-catalyzed PuO{sub 2} + O{sub 2} reaction. The failure of earlier attempts to prepare higher oxides of plutonium is discussed and the catalytic cycle that promotes the reaction of PuO{sub 2} with O{sub 2} is described. Implications of the results for extended storage and environmental chemistry of oxide are examined. Moisture-catalyzed oxidation of PuO{sub 2} accounts for observation of both pressure increases and decreases in oxide storage containers with air atmospheres. Application of the experimental rate results indicates that the reaction of a typical oxide with 0.5 mass % of adsorbed water maybe complete after 25 to 50 years at room temperature.

Haschke, J.M.; Allen, T.H.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

Mysels, Karol J. (La Jolla, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ofGaP_{1-x}N_x Photocorroded as a Result of Hydrogen Productionthrough Water Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells produce hydrogen gas through the sunlight driven electrolysis of water. By extracting hydrogen and oxygen from water and storing solar energy in the H-H bond, they offer a promising renewable energy technology. Addition of dilute amounts of nitrogen to III-V semiconductors has been shown to dramatically increase the stability of these materials for hydrogen production. In an effort to learn more about the origin of semiconductor photocorrosion in PEC cells, three samples of p-type GaP with varying levels of nitrogen content (0%, 0.2%, 2%) were photocorroded and examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). GaPN samples were observed to be more efficient during the hydrogen production process than the pure GaP samples. Sample surfaces contained gallium oxides in the form of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ga(OH){sub 3} and phosphorus oxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}), as well as surface oxides from exposure to air. A significant shift in intensity from bulk to surface peaks dramatic nitrogen segregation to the surface during photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Further investigations, including using a scanning electron microscope to investigate sample topography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis for solution analyses, are under way to determine the mechanism for these changes.

Mayer, Marie A.; /Illinois U., Urbana /SLAC

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

The role of Hydrogen and Creep in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water Environments ? a Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWR steam generator environment has been extensively studied for over 30 years without rendering a clear understanding of the essential mechanisms. The lack of understanding of the IGSCC mechanism is due to a complex interaction of numerous variables such as microstructure, thermomechanical processing, strain rate, water chemistry and electrochemical potential. Hydrogen plays an important role in all these variables. The complexity, however, significantly hinders a clearer and more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen in enhancing intergranular cracking via whatever mechanism. In this work, an attempt is made to review the role of hydrogen based on the current understanding of grain boundary structure and chemistry and intergranular fracture of nickel alloys, effect of hydrogen on electrochemical behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (e.g. the passive film stability, polarization behavior and open-circuit potential) and effect of hydrogen on PWSCC behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Mechanistic studies on the PWSCC are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that further studies on the role of hydrogen on intergranular cracking in both inert and primary side environments are needed. These studies should focus on the correlation of the results obtained at different laboratories by different methods on materials with different metallurgical and chemical parameters.

Rebak, R B; Hua, F H

2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

257

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Control of hydrogen sulfide...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

III. Final report: demonstration plant equipment descriptions, test plan, and operating instructions Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us |...

259

Hydrogen Sulfide, Oil and Gas, and People's Lana Skrtic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at sewage treatment plants, manure-handling plants, tanneries, and coke oven plants.5 2 EPA, "Report standard cubic feet)."9 Sour gas is routinely `sweetened' at processing facilities called desulfurization Process for Desulfurizing Ultra-deep Natural Gas Near the Wellhead," presented at Natural Gas Technologies

Kammen, Daniel M.

260

Solar Photo Catalytic Hydrogen Production from water using a dual bed photosystem  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A body of work was performed in which the feasibility of photocatalytically decomposing water into its constituent elements using a dual bed, or modular photosystem, under solar radiation was investigated. The system envisioned consists of two modules, each consisting of a shallow, flat, sealed container, in which microscopic photocatalytic particles are immobilized. The photocatalysts absorb light, generating free electrons and lattice vacancy holes, which are capable of performing reductive and oxidative chemistry, respectively. The photocatalysts would be chosen as to whether they specifically promote H{sub 2} or O{sub 2} evolution in their respective containers. An aqueous solution containing a redox mediator is pumped between the two chambers in order to transfer electron equivalents from one reaction to the other.

Florida Solar Energy Center

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nanotechnology for Solar-hydrogen Production via Photoelectrochemical Water-splitting: Design, Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Nanomaterials and Quantum Dots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen production by water-splitting using solar energy and nanostructure photocatalysts is very promising as a renewable, efficient, environmentally clean technology. The key is to reduce the cost of hydrogen production as well as increase the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency by searching for cost-effective photocatalytic materials. In this dissertation, energy efficiency calculation was carried out based on hydrogen production observation to evaluate the nanomaterials activity. The results are important to gain better understanding of water-splitting reaction mechanism. Design, synthesis, characterization/properties and application of these nanomaterials was the road-map to achieve the research objectives. The design of TiO2 is selected based on unique photocatalytic and photovoltaic properties and high stability in aqueous solution. Various structures of nanocomposites TiO2 were designed according to their characteristics and potential activity. TiO2 with quantum dots, nanocomposites thin film, nanofibers, nanorods, nanowires (core/shell), nanotubes, nanopowders, nanoparticles, and nanosphere decorated with low cost metals, sensitized with dye, and doped with nitrogen are designed. Green physical and chemical synthesis methods such as sol-gel techniques, autoclave, microwave, electrospinning, wet impregnation, hydrothermal, chemical vapor deposition, template-based fabrication (porous anodic aluminium oxide membrane), drop casting, dip coating, wet coating were used to synthesize and fabricate the nanomaterials and quantum dots.Both bottom-up and top-down synthesis techniques were used. The ability to control and manipulate the size, shape/geometry, crystal structure, chemical compositions, interaction and interface properties of these materials at nano-scale during the synthesis enable to enhance their thermal, optical, chemical, electrical, …etc properties. Several characterization techniques such as XRD, XPS, EDS, SEM, UV-visible spectra, and optical microscopic and digital camera were also obtained to characterize the properties and confirm to achieve the desired design. The application or processing to test the activity of these nanomaterials for hydrogen production by water-splitting was conducted through extensive experimental program. It was carried out in a one photo-single column experimental set-up to detect hydrogen evolution. A high throughput screening process to evaluate single photo reduction catalysts was established here for simplicity, safety, cost-effective and flexibility of testing nanomaterials for water photoreduction reactivity and hydrogen generation. Therefore, methanol as electron donor or oxidation agent was mixed with water in equal volume ratio in order to prevent the oxygen evolution and only measured the time course of hydrogen production. The primary objectives of this study is to investigate the following (1) The structure-properties relationship through testing quantum dots, nanocomposites thin film, nanofibers, nanorods, nanowires (core/shell), nanotubes, nanopowders, nanoparticles, nanospheres of TiO2 decorated with metals, dye sensitization, and nitrogen-doping. (2) The role of adding electron donors/relays to solution and their effect on semiconductor surface-electrolyte interface under constant conditions such as KI, Mv 2, NaCl, NaHCO3, sea and pure water. (3) Band gap and defect engineering by cation and anion doping. (4) Quantum dots and dye sensitization effect. The nanomaterials activity evaluated based on observed hydrogen production rate (?mol/h/g) experimentally and based on the energy efficiency (percent) calculation. Major findings in this dissertation are (1) A high throughput screening process to evaluate single photoreduction catalysts for solar-hydrogen production by water-splitting was established. (2) nanofibers structure of TiO2 doped with

Alenzi, Naser D.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

First commercial test is success for catalytic hydrogen sulfide oxidation process. [LO-CAT catalytic hydrogen sulfide oxidation processes  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the characteristics of the process and the bases for selecting the LO-CAT process for sulfur recovery from refinery process off-gas streams. In addition, the details of the application and the experience gained during the startup at the Tacoma, Washington refinery are described. The LO-CAT uses a nontoxic catalyst solution and a relatively simple processing scheme which employs sulfur sinking for the separation of sulfur from the circulating sulfur slurry. In addition, the LO-CAT process promised very high sulfur recovery efficiency, 99.85% minimum, and essentially an infinite turndown ratio. A discussion is presented of the major problems experienced in the operation of the LO-CAT sulfur recovery unit which have been: sulfur floating, catalyst solution foaming, corrosion, erosion, plugging, and biological growth. Each of these problems has surfaced repeatedly in the operation of the plant. Operating guidelines are provided. 2 refs.

Cabodi, A.J.; Van, H.R.; Hardison, L.C.

1982-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

263

Thermal decomposition of mercuric sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rate of thermal decomposition of mercuric sulfide (HgS) has been measured at temperatures from 265 to 345 C. These data have been analyzed using a first-order chemical reaction model for the time dependence of the reaction and the Arrhenius equation for the temperature dependence of the rate constant. Using this information, the activation energy for the reaction was found to be 55 kcal/mol. Significant reaction vessel surface effects obscured the functional form of the time dependence of the initial portion of the reaction. The data and the resulting time-temperature reaction-rate model were used to predict the decomposition rate of HgS as a function of time and temperature in thermal treatment systems. Data from large-scale thermal treatment studies already completed were interpreted in terms of the results of this study. While the data from the large-scale thermal treatment studies were consistent with the data from this report, mass transport effects may have contributed to the residual amount of mercury which remained in the soil after most of the large-scale runs.

Leckey, J.H.; Nulf, L.E.

1994-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy source. (Barrier V-Renewable Integration) Hydrogen storage & distribution system. (Barrier V fueled vehicle hydrogen dispensing system. Demonstrate hydrogen as an energy carrier. Investigate Electrolyzer ValveManifold Water High Pressure H2 Storage Fuel Cell AC Power H2 Compressor Hydrogen Supply O2

265

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Uranium Metal with Water in K Basin Sludge and Sludge Waste Forms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior laboratory testing identified sodium nitrate and nitrite to be the most promising agents to minimize hydrogen generation from uranium metal aqueous corrosion in Hanford Site K Basin sludge. Of the two, nitrate was determined to be better because of higher chemical capacity, lower toxicity, more reliable efficacy, and fewer side reactions than nitrite. The present lab tests were run to determine if nitrate’s beneficial effects to lower H2 generation in simulated and genuine sludge continued for simulated sludge mixed with agents to immobilize water to help meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance drainable liquid criterion. Tests were run at ~60°C, 80°C, and 95°C using near spherical high-purity uranium metal beads and simulated sludge to emulate uranium-rich KW containerized sludge currently residing in engineered containers KW-210 and KW-220. Immobilization agents tested were Portland cement (PC), a commercial blend of PC with sepiolite clay (Aquaset II H), granulated sepiolite clay (Aquaset II G), and sepiolite clay powder (Aquaset II). In all cases except tests with Aquaset II G, the simulated sludge was mixed intimately with the immobilization agent before testing commenced. For the granulated Aquaset II G clay was added to the top of the settled sludge/solution mixture according to manufacturer application directions. The gas volumes and compositions, uranium metal corrosion mass losses, and nitrite, ammonia, and hydroxide concentrations in the interstitial solutions were measured. Uranium metal corrosion rates were compared with rates forecast from the known uranium metal anoxic water corrosion rate law. The ratios of the forecast to the observed rates were calculated to find the corrosion rate attenuation factors. Hydrogen quantities also were measured and compared with quantities expected based on non-attenuated H2 generation at the full forecast anoxic corrosion rate to arrive at H2 attenuation factors. The uranium metal corrosion rates in water alone and in simulated sludge were near or slightly below the metal-in-water rate while nitrate-free sludge/Aquaset II decreased rates by about a factor of 3. Addition of 1 M nitrate to simulated sludge decreased the corrosion rate by a factor of ~5 while 1 M nitrate in sludge/Aquaset II mixtures decreased the corrosion rate by ~2.5 compared with the nitrate-free analogues. Mixtures of simulated sludge with Aquaset II treated with 1 M nitrate had uranium corrosion rates about a factor of 8 to 10 lower than the water-only rate law. Nitrate was found to provide substantial hydrogen mitigation for immobilized simulant sludge waste forms containing Aquaset II or Aquaset II G clay. Hydrogen attenuation factors of 1000 or greater were determined at 60°C for sludge-clay mixtures at 1 M nitrate. Hydrogen mitigation for tests with PC and Aquaset II H (which contains PC) were inconclusive because of suspected failure to overcome induction times and fully enter into anoxic corrosion. Lessening of hydrogen attenuation at ~80°C and ~95°C for simulated sludge and Aquaset II was observed with attenuation factors around 100 to 200 at 1 M nitrate. Valuable additional information has been obtained on the ability of nitrate to attenuate hydrogen gas generation from solution, simulant K Basin sludge, and simulant sludge with immobilization agents. Details on characteristics of the associated reactions were also obtained. The present testing confirms prior work which indicates that nitrate is an effective agent to attenuate hydrogen from uranium metal corrosion in water and simulated K Basin sludge to show that it is also effective in potential candidate solidified K Basin waste forms for WIPP disposal. The hydrogen mitigation afforded by nitrate appears to be sufficient to meet the hydrogen generation limits for shipping various sludge waste streams based on uranium metal concentrations and assumed waste form loadings.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Blog | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Blog Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Blog Bioenergy Buildings Geothermal Government Energy Management Homes Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Manufacturing Solar Vehicles Water Wind Blog Archive Recent...

267

Hydrogen and methane syntheses through radiation catalysis. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 1, 1979. [/sup 60/Co radiolysis of water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of the second contract year are described on production of hydrogen through water radiolysis at /sup 60/Co gamma energies, in the presence of solid oxide catalysts. The intent of the research is an improved theoretical understanding of radiation-induced hydrogen generation within the framework of the electronic theory of catalysis. Correlation of hydrogen yield with catalytic activity, based on prior work, was difficult to attain and an assessment of experimental parameters was made. Three sets of observations appear of some significance, however: (1) Antimony oxide (Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Eg = 3.3) shows consistently a dramatic increase in catalytic performance which cannot be attributed solely to band gap values. (2) There appears to be a correlation between hydrogen yield and dielectric properties of the catalyst. (3) Gamma irradiation changes the constitutive electrical properties of oxide catalyts in a manner proportional to hydrogen yields. Subsequent research will examine items 1, 2, and 3 more fully. It will also evaluate quantitatively the utility of the theoretical model.

None

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Production Printable Version Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic feedstocks using a variety of process technologies. Hydrogen-containing compounds such as fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen. Thermochemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from biomass and from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum. Power generated from sunlight, wind and nuclear sources can be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. Sunlight alone can also drive photolytic production of

269

ON THE FORMATION OF INTERSTELLAR WATER ICE: CONSTRAINTS FROM A SEARCH FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS  

SciTech Connect

Recent surface chemistry experiments have shown that the hydrogenation of molecular oxygen on interstellar dust grains is a plausible formation mechanism, via hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), for the production of water (H{sub 2}O) ice mantles in the dense interstellar medium. Theoretical chemistry models also predict the formation of a significant abundance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice in grain mantles by this route. At their upper limits, the predicted and experimental abundances are sufficiently high that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be detectable in molecular cloud ice spectra. To investigate this further, laboratory spectra have been obtained for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice films between 2.5 and 200 {mu}m, from 10 to 180 K, containing 3%, 30%, and 97% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. Integrated absorbances for all the absorption features in low-temperature H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice have been derived from these spectra. For identifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice, the key results are the presence of unique features near 3.5, 7.0, and 11.3 {mu}m. Comparing the laboratory spectra with the spectra of a group of 24 protostars and field stars, all of which have strong H{sub 2}O ice absorption bands, no absorption features are found that can definitely be identified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. In the absence of definite H{sub 2}O{sub 2} features, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} abundance is constrained by its possible contribution to the weak absorption feature near 3.47 {mu}m found on the long-wavelength wing of the 3 {mu}m H{sub 2}O ice band. This gives an average upper limit for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as a percentage of H{sub 2}O, of 9% {+-} 4%. This is a strong constraint on parameters for surface chemistry experiments and dense cloud chemistry models.

Smith, R. G.; Wright, C. M.; Robinson, G. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Charnley, S. B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [NASA Lunar Science Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Maldoni, M. M., E-mail: r.smith@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: c.wright@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: g.robinson@adfa.edu.au, E-mail: Steven.B.Charnley@nasa.gov, E-mail: yvonne.pendleton@nasa.gov [Geoscience Australia, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

270

Infrared Spectroscopy and Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Liquid Water from Centroid Molecular Dynamics with an Ab Initio-Based Force Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A molecular-level description of the unique properties of hydrogen-bond networks is critical for understanding many fundamental physico-chemical processes in aqueous environments. In this article a novel simulation approach, combining an ab-initio based force field for water with a quantum treatment of the nuclear motion, is applied to investigate hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water with a specific focus on the relationship of these dynamics to vibrational spectroscopy. Linear and nonlinear infrared (IR) spectra are calculated for liquid water, HOD in D2O and HOD in H2O and discussed in the context of the results obtained using other approaches that have been employed in studies of water dynamics. A comparison between the calculated spectra and the available experimental data yields an overall good agreement, indicating the accuracy of the present simulation approach in describing the properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. Possible improvements on the representation of the underlying water interactions as well as the treatment of the molecular motion at the quantum-mechanical level are also discussed. This research was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, US Department of Energy. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

Paesani, Francesco; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

272

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Analysis Projects...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Early Market Transition of Fuel Cell Vehicles Macro-System Model Stranded Biogas Decision Tool for Fuel Cell Co-Production Water for Hydrogen Pathways 2010 A Portfolio...

273

Minimizing sulfur contamination and rinse water volume required following a sulfuric acid/hydrogen peroxide clean by performing a chemically basic rinse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixtures (SPM) are commonly used in the semiconductor industry to remove organic contaminants from wafer surfaces. This viscous solution is very difficult to rinse off wafer surfaces. Various rinsing conditions were tested and the resulting residual contamination on the wafer surface was measured. The addition of small amounts of a chemical base such as ammonium hydroxide to the rinse water has been found to be effective in reducing the surface concentration of sulfur and also mitigates the particle growth that occurs on SPM cleaned wafers. The volume of room temperature water required to rinse these wafers is also significantly reduced.

Clews, P.J.; Nelson, G.C.; Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.; Adkins, C.L.J.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Special Chemical Properties of RuOx Nanowires in RuOx/TiO2(110): Dissociation of Water and Hydrogen Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding the role of mixed-metal oxides in catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the splitting of water. Here, we investigate the structural and chemical properties of RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces employing scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density functional calculations. Ruthenium oxide forms unique wirelike structures on top of TiO{sub 2}(110) which are very reactive toward water dissociation, being able to cleave O-H bonds at a temperature as low as 200 K. The calculated barrier for the dissociation of water on RuO{sub 2} nanowires is <0.05 eV. The presence of easily formable O vacancies in the ruthenium oxide nanowires facilitates the dissociation of water. Furthermore, RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2} (110) surfaces are able to catalyze the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H{sub 2}O + CO {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}), exhibiting an activity that compares well with the activity found for extended surfaces of copper typically used as benchmarks for studying this reaction.

Rodriguez J. A.; Kundu, S.; Vidal, A.B.; Yang, F.; Ramírez, P.J.; Senanayake, S.D.; Stacchiola, D.; Evans, J.; Liu, P.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

275

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Hydrogen Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sensor for detectingquantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces...

277

Hydrogen Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural...

278

Effect of sulfuric acid, oxygen, and hydrogen in high-temperature water on stress corrosion cracking of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The influence of dissolved oxygen and hydrogen and dilute sulfuric acid in 289/sup 0/C water on the stress-corrosion-cracking susceptibility of lightly and moderately sensitized Type 304 stainless steel was determined in constant-extension-rate tensile (CERT) tests. The CERT parameters and the fracture surface morphologies were correlated with the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and sulfate, and the electrochemical potentials of platinum and Type 304 stainless steel electrodes in simulated boiling-water reactor (BWR) environments. A particularly high susceptibility to intergranular cracking was found for the steel in the lightly sensitized condition at oxygen concentrations between approx. 0.05 and 0.2 ppM under slightly acidic conditions (pH approx. 6.0 at 25/sup 0/C), which may, in part, account for the pervasive nature of intergranular cracking in BWR piping systems. Scanning-transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed significant differences between samples in the lightly and the moderately sensitized condition with respect to the width, but not the depth, of the chromium-depleted region at the grain boundaries. The addition of 0.5 ppM hydrogen to the water had only a small mitigating effect on intergranular cracking in water containing oxygen and sulfuric acid at low concentrations; however, oxygen suppression to less than or equal to 0.05 ppM in the reactor-coolant water, by means of hydrogen additions to the feedwater, would be quite beneficial provided impurities are also maintained at very low levels.

Ruther, W.E.; Soppet, W.K.; Ayrault, G.; Kassner, T.F.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project aims at using the OSU patented high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. Gas composition analyses show the formation of 100% pure hydrogen. Novel calcination techniques could lead to smaller reactor footprint and single-stage reactors that can achieve maximum theoretical H{sub 2} production for multicyclic applications. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the effect of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of the diluent gas and the sorbent loading on the calcination kinetics which play an important role on the sorbent morphology. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, is envisioned to be a potential diluent gas due to its enhanced thermal properties. Steam calcination studies at 700-850 C reveal improved sorbent morphology over regular nitrogen calcination. A mixture of 80% steam and 20% CO{sub 2} at ambient pressure was used to calcine the spent sorbent at 820 C thus lowering the calcination temperature. Regeneration of calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate was achieved by carbonating the calcium sulfide slurry by bubbling CO{sub 2} gas at room temperature.

Mahesh Iyer; Himanshu Gupta; Danny Wong; Liang-Shih Fan

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Oxygen-Tolerant Cyanobacterial System - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Philip D. Weyman (Primary Contact), Isaac T. Yonemoto, Hamilton O. Smith J. Craig Venter Institute 10355 Science Center Dr. San Diego, CA 92121 Phone: (858) 200-1815 Email: pweyman@jcvi.org DOE Managers HQ: Eric Miller Phone: (202) 287-5829 Email: Eric.Miller@hq.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15027 National Laboratory Collaborators: * Karen Wawrousek, Scott Noble, Jianping Yu, and Pin-Ching Maness * National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO Project Start Date: May 1, 2005 Project End Date: January 30, 2014

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrogen Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. ... These articles, of interest to the hydrogen community, can be viewed by clicking on the title. ...

282

Properties Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. PROPERTIES, ... For information on a PC database that includes hydrogen property information click here. ...

283

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Chicago team. On-board hydrogen storage is critical to the development of future high energy efficiency transportation technologies, such as hydrogen-powered fuel...

284

Special Chemical Properties of RuOx Nanowires in RuOx/TiO2(110): Dissociation of Water and Hydrogen Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding the role of mixed-metal oxides in catalysts used for the production of hydrogen through the splitting of water. Here, we investigate the structural and chemical properties of RuO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces employing scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density functional calculations. Ruthenium oxide forms unique wirelike structures on top of TiO{sub 2}(110) which are very reactive toward water dissociation, being able to cleave O-H bonds at a temperature as low as 200 K. The calculated barrier for the dissociation of water on RuO{sub 2} nanowires is benchmarks for studying this reaction.

Rodriguez J. A.; Kundu, S.; Vidal, A.B.; Yang, F.; Ramírez, P.J.; Senanayake, S.D.; Stacchiola, D.; Evans, J.; Liu, P.

2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

Hydrogen Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mark Paster Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology Program Hydrogen Production and Delivery Team Hydrogen Delivery Goal Hydrogen Delivery Goal Liquid H 2 & Chem. Carriers Gaseous Pipeline Truck Hydrides Liquid H 2 - Truck - Rail Other Carriers Onsite reforming Develop Develop hydrogen fuel hydrogen fuel delivery delivery technologies that technologies that enable the introduction and enable the introduction and long long - - term viability of term viability of hydrogen as an energy hydrogen as an energy carrier for transportation carrier for transportation and stationary power. and stationary power. Delivery Options * End Game - Pipelines - Other as needed * Breakthrough Hydrogen Carriers * Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen

286

Market Potential of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production in Three Northeastern Utilities' Service Territories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis can be potentially cheaper than bottled industrial hydrogen. But in the Northeast, expensive electrolyzers, costly electricity, high interest rates, and excess hydrogen production capacity at existing plants make electrolytic hydrogen less attractive than bottled hydrogen.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

SPE water electrolysis technology development for large scale hydrogen production. Progress report No. 6, January 1, 1977--March 31, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The status of the following studies is reported: low cost current collector development, high temperature operation, catalytic electrode development, low cost polymer development, evaluation of the effect of hydrogen enrichment on older gas pipelines, cell and SPE optimization, cell assembly design, stack assembly design, manufacturing process development, and system analysis and definition.

Not Available

1977-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

288

Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth  

SciTech Connect

A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

289

Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hydrogen Filling Station  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

291

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

292

Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates  

SciTech Connect

A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

294

Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

295

Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

Aldridge, Frederick T. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Hydrogen Highways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joan Ogden, “The Hope for Hydrogen,” Issues in Science andand James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: MovingHydrogen Highways BY TIMOTHY LIPMAN H 2 T H E S TAT E O F C

Lipman, Timothy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Hydrogen Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org Increase your H2IQ More information Making...

299

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Pollard, Richard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Bioleaching and electrobioleaching of low grade copper sulfide ore ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Low grade Copper sulfide ore of Sarcheshmeh copper mine of Iran was leached using bioleaching mode and electrobioleaching mode.

302

On the Mechanism of Castastropic Atmospheric Sulfidation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, On the Mechanism of Castastropic Atmospheric Sulfidation of Electronic Components in Data Centers. Author(s), Linn W. Hobbs. On-Site ...

303

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This.................................................................................. 13 6. Hydrogen Storage and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, nonbinding, and nonlegal

304

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Introduction Developing and implementing fuel quality specifications for hydrogen are prerequisites to the widespread deployment of hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles. Several organizations are addressing this fuel quality issue, including the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)/Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). All of their activities, however, have focused on the deleterious effects of specific contaminants on the automotive fuel cell or on-board hydrogen storage systems. While it is possible for the energy industry to provide extremely pure hydrogen, such hydrogen could entail excessive costs. The objective of our task is to develop a process whereby the hydrogen quality requirements may be determined based on life-cycle costs of the complete hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "system." To accomplish this objective, the influence of different contaminants and their concentrations in fuel hydrogen on the life-cycle costs of hydrogen production, purification, use in fuel cells, and hydrogen analysis and quality verification are being assessed.

305

Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y ›MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

Hilsenbeck, Shane J. (Ames, IA); McCarley, Robert E. (Ames, IA); Schrader, Glenn L. (Ames, IA); Xie, Xiaobing (College Station, TX)

1999-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Numerical simulations of turbulent flow fields caused by spraying of water on large releases of hydrogen fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of water sprays in absorbing HF releases was recently demonstrated in extended laboratory and field tests. In this paper, computer simulations are presented of the Hawk, Nevada Test Site, series of field tests. The model used, HFSPRAY, is a Eulerean/Lagrangian model which simulates the momentum, mass and energy interactions between a water spray and a turbulent plume of HF in air; the model can predict the flow velocities, temperature, water vapor, and HF concentration fields in two-dimensional large- geometries for spraying in any direction, (i.e., down-flow, inclined-down-flow, up-flow, and co-current horizontal flow). The model was validated against recent data on spraying of water on large releases of HF. 17 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Schatz, K.W. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

308

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production The simplest and most common element, hydrogen is all around us, but always as a compound with other elements. To make it usable in fuel cells or otherwise provide energy, we must expend energy or modify another energy source to extract it from the fossil fuel, biomass, water, or other compound in which it is found. Nearly all hydrogen production in the United States today is by steam reformation of natural gas. This, however, releases carbon dioxide in the process and trades one relatively clean fuel for another, with associated energy loss, so it does little to meet national energy needs. Hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis-passing an electrical current through water to break it into hydrogen and oxygen-but electrolysis is inefficient and is only as clean

309

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

310

Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that these are highly preliminary, incomplete, and optimistic estimates. Biophotolysis processes, indirect or direct, clearly require considerable basic and applied R and D before a more detailed evaluation of their potential and plausible economics can be carried out. For example, it is not yet clear which type of algae, green algae, or cyanobacteria, would be preferred in biophotolysis. If lower-cost photobioreactors can be developed, then small-scale (<1 ha) single-stage biophotolysis processes may become economically feasible. A major basic and applied R and D effort will be required to develop such biophotolysis processes.

Benemann, J.R.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Solar Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Water Using a Dual Bed Photosystem - Phase I Final Report and Phase II Proposal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we are attempting to perform the highly efficient storage of solar energy in the form of H{sub 2} via photocatalytic decomposition of water. While it has been demonstrated that H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can be evolved from a single vessel containing a single suspended photocatalyst (Sayama 1994; 1997), we are attempting to perform net water-splitting by using two photocatalysts immobilized in separate containers, or beds. A schematic showing how the device would work is shown.

Clovis A. Linkous; Darlene K. Slattery

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

312

Experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX): Hydrogen generation and chemical augmentation of energetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the first data series of experiments on interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. These experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of pure zirconium or zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water. A total of nine tests were conducted, including four with pure zirconium melt and five with Zr-ZrO{sub 2} mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite extensive, the estimated explosion energetics were found to be very small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Hydrogen energy for tomorrow: Advanced hydrogen production technologies  

SciTech Connect

The future vision for hydrogen is that it will be cost-effectively produced from renewable energy sources and made available for widespread use as an energy carrier and a fuel. Hydrogen can be produced from water and when burned as a fuel, or converted to electricity, joins with oxygen to again form water. It is a clean, sustainable resource with many potential applications, including generating electricity, heating homes and offices, and fueling surface and air transportation. To achieve this vision, researchers must develop advanced technologies to produce hydrogen at costs competitive with fossil fuels, using sustainable sources. Hydrogen is now produced primarily by steam reforming of natural gas. For applications requiring extremely pure hydrogen, production is done by electrolysis. This is a relatively expensive process that uses electric current to dissociate, or split, water into its hydrogen and oxygen components. Technologies with the best potential for producing hydrogen to meet future demand fall into three general process categories: photobiological, photoelectrochemical, and thermochemical. Photobiological and photoelectrochemical processes generally use sunlight to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Thermochemical processes, including gasification and pyrolysis systems, use heat to produce hydrogen from sources such as biomass and solid waste.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Renewable Hydrogen: Integration, Validation, and Demonstration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper is about producing hydrogen through the electrolysis of water and using the hydrogen in a fuel cell or internal combustion engine generator to produce electricity during times of peak demand, or as a transportation fuel.

Harrison, K. W.; Martin, G. D.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Photo-electrolytic production of hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen and oxygen are produced from water in a process involving the photodissociation of molecular bromine with radiant energy at wavelengths within the visible light region and a subsequent electrolytic dissociation of hydrogen halides.

Meyerand, R.G. Jr.; Krascella, N.L.; McMahon, D.G.

1978-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

316

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen Production Argonne researchers are studying thermochemical cycles to determine their potential...

317

Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

318

Hydrogen – Radialysis  

INL scientists have invented a process of forming chemical compositions, such as a hydrides which can provide a source of hydrogen. The process exposes the chemical composition decaying radio-nuclides which provide the energy to with a hydrogen source ...

319

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

320

Hydrogen wishes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen Wishes, presented at MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies, explores the themes of wishes and peace. It dramatizes the intimacy and power of transforming one's breath and vocalized wishes into a floating sphere, a bubble charged with hydrogen. ...

Winslow Burleson; Paul Nemirovsky; Dan Overholt

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

322

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications: Hydrogen Storage Program Organizers: Zhenguo "Gary" Yang, Pacific Northwest ...

323

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Neutron Scattering in Engineering and Materials Science Research: Hydrogen Storage Sponsored by: Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of ...

324

Water News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water News Water News Bioenergy Buildings Geothermal Government Energy Management Homes Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Advanced Manufacturing Solar Vehicles Water Wind Blog Archive Recent...

325

The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Identifying and building a sustainable energy system is perhaps one of the most critical issues that today's society must address. Replacing our current energy carrier mix with a sustainable fuel is one of the key pieces in that system. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The hydrogen economy then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. A key piece of this hydrogen economy is the fuel cell. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy in a fuel into low-voltage dc electricity and when using hydrogen as the fuel, the only emission is water vapor. While the basic understanding of fuel cell technology has been known since 1839, it has only been recently that fuel cells have shown their potential as an energy conversion device for both transportation and stationary applications. This talk will introduce the sustainable hydrogen economy and address some of the issues and barriers relating to its deployment as part of a sustainable energy system.

Turner, John (NREL)

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C.L.; Russell, L.H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

327

Measurement of the Nickel/Nickel Oxide Phase Transition in High Temperature Hydrogenated Water Using the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) Technique  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior studies of Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 have shown the existence of a maximum in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility in high temperature water (e.g., at 360 C), when testing is conducted over a range of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentrations. It has also been shown that this maximum in SCC susceptibility tends to occur in proximity to the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, suggesting that oxide phase stability may affect primary water SCC (PWSCC) resistance. Previous studies have estimated the Ni/NiO transition using thermodynamic calculations based on free energies of formation for NiO and H{sub 2}O. The present study reports experimental measurements of the Ni/NiO transition performed using a contact electric resistance (CER) instrument. The CER is capable of measuring the surface resistance of a metal to determine whether it is oxide-covered or oxide-free at a given condition. The transition aqueous hydrogen (H{sub 2}) concentration corresponding to the Ni/NiO equilibrium was measured at 288, 316, 338 and 360 C using high purity Ni specimens. The results showed an appreciable deviation (i.e., 7 to 58 scc H{sub 2}/kg H{sub 2}O) between the measured Ni/NiO transition and the theoretical Ni/NiO transition previously calculated using free energy data from the Journal of Solution Chemistry. The CER-measured position of the Ni/NiO transition is in good agreement with the maxima in PWSCC susceptibility at 338 and 360 C. The measured Ni/NiO transition provides a reasonable basis for estimating the aqueous H{sub 2} level at which the maximum in SCC susceptibility is likely to be observed at temperatures lower than 338 to 360 C, at which SCC tests are time-consuming to perform. Limited SCC data are presented which are consistent with the observation that SCC susceptibility is maximized near the Ni/NiO transition at 288 C.

S.A. Attanasio; D.S. Morton; M.A. Ando; N.F. Panayotou; C.D. Thompson

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

328

HYDROGEN PICKUP DURING CORROSION OF ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several factors such as alloy composition, hydrogen content of the alloy, surface hydrides, and hydrogen content of the water have been investigated for their effect upon the amount of hydrogen picked up by zirconium alloys during corrosion in 680 deg F water. Metallic additions of nickel increase hydrogen pickup, antimony, chromium, and iron appear to decrease the hydrogen pickup, while the addition of tin has little or no effect. The hydrogen content of the metal (50 to 400 ppm) or of the water (0 in 2 atm of hydrogen pressure) does not appreciably change the amount of hydrogen picked up by the alloys studied. It is proposed that certain intermetallic compounds provide cathodic areas which aid in the concentration of hydrogen at the compound. The amount of corrosion-produced hydrogen entering the metal is controlled by the reaction of hydrogen with the particular compound. The hydriding of Zircaloy-2 by gaseous hydrogen is stopped when small quantities of water vapor are added to the hydrogen. (auth)

Berry, W.E.; Vaughan, D.A.; White, E.L.

1959-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

329

Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition Metal Sulfide Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 March 21, 2003 Objectives ¾ Investigate non-platinum electro-catalysts with CO tolerance ¾ Focus on transition metal sulfides as electro-catalysts

330

Stability and Reactivity of Iron Sulfide Films in Sour Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Iron sulfide scales form on steels in the presence of H2S, notably in the extreme environments that exist in the oil and gas fields. Our research ...

331

Looping Sulfide Oxidation Process for Anode Copper Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using Microwave Energy · Chloridizing ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity .... Thermal Plasma Torches for Metallurgical Applications.

332

Multiple-sulfur isotope effects during photolysis of carbonyl sulfide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine sulfur isotope effects during ultraviolet photolysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) to carbon monoxide (CO) and elemental sulfur (S[superscript 0]). The OCS gas at 3.7 to 501 ...

Lin, Ying

333

Design and fabrication of a tin-sulfide annealing furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A furnace was designed and its heat transfer properties were analyzed for use in annealing thin-film tins-ulfide solar cells. Tin sulfide has been explored as an earth abundant solar cell material, and the furnace was ...

Lewis, Raymond, S.M. (Raymond A.) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Iron-ceria Aerogels Doped with Palladium as Water-gas Shift Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels doped with 1% and 2% palladium (Pd) by weight have been synthesized, and their activities for the catalysis of water-gas shift (WGS) reaction have been determined. The aerogels were synthesized using propylene oxide as the proton scavenger for the initiation of hydrolysis and polycondensation of a homogeneous alcoholic solution of cerium(III) chloride heptahydrate and iron(III) chloride hexahydrate precursor. Palladium was doped onto some of these materials by gas-phase incorporation (GPI) using ({eta}{sup 3}-allyl)({eta}{sup 5}-cyclopentadienyl)palladium as the volatile Pd precursor. Water-gas shift catalytic activities were evaluated in a six-channel fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure and reaction temperatures ranging from 150 to 350 C. Both 1% and 2% Pd-doped 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels showed WGS activities that increased significantly from 150 to 350 C. The activities of 1% Pd-doped 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels were also compared with that of the 1% Pd-doped ceria aerogel without iron. The WGS activity of 1% Pd on 4.5% iron oxide-95.5% cerium oxide aerogels is substantially higher (5 times) than the activity of 1% Pd-doped ceria aerogel without iron. The gas-phase incorporation results in a better Pd dispersion. Ceria aerogel provides a nonrigid structure wherein iron is not significantly incorporated inside the matrix, thereby resulting in better contact between the Fe and Pd and thus enhancing the WGS activity. Further, neither Fe nor Pd is reduced during the ceria-aerogel-catalyzed WGS reaction. This behavior contrasts with that noted for other Fe-based WGS catalysts, in which the original ferric oxide is typically reduced to a nonstoichiometric magnetite form.

Bali, S.; Huggins, F; Ernst, R; Pugmire, R; Huffman, G; Eyring, E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Glossary - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration ... (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen) ... Storage Withdrawals: ...

336

Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

Peter A. Pryfogle

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

339

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

340

Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:06pm Addthis Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These qualities make it an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation applications. Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used to store, move, and deliver energy produced from other sources. The energy in hydrogen fuel is derived from the fuels and processes used to produce the hydrogen. Today, hydrogen fuel can be produced through several methods. The most common methods are thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic processes. Thermal Processes Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Basics - Hydrogen August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe. However, it is rarely found alone in nature. Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H2O), hydrocarbons (such as methane, CH4), and other organic matter. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. Currently,

342

EIA Energy Kids - Hydrogen - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Like electricity, hydrogen is a secondary source of energy. It stores and carries energy produced from other resources (fossil fuels, water, and biomass).

343

Overview of the DOE Hydrogen Program (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

production using water electrolysis with on-site solar energy (Southfield, Michigan). XcelNREL WindHydrogen Project (ongoing) Integrates electrolyzers and wind turbines to...

344

Historical Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Budgets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

two separate programs. The Hydrogen Program was funded from the Energy and Water Appropriations and Fuel Cells from the Interior Appropriations. In 2003, the Office of Energy...

345

Production of hydrogen from alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

346

Weld-overlay iron-aluminide coatings for use in high-temperature oxidizing/sulfidizing environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of iron-aluminide weld overlay coatings for high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation resistance critically depends on the determination of the aluminum concentration range for which good corrosion behavior and weldability coexist. This study demonstrated that a sound weld overlay composition with about 30 at.% Al has relatively low corrosion rates in a highly aggressive oxidizing/sulfidizing (H{sub 2}S-H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-Ar) environment at 800 C. Its corrosion resistance was superior to alloys with compositions like that of type 310 stainless steel and Fecralloy. The results with this overlay composition can be explained on the basis of what is known about the effects of variations in aluminum and chromium concentrations on high-temperature oxidation/sulfidation from studies with bulk iron aluminides. While higher aluminum concentrations are even better for long-term corrosion resistance, the ability to reliably produce weld overlays of such compositions without hydrogen cracking is problematical and is the subject of continuing development.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Goodwin, G.M.; Howell, M.; DeVan, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Analysis Projects by Principal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principal Investigator Principal Investigator Below are hydrogen analyses and analytical models grouped by principal investigator. | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W A Portfolio of Power-Trains for Europe Review of FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Ahluwalia, Rajesh Fuel Cell Systems Analysis GCtool-ENG Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. Hydrogen Storage Systems Analysis Ahmed, Shabbir Cost Implications of Hydrogen Quality Requirements Fuel Quality Effects on Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Quality in Fuel Cell Systems Quick Starting Fuel Processors - A Feasibility Study Amos, Wade Biological Water-Gas Shift Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Green Algae Cost Analysis Arif, Muhammad Fuel Cell Water Transport Mechanism

348

Hydrogen Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ASHRAE 62.1, 7 air changes per hour, 100 ... I, Division II, Group B: testing and research laboratory; ... Planning Guidance for Hydrogen Projects as a ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen...

350

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

351

Incorporating Amino Acid Esters into Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation: Steric and Electronic Effects and the Role of Water as a Base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four derivatives of a hydrogen oxidation catalyst, [Ni(PCy2NBn-R2)]2+ (Cy=cyclohexyl, Bn=benzyl, R= OMe, COOMe, CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester), have been prepared to investigate steric and electronic effects on catalysis. Each complex was characterized spectroscopically and electrochemically, and thermodynamic data were determined. Crystal structures are also reported for the -OMe and -COOMe derivatives. All four catalysts were found to be active for H2 oxidation. The methyl ester (R = COOMe) and amino acid ester containing complexes (R = CO-Alanine-methyl ester or CO-Phenylalanine-methyl ester) had slower rates (4 s-1) than that of the parent complex (10 s-1), in which R = H, consistent with the lower amine pKa’s and less favorable ?GH2’s found for these electron-withdrawing substituents. Dynamic processes for the amino acid ester containing complexes were also investigated and found not to hinder catalysis. The electron-donating methoxy ether derivative (R = OMe) was prepared to compare electronic effects and has a similar catalytic rate as the parent complex. In the course of these studies, it was found that water could act as a weak base for H2 oxidation, although catalytic turnover requires a significantly higher potential and utilizes a different sequence of catalytic steps than when using a base with a higher pKa. Importantly, these catalysts provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached to [Ni(PCy2NBn2)2]2+ hydrogen oxidation catalysts in order to more fully investigate and implement the effects of the outer-coordination sphere. This work was funded by the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SL and WJS), by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (JR), and by the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geoscience and Biosciences Division (AMA, AJ). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Lense, Sheri; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Jain, Avijita; Raugei, Simone; Linehan, John C.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

352

Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

Greenbaum, E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Hydrogen from renewable resources research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Hydrogen Bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts continued to explore existing catalytic methods involving nano catalysts for capture of CO2 from the fermentation process.

Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

357

Process for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing hydrogen by an electrolysis of water with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide is provided. It is to use an electrolytic cell prepared by bonding a gas and liquid permeable anode on one surface of a cation-exchange membrane of a fluorinated polymer and a gas and liquid permeable cathode on the other surface of the membrane. An economical metal can be used as the substance for the electrolytic cell. Hydrogen can be produced at a low voltage in stable for a long time.

Oda, Y.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

Peterson, S

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Several different approaches are being pursued to develop on-board hydrogen storage systems for light-duty vehicle applications. The different approaches have different characteristics, such as: the thermal energy and temperature of charge and discharge kinetics of the physical and chemical process steps involved requirements for the materials and energy interfaces between the storage system and the fuel supply system on one hand, and the fuel user on the other Other storage system design and operating parameters influence the projected system costs as well. Argonne researchers are developing thermodynamic, kinetic, and engineering models of the various hydrogen storage systems to understand the characteristics of storage systems based on these approaches and to evaluate their potential to meet the DOE targets for on-board applications. The DOE targets for 2015 include a system gravimetric capacity of 1.8 kWh/kg (5.5 wt%) and a system volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L (40 g/L). We then use these models to identify significant component and performance issues, and evaluate alternative system configurations and design and operating parameters.

360

Hydrogen: Helpful Links & Contacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Helpful Links & Contacts. Helpful Links. Hydrogen Information, Website. ... Contacts for Commercial Hydrogen Measurement. ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY Dances with hydrogen cations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Life depends on the flow of hydrogen cations in water, yet their dynamic behaviour when complexed with water molecules is unknown. The latest computer simulations cast light on the jiggling of hydrated hydrogen ions. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2009-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

362

Microbiological treatment of uranium mine waters  

SciTech Connect

Percolation of uranium mine discharge water through Ambrosia Lake, NM, soil is shown to be an effective method for lowering selenium, uranium, molybdenum, and sulfate concentrations in the mine water. Selenium concentrations were lowered from approx.1.6 to <0.05 mg/L by reduction of soluble selenate and selenite to insoluble selenium metal. This reaction is most likely performed by bacteria belonging to the genus Clostridium. In addition, sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, such as Desulfovibrio bacteria, metabolize sulfate to hydrogen sulfide, which reacts with uranyl and molybdate ions to form insoluble uranium and molybdenum species. The concentrations of sulfate, uranium, and molybdenum were reduced to less than 600, 0.1, and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. A qualitative understanding of the effects of mine water temperature, flow rate, and nutrients on metals removal is provided. The process was successfully field tested for 7 months in a soil column 1.5 m deep. 13 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

Kauffman, J.W.; Laughlin, W.C.; Baldwin, R.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hydrogen ICE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD Hydrogen ICE 1 Conversion Vehicle Specifications Engine: 6.0 L V8 Fuel Capacity: 10.5 GGE Nominal Tank Pressure: 5,000 psi Seatbelt Positions: Five...

364

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

365

Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts with successive oxidation catalysts with successive oxidation and hydrogenation steps at increased temperature to make the intermetallic alloy hydrogenation or oxidation catalysts less susceptible to deactivation by gas impurities, such as hydrogen sulfide; to increase the ability of the hydrogenation and oxidation catalysts to regenerate after sulfur poisoning; and to increase the activity of the hydrogenation and oxidation catalysts to a point close to their original activities after gas impurity poisoning and regeneration. The treatment processes of the present invention are particularly useful for nickel-containing intermetallic alloy hydrogenation catalysts and platinum-containing intermetallic alloy hydrogenation catalysts and best results are obtained for the zirconium/nickel intermetallic alloy hydrogenation catalysts. 23 figs.

Wright, R.B.

1990-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

366

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials. Summary: ... Hydrogen is promoted as petroleum replacement in the Hydrogen Economy. ...

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

369

Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

Yusibani, Elin [Research Center for Hydrogen Industrial Use and Storage, AIST (Japan); Department of Physics, Universitas Syiah Kuala (Indonesia); Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

370

Storing Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Reaction Behavior of Sulfides Associated with Stibnite in Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this research, we aim at the behavior of sulfides involved PbS, Cu2S, Bi2S3 and FeS2 in Na2CO3-NaCl molten salt, using XRD and TG-DTA methods based

372

Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

Ali T-Raissi

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fusion energy for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrogen Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A A H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Margaret K. Mann DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. H2A Charter * H2A mission: Improve the transparency and consistency of approach to analysis, improve the understanding of the differences among analyses, and seek better validation from industry. * H2A was supported by the HFCIT Program H2A History * First H2A meeting February 2003 * Primary goal: bring consistency & transparency to hydrogen analysis * Current effort is not designed to pick winners - R&D portfolio analysis - Tool for providing R&D direction * Current stage: production & delivery analysis - consistent cost methodology & critical cost analyses * Possible subsequent stages: transition analysis, end-point

375

Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

376

Hydrogen: Fueling the Future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen storage will be highlighted in this seminar.

Leisch, Jennifer

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

377

FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production:...

378

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,”and James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Movingof Energy, National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, November 2002.

Ogden, Joan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hydrogen SRNL Connection  

hydrogen storage. Why is Savannah River National Laboratory conducting hydrogen research and development? ... Both the Department of Energy’s hydrogen ...

382

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on...

383

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap...

384

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen...

385

Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Objectives - Develop and verify: On-board hydrogen storage systems achieving: 1.5 kWhkg (4.5 wt%), 1.2 kWhL, and 6kWh by 2005 2 kWhkg (6 wt%), 1.5 kWhL, and 4kWh by...

386

Measurement and Calculation of Electrochemical Potentials in Hydrogenated High Temperature Water, including an Evaluation of the Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia/Iron-Iron Oxide (Fe/Fe3O4) Probe as Reference Electrode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The importance of knowing the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP, also referred to as E{sub con}) of nickel-base alloys in hydrogenated water is related to the need to understand the effects of dissolved (i.e., aqueous) hydrogen concentration ([H{sub 2}]) on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Also, the use of a reference electrode (RE) can improve test quality by heightening the ability to detect instances of out-of-specification or unexpected chemistry. Three methods are used to measure and calculate the ECP of nickel-based alloys in hydrogenated water containing {approx} 1 to 150 scc/kg H{sub 2} (0.1 to 13.6 ppm H{sub 2}) at 260 to 360 C. The three methods are referred to as the specimen/component method, the platinum (Pt) method, and the yttria-stabilized zirconia/iron-iron oxide (YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) RE method. The specimen/component method relies upon the assumption that the specimen or component behaves as a hydrogen electrode, and its E{sub corr} is calculated using the Nernst equation. The present work shows that this method is valid for aqueous H{sub 2} levels {ge} {approx} 5 to 10 scc/kg H{sub 2}. The Pt method uses a voltage measurement between the specimen or component and a Pt electrode, with the Pt assumed to behave as a hydrogen electrode; this method is valid as long as the aqueous H{sub 2}level is known. The YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which represents a relatively new approach for measuring E{sub corr} in this environment, can be used even if the aqueous H{sub 2} level is unknown. The electrochemical performance of the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} probe supports its viability as a RE for use in high temperature hydrogenated water. Recent design modifications incorporating a teflon sealant have improved the durability of this RE (however, some of the REs do still fail prematurely due to water in-leakage). The Pt method is judged to represent the best overall approach, though there are cases where the other methods are superior. For example, the specimen/component method provides the simplest approach for calculating the E{sub corr} of plant components, and the YSZ/Fe-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} RE method provides the best approach if the H{sub 2} level is unknown, or in off-nominal chemistry conditions. The present paper describes the use of these methods to determine the ECP of a specimen or component versus the ECP of the nickel/nickel oxide (Ni/NiO) phase transition, which is important since prior work has shown that this parameter (ECP-ECP{sub Ni/NiO}) can be used to assess aqueous H{sub 2} effects on PWSCC.

Steven A. Attanasio; David S. Morton; Mark A. Ando

2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

387

Impact of three different TiO2 morphologies on hydrogen evolution by methonal assisted water-splitting: nanoparticles, nanotubes and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-splitting: nanoparticles, nanotubes and aerogels. (published in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36, 22 (2011, nanotubes and aerogels. These materials have shown different behaviours depending on both their composition of the samples (nanotubes or aerogels). Among all the tested samples, the TiO2 aerogel supported Pt one exhibited

388

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a woman scientist using a machine that is purifying biological catalysts for hydrogen production. Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth. A hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron. It is also the most plentiful element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as a gas on Earth. It is always combined with other elements. Water, for example, is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is also found in many organic compounds, notably the "hydrocarbons" that make up fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane. To generate electricity using hydrogen, pure hydrogen must first be

389

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

government interests, a variety of vendors, and numerous utilities. Keywords: Hydrogen production, natural gas, costs Purpose Assess progress toward the 2005 DOE Hydrogen...

390

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Futures Simulation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hydrogen scenarios will affect carbon and other environmental effluents and U.S. oil import requirements Outputs: Delivered hydrogen costs (cost per gallon of gas...

391

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project ID: 273 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

392

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project ID: 268 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

393

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Electrolytic Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Principal Investigator Projects by Date U.S. Department of Energy Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Project Summary Full Title: Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production:...

394

Process for the thermochemical production of hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen is thermochemically produced from water in a cycle wherein a first reaction produces hydrogen iodide and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 by the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water under conditions which cause two distinct aqueous phases to be formed, i.e., a lighter sulfuric acid-bearing phase and a heavier hydrogen iodide-bearing phase. After separation of the two phases, the heavier phase containing most of the hydrogen iodide is treated, e.g., at a high temperature, to decompose the hydrogen iodide and recover hydrogen and iodine. The H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is pyrolyzed to recover sulfur dioxide and produce oxygen.

Norman, John H. (La Jolla, CA); Russell, Jr., John L. (La Jolla, CA); Porter, II, John T. (Del Mar, CA); McCorkle, Kenneth H. (Del Mar, CA); Roemer, Thomas S. (Cardiff, CA); Sharp, Robert (Del Mar, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Surface Segregation in a PdCu Alloy Hydrogen Separation Membrane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separation of hydrogen from mixed gas streams is an important step for hydrogen generation technologies, including hydrocarbon reforming and coal/biomass gasification. Dense palladium-based membranes have received significant attention for this application because of palladium’s ability to dissociatively adsorb molecular hydrogen at its surface for subsequent transport of hydrogen atoms through its bulk. Alloying palladium with minor components, like copper, has been shown to improve both the membrane’s structural characteristics and resistance to poisoning of its catalytic surface [1]. Surface segregation—a composition difference between the bulk material and its surface—is common in alloys and can affect important surface processes. Rational design of alloy membranes requires that surface segregation be understood, and possibly controlled. In this work, we examine surface segregation in a polycrystalline Pd70Cu30 hydrogen separation membrane as a function of thermal treatment and adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.

Miller, J.B.; Matranga, C.S.; Gellman, A.J.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

397

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production from Wind  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from Wind from Wind Project Summary Full Title: Well-to-Wheels Case Study: Distributed Hydrogen Production from Wind Project ID: 216 Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Keywords: Wind; hydrogen production; well-to-wheels (WTW); fuel cell vehicles (FCV); electrolysis Purpose Provide well-to-wheels energy use and emissions data on a potential pathway for producing hydrogen from wind via distributed water electrolysis. This data was used in developing the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Posture Plan. Performer Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Organization: DOE/EERE/HFCIT Address: 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Telephone: 202-586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Additional Performers: Margaret Mann, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory

399

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Centralized Hydrogen Production from Wind  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wind Wind Project Summary Full Title: Well-to-Wheels Case Study: Centralized Hydrogen Production from Wind Project ID: 214 Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Keywords: Wind; hydrogen production; well-to-wheels (WTW); fuel cell vehicles (FCV); electrolysis Purpose Provide well-to-wheels energy use and emissions data on a potential pathway for producing hydrogen from wind via centralized water electrolysis. This data was used in developing the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Posture Plan. Performer Principal Investigator: Fred Joseck Organization: DOE/EERE/HFCIT Address: 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Telephone: 202-586-7932 Email: Fred.Joseck@ee.doe.gov Additional Performers: Margaret Mann, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Michael Wang, Argonne National Laboratory

400

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Biological Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Sciences Biological Sciences NREL's biological scientists conduct research on microorganisms-such as photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae-and are discovering new ways to produce hydrogen and valuable reduced-carbon compounds. We are studying how, through photosynthesis, green algae and cyanobacteria can split water to produce hydrogen, and how, through fermentation, bacteria can produce hydrogen from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. Photobiological Water Splitting Image of two green ovals with two yellow strands at the bottom of each oval. Microscopic view of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Microorganisms, like green algae and cyanobacteria, can produce hydrogen by splitting water through a process called "biophotolysis" or "photobiological hydrogen production." This photosynthetic pathway produces

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

New High Performance Water Vapor Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Balance of Plant Efficiency and Lower Costs (SBIR Phase I) - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Earl H. Wagener (Primary Contact), Brad P. Morgan, Jeffrey R. DiMaio Tetramer Technologies L.L.C. 657 S. Mechanic St. Pendleton, SC 29670 Phone: (864) 646-6282 Email: earl.wagener@tetramertechnologies.com DOE Manager HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0006172 Project Start Date: June 17, 2011 Project End Date: March 16, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Demonstrate water vapor transport membrane with * >18,000 gas permeation units (GPU) Water vapor membrane with less than 20% loss in * performance after stress tests Crossover leak rate: <150 GPU * Temperature Durability of 90°C with excursions to * 100°C Cost of <$10/m

402

Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

403

On-site production of electrolytic hydrogen for generator cooling  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen produced by water electrolysis could be cost effective over the merchant hydrogen used for generator cooling. Advanced water electrolyzers are being developed specifically for this utility application. These designs are based on solid-polymer-electrolyte and alkaline water electrolysis technologies. This paper describes the status of electrolyzer development and demonstration projects.

Mehta, B.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Process for forming hydrogen and other fuels utilizing magma  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a method for extracting hydrogen from magma and water by injecting water from above the earth's surface into a pocket of magma and extracting hydrogen produced by the water-magma reaction from the vicinity of the magma.

Galt, John K. (Albuquerque, NM); Gerlach, Terrence M. (Albuquerque, NM); Modreski, Peter J. (Albuquerque, NM); Northrup, Jr., Clyde J. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sulfide ceramics in molten-salt electrolyte batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sulfide ceramics are finding application in the manufacture of advanced batteries with molten salt electrolyte. Use of these ceramics as a peripheral seal component has permitted development of bipolar Li/FeS{sub 2} batteries. This bipolar battery has a molten lithium halide electrolyte and operates at 400 to 450C. Initial development and physical properties evaluations indicate the ability to form metal/ceramic bonded seal (13-cm ID) components for use in high-temperature corrosive environments. These sealants are generally CaAl{sub 2}S{sub 4}-based ceramics. Structural ceramics (composites with oxide or nitride fillers), highly wetting sealant formulations, and protective coatings are also being developed. Sulfide ceramics show great promise because of their relatively low melting point, high-temperature viscous flow, chemical stability, high-strength bonding, and tailored coefficients of thermal expansion. Our methodology of generating laminated metal/ceramic pellets (e.g., molybdenum/sulfide ceramic/molybdenum) with which to optimize materials formulation and seal processing is described.

Kaun, T.D.; Hash, M.C.; Simon, D.R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Nuclear Research Advanced Nuclear Research Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology FY 2003 Programmatic Overview Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Henderson/2003 Hydrogen Initiative.ppt 2 Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Program Goal * Demonstrate the economic commercial-scale production of hydrogen using nuclear energy by 2015 Need for Nuclear Hydrogen * Hydrogen offers significant promise for reduced environmental impact of energy use, specifically in the transportation sector * The use of domestic energy sources to produce hydrogen reduces U.S. dependence on foreign oil and enhances national security * Existing hydrogen production methods are either inefficient or produce

408

Modeling Hydrogen Sulfide Adsorption by Activated Carbon made from Anaerobic Digestion By-product.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biogas, produced from anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, is an attractive alternative energy source as it is rich in methane. However, it is necessary to… (more)

Ho, Natalie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17571765 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

directly, as in a traditional H , 23.1% CO, 5.8% CO , 6.6% H O, 0.5% H S, and2 2 2 2 coal-fired power plant was activated using coal-fired power plants. With improved gas turbine tech- steam by replacing the N flow temperature was examined as a2 function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal

Cal, Mark P.

410

Cost of meeting geothermal hydrogen sulfide emission regulations. [DOW, EIC, Stretford, and iron catalyst processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

H{sub 2}S emission abatement processes considered feasible for control of airborne emissions included two upstream and two downstream treatment techniques. From literature describing the technical aspects of the processes, individual treatment cost functions were developed. These functions were then used to estimate the range of costs that may be encountered when controlling H{sub 2}S emissions to meet given standards. Treatment costs include estimates of certain fixed charges and overheads that normally apply to long lived capital investment projects of similar nature. Continuing experience with control technology for H{sub 2}S abatement indicates process application may have a significant impact on the total cost of geothermal electricity at sites with H{sub 2}S concentrations in excess of 50 ppM{sub w}. Approximately four sites of the 38 USGS high temperature hydrothermal systems fall into this category. At Baca, New Mexico the cost of controlling H{sub 2}S emissions was estimated to be 5.5 mills per kWh. Calculations were based on a 50 MWe flashed steam plant using the Stretford-Peroxide combination of processes to achieve 99% abatement.

Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Weakley, S.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence of Sulfite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

citnlc lmsM cobdt citntq rrc rulfitq pH 7.t. Squrro: l0mM ofWackenrodcr's Scction 4.4),but rrc doubtthis wassignificant.

Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence of Sulfite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorption becn is with havc correlated the LIV (ChenOH - end mtwulfidcs havc bcen -duliguc (1972), andt9? t) and ludi$ (1979) havc applicdrhis informationto

Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

PERGAMON Carbon 38 (2000) 17671774 High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.e. an activation energy is required for chemi- cal adsorption to occur and once that energy is supplied and gas-phase regeneration experiments were [1] Cal MP, Strickler BW, Lizzio AA. High temperature hydro, PA: US Department of Energy/Federal removal requirement set at one of the DOE's IGCC plants. Energy

Cal, Mark P.

414

Hydrogen as a fuel  

SciTech Connect

A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen ...  

... methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more ...

416

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode  

combination of biomass and earth-abundant metals has resulted in a durable catalyst for splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen, which can be used as ...

417

Evaluation of Hydrogen Generation from Radiolysis from Breached Spent Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ionizing radiation from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can cause radiolytic decomposition of water and generation of hydrogen. Factors affecting hydrogen production include the type of radiation (alpha, gamma, and neutron), the radiation (alpha, gamma, and neutron), the linear energy transfer (LET) rates from the radiation, the water chemistry and dissolved gases, and physical conditions such as temperature and pressure. A review of the mechanisms for the radiolytic generation of hydrogen applicable to breached SNF has been performed. A qualitative evaluation of the potential for generation of hydrogen in the pure water used in water-filled shipping casks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is made.

Vinson, D.W.

2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

418

Permanent magnet hydrogen oxygen generating cells  

SciTech Connect

A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.

Harris, M.

1976-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

419

Improved Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation of the Nanostructured ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The kinetics of H-absorption/desorption is improved in the refined ... Ammonia Borane for Chemical Hydrogen Storage: Effect of Nano-Confinement ... High Water Diffusivity in Low Hydration Plasma-Polymerised Proton Exchange Membranes.

420

Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water hydrogen sulfide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Energy Basics: Microhydropower Water Conveyance and Filters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydropower Large-Scale Hydropower Microhydropower Water Conveyance &...

422

THE WEATHERING OF A SULFIDE OREBODY: SPECIATION AND FATE OF SOME POTENTIAL CONTAMINANTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb and Zn have been remobilized by the weathering of a sulfide orebody that was only partially mined at Leona Heights, California. As a result, this body has both natural and anthropogenically modified weathering profiles only 500 m apart. The orebody is located in a heavily urbanized area in suburban Oakland, and directly affects water quality in at least one stream by producing acidic conditions and relatively high concentrations of dissolved elements (e.g., {approx}500 mg/L Cu, {approx}3700 mg/L Zn). Micrometric-scale mineralogical investigations were performed on the authigenic metal-bearing phases (less than 10 {mu}m in size) using electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mXAS), scanning X-ray diffraction (mSXRD) and scanning X-ray fluorescence (mSXRF) mapping techniques. Those measurements were coupled with classical mineralogical laboratory techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Authigenic metal-bearing phases identified are mainly sulfates (jarosite, epsomite, schwertmannite), Fe (oxy-)hydroxides (goethite, hematite and poorly crystalline Fe products) and poorly crystalline Mn (hydr-)oxides. Sulfates and Fe (oxy-)hydroxides are the two main secondary products at both sites, whereas Mn (hydr-) oxides were only observed in the samples from the non-mining site. In these samples, the various trace elements show different affinities for Fe or Mn compounds. Lead is preferentially associated with Mn (hydr-)oxides and As with Fe (oxy-)hydroxides or sulfates. Copper association with Mn and Fe phases is questionable, and the results obtained rather indicate that Cu is present as individual Cu-rich grains (Cu hydroxides). Some ochreous precipitates were found at both sites and correspond to a mixture of schwertmannite, goethite and jarosite containing some potentially toxic trace elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the trace element distribution and relative abundance of the unweathered sulfides, this orebody still represents a significant reservoir of potential contaminants for the watershed, especially in the non-mining site, as a much greater proportion of sulfides is left to react and because of the lower porosity in this site.

Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Grosbois, Cecile; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Beny, Jean Michel; Foster, Andrea L.

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

423

Economics and market potential of hydrogen production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was undertaken to evaluate the economics of producing hydrogen from coal and from water and to assess the market potential for this hydrogen in chemical and fuel applications. Results of this study are summarized. Current chemical applications of hydrogen in manufacturing ammonia and methanol, in refining petroleum and in specialty uses provide a base market for penetration by new hydrogen production technologies, although prospects for the use of hydrogen in fuel applications remain unclear. Electrolysis and coal gasification will be complementary, not competitive, technologies for producing hydrogen. Coal gasification plants are better suited to production of large quantities of hydrogen, while electrolyzers are better suited to the production of hydrogen for small-scale uses. Hydrogen produced through coal gasification may be economical in chemical applications (e.g., ammonia production) by the late 1990's. Development programs now underway are expected to provide new coal gasification technologies with lower first costs and higher efficiencies than current technologies. An on-site coal gasification plant supplying hydrogen in the quantities usually required in chemical applications (from 10 to 100 million cubic feet per day) will be smaller than is generally proposed for syngas plants. Growth in smaller scale specialty uses of hydrogen and improvements in the technology for electrolysis will create conditions favorable to expanded use of hydrogen produced through water electrolysis. The major constraint on use of electrolysis will be the availability of low cost electricity. Shortages of natural gas caused by declining domestic production could induce shifts to producing hydrogen through electrolysis or through coal gasification earlier in time (i.e., the late 1980's or early 1990's) than is suggested by comparative cost calculations alone.

Not Available

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Economics and market potential of hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to evaluate the economics of producing hydrogen from coal and from water and to assess the market potential for this hydrogen in chemical and fuel applications. Results of this study are summarized. Current chemical applications of hydrogen in manufacturing ammonia and methanol, in refining petroleum and in specialty uses provide a base market for penetration by new hydrogen production technologies, although prospects for the use of hydrogen in fuel applications remain unclear. Electrolysis and coal gasification will be complementary, not competitive, technologies for producing hydrogen. Coal gasification plants are better suited to production of large quantities of hydrogen, while electrolyzers are better suited to the production of hydrogen for small-scale uses. Hydrogen produced through coal gasification may be economical in chemical applications (e.g., ammonia production) by the late 1990's. Development programs now underway are expected to provide new coal gasification technologies with lower first costs and higher efficiencies than current technologies. An on-site coal gasification plant supplying hydrogen in the quantities usually required in chemical applications (from 10 to 100 million cubic feet per day) will be smaller than is generally proposed for syngas plants. Growth in smaller scale specialty uses of hydrogen and improvements in the technology for electrolysis will create conditions favorable to expanded use of hydrogen produced through water electrolysis. The major constraint on use of electrolysis will be the availability of low cost electricity. Shortages of natural gas caused by declining domestic production could induce shifts to producing hydrogen through electrolysis or through coal gasification earlier in time (i.e., the late 1980's or early 1990's) than is suggested by comparative cost calculations alone.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

Janecky, D.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Lithium Super-Ionic Sulfide Carbon (LiSISC) Composite for Li-S ...  

Lithium Super-Ionic Sulfide Carbon (LiSISC) Composite for Li-S Batteries Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing ...

427

EXTRACTION OF HEXAVALENT PLUTONIUM FROM AQUEOUS ACIDIC SOLUTIONS WITH ETHYL SULFIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for extracting Pu>s6/sup > /om an aqueous ammonium nitrate-containing nitric acid solution with ethyl sulfide.

Seaborg, G.T.

1961-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Storage Printable Version Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power...

430

FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: The...

431

MSW to hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the preparation and conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen by gasification and purification. The laboratory focus will be on pretreatment of MSW waste in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. Initial pretreatment approaches include (1) hydrothermal processing at saturated conditions around 300 C with or without chemical/pH modification and (2) mild dry pyrolysis with subsequent incorporation into an appropriate slurry. Initial experiments will be performed with newspaper, a major constituent of MSW, prior to actual work with progressively more representative MSW samples. Overall system modeling with special attention to energy efficiency and waste water handling of the pretreatment process will provide overall guidance to critical scale-up parameters. Incorporation of additional feed stock elements (e.g., heavy oil) will be evaluated subject to the heating value, viscosity, and economics of the MSW optimal slurry for hydrogen production. Ultimate scale-up of the optimized process will provide sufficient material for demonstration in the Texaco pilot facility; additional long term objectives include more detailed economic analysis of the process as a function of technical parameters and development of a measure/control system to ensure slagging ash for variable MSW feed stocks. Details of the overall project plan and initial experimental and modeling results are presented.

Pasternak, A.D.; Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B.; Wallman, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Richter, G.N.; Wolfenbarger, J.K. [Texaco Inc., Montebello, CA (United States). Montebello Research Lab.

1994-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

432

Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for H2 Production (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Photoelectrochemical Water Systems for Hydrogen Production presentation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's John Turner was given at the DOE Hydrogen Program's 2007 Annual Merit Review.

Turner, J. A.; Deutsch, T.; Head, J.; Vallett, P.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based S