Sample records for water heating research

  1. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating...

  2. Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap Emerging Water Heating Technologies Research & Development Roadmap The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging...

  3. Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap Water Heating Technologies Research and Development Roadmap This roadmap establishes a set of high-priority RD&D...

  4. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  5. Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant...

  6. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP FOR WATER HEATING TECHNOLOGIES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Navigant Consulting, Inc. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ROADMAP FOR WATER HEATING TECHNOLOGIES Prepared for: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Subcontract Number 4000093134...

  7. Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

  8. Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

  9. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  10. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  11. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  12. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  13. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  14. Earth-Coupled Water-Source Heat Pump Research, Design and Applications in Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.; Klimkowski, H.; Baker, F. E.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An earth-coupled water-source heat pump uses the earth as the thermal source and sink for economical, energy efficient, space heating and cooling. Water exiting the heat pump passes through an earth heat exchanger, which is a closed loop of plastic...

  15. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  16. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  17. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  18. Utility solar water heating workshops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, L.B. [Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  20. Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Building America Program is hosting a no-cost, webinar-based training on Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems. The webinar will focus the effective use of central heat pump water heaters...

  1. Energy-efficient water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating »

  3. Recovery Act-Funded Water Heating Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy was allocated funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to conduct research into water heating technologies and applications. Projects funded by the...

  4. Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to...

  5. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rcul2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERSJune 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS*

  6. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  7. A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J. (2012). Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based, presenting an energy-saving opportunity for homeowners. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

  8. Solar Water Heating Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beginning in the fall of 2003, Energy Trust of Oregon's Solar Water Heating (SWH) Incentive Program offers incentives to customers of Pacific Power, PGE, NW Natural Gas and Cascade Natural Gas who...

  9. Solar Water Heating Webinar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Weatherization Assistance Program Pilot Projects Solar Water Heating Webinar Solar Water Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)...

  10. NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

  11. Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop on Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Thursday, October 9, 2014 List of Attendees OrganizationAttendees DOE - John Cymbalsky - Ashley Armstrong - Johanna...

  12. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  13. Modern hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Barnes, M.H.; Kadrmas, C.; Nyman, H.O.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of district heating in Europe is drastically different from that in the United States. The development of district heating in northern and eastern Europe started in the early 1950s. Hot water rather than steam was used as the transport medium and the systems have proven to be more economical. Recently, the northern European concept has been introduced into two US cities - St. Paul and Willmar, Minnesota. The hot water project in St. Paul started construction and operation in the summer and fall of 1983, respectively. The entire first phase of the St. Paul project will take two summers to construct and will connect approximately 80 buildings for a total of 150 MW(t). The system spans the entire St. Paul business district and includes privately owned offices and retail buildings, city and county government buildings, hospitals, the state Capitol complex, and several industrial customers. The City of Willmar, Minnesota, replaced an old steam system with a modern hot water system in the summer of 1982. The first phase of the hot water system was constructed in the central business district. The system serves a peak thermal load of about 10 MW(t) and includes about 12,000 ft of network. The Willmar system completed the second stage of development in the fall of 1983. These two new systems demonstrate the benefits of the low-temperature hot water district heating technology. The systems are economical to build, have high reliability, and have low maintenance and operating cost.

  14. Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Heating Requirements ­ Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5.1.1 Water Heating Energy Water heating energy use is an important end use in low-rise residential buildings. Roughly 90 percent of California households use natural gas fueled water heaters, typically storage gas

  15. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  16. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.V. Lapsa. 2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)Calwell. 2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) Development2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiencyfor Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters Installed in

  18. THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, Atila

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

  19. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to solve these problems through research, education, and technology transfer activities. The objectives, and technology transfer are required; + assure recognition of capabilities of water resources research in support of that research. Research Program #12;Temperature Effects of Streambed Heating Basic Information

  20. Valley Electric Association- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA...

  1. EWEB- Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of...

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentJ. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into The2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

  3. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  4. Santa Clara Water and Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

  5. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  6. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar...

  7. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  8. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States...

  9. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heaters Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal...

  10. Water-loop heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, C.; Hydeman, M. (Eley (Charles) Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-loop heat pump (WLHP) systems are reliable, versatile, energy-efficient alternatives to conventional systems such as packaged rooftop or central chiller systems. These systems offer low installed costs, unparalleled design flexibility, and an inherent ability to recover heat in a variety of commercial and multifamily residential buildings for both new construction and retrofit markets. Southern California Edison Co. (SCE) teamed with EPRI to develop a comprehensive design guide for WLHP systems that incorporated recent research by EPRI, SCE, and others. The project team reviewed current literature, equipment data, and design guidelines from equipment manufacturers. They next discussed design and application practices with consulting engineers as well as design and building contractors. The team also ran extensive computer simulations on commercial and multifamily residential building models for Southern California, both to determine the sensitivity of energy use to WLHP system design parameters and to establish optimal design parameters. This information culminated in a comprehensive engineering guide. Volume 1 of this report, provides step-by-step technical design data for selection, application, and specification of WLHP systems. This guide emphasizes energy-efficient design principles and incorporates the findings of the computer simulations and research. For example, it recommends lowering the loop temperature in buildings dominated by internal loads. Reducing the loop temperature from 90 to 80[degrees]F provides a 7--10% savings in the total system energy in Southern California climate areas. Other recommendations include (1) installing a cooling tower with a propeller fan, which uses one fourth to one third of the energy of a cooling tower with a centrifugal fan; and (2) incorporating variable-speed pumps in conjunction with two-position valves in the heat pumps to reduce the system pump energy use by up to 50%.

  11. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

  12. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of transportation, urban blight, agricultural practices, land use, etc. Water resources problems often result fromWATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING formulate sound policy without a good deal of knowledge not presently available. Without adequate models

  13. Water Heating Requirements – Overview Page 5-1 5. Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    . Electric heat pump water heaters, however, are closer to the efficiency of typical gas systems, because

  14. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an example of the reconstruction of a hot water heating system, this paper provides an analysis and comparison of the operations of hot water heating systems, including supply water temperature adjustment, flow adjustment during each...

  15. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

  16. Direct-Contact Process Water Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, M. R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the manufacturing processes utilizing direct steam injection from process boilers to a hot water storage tank. Although the boiler plant was in fair operating condition, the boilers were over 30 years old and had measured seasonal heating efficiencies of 60... water heater. Since the new system was better matched to the plant load, energy savings occurred as a result of the new systems reduced input capacity and higher efficiency. This project, which can be duplicated in other industries with facility...

  17. Building America Standing Technical Committee- Water Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America program is focused on delivering market acceptable energy efficiency solutions to homeowners, builders, and contractors. Near term goals of 30-50% source energy savings are currently targeted. This document examines water heating gaps and barriers, and is updated as of Feb. 2012.

  18. artificially heated waters: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other...

  19. A stock water solar heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nydahl, J.; Carlson, B.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the progress in the development of an inexpensive but rugged solar system to heat stock water. Insulation encased in fiber reinforced concrete is the main structural component for the collector and the partition between the unheated stock tank and the heated section. A fully wetted, drain-back collector was designed to produce a high optical efficiency and to permit its water passage to be opened for cleaning. A unique double-glazed design is used in which the inner glazing is a film with a large thermal expansion coefficient. This causes a significant drop in the stagnation temperatures since a single glazed configuration is approached at high temperatures. The collector and the partially covered insulated tank prevented freezing, and held the average water temperature at 6.4 C (44 F) during the day while the mean daily ambient temperature was {minus}5.4 C (22 F) over a nine day test.

  20. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  1. High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail August 19, 2010 - 12:05pm Addthis The Blaine County Public Safety Facility...

  2. Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its...

  4. Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and...

  5. NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

  6. INTEGRATED CO2 HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS FOR SPACE HEATING AND HOT WATER HEATING IN LOW-ENERGY HOUSES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    designed as stand-alone systems, i.e. a heat pump water heater (HPWH) in combination with separate units

  7. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  8. Experimental Research of Air Source Heat Pump Frosting and Defrosting in a Double Stage-Coupling Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z.; Gu, J.; Lu, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a double stage-coupling heat pump, comprising an air source and water loop heat pump, the 13~20 ? low temperature water is supplied to the water loop heat pump unit. The water loop heat pump can extract heat from the water and heat the indoor air...

  9. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  10. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  11. Research article Differential expression of heat shock protein genes in preconditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    Research article Differential expression of heat shock protein genes in preconditioning February 2010 Keywords: GRP94 HSP70 Promoter analysis sHSP a b s t r a c t Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are induced not only under heat stress conditions but also under other environmental stresses such as water

  12. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe| Department ofAirTips: ShoppingWater Heating

  13. Overview of DOE-Sponsored Heat Pump Research DOE research activities related to residential and commercial heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Overview of DOE-Sponsored Heat Pump Research DOE research activities related to residential and commercial heat pump technology are supported by the Office of Building Energy Research and Development%) allocated to elec- tric and heat-actuated heat pump research. The remaining 15% is allocated to appliance

  14. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction ABSTRACT The FY 1999 Oregon Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) program included four research projects funded Coastal Lakes: Water Quality Status and Management Implications Based on Nutrient Loading OWRRI sponsored

  15. Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 20131 #12;Introduction The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (PRWRERI) is located

  16. Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 20121 #12;Introduction The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (PRWRERI) is located

  17. Improving Heating System Operations Using Water Re-Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, F.; Han, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to solve the imbalance problem of a heating system, brought about by consumer demand and regulation, and save the electricity energy consumed by a circulation pump, a water mixing and pressure difference control heating system is proposed...

  18. Rock Hill Utilities- Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed...

  19. Hybrid Heat Pumps Using Selective Water Sorbents (SWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, M. R.

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the ground-coupled and air-coupled Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system is essential in meeting the goals of Zero Energy Houses (ZEH), a viable concept vigorously pursued under DOE sponsorship. ORNL has a large Habitat for Humanity complex in Lenoir City where modem buildings technology is incorporated on a continual basis. This house of the future is planned for lower and middle income families in the 21st century. The work undertaken in this CRADA is an integral part of meeting DOE's objectives in the Building America program. SWS technology is a prime candidate for reducing the footprint, cost and improve the performance of ground-coupled heat pumps. The efficacy of this technique to exchange energy with the ground is a topic of immense interest to DOE, builders and HVAC equipment manufacturers. If successful, the SWS concept will become part of a packaged ZEH kit for affordable and high-end houses. Lennox Industries entered into a CRADA with Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 2004. Lennox, Inc. agreed to explore ways of using Selective Water Sorbent materials to boost the efficiency of air-coupled heat pumps whereas ORNL concentrated on ground-coupled applications. Lennox supplied ORNL with heat exchangers and heat pump equipment for use at ORNL's Habitat for Humanity site in Lenoir City, Tennessee. Lennox is focused upon air-coupled applications of SWS materials at the Product Development and Research Center in Carrollton, TX.

  20. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Difference Across the Heater and Water Flow Rate MeasuredDifference Across the Heater and Water Flow Rate Measurednew_specs/downloads/water _heaters/Water_Heater_Market_

  1. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This U.S. Department of Energy Building America webinar, Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems, will take place on January 21, 2015.

  2. Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Site Assessment at Milwaukee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Site Assessment at Milwaukee Apartment Buildings The Midwest Renewable Energy Association's certified site assessors conducted 25 site...

  3. Duquesne Light Company- Residential Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying...

  4. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  5. Fort Pierce Utilities Authority- Solar Water Heating Rebate (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Fort Pierce Utilities Authority has suspended the Solar Water Heating rebate program until 2013. Contact the utility for more information on these offerings.'''''

  6. NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have the potential to significantly reduce energy use in homes compared to traditional electric resistance water heaters. Researchers at the National Renewable

  7. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  8. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction The Florida Water for Wetlands and Water Resources Research in 1995. Historically, since 1964, the WRRC as a separate or combined center has been a university-wide focus for water-resources research and has served as the Water

  9. Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    Keywordscondensation tube, surface modification, waste heat and condensation water recovery techniques is waste heat and condensation water recovery system. Waste heat and condensation water recovery system is one of the most important facilities in power plants. High efficiency waste heat

  10. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (PRWRERI) is one of 54 water research centers objectives of the Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute are (1) to conduct

  11. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Water Resources Research Center of Agriculture and Life Sciences, the University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) has a mission to promote understanding of critical state and regional water management and policy issues through research

  12. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by DOE's Building America program, this webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water distribution.

  13. Building America Webinar: Central Multifamily Water Heating Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to 4:30PM EST This free webinar will focus on the effective use of central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) and control systems to reduce the energy use in hot water...

  14. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Ground-water Flow and Transport Focus Category: Non Point Pollution, Surface Water, Toxic Substances Descriptors: Benthos, Bioindicators, Biomonitoring, Ecosystems, Heavy metals, Insects, Land use, PollutantsWater Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Introduction - Research

  15. Measured Space Conditioning and Water Heating Performance of a Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump in a Residential Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL] [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to reduce residential building energy consumption, a ground-source integrated heat pump was developed to meet a home s entire space conditioning and water heating needs, while providing 50% energy savings relative to a baseline suite of minimum efficiency equipment. A prototype 7.0 kW system was installed in a 344 m2 research house with simulated occupancy in Oak Ridge, TN. The equipment was monitored from June 2012 through January 2013.

  16. 1 CO2 Heat Pump System for Space Heating and Hot Water Heating in Low-Energy Houses and Passive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Stene

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designed as a stand-alone system, i.e. a heat pump water heater in combination with a separate unit for

  17. Heat Transfer Research, 2010, Vol. 41, No. 6 Turbine Aero-Heat Transfer Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    AU TH O R PR O O F Heat Transfer Research, 2010, Vol. 41, No. 6 Turbine Aero-Heat Transfer Studies in Rotating Research Facilities CENGIZ CAMCI Turbomachinery Aero-Heat Transfer Laboratory, Department The present paper deals with the experimental aero-heat transfer studies performed in rotating turbine

  18. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  19. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  20. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  1. Water Technology Research | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Technology Research Wastewater treatment plant Wastewater treatment plant Water is an increasingly valuable natural resource. By identifying typical sources and distribution...

  2. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction WATER PROBLEMS AND ISSUES OF MISSOURI The water problems and issues in the State of Missouri can be separated into three general areas: 1) water quality, 2) water quantity, and 3) water policy. Each of Missouri's specific

  3. Simulation Models for Improved Water Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Simulation of a Smart Water Heater. ” In Workshop inFreezers, Furnaces, Water Heaters, Room and Central AirNovember. ADL. 1982b. Water Heater Computer Model User’s

  4. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  5. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  6. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING . . . July 1973 The final report of the National Water Commission entitled Water Policies for the Future has been issued. Because its con- cluslons -a-rid -re-commend-atlOnsmay have far-reaching effects on water

  7. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING OF THE DIRECTOR . . . April 1973 NEBRASKA AND THE NATIONAL WATER COMMISSION REPORT The National Water Commission grew out of con t r-ovc rey over water resource deve lopment in the Colorado River Basin. Rp

  8. Institute of Water Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . One project entitled "Decision Support System for Natural Resource Planning" (02) was funded transfer, urban water systems, water quality, water quality management, watershed management, wetlands and research program on the development of environmental information systems for environmental decision making

  9. Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane (R290)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    Optimized design of a heat exchanger for an air-to-water reversible heat pump working with propane-to-water reversible heat pump unit was carried out using two different fin-and-tube heat exchanger ``coil'' designs concepts. The performance of the heat pump was evaluated for each coil design at different superheat

  10. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wasteful may be obscured by others such as energy, environment, and quality of life, but in the long run of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water

  11. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for managing valuable water resources in systems with high competitive demands. This management class also-related problems facing the population centers in the mainland U.S. and the world. Water shortages and quality' Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) mainly address research related to water quantity and quality

  12. Experimental Research on Solar Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Z.; Zheng, M.; Liu, W.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assisted Heat Pump Heating System with Latent Heat Storage. In this system, solar energy is the major heat source for a heat pump, and the supplementary heat source is soil. The disagreement in time between the space heat load and heat collected by solar...

  13. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction PROGRAM REPORT FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER FEDERAL GRANT NO. 1434-HQ-96-GRO2663 PERIOD: March 1, 1999 - February 29, 2000 The Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) was re-established as a separate entity from

  14. South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

  15. Southwest Gas Corporation- Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southwest Gas is offering rebates to Nevada customers for solar water heating systems installed in private residential, small business, public and other properties. Rebates are based on the amount...

  16. Beaches Energy Services- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beaches Energy Services offers a solar water heating rebate to their residential customers. This $500 rebate applies to new systems which are properly installed and certified. New construction and...

  17. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  18. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  19. Lake Worth Utilities- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Lake Worth Utilities (CLWU), in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers rebates to customers who purchase and install a solar water heating system for residential use. A...

  20. Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

  1. GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

  2. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  3. Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperatures, heat flow, and water chemistry from drill holes in the Raft River geothermal system, Cassia County, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  4. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  5. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  6. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  7. Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance- Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying...

  8. City of Palo Alto Utilities- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    City of Palo Alto Utilities is offering incentives for their residential, commercial and industrial customers to install solar water heating systems on their homes and facilities with a goal of 1...

  9. Institute of Water Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and ground water protection. One project entitled "Decision Support System for Natural Resource Planning" (02 analysis, technology transfer, urban water systems, water quality, water quality management, watershed) was funded to address these problems and issues. In addition, support for the Institute of Water Research

  10. Florida Sunshine -- Natural Source for Heating Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure, part of the State Energy Program (SEP) Stellar Project series, describes a utility solar hot water program in Lakeland, Florida. It is the first such utility-run solar hot water program in the country.

  11. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    directly replace the existing forced air furnace and water heater, and consist of a high efficiency water heater or boiler and an optimized hydronic air handler. The air handlers...

  12. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of a heat

  13. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEast WingHeat

  14. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  15. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  16. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  17. Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

  18. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources

  19. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  20. Dawdon Mine Water Heat Pump Trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;System re-built Replacement heat exchanger Y-strainer filter installed Flow meter installed ­ strainer filter had to be cleared every couple of days (see photo) System finally failed again in April

  1. WATER RESOURCES NE:BRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    -half. This would require changes in irrigation practices and installation of new types of irrigation systems supplies. Industries use energy to move water through processing systems and to heat and cool waters in the agricultural field is irrigation. During 1973 more than 5 million acres were irrigated in Nebraska with more

  2. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  3. Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanaugh, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical...

  4. Heat transfer to a silicon carbide/water nanofluid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France , D. M.; Smith, D. S.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E. V.; Routbort, J. L.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer experiments were performed with a water-based nanofluid containing 170-nm silicon carbide particles at a 3.7% volume concentration and having potential commercial viability. Heat transfer coefficients for the nanofluid are presented for Reynolds numbers ranging from 3300 to 13,000 and are compared to the base fluid water on the bases of constant Reynolds number, constant velocity, and constant pumping power. Results were also compared to predictions from standard liquid correlations and a recently altered nanofluid correlation. The slip mechanisms of Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis postulated in the altered correlation were investigated in a series of heating and cooling experiments.

  5. Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

  6. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  7. Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related...

  8. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  9. Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project...

  10. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  11. NREL and Industry Advance Low-Cost Solar Water Heating R&D (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL and Rhotech develop cost-effective solar water heating prototype to rival natural gas water heater market.

  12. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  13. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction The Idaho Water an autonomous statewide source of support for water research and training without regard to specific topic soils contain appreciable amounts of active clay minerals and exhibit shrink-swell behavior in response

  14. IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan DYNAMIC MODELING OF AN AIR SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SOURCE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Farouk Fardoun, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH). The mathematical model consists of submodels of the basic countries such as Lebanon, electric water heaters are often used to generate hot water. Electric water

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  16. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  17. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion research funded through two programs: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) funded by the U

  18. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion research funded through two programs: ¨ Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) funded by the U

  19. Piedmont EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Piedmont Electric Membership Corporation is offering a $500 rebate to its residential members who install solar water heaters on their homes. The utility recommends but does not require the system...

  20. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ) Grand Island, Chadron, Oconto, Valentine. NIOBRARA, NEBRASKA--nOVING The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is moving the small tovm of Niobrara, i4ebraska. The town is in danger of flooding by Gavins Point Dam in irrigation water on agriculture throughout Colorado River~s 1,400 mile long system was announced by Secretary

  1. Combined Heat and Power Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    system performance e.g., effect of low-temperature combustion strategies, improved turbo-machinery, etc on process heat production and system efficiency Fuel flexibility...

  2. Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers Webinar on Solar Water Heating Transcript

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording transcript of a Webinar on Nov. 16, 2010 about residential solar water heating applications

  3. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  4. Researching power plant water recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A range of projects supported by NETl under the Innovations for Existing Plant Program are investigating modifications to power plant cooling systems for reducing water loss, and recovering water from the flue gas and the cooling tower. This paper discusses two technologies showing particular promise condense water that is typically lost to evaporation, SPX technologies' Air2Air{sup trademark} condenses water from a cooling tower, while Lehigh University's process condenses water and acid in flue gas. 3 figs.

  5. West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 1 #12;Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute Introduction The West Virginia Water Research Institute (WVWRI) addresses

  6. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging HVAC Technologies This thermoelastic system provides a promising...

  7. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  8. Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Z.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more...

  9. Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

  10. Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium TransferonUS-IndiaVALUE STUDY4,DepartmentDepartment ofWaterWaterHVAC,

  11. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82�ºC (180�ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  12. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of a heatHow aA

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy Completing theWhiz!NRELEnergyLike aHeatThe

  14. Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEastHomesHeat Pump

  15. Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Tech’s new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Tech’s design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

  16. Design of a high temperature hot water central heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, E.L.; Johnson, R.C.; Weaver, J.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the conceptual design of a central heating system at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The resource considered for this heating system design was hot dry rock geothermal energy. Design criteria were developed to ensure reliability of energy supply, to provide flexibility for adaptation to multiple energy resources, to make optimum use of existing equipment and to minimize reinvestment cost. A variable temperature peaking high temperature water system was selected for this purpose.

  17. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL] [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc] [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  18. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  19. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  20. Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWaste Heat Waste Heat -Water Heating Products

  1. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  2. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  3. Heat engine regenerators: Research status and needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapidly oscillating, variable density flows of regenerative heat engines provide a class of poorly understood unsteady flow and heat transfer problems. These problems are not currently amenable to direct experimental resolution. Experiences in engine development and test programs and efforts to develop analysis tools point to the regenerator as a key area of insufficient understanding. Focusing on flow and heat transfer in regenerators, this report discusses similarity parameters for the flows and reviews the experimental data currently available for Stirling analysis. Then a number of experimental results are presented from recent fundamental fluid mechanical and thermal investigations that shed additional light on the functioning of heat engine regenerators. Suggestions are made for approaches for further measurement and analysis efforts.

  4. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Lyne, Christopher T [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  5. Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Puerto Rico Water Resources & Environmetal Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 20111 #12;Introduction The PRWRERI is an integral part of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez. As such, it acts

  6. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion two programs: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) funded by the Department

  7. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion and sustaining the natural environment. The federally supported Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute

  8. Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation and promotion through two programs: Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI)funded by the Department

  9. Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Waters: An Extraordinary Research Capability for Ad ancing Science & Engineering Frontiers will talk about the new supercomputer Blue Waters and its proposed use by the science and engineering of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This system, called Blue Waters, is based on the latest computing

  10. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and explored new ideas to address water problems or expand understanding of water and water-related phenomena of Uranium plumes in groundwater. An on-going project on Uranium contamination is using fish tissue to detect the presence of Uranium and Lead isotopes in the Lower Colorado River. The WRRC also manages a research program

  11. Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews &Appliances Tips:SmartWater

  12. Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of Energy MicrosoftVOLUMEWORKFORCENovember 5, 2014water energyA

  13. Solar Water Heating: SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary ofSmallConfidential,2Cycle Selection andSolar Water

  14. Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated has been developed based on periodic excitation by Joule effect and infrared thermography measurement. It has been applied to measure heat transfer coefficients of water flowing in a round tube

  15. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including residential heat pump water heaters, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. 2 15.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's Optimisation of Air-Water Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    -Water Heat Pumps Ziehl-Abegg SE System boundary Improve Air Flow of Fan Improve System Joachim Dietle.10.2013 Joachim Dietle Optimisation of Air-Water HP's System boundary Air Flow in Heat Pumps V q d p st p P P L fan )( 1 Relevant for cooling or heating! Optimise heat pump: reduce pressure drop increase

  17. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will improve the capability of engineers to design heat pump systems that utilize surface water or standing column wells (SCW) as their heat sources and sinks.

  18. CenterPoint Energy (Gas)- Residential Heating and Hot Water Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy offers gas heating and water heating equipment rebates to its residential customers. Eligible equipment includes furnaces, back-up furnace systems, hydronic heaters, storage...

  19. A Geothermal District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research Park on the NM Tech Campus Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title A...

  20. NREL: Water Power Research - Research Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruck Platooning Testing Photo ofResearch Staff Below is a

  1. THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical energy input that an electric resistance water heater does. However, since the heat pump water heater

  2. Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

  3. Heat Pump Research Center For Environmental Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    & Renewable Energy #12;Spinoff Companies CEEE Organization 3 Board of Visitors Integrated Systems Optimization · Solar Cooling and Solar Decathlon · Water Retention · Plate HX Test Facility · Separate Sensible. Consortium Solar Cooling Efficiency Comparison #12;Preferred Collector Concentrated Photovoltaic

  4. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  5. Creating a Comprehensive Solar Water Heating Deployment Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Focus Marketing Services

    1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  6. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  7. Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkus, P. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Tuluca, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

  8. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and quantity Water quality standards and regulation for Hawaii Pipeline forensics and asset replacement of Hawaii Water Resources Research Center, in the FY2006 reporting period, initiated three new projects under the 104(b) program and renewed funding for a fourth project. Work continued on a 104(g) award

  9. Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt Coupled Model for Heat and Water Transport in a High Level Waste Repository in Salt This report...

  10. Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

    Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads...

  11. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  12. CalHEAT Research and Market Transformation Roadmap for Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    - 8 Work Trucks Work Site Support Tractors - Short Haul/ Regional Class 2b/3 vans/pickup s Class 3 - 8CalHEAT Research and Market Transformation Roadmap for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks Delivering President CALSTART #12;California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center What is Cal

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  14. Field Testing of Pre-Production Prototype Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides and overview of field testing of 18 pre-production prototype residential heat pump water heaters

  15. Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Download presentation slides from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water.

  16. Development and Field Testing of a Hybrid Water Heating and Dehumidification Appliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aaron K. Ball; Chip Ferguson; William Mcdaniel

    standard system is replaced by a Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH), the performance can be increased by 140

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the indirect increase in home heating (and the decrease inincrease the home’s heating load in the heating season (Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  18. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 Oklahoma Water for Sustainable Environments (ISE) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research development of the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located

  19. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Oklahoma Water for Sustainable Environments (ISE) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research development of the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located

  20. Measurement and verification for solar water heating performance contracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, A.; Azerbegi, R.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water heating is a hardware intensive and therefore capital intensive, energy conservation measure. Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) offers a solution to the financing barrier by using third-party funds to install a system, and then paying the financier back out of the energy cost savings over the term of the contract. Measurement and Verification (M and V) of system performance is key to this kind of contract, and for Federal government ESPC projects, measurement and verification of energy cost savings is required by statute. The design of an M and V program has very important implications for customers and project developers alike. This paper presents detailed discussion of solar water heating M and V options developed for the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), but with general application for all solar water heating performance contracting arrangements, public and private. The options described in the paper are: stipulation with inspection; metering; utility bill analysis; and renormalized computer models. In addition to contrasting the cost, benefits and appropriate application of each option, this paper discusses issues common to all options, such as the statistical design of M and V programs. The paper concludes with recommended options based on the size and type of project, the cost of the M and V program, and the allocation of risk between the contracting parties.

  1. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction Research Program #12;MtBE in Groundwater: The Maine Experiment Basic Information Title: MtBE in Groundwater: The Maine Experiment Project, J.M. (2002) The occurrence and persistence of MtBE in groundwater in Windham, Maine, NE FOCUS Conf

  2. A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer Reprinted: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer A unique specimen of gopher snake of pulmocutaneous water loss and heat transfer, no difference was observed between the scale- less animal

  3. NREL: Water Power Research - Webmaster

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruck Platooning Testing Photo ofResearch Staff Below is

  4. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net at the core of a zero-net-energy demonstration home designed to generate enough electricity to also power policy initiatives to advance zero net energy homes as standard practice. #12;As heat pump systems become

  5. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  6. West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 West Virginia;Research Program Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute Introduction The West Virginia Water and the public. Our research program is guided by the West Virginia Advisory Committee for Water Research

  7. Virginia Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Virginia Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2012 1 #12;Introduction The Virginia Water Resources Research-135.7:8). Mission The VWRRC promotes research on practical solutions to water resources problems; provides research

  8. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

    1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

  10. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  11. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

    1983-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  12. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  13. An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the1 water efficiency of a pavement-watering method2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An analysis of pavement heat flux to optimize the1 water efficiency of a pavement-watering method2.hendel@paris.fr)8 9 Preprint version. Uploaded on May 12th , 2014.10 Abstract: Pavement-watering as a technique rarely been conducted. We propose an15 analysis of pavement heat flux at a depth of 5 cm and solar

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  15. Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

  16. Colorado Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction WATER Water Institute Program for FY1999, the Advisory Council on Water Research Policy (ACWRP) for the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute (CWRRI) was activated. The Council held its initial meeting

  17. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2011 1 #12;Introduction Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2011-2012 WATER PROBLEMS AND ISSUES OF MISSOURI The water problems and issues

  18. Effect of the water activities of the heating and the recovery media on1 the apparent heat resistance of Bacillus cereus spores.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the water activities of the heating and the recovery media on1 the apparent heat the water activity of the recovery medium was kept near 1. Reciprocally, the water activity of the14 heating with the same depressors. Lastly, in a third set of experiments, the heating medium and the recovery16 medium

  19. #AskEnergySaver: Home Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNewsEnergy AnsweringWater Heating

  20. Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong, Smart, andThomasWaste Heat WasteEnergy Water

  1. Drain-Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 219Does YourDrain-Water Heat Recovery

  2. West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute Introduction The West Virginia Water Research Institute (WVWRI) addresses is guided by the West Virginia Advisory Committee for Water Research. It includes representatives from

  3. West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute Introduction The West Virginia Water Research Institute (WVWRI) addresses is guided by the West Virginia Advisory Committee for Water Research. It includes representatives from

  4. West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2006 #12;Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute Introduction The West Virginia Water Research Institute (WVWRI program is guided by the West Virginia Advisory Committee for Water Research. It includes representatives

  5. Virginia Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Virginia Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 1 #12;Introduction The Virginia Water Resources Research-135.7:8). Mission The VWRRC provides research and educational opportunities to future water scientists; promotes

  6. D.C. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D.C. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2007 D.C. Water Resources Research of the District of Columbia (DC) Water Resources Research Institute (the Institute) for the period of March 1 relevant water resources research results and transfer information to assist policy makers and residents

  7. Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 1 #12;Introduction The Puerto Rico Water of the Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute are... (1) to conduct research aimed

  8. Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (PRWRERI) is one of 54 water research-242). The general objectives of the Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute are (1

  9. Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute (PRWRERI) is one of 54 water research-242). The general objectives of the Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute are (1

  10. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Oklahoma Water changes to the Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI). OWRRI moved from the Division of the Vice President for Research at Oklahoma State University (OSU) to join the Water Research and Extension

  11. Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I-WATER Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program #12;I-WATER Funding ¤ I-WATER is funded by the National Science Foundation IGERT program ¤ IGERT is NSF's Integrative of the Provost, Office of the Vice President for Research #12;I-WATER: Organizing Concept Water management

  12. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water harvesting are the principal sources of fresh water. Ground water supplies are very limited. WaterVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction The Virgin Islands

  13. A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump SMARTER EUROPE E-world energy & water 2014 Proceedings page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    A Computational Analysis of Smart Timing Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Decisions for Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat pump Jan Treur VU University Amsterdam, Agent Systems be most efficient to use this energy in these periods. For air to water heat pumps a similar issue occurs

  14. Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    , brackish groundwater, produced water, etc.produced water, etc. Advanced treatmentAdvanced treatment Water© Copyright Awwa Research Foundation 2006 Advanced Water Treatment Impacts onAdvanced Water Treatment Impacts on EnergyEnergy--Water LinkagesWater Linkages (The Water Utility Perspective)(The Water

  15. South Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characteristics, along with water age and temperature, are primary factors affecting disinfectant residual decaySouth Dakota Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction South Dakotas Water Resources Research Institutes program is administered through the College of Agricultural

  16. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Oklahoma Water for Sustainable Environments (ISE) at Oklahoma State University continues to promote interdisciplinary, and sustainably developing the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI

  17. Graduate students awarded water research grants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A&M University. The students were awarded up to $5,000 to begin, expand or extend water-related research projects. TWRI received more than 30 applications in response to the request for proposals for the 2006?2007 grants. The institute funds...

  18. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  19. PARAMETER ESTIMATION BASED MODELS OF WATER SOURCE HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ......................................................................................................... 4 2.1. Heat Pump and Chiller Models

  20. Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Heat transfer through a water spray curtain under the effect of a strong radiative source P. Boulet - mail Pascal.Boulet@lemta.uhp-nancy.fr Keywords : heat transfer, radiative transfer, vaporization, convection, water spray Abstract Heat transfer inside a participating medium, made of droplets flowing in gas

  1. Light-Water-Reactor Safety Research Program. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massey, W.E.; Kyger, J.A.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during October, November, and December 1979 on water-reactor-safety problems. The research and development areas covered are: (1) Heat Transfer Coordination for LOCA Research Programs and (2) Transient Fuel Response and Fission-Product Release. 29 refs., 39 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction The Environmental Institute (EI) at Oklahoma State University promotes interdisciplinary environmental research developing the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute, located within the EI

  3. Anisotropic Heat and Water Transport in a PEFC Cathode Gas Diffusion Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reaction ORR in the cathode CL to recombine with oxygen and producing water and waste heat. Despite amount of waste heat as it does electric power output. Furthermore, PEFCs tolerate only a small

  4. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

  5. All-glass vacuum tube collector heat transfer model used in forced-circulation solar water heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiyong; Chen, Chao; Luo, Hailiang; Zhang, Ye; Xue, Yaning [College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to establish the heat transfer model of all-glass vacuum tube collector used in forced-circulation solar water heating system. In this model, the simplified heat transfer of collector is composed of the natural convection in single glass tube and forced flow in manifold header. Thus the heat balance equation of water in single tube and the heat balance equation of water in manifold header have been established. The flow equation is also built by analyzing the friction and buoyancy in tube. Through solved these equations the relationship between the collector average temperature, the outlet temperature and natural convection flow rate have been obtained. From this relationship and energy balance equation of collector, the collector outlet temperature can be calculated. The validated experiments of this model were carried out in winter of Beijing. (author)

  6. West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 1 #12;Introduction The West Virginia Water Research Institute with industry, government agencies, academia and the public. Water is one of West Virginia's most precious

  7. West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 1 #12;Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute The West. Introduction Water is one of West Virginia's most precious resources. It is essential for life and our economic

  8. West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 1 #12;Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute The West. Introduction Water is one of West Virginia's most precious resources. It is essential for life and our economic

  9. West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 West Virginia Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 1 #12;Introduction West Virginia Water Research Institute The West. Introduction Water is one of West Virginia's most precious resources. It is essential for life and our economic

  10. Alabama Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alabama Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Alabama Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 1 #12;Introduction The Alabama Water Resources Research with the newly created Auburn University Water Resources Center (AU-WRC), and in 2008 it was designated as part

  11. Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 1 #12;Introduction The Puerto Rico Water of Puerto Rico. The Institute is one of 54 water research centers established throughout the United States

  12. Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 1 #12;Introduction The Puerto Rico Water of Puerto Rico. The Institute is one of 54 water research centers established throughout the United States

  13. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water-based nanofluids at low pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In this ...

  14. Retrofit Integrated Space & Water Heating: Field Assessment, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. The system's installed costs were cheaper than installing a condensing furnace and either a condensing tankless or condensing storage water heater. However, combi costs must mature and be reduced before they are competitive with a condensing furnace and power vented water heater (EF of 0.60). Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  15. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tributaries for their water sources continue to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state manyTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2007 1 #12;Introduction Water Resources Issues and Problems

  16. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tributaries for their water sources continue to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state manyTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction Water Resources Issues

  17. D.C. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    projects that address the three components of integrated urban water system: storm water runoff and sewer developing and maintaining new environmental quality testing and modeling tools to advance water researchD.C. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 D.C. Water Resources

  18. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  19. The origins of water research at UA trace back to 1957 when the Institute of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    water centers on campus with the infusion of funds from the state Technology and Research Initiative

  20. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  1. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships development. (2) Water Pollution and Water Quality Control - Nonpoint Source Pollution Definition: Degradation of water quality from nonpoint source pollution. (3) Water Use Efficiency Definition: Minimize water use

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water supply for multi-unit residential high rise of a project/report". #12;2 Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water) for effective capture of heat from waste grey water. Calculations for energy, dollar and GHG savings were made

  3. Hot Water Heating System Operation and Energy Conservation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Z.; Chen, H.; Wei, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heating period, and temperature-flow adjustment with frequency control. The study shows the most energy efficient operating method is a variable flow heating system, which should be popularized to the heating field....

  4. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Including. May,pump technology to extract heat from the surrounding air (air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs. Introduction A heat pump

  5. Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services,...

  6. Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

  7. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    source and cooling water overall (in comparison with normal system 15% of energy saving) -Adopt large-scale ice heat storage system and realize equalization of electricity load -Adopt turbo chiller and heat recovery facilities as high efficiency heat... screw heat pump - 838MJ/? 1 IHP/Water source screw heat pump (Ice storage and heat recovery) Cool water? 3,080MJ/h Ice Storage? 1,936MJ/h Cool water heat recovery? 3,606MJ/h Ice storage heat recovery? 2,448MJ/h 8Unit ?16? TR1 Water cooling turbo...

  8. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heaterds, solar water heaters, combined solar space/watermarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewableheaters, combined space heating and water heating appliances 3 , solar

  9. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  10. State of Washington Water Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Fifth Research Category: Ground-water Flow and Transport Focus Category: Non Point Pollution, Water Quality, Hydrogeochemistry Descriptors: Non-point pollutants, lindane, triallate, pesticides, water agricultural mass discharges using enviro

  11. New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and ground water aquifers. Sae-Khow and her advisor developed a microscale solid phase extraction methodNew Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction The New Jersey Water

  12. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the islands' geology. Rain water harvesting is required by law and serves as the principal water sourceVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2009 1 #12;Introduction The U. S. Virgin

  13. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    always been a major concern in these small volcanic islands where rain water harvesting, ground waterVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 1 #12;Introduction The United States

  14. New Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, Stephen José

    harvesting. The results of this research will help to develop guidelines for water testing and best management practices for applying harvested rain water to backyard and community gardens. In the secondNew Jersey Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 New Jersey Water

  15. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state many private, domestic, and commercial useTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2011 1 #12;Introduction Introduction Water Resources Issues

  16. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state many private, domestic, and commercial useTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2009 Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2009 1 #12;Introduction Water Resources Issues and Problems

  17. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state many private, domestic, and commercial useTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2012 1 #12;Introduction Introduction Water Resources Issues

  18. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    continue to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state many private, domesticTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2013 1 #12;Introduction Introduction Water Resources Issues

  19. Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to face severe water shortage problems. All across the state many private, domestic, and commercial useTennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2010 Tennessee Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2010 1 #12;Introduction Introduction Water Resources Issues

  20. Indiana Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the IWRRC director is now serving on the state's Water Shortage Task Force. For this reporting period, weIndiana Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Indiana Water Resources Overview: This report covers the activities of the Indiana Water Resources Research Center (IWRRC

  1. Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puerto Rico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 Puerto Rico Water are summarized herein. The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute is located at the Mayagüez Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. The Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental

  2. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Oklahoma Water the Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI, part of the Oklahoma Water Resources Center) continued its integration in to the Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources at Oklahoma State

  3. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  4. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  5. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  6. Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source...

  7. Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

  8. Calculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    reproduces the isotope effect. The heat capacity in the liquid D2O has been calculated to be 10% higher than important in the liquid phase. In fact, in many systems, the heat capacity has an isotope effect, whichCalculation of heat capacities of light and heavy water by path-integral molecular dynamics

  9. VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005 Ground-Source Heat Pump System Research--

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005 165 EDITORIAL Ground-Source Heat Pump System Research-- Past, Present, and Future J.D. Spitler, PhD, PE Fellow ASHRAE Ground-source heat pump (GSHP-source heat pumps installed worldwide. These systems may be closed-loop ("ground-coupled") or open

  10. West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 West Virginia Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 1 #12;Introduction The West Virginia staff and the public. Our research program is guided by the West Virginia Advisory Committee for Water

  11. D.C. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and among agencies, universities, and other area researchers; and to support the development and Guidelines under the Water Resources Development Act, and other federal spending and activities relatedD.C. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 2009 D.C. Water Resources Research

  12. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 1 #12;Introduction During 2012 the Oklahoma Sciences and Natural Resources at Oklahoma State University (OSU). Together with the Water Research

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franco, Victor

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have storage tank water heaters, and 3 million householdsstorage water heater (ESWH) with tank and controls; and (2)water heaters could spill over into the more common tank

  14. Computer simulation of a lithium bromide-water absorption heat pump for temperature boosting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, G.; Childs, K.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer-simulation model has been developed to predict the performance of an absorption heat pump for temperature boosting of low-grade heat. The model simulated a single-stage, lithium bromide-water system currently being constructed. Te effects of waste-heat temperature, cooling-water temperature, and solution circulation rate were investigated. The temperature boost and delivered capacity increased almost linearly with an increase in the waste-heat temperature or a decrease in the cooling-water temperature. The system's coefficient of performance (COP) increases slightly under either of these conditions.

  15. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  16. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  17. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  18. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  19. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling loads, it may lead to the laminar flow of the chilled water in the cooling coils. The main objective of this thesis is to explain the heat transfer performance of the cooling coils under low cooling loads. The water side and air side heat transfer...

  20. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  2. Experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms for cylinders in water and FC-72

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, C.N.; You, S.M.; Hong, Y.S. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed photographic method is used to quantify vapor volumetric flow rate above a boiling wire. The volumetric flow rate is combined with additional analyses to determine the overall contributions to the total heat flux from four nucleate boiling heat transfer mechanisms (latent heat, natural convection, Marangoni flow, and micro-convection). This technique is used to quantify the boiling heat transfer mechanisms versus heat flux for a 510-{micro}m wire immersed in saturated water and in water with a small amount of liquid soap added. These data are compared with similar data taken for a 75-{micro}m wire boiling in saturated FC-72. For all cases, latent heat is the dominant heat transfer mechanism in the fully developed nucleate boiling regime. In addition, the latent heat component is significantly increased by the addition of small amounts of soap (surfactant).

  3. Colorado Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction As water managers work to solve the integrated water problems facing Colorado today, the dimensions of each issue demand a better understanding of basic water science, technology and policy. Whether water managers work

  4. CHRISTOPHER A. SCOTT Professor Research Professor, Water Resources Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OF EXPERTISE AND RESEARCH INTERESTS · Resilience, adaptation, social-ecological systems · Water-energy nexus-urban water transfers · Transboundary river basins and aquifers · Mountain water towers, Andes, Himalayas on water resources and policy, human-environment interactions, the water-energy nexus, and climate

  5. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and quality, and explored new ideas to address water problems and expand understanding of water and water at conditions mediating bioavailability and transport of specific uranium species in non-regulated water sources

  6. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh [University of Florida, Gainesville; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Moghaddam, Saeed [University of Florida, Gainesville

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  7. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL; Roetker, Jack [General Electric - Appliance Park] [General Electric - Appliance Park

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  8. Agricultural Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Research Service Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX Monitoring, Modeling and Decision-Making Daren Harmel USDA-ARS, Temple, TX #12;Agricultural Research Service Grassland monitoring, modeling, and decision- making #12;Agricultural Research Service Grassland, Soil and Water

  9. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  10. Experimental Research of an Active Solar Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, X.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Solar is an abundant renewable energy, which is used more and more frequently with the emphasis on environment protection, especially in building heating. The different devised methods between an active solar heating system and normal heating...

  11. Water Sim 5.0 Model API Both researchers and water managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Water Sim 5.0 Model API Both researchers and water managers indicated that a different type not similar between different researchers and between different water managers. Thus it would not be possible that implements a simplified visual interface to the model is provided as an example of using the What is Water

  12. Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

  13. New Advanced System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is crucial to ensuring their status as global competitors. Currently, most industries treat water to meet standards for direct discharge to surface water. The process includes a...

  14. NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    is Deputy Director for Water Resources Research. WASTE GUIDE ON THERMAL POLLUTION Copies of an "Industrial, urban water use and needs, water system construction, and flood plain management. The focal point VIaste Guide on Thermal Pollution" may be obtained by writing to: National Thermal Pollution Research

  15. Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    involved with water resource issues. The oil and gas industry, the chemical industry, port activitiesLouisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction This report presents a description of the activities of the Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute

  16. Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cultural and economic life involved with water resource issues. The oil and gas industry, the chemicalLouisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2002 Introduction This report presents a description of the activities of the Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute

  17. Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    involved with water resource issues. The oil and gas industry, the chemical industry, port activitiesLouisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2003 Introduction This report presents a description of the activities of the Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute

  18. Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    involved with water resource issues. The oil and gas industry, the chemical industry, port activitiesLouisiana Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction This report presents a description of the activities of the Louisiana Water Resources Research Institute

  19. Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction SUMMARY The North Carolina Water Resources Research Institute program for 2000-2001 (Federal Fiscal Year 2000) continued to focus on three broad areas of concern: surface waters, groundwater

  20. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    areas. In the U. S. Virgin Islands rain water harvesting and seawater desalination are the principalVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction The Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute (VI-WRRI) is located at the University of the Virgin

  1. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resources Board. Decision Support System for Long Term Planning of Rural and Urban Water Supply Systems CostOklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2006 #12;Introduction developing the natural environment. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI), located within

  2. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the biological contamination of waters that have been used for the last 100 years have been shown to lack certainVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2000 Introduction The Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI) is a unit of the University of the Virgin

  3. Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute http://prwreri.uprm.edu Puerto Rico Water Resources and Environmental Research Institute, PO Box 9040, Mayaguez, PR 00681Puerto Rico://prwreri.uprm.edu Email: prwreri@uprm.eduURL: http://prwreri.uprm.edu Email: prwreri@uprm.edu Puerto Rico Water Resources

  4. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2007 Oklahoma Water Institute at Oklahoma State University was renamed the Institute for Sustainable Environments, or ISE. The Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute (OWRRI) is located within the ISE and is responsible

  5. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 New Mexico Water is based on a July-June fiscal year rather than the March-February USGS Grant Award period. The New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute (NMWRRI) was established in 1963 by the New Mexico State University

  6. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 New Mexico Water is based on a July-June fiscal year rather than the March-February USGS Grant Award period. The New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute (NM WRRI) was established in 1963 by the New Mexico State University

  7. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 New Mexico Water is based on a July-June fiscal year rather than the March-February USGS Grant Award period. The New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute (NMWRRI) was established in 1963 by the New Mexico State University

  8. Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

  9. Research on Convective Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer of the Evaporator in Micro/Mini-Channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, J.; Li, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the development of science and technology, various heating and cooling equipment have a development trend of micromation. Micro-fabrication processes make it possible to conduct research on condensation heat transfer ...

  10. Simulation of energy use in residential water heating systems Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    around BC: Kamloops, Victoria and Williams Lake. Electric and gas-fired tank water heaters of various The resulting data is presented from a variety of angles, including the relative impacts of water heater ratingSimulation of energy use in residential water heating systems by Carolyn Dianarose Schneyer B

  11. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , rain water harvesting has been a principal source of potable water for the residents of the USVI such as rain water harvesting, alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigation of applicableVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2010 Virgin Islands

  12. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Historically, rain water harvesting has been a principal source of potable water for the residents of the USVI such as rain water harvesting, alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigation of applicableVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Virgin Islands

  13. Impact of Syrian Refugees on Jordan's Water Management Research Questions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Refugee Camps in Jordan should not be located in areas experiencing severe water shortage or groundwaterImpact of Syrian Refugees on Jordan's Water Management Research Questions: What impact has the influx of 590,000 refugees had on water resources? How can Jordan improve refugee and water management

  14. Recent Action-Research and future course in Water Sector.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Block 380 Thakar people. 200 animals. 40 households. And an acute shortage of water for 5 monthsRecent Action-Research and future course in Water Sector. Milind Sohoni, CTARA, IIT-soil, water, energy end-user defined or demand-driven-drinking water. Towards change-deliver technology

  15. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Maryland Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    investigates agricultural sources of water quality impairments. The decision of the interdisciplinary student) and Cathleen Hapeman (USDA Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Md.) · Demonstration of Integrated Stormwater & Wastewater Treatment in WaterShed, Maryland's Solar Decathlon 2011 Entry, Amy Gardner

  17. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1The heating and cooling system used in Osaka’s Nakanoshima district uses heat pumps and river water to achieve the efficient use of the heat source and mitigate the heat... source -Utilize waste heat discharged from substation, and supply in large difference of temperature Water intake Heat exchangers Water discharge Turbo chiller Screw heat pump pumps ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  18. Progress Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Progress Energy Florida (PEF) launched the ''Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program'' in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and...

  19. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  20. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , M., and F. C. Fontana, "Heat-Pump Desuperheaters for Supplying Domestic Not Water - Estimation of Energy Savings and Economic Viability For Residential Applications," ORNLICON-114. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, May 1983. 11...

  1. California Solar Initiative- Low-Income Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The program is only available to customers who currently heat their water with natural gas in the service territories of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), San Diego Gas & Electric ...

  2. Investigation of a Novel Solar Assisted Water Heating System with Enhanced Energy Yield for Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xu, J.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presented the concept, prototype application, operational performance and benefits relating to a novel solar assisted water heating system for building services. It was undertaken through dedicated theoretical analysis, computer...

  3. 2014-02-21 Issuance: Test Procedure for Commercial Water Heating Equipment; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures for commercial water heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency (February 21, 2014).

  4. Duke Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy Florida (DEF) launched the Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and install a...

  5. Can carbon finance contribute to the promotion of solar water heating in Bolivia? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayek, Niklas

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    water heating in Bolivia. These include an investment barrier due to the high upfront costs, lack of awareness and little confidence in the technology. This study investigated whether carbon finance can contribute to overcoming these barriers: Access...

  6. FirstEnergy (West Penn Power)- Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Penn Power, a First Energy utility, provides rebates to residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a rebate of up...

  7. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the energy, demand, and economic effects of three alternative electric water heating systems from the perspective of both the City of Austin Electric Utility and its ratepayers. An hourly computer simulation was used to model...

  8. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, M.M.; Schulz, T.L.

    1993-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path. 2 figures.

  9. Nuclear reactor with makeup water assist from residual heat removal system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor uses its residual heat removal system to make up water in the reactor coolant circuit from an in-containment refueling water supply during staged depressurization leading up to passive emergency cooling by gravity feed from the refueling water storage tank, and flooding of the containment building. When depressurization commences due to inadvertence or a manageable leak, the residual heat removal system is activated manually and prevents flooding of the containment when such action is not necessary. Operation of the passive cooling system is not impaired. A high pressure makeup water storage tank is coupled to the reactor coolant circuit, holding makeup coolant at the operational pressure of the reactor. The staged depressurization system vents the coolant circuit to the containment, thus reducing the supply of makeup coolant. The level of makeup coolant can be sensed to trigger opening of successive depressurization conduits. The residual heat removal pumps move water from the refueling water storage tank into the coolant circuit as the coolant circuit is depressurized, preventing reaching the final depressurization stage unless the makeup coolant level continues to drop. The residual heat removal system can also be coupled in a loop with the refueling water supply tank, for an auxiliary heat removal path.

  10. Heat Transfer Performance and Piping Strategy Study for Chilled Water Systems at Low Cooling Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Nanxi 1986-

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling Coil Efficiency Water viscosity at the water bulk temperature Water fluid viscosity at the pipe wall temperature Fin Pitch ix TABLE OF CONTENTS... of the analysis will be compared with the weather data and chilled water system data of the DFW Airport during 2010. Other possible causes of the reduced delta-T at low loads exist and will be investigated. 8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Heat transfer...

  11. Progress in understanding of direct containment heating phenomena in pressurized light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is described in development of a mechanistic understanding of direct containment heating phemonena arising during high-pressure melt ejection accidents in pressurized water reactor systems. The experimental data base is discussed which forms the basis for current assessments of containment pressure response using current lumped-parameter containment analysis methods. The deficiencies in available methods and supporting data base required to describe major phenomena occurring in the reactor cavity, intermediate subcompartments and containment dome are highlighted. Code calculation results presented in the literature are cited which demonstrate that the progress in understanding of DCH phenomena has also resulted in current predictions of containment pressure loadings which are significantly lower than are predicted by idealized, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Current methods are, nonetheless, still predicting containment-threatening loadings for large participating melt masses under high-pressure ejection conditions. Recommendations for future research are discussed. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  13. Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industry

  14. DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump of Refrigeration 35, 4 (2012) 1080-1091" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2011.12.007 #12;2 NOMENCLATURE A Cross sectional

  15. Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges Jim Constantz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heat as a tracer to determine streambed water exchanges Jim Constantz1 Received 13 March 2008 of heat as a tracer of shallow groundwater movement and describes current temperature-based approaches relying on traditional observation wells, and remote sensing and other large-scale advanced temperature

  16. Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

    The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options...

  17. Radiant cooling research scoping study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Timothy; Bauman, Fred; Huizenga, Charlie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.Zurn.com PAGE 35 Radiant Cooling Research Scoping Study1988. “Radiant Heating and Cooling, Displacement VentilationHeat Recovery and Storm Water Cooling: An Environmentally

  18. The effect of chilled drinking water on heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Christopher Charles

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF CHILLED DRINKING WATER ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER CHARLES BAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 5 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECT OF CHILLED DRINKING WATER ON HEAT-STRESSED LACTATING HOLSTEIN COWS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER CHARLES BAKER Approved as to style and content: Carl E. Coppock (Chair of Committee...

  19. CORQUENCH: A model for gas sparging-enhanced, melt-water, film-boiling heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In evaluation of severe-accident sequences for water-cooled nuclear reactors, molten core materials may be postulated to be released into the containment and accumulate on concrete. The heatup and decomposition of concrete is accompanied by the release of water vapor and carbon dioxide gases. Gases flowing through the melt upper surface can influence the rates of heat transfer to water overlying the melt. In particular, the gas flow through the interface can be envisioned to enhance the heat removal from the melt. A mechanistic model (CORQUENCH) has been developed to describe film-boiling heat transfer between a molten pool and an overlying coolant layer in the presence of sparging gas. The model favorably predicts the lead-Feron 11 data of Greene and Greene et al. for which the calculations indicate that area enhancement in the conduction heat transfer across the film is the predominant mechanism leading to augmentation in the heat flux as the gas velocity increases. Predictions for oxidic corium indicate a rapid increase in film-boiling heat flux as the gas velocity rises. The predominant mode of heat transfer for this case is radiation, and the increase in heat flux with gas velocity is primarily a result of interfacial area enhancement of the radiation component of the overall heat transfer coefficient. The CORQUENCH model has been incorporated into the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code{sup 6} for the analysis of transient spreading in containments.

  20. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . National Mine Land Reclamation Center which focuses on watershed restoration to correct the effects of mine Descriptors: post mining land use, waste water,water quality, site selection, waste reduction, parameter

  1. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of 93 and 95, water quantity has become a major topic of concern

  2. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciences Focus Category: Wetlands, Management and Planning, Water Quality Descriptors: wetlands, wetland-soil managed wetlands by comparison with nearby non-managed systems. Proceedings of the 32nd Mississippi Water Audubon Society to evaluate effects of moist-soil habitat management practices on water quality

  3. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  5. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  6. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    , display the results of management changes, and forecast the effects of waste management practices operations on the Hanford ground-water regime which moves through ancient sand and gravel channels deep under system for the .Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company which will accept models of ground-water conditions

  7. 192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research Ground-source heat pumps for cooling-dominated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    192 ASHRAE Transactions: Research ABSTRACT Ground-source heat pumps for cooling- tion of the heat pump performance is avoided by offsetting the annual load imbalance in the borefield operating and control strategies in a hybrid ground-source heat pump application using an hourly system

  8. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  9. Agricultural Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Research Service Grassland, Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX Monitoring, Modeling and Decision-Making Daren Harmel USDA-ARS, Temple, TX Agricultural Research Service Grassland monitoring, modeling, and decision- making (if time and interest!!) Agricultural Research Service Grassland

  10. In press, Water Resources Research Optimization of Environmental Water Purchases with Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    provide efficient means to move water from those who value it less to those for whom shortage is expensiveIn press, Water Resources Research Optimization of Environmental Water Purchases with Uncertainty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Davis ABSTRACT Water managers are turning

  11. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump space heaters, and solar water heaters, as well asmarket research on solar water heaters. National Renewable

  12. Ocala Utility Services- Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive...

  13. JointResearchCentre THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commission *Directorate General Environment **Joint Research Centre #12;Evolvement of the EU Water.for operational methods and other supporting tools. ll Joint efforts and activities by all involved partiesJointJointResearchCentre THE WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE: THE CHALLENGES OF TESTING AND VALIDATION

  14. NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING THE UNIVERSITY Resources Research Institute, 212 Agricultural ~ngineering, East Campus. OBJECTIVES OF THE NWRRI The Hater for centralization of data collection, analysis, storage and retrieval waste-water reuse economics of pollution

  15. Maryland Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a Computer-Assisted Decision Support System Using Realistic Interactive Visualization as a Learning Tool Water Resources Research Center (MWRRC) supported a variety of research and outreach activities to restore natural hydro-ecological function in urban headwater streams; analyzing the water-holding capacity

  16. Water Resources Center, Desert Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    modeling efforts, quantify the flux of groundwater nutrients to the lower Truckee River; 2. Using benchWater Resources Center, Desert Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Research Program #12;A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Ground- and Surface Water Exchange

  17. South Carolina Water Resources Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Carolina Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 South Carolina Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2008 1 #12;Introduction The South Carolina losses of both agricultural and forest land covers to urban uses. These losses could significantly impact

  18. Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction The FY 2004 Annual Technical Report of the Mississippi Water Resources Research - GeoResources Institute of Nutrient and Pesticide Runoff Losses from Golf Courses and Residential Lawns in the South Atlantic

  19. Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2005 Introduction The FY 2005 Annual Technical Report for the Mississippi Water Resources Research Institute summarizes USGS and Pesticide Runoff Losses from Golf Courses and Residential Lawns in the South Atlantic-Gulf Region Basic

  20. Iowa State Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , prioritize water quality improvement need, and establish total maximum daily loads or TMDLs for such impaired Congressional District: Iowa 3rd Research Category: Not Applicable Focus Category: Water Quality, Models, Law, Institutions, and Policy Descriptors: TMDL, water quality, GIS, modeling, environmental policy Principal

  1. Blue Waters An Extraordinary Computer to Enable Extraordinary Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Waters An Extraordinary Computer to Enable Extraordinary Research Thom Dunning National Center for Supercomputing Applications Blue Waters Extraordinaire · 25 February 2011 · Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (NCSA Building, NPCF) · Three major computing systems (Abe, Lincoln, Ember) Blue Waters Extraordinaire

  2. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the few places in the world where rain water harvesting is required by law. Buildings are constructed and quality issues of water harvesting, development of alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and nonVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2013 Virgin Islands

  3. Virgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    harvesting had been a principal source of potable water for the residents of the USVI with some reliance such as rain water harvesting, development of alternative on-site sewage disposal systems and investigationVirgin Islands Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2012 Virgin Islands

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    October 2011 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2011 Abstract Water shortage is becoming a severe problemRESEARCH ARTICLE Impact of water stress on citrus yield Iván García-Tejero & Victor Hugo Durán in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, reducing the avail- ability of agricultural land and water

  5. Heat Transfer Research 44(1), 130 (2013) ENTROPY GENERATION ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    Heat Transfer Research 44(1), 1­30 (2013) ENTROPY GENERATION ANALYSIS FOR A PULSATING HEAT, m R gas constant of vapor, g gravity, m/s2 kJ/kgK h(hlsen, hlv) coefficient of convective heat Re, kg/m3 of left vapor plug, W p shear stress, N/m3 Qout,v1 condensation heat transfer rate Subscripts

  6. Heat Flow From Four New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Research Drill Holes In The Western Cascades, Oregon, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Heat Flow From Four New Research...

  7. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amherst; "Elucidating the impact of upgrading wastewater treatment for nitrogen removal on eutrophication as nutrients; and water quality problems such as eutrophication, salt intrusion in groundwater, and stormwater

  8. NETL Research: Energy and Water Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO 2010). Depending upon the assumptions invoked, water withdrawal to support electricity...

  9. Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sciortino, Francesco

    be glassified by cooling using hyper- quenching techniques (i.e., with rates of the order of 105 K/s [8Cooling rate, heating rate, and aging effects in glassy water Nicolas Giovambattista,1 H. Eugene of water molecules during the process of generating a glass by cooling, and during the process

  10. Side-by-Side Testing of Water Heating Systems: Results from the 2009-2010 Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The performance of seven differing types of residential water heating systems was compared in a side-by-side test configuration over a full year period. The Hot Water System Laboratory (HWS Lab) test facility at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cocoa, FL was used for the tests.

  11. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  12. Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management...

  13. Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, J.

    A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management...

  14. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers are major generators of electrical power and support a rapidly growing population and economy government and various tribes, many water use issues will be controlled by outcomes of complex legal battles consumption are rising steadily driven by Oregons population and economic growth. Water competition

  15. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , none is more important for long-term sustainability than the potential impacts on water resources of Honolulu, is truly the "canary in the coal mine" for many water- and energy-related issues that may face2008 budget cycle, Professor Clark Liu and Assistant Professor Tao Yan (Civil & Environmental

  16. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , none is more important for long-term sustainability than the potential impacts on water resources of Honolulu, is truly the "canary in the coal mine" for many water- and energy-related issues that may face-reliance in aquaculture production while sustaining environmental health. The four main objectives were to: (1) identify

  17. Nebras a Water Resources Center Research Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    rates are highest. Management of irrigation systems becomes increasingly important as water supplies, University of Nebraska, North Platte (Photo by Jim Pat.r.) a trickle irrigation system to a center- pivot of irrigation water should be possible because of these and follow-up studies they are pursuing. The primary

  18. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the quality of Missouri drinking water and how it can be protected. With the large agricultural activity mine areas, hazardous waste disposal, acid precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years, and the flood of '93 and '95, water quantity has become a major

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  20. Researcher explores economics of U.S. urban water demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 24 Researcher explores economics of U.S. urban water demand Photo by: Danielle Supercinski tx H2O | pg. 25 With projected demands for future water supplies becoming more critical, understand- ing urban... contributing to urban water demand in the United States. They analyzed how water use is affected by water prices in nearly 200 U.S. cities. ?It?s interesting that many people still buy into the myth that water demand is not price- sensitive, even though...

  1. Flow boiling of water in a circular staggered micro-pin fin heat sink Santosh Krishnamurthy, Yoav Peles *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    across a bank of heated tube bundles, have shown that the local two-phase heat transfer coefficient across a tube bundle and determined the void fraction, the frictional pressure drop, and the local heatFlow boiling of water in a circular staggered micro-pin fin heat sink Santosh Krishnamurthy, Yoav

  2. City of Tallahassee Utilities- Solar Water Heating Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit on the home in order to make a preliminary assessment of sun exposure and to provide program guidance. All solar water...

  3. Entergy New Orleans- Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Entergy New Orleans offers a Solar Water Heater Rebate pilot program designed to help residential customers make energy efficiency improvements. Rebates will be offered on a first-come, first...

  4. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Texas Gas Service offers a flat rebate of $750 for its residential customers within the Austin and Sunset Valley city limits for the installation and purchase of a new solar water heater with...

  5. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering 1.50% loans to residential customers for the installation of solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings...

  6. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering $850 rebates to residential customers who install solar water heaters on their homes. To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

  7. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering $850 rebates to residential customers who install solar water heaters on their homes.  To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings and...

  8. Lumbee River EMC- Solar Water Heating Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lumbee River EMC is offering 1.50% loans to residential customers for the installation of solar water heaters on their homes.  To qualify, the systems must be certified OG-300 by the Solar Ratings...

  9. Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development of high-quality and attractive-looking model designs for integrating solar water heaters (SWH) into buildings in China. Coordinates: 39.90601, 116.387909 Show...

  10. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  11. Missouri Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the mentoring team. Renewable Energy Ground source heat pump technology is being studied with application with the Water Center, is installing ground source systems on turkey farms in Central Missouri. The energy system to the agriculture sector. The constant temperature of the ground represents an incredible source of environmentally

  12. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  13. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gingerich, Daniel B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  14. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  15. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The BigSidingState6Report, March003MEAM,ofCO2 Heat Pump

  16. Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrackEllen| DepartmentTrackingSeptemberSpace heating

  17. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy Completing theWhiz!NRELEnergyLike aHeat

  18. Save on Home Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG -EnergyProcess Heating SystemsMoney withSave

  19. #AskEnergySaver: Home Water Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, so are our bestPolicies ActHeating

  20. Covered Product Category: Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013DepartmentEnterpriseDepartmentof Energy Heat

  1. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  2. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptemberAssessments |FossilThis document providesDepartment of

  3. Research and Development Roadmap for Emerging Water Heating Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuickEnergyfor aDepartmentSimulators and FullEmerging

  4. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9,Award RecipientsActMission to ChinaRequirementsEnergy

  5. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  6. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Fesources and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. BUREAU OF RECLAMATION SEEKS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT The Bureau of Reclamation is seeking interest from qualified institutions Engineer, Code 740, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Building 67, Denver Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225

  7. A comparison of the heat transfer capabilities of two manufacturing methods for high heat flux water-cooled devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was undertaken to compare the heat transfer characteristics of water-cooled copper devices manufactured via conventional drilled passage construction and via a technique whereby molten copper is cast over a network of preformed cooling tubes. Two similar test blocks were constructed; one using the drilled passage technique, the other via casting copper over Monel pipe. Each test block was mounted in a vacuum system and heated uniformly on the top surface using a swept electron beam. From the measured absorbed powers and resultant temperatures, an overall heat transfer coefficient was calculated. The maximum heat transfer coefficient calculated for the case of the drilled passage test block was 2534 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F. This corresponded to an absorbed power density of 320 w/cm/sup 2/ and resulted in a maximum recorded copper temperature of 346/sup 0/C. Corresponding figures for the cast test block were 363 Btu/hr/ft/sup 2///sup 0/F, 91 w/cm/sup 2/, and 453/sup 0/C.

  8. Institute of Water Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    decision support systems (SDSS). These geospatial decision support systems provide an analytical framework in partnership with other states in EPA Region 5 using state-of-the-art decision support systems. The Institute. The Institute also provides important support to MSU-WATER, a major university initiative dealing with urban

  9. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and environmental impact analysis. Agriculture: Combined animal feeding operations, nutrient and pathogen impacts Bryant, Environmental Engineer U.S. EPA, Region III Carl Bauer, Associate Director for Coal recognized program which focuses on water issues: acid mine drainage and coal combustion byproducts. West

  10. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be protected. With the large agricultural activity in the state, non-point source pollution is of major precipitation, anthropogenic effects on aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. Water Quantity: Missouri has a history of either inadequate amounts of rainfall, or spring floods. Because of the 1987-1989 drought years

  11. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : "Sustainable Oil and Grease Removal from Stormwater Runoff Hotspots using Bioretention" and "Atmospheric Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Program to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution to Meet the States Water Quality/Computer Data Management, 9 Non-Point Source Pollution Measurement and Control, 10 Nutrients, 11 Remote Sensing

  12. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  13. Treating and Reusing Produced Water | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers at OGTC Seek Sustainable Produced Water Management Solutions Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to...

  14. Kansas Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2001 Introduction Roles identified by the state. These three projects included: 1. Measuring ssepage losses from waste treatment-push technology for site characterization investigations. #12;Measuring Seepage Losses from Waste

  15. Experimental study of alumina-water and zirconia-water nanofluids convective heat transfer and viscous pressure loss in Laminar regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rea, Ulzie L

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to evaluate experimentally the convective heat transfer and viscous pressure loss characteristics of alumina-water and zirconia-water nanofluids. Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of ...

  16. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface Hydrology of the Eastern Palouse Region Project Number 1434HQ96GR02667 Start Date 09/01/1997 End;Problem and Research Objectives Most soils in the eastern Palouse region of northern Idaho contain

  17. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

  18. El Paso landscape perspective: Researchers study water conservation, plant-tolerance, and water reuse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalisek, Danielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -largest city in Texas and the #26;#19;th-largest in the United States,? Michelsen said. El Paso landscape perspective Researchers study water conservation, plant-tolerance, and water reuse 16 tx H2O Summer 2011 El Paso landscape perspective Continued... ?Landscape irrigation typically accounts for half of annual residential water use,? he said. ?Finding and developing low water use, drought- and salt-tolerant plants are critical to conserving and protecting our limited freshwater supplies to ensure...

  19. Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Number C-04 Start Date 07/01/1997 End Date 06/30/1999 Research Category Water Quality Focus Category #1 Methods Focus Category #2 Water Quality Focus Category #3 Toxic Substances Lead Institution University column), and the blood plasma surrogate (growth media) maintained on the basolateral side (facing blood

  20. Nevada Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nevada Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2011 Nevada Water Resources of copper ore at the Yerington NV mine site was accomplished by leaching with sulfuric acid. Residual materials, both solid residual ore and process fluids, pose considerable hazard to the local environment

  1. Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 2004 Introduction The Environmental Institute at Oklahoma State University has as its mission to serve as a center for stimulation, protecting, utilizing and sustaining the natural environment. The federally supported Oklahoma Water

  2. The Stephen and Nancy GrandThe Stephen and Nancy GrandThe Stephen and Nancy GrandThe Stephen and Nancy Grand Water ResearchWater ResearchWater ResearchWater Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change with Focus over the Mediterranean 9:55-10:20 Jan W. Hopmans, University of California: Global Climate Change, Environmental Risks and Water Scarcity #12;2 Monday, March 2Monday, March 2Monday, Director of the Stephen and Nancy Grand Water Research Institute, Technion Session 1 Global Climate Change

  3. North Dakota Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The institute also continued its efforts to enhance communications between the State and Federal agency The State Water Commission continued its support to the 2010 2011 federal 104(B) funding for the Graduate Survey. Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act requires the NDWRRI to apply its Federal

  4. North Dakota Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    projects. The institute also continued its efforts to enhance communications between the State and Federal The State Water Commission continued its support to the 2008 2009 federal 104(B) funding for the Graduate Survey. Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act requires the NDWRRI to apply its Federal

  5. North Dakota Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    projects. The institute also continued its efforts to enhance communications between the State and Federal The State Water Commission continued its support to the 2009 2010 federal 104(B) funding for the Graduate Survey. Section 104 of the Water Resources Research Act requires the NDWRRI to apply its Federal

  6. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

  7. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of a heatHow

  8. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEastHomesHeat

  9. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  10. Improved Design Tools for Surface Water and Standing Column Well Heat Pump Systems (DE-EE0002961)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, J.D.; Culling, J.R.; Conjeevaram, K.; Ramesh, M.; Selvakumar, M.

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems are perhaps the most widely used “sustainable” heating and cooling systems, with an estimated 1.7 million installed units with total installed heating capacity on the order of 18 GW. They are widely used in residential, commercial, and institutional buildings. Standing column wells (SCW) are one form of ground heat exchanger that, under the right geological conditions, can provide excellent energy efficiency at a relatively low capital cost. Closed-loop surface water heat pump (SWHP) systems utilize surface water heat exchangers (SWHE) to reject or extract heat from nearby surface water bodies. For building near surface water bodies, these systems also offer a high degree of energy efficiency at a low capital cost. However, there have been few design tools available for properly sizing standing column wells or surface water heat exchangers. Nor have tools for analyzing the energy consumption and supporting economics-based design decisions been available. The main contributions of this project lie in providing new tools that support design and energy analysis. These include a design tool for sizing surface water heat exchangers, a design tool for sizing standing column wells, a new model of surface water heat pump systems implemented in EnergyPlus and a new model of standing column wells implemented in EnergyPlus. These tools will better help engineers design these systems and determine the economic and technical feasibility.

  11. PV vs. Solar Water Heating- Simple Solar Payback

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy systems hang their hats on payback. Financial payback is as tangible as money in your bank account, while other types of payback—like environmental externalities—are not usually calculated in dollars. There’s no doubt that photovoltaic (PV) and solar hot water (SHW) systems will pay you back. Maybe not as quickly as you’d like, but all systems will significantly offset their cost over their lifetimes. Here we’ll try to answer: Which system will give the quickest return on investment (ROI)?

  12. Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idahothe NewUtility-Scale SolarVeteran'sWater

  13. Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision Tree SolarSolar Water

  14. Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked Questions for DOE FYAffairs,Assessment Hazle Spindle, LLCHeat Pump SwimmingWater

  15. Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

    results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achiev~ cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194?F (10S0C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired... conditioning and hot water for various uses will be assessed. comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace (option 2). The basis for comparison being: a) the total primary energy usage, b) the cost...

  16. Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the general public understand the scientific concepts which impact environmental issues. These programs should then becomes leaving a legacy of a quality of life we all would like to see for the future. Environmental. To be effective, environmental research and education must be factual, balanced, and focused on helping

  17. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of enhanced cooperation between state agencies, federal agencies, citizen groups, and university researchers, however, is tied to the emission of mercury from electric-generating and trash incineration facilities of the Federal Clean Air revisions permitting trading of pollution reduction credits has created

  18. Institute of Water Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (GIS) to produce spatial decision support systems (SDSS). These geospatial decision support systems-of-the-art decision support systems. The Institute also works closely with the MSU Cooperative Extension Service: Decision Support Systems as the Nexus IWR, with its extended research family, is exceptionally well

  19. Institute of Water Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (GIS) to produce spatial decision support systems (SDSS). These geospatial decision support systems-of-the-art decision support systems. The Institute works closely with the MSU Cooperative Extension Service to conduct-making process. Unique Capabilities: Decision Support Systems as the Nexus IWR, with its "extended research

  20. Institute of Water Research Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the application of models and geographic information systems (GIS) to produce spatial decision support systems (SDSS). These geospatial decision support systems provide an analytical framework and research data via with other states in EPA Region 5 using state-of-the-art decision support systems. The Institute works

  1. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a supplemental grant was concluded. #12;Prevention of Colloidal Fouling in Crossflow Membrane Filtration in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Searching for Optimal Operation Conditions Project Number: 2003HI26B Start, Membrane Science, submitted. #12;Problems and Research Objectives Colloidal fouling in crossflow membrane

  2. Access to Clean Water | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related LinksATHENA couldAboutClean Water Innovations Click to

  3. Water reuse and technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRatesAbout Us >WasteWater Reuse

  4. NETL Research: Energy and Water Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWater and Energy

  5. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES Division of Heat and Power Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachkov, Ivan

    Euro Necessary space Rig in use: 45m2 (9mx5m), storage: ca 14 m2 (7mx2m) General application Experimental to high subsonic operation Application for industry Testing of aerodynamic damping of blade rows Turbine - Division of Heat and Power Technology Object Cold Flow Test Turbine Brand name ABB STAL design

  6. Indiana Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and educational; (2) to develop a suite of research programs that encompass several water issues; and (3 and two projects on residential development and hydrological systems. I have been and will be spending graduate and undergraduate research and service-learning projects, development of #12;a community

  7. Water and Environmental Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    availability, river discharge, permafrost-groundwater interactions, remote water/wastewater treatment options of the Center. Research Program Introduction Research Program Introduction 1 #12;Integrating Remote Sensing and Local Knowledge to Monitor Seasonal River Ice Dynamics Basic Information Title: Integrating Remote

  8. Kansas Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas Water Resources Research Institute Annual Technical Report FY 1998 Introduction Research, and bioavailable P losses in runoff are influenced by a variety of factors. The purpose of this project is to quantify the impact of best management practices on P losses in runoff. The specific objectives are: 1

  9. Heat Transport in Groundwater Systems--Laboratory Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, D. B.; Reddell, D. L.

    Solar energy is a possible alternate energy source for space heating. A method of economic long term solar energy storage is needed. Researchers have proposed storing solar energy by heating water using solar collectors and injecting the hot water...

  10. Building America Case Study: Evaluation of Residential Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems, Illinois and New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented Emerging Technology Programs. With support from PARR, NYSERDA and other partners, the project documented system performance and installations in Chicago and New York. Combi systems were found to save nearly 200 therms in cold climates at efficiencies between about 80% and 94%. Combi systems using third-party air handler units specially designed for condensing combi system operation performed better than the packaged integrated combi systems available for the project. Moreover, combi systems tended to perform poorly when the tankless water heaters operating at high turn-down ratios. Field tests for this study exposed installation deficiencies due to contractor unfamiliarity with the products and the complexity of field engineering and system tweaking to achieve high efficiencies. Widespread contractor education must be a key component to market expansion of combi systems. Installed costs for combi systems need to come down about 5% to 10% to satisfy total resource calculations for utility-administered energy efficiency programs. Greater sales volumes and contractor familiarity can drive costs down. More research is needed to determine how well heating systems such as traditional furnace/water heater, combis, and heat pumps compare in similar as-installed scenarios, but under controlled conditions.

  11. Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost...

  12. Impacts of Water Loop Management on Simultaneous Heating and Cooling in Coupled Control Air Handling Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, W.; Liu, M.; Wang, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impacts of the water loop management on the heating and cooling energy consumption are investigated by using model simulation. The simulation results show that the total thermal energy consumption can be increased by 24% for a typical AHU in San...

  13. Simulation of Heat Exchange Phenomena and Water Regime in Green Roof Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    187 Simulation of Heat Exchange Phenomena and Water Regime in Green Roof Substrates S. Charpentier UR EPHor Agrocampus-Ouest Centre d'Angers 2, rue Le Nôtre, F49045 Angers France Keywords: green roof roofs increases in Western European and North American cities. It is estimated that 12% of all flat

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Included in this report is detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

  16. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric,RMPipeline FirstSpent NuclearHowResearchNobelPhoto credit:

  17. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A [ORNL; Thornton, Jeff W. [Thermal Energy Systems Specialists, Inc.; Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern United States, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  18. Selecting the Design Entering Water Temperature for Vertical Geothermal Heat Pumps in Cooling-Dominated Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    At a military base in the Southeastern US, an energy services company (ESCO) has proposed to retrofit more than 1,000 family residences with geothermal heat pumps as part of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC). Each residence is to have one heat pump with its own ground heat exchanger consisting of two or more vertical bores. A design firm hired by the ESCO sized the heat pumps to meet peak cooling loads, and sized the borefields to limit the maximum entering water temperature (EWT) to the heat pumps to 95 F (35 C). Because there is some disagreement in the geothermal heat pump industry over the peak temperature to be used for design (some designers and design manuals recommend temperatures as low as 85 F [29 C], while equipment manufacturers and others specify temperatures of 100 F [38 C] or higher) the authors were requested to examine the designs in detail to determine whether the 95 F (35 C) limit was adequate to ensure occupant comfort, efficient operation, and low capital and operating costs. It was found that three of the designer's assumptions made the borefield designs more conservative (i.e., longer) than the 95 F (35 C) limit would indicate. In fact, the analysis indicates that with more realistic assumptions about system operation, the maximum entering water temperature at the modeled residence will be about 89 F (32 C). Given the implications of a borefield that is shorter than required, it is likely that other designers are using similarly conservative assumptions to size vertical borefields for geothermal heat pumps. This implies that unless all of the design assumptions are examined, blanket recommendations to limit the entering water temperature to a specific value (such as 90 F [32 C]) may result in borefields that are significantly oversized.

  19. Sensitivity of water mass transformation and heat transport to subgridscale mixing in coarse-resolution ocean models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnanadesikan, Anand

    colleagues suggests that without this heat transport the globe would freeze over, [Winton, 2003Sensitivity of water mass transformation and heat transport to subgridscale mixing in coarse of subgridscale mixing on ocean heat transport in coarse- resolution ocean models of the type used in coupled

  20. NREL: Water Power Research - Working with Us

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruck Platooning Testing Photo ofResearch Staff Below isWorking