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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Cost Effective Water Heating Solutions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ELECTRIC 0.92 ELECTRIC 0.92 ELECTRIC HPWH(2) HPWH(3) HPWH Standard 0.62 EF WH unless high natural gas costs (>1.50therm), in which case recommendations consistent with new...

2

LOW COST HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER (HPWH)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating accounts for the second largest portion of residential building energy consumption, after space conditioning. Existing HPWH products are a technical success, with demonstrated energy savings of 50% or more compared with standard electric resistance water heaters. However, current HPWHs available on the market cost an average of $1000 or more, which is too expensive for significant market penetration. What is needed is a method to reduce the first cost of HPWHs, so that the payback period will be reduced from 8 years to a period short enough for the market to accept this technology. A second problem with most existing HPWH products is the reliability issue associated with the pump and water loop needed to circulate cool water from the storage tank to the HPWH condenser. Existing integral HPWHs have the condenser wrapped around the water tank and thus avoid the pump and circulation issues but require a relatively complex and expensive manufacturing process. A more straightforward potentially less costly approach to the integral, single package HPWH design is to insert the condenser directly into the storage tank, or immersed direct heat exchanger (IDX). Initial development of an IDX HPWH met technical performance goals, achieving measured efficiencies or energy factors (EF) in excess of 1.79. In comparison conventional electric water heaters (EWH) have EFs of about 0.9. However, the initial approach required a 2.5" hole on top of the tank for insertion of the condenser - much larger than the standard openings typically provided. Interactions with water heater manufacturers indicated that the non standard hole size would likely lead to increased manufacturing costs (at least initially) and largely eliminate any cost advantage of the IDX approach. Recently we have been evaluating an approach to allow use of a standard tank hole size for insertion of the IDX condenser. Laboratory tests of a prototype have yielded an EF of 2.02.

Mei, Vince C [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Newly developed solar water heating technology can help Federal agencies cost effectively meet the EISA requirements for solar water heating in new construction and major renovations. This document provides design considerations, application, economics, and maintenance information and resources.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Template Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Kate Hudon National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kate.hudon@nrel.gov 303-275-3190 April 3, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office...

5

Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Template Template Low Cost Solar Water Heating R&D Kate Hudon National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kate.hudon@nrel.gov 303-275-3190 April 3, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: The major market barrier for solar water heaters (SWHs) is installed cost. This project addresses this barrier by working with an industry research partner to evaluate innovative solutions that reduce the installed cost of a SWH by

6

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The market environment for solar water heating technology has changed substantially with the successful introduction of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs). The addition of this energy-efficient technology to the market increases direct competition with solar water heaters (SWHs) for available energy savings. It is therefore essential to understand which segment of the market is best suited for HPWHs and focus the development of innovative, low-cost SWHs in the market segment where the largest opportunities exist. To evaluate cost and performance tradeoffs between high performance hot water heating systems, annual energy simulations were run using the program, TRNSYS, and analysis was performed to compare the energy savings associated with HPWH and SWH technologies to conventional methods of water heating.

Hudon, K.; Merrigan, T.; Burch, J.; Maguire, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch and J. Maguire National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54793 August 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research and Development Roadmap K. Hudon, T. Merrigan, J. Burch and J. Maguire National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. SHX1.1001 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54793 August 2012

8

Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs February 19, 2009 - 1:39pm Addthis Water heating can account for a significant portion of your energy costs. Purchasing a new ENERGY STAR® water heater is just one way to save on your water heating bills. The Energy Savers Tips site lists other strategies you can use to cut your water heating costs. How do you reduce your water heating costs? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs Energy Savers Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home How Do You Save on Lighting Costs? Question of the Week: How Do You Reduce Your Water Heating Costs

9

Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research Project Advanced, Low-Cost Solar Water Heating Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into advanced low-cost solar water heating. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Project Description This project seeks to identify and resolve technical, performance, and cost barriers to the development of easy-to-install and reliable solar water heating systems for all major U.S. climate regions. The project will also evaluate opportunities for breakthrough system innovations and innovations in advanced system performance ratings. Project Partners

10

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

volume of 45-60 galday, depending on mains water temperature. For every simulation, a home was also modeled to quantify the interaction between the HPWH and the space heating...

11

#tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Costs Water Heating Costs #tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs February 20, 2013 - 5:09pm Addthis Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs #tipsEnergy: Ways to Save on Water Heating Costs Every month we ask the larger energy community to share their energy-saving tips, and we feature some of our favorite tips in a Storify. For this month's #tipsEnergy, we wanted to know how you save energy and money on water heating. Storified by Energy Department · Wed, Feb 20 2013 14:12:00 Hot water is essential to most of our lives: We use it to shower, run the dishwasher and wash clothes. Quite frequently, we use more hot water than we think -- the average rate hot water flows out of the kitchen faucet is 2 gallons per minute, and an eight-minute shower

12

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat Pump Water Heaters June 14, 2012 - 7:38pm Addthis A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. A water heater's energy efficiency is determined by the energy factor (EF), which is based on the amount of hot water produced per unit of fuel consumed over a typical day. The higher the energy factor, the more efficient the water heater. What does this mean for me? Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient

13

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution  

SciTech Connect

A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

Not Available

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Consumer thermal energy storage costs for residential hot water, space heating and space cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of household thermal energy storage (TES) in four utility service areas that are representative for hot water, space heating, and space cooling systems in the United States is presented. There are two major sections of the report: Section 2.0 is a technology characterization of commercially available and developmental/conceptual TES systems; Section 3.0 is an evaluation of the consumer cost of the three TES systems based on typical designs in four utility service areas.

None

1976-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high demand. A.O. Smith informed us that when they applied electric resistance backup heating, using the criterion that resistance heat would be applied whenever the upper thermostat saw water temperatures below the heater s nominal setpoint of 135oF, they found that the EF dropped to approximately 1.5. This is an extremely conservative criterion for backup resistance heating. In a field test of the previously mentioned EMI heat pump water heater, residential consumers found satisfactory performance when the criterion for use of electric resistance backup heating was the upper temperature dropping below the set point minus 27 degrees. Applying this less conservative criterion to the raw data from the original A.O. Smith EF tests indicates that electric resistance heating would never have come on during the test, and thus the EF would have remained in the vicinity of 1.9. A.O. Smith expressed concern about having an EF below 2, as that value triggers certain tax advantages and would assist in their marketing of the product. We believe that insertion of additional length of tubing plus a less conservative set point for electric resistance backup heating would remedy this concern. However, as of this writing, A.O. Smith has not decided to proceed with a commercial product.

Mei, V. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Retired); Craddick, William G [ORNL

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

19

Solar Water Heating with Low-Cost Plastic Systems (Brochure), Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- buildings consumed over 392,000 billion Btu of site- delivered energy for buildings during FY 2007 at a total cost of $6.5 billion. [1] Earlier data indicate that about 10% of this is used to heat water. [2] Targeting energy consumption in Federal buildings, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) requires new Federal buildings and major renovations to meet 30% of their hot water demand with solar energy, provided it is cost-effective over the life of the system. In October 2009, President Obama expanded the energy reduction and performance requirements of EISA and its subsequent regulations with his Executive Order 13514. Federal facilities having financial difficulty meeting the EISA mandate and executive order (e.g., facilities with natural

20

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution; Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Achieving Results with Renewable Energy in the Federal Government (Brochure)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

FEMP-Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet details solar water heating and how to use the sun to heat domestic water in any climate. Document explains how solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment.

22

Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in...

23

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right...

24

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Break-even Cost for Residential Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-48986 February 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Break-even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities Hannah Cassard, Paul Denholm, and Sean Ong Prepared under Task No. SS10.2110 Technical Report

26

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

27

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

28

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Water Heating Systems: Life-Cycle Analyses and Opportunities for Cost Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in potential cost-savings measures for cold-climate solar domestic water hearing systems.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

30

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

31

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery Drain Water Heat Recovery June 15, 2012 - 6:20pm Addthis Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. Diagram of a drain water heat recovery system. How does it work? Use heat from water you've already used to preheat more hot water, reducing your water heating costs. Any hot water that goes down the drain carries away energy with it. That's typically 80%-90% of the energy used to heat water in a home. Drain-water (or greywater) heat recovery systems capture this energy from water you've already used (for example, to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water heating. How It Works Drain-water heat recovery technology works well with all types of water

32

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

33

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Kyle Gluesenkamp Building Equipment Group, ETSD gluesenkampk@ornl.gov 865-241-2952 April 3, 2013 CRADA - GE Development of High Performance Residential Gas Water Heater Image courtesy John Wilkes 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Absorption technology could greatly boost water heater efficiency, but faces barriers of high first cost and working fluid challenges. Impact of Project: Energy factor of gas storage water

34

What solar heating costs  

SciTech Connect

Few people know why solar energy systems cost what they do. Designers and installers know what whole packages cost, but rarely how much goes to piping, how much for labor and how much for the collectors. Yet one stands a better chance of controlling costs if one can compare where the money is going against where it should be going. A detailed Tennessee Valley Authority study of large solar projects shows how much each component contributes to the total bill.

Adams, J.A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 222 194 17...

36

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,100...

37

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,928 1,316...

38

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

39

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

40

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

42

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: The outlook for heating oil costs this winter, due to high crude oil costs and tight heating oil supplies, breaks down to an expected increase in heating expenditures for a typical oil-heated household of more than $200 this winter, the result of an 18% increase in the average price and an 11% increase in consumption. The consumption increase is due to the colder than normal temperatures experienced so far this winter and our expectations of normal winter weather for the rest of this heating season. Last winter, Northeast heating oil (and diesel fuel) markets experienced an extremely sharp spike in prices when a severe weather situation developed in late January. It is virtually impossible to gauge the probability of a similar (or worse) price shock recurring this winter,

43

Water Heating Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

research updates. Solar Water Heaters Photo of a solar water heater system mounted on a rooftop. Solar water heaters can be cost-effective options for heating a buildings water...

44

FEMP--Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- More than 1 million homeowners and 200,000 busi- nesses in the United States are using the sun to heat domestic water efficiently in almost any climate. In summer, a solar system properly sized for a resi- dential building can meet 100% of the building's water-heating needs in most parts of the country. In winter, the system might meet only half of this need, so another source of heat is used to back up the solar system. In either case, solar water heating helps to save energy, reduce utility costs, and preserve the environment. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector-the device that actually captures the sun's energy.

45

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

Reducing Home Heating and Cooling Costs  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B1. Annual Cost of Oil Heat in Various Climates for a Range of Heating Oil Prices and System Efficiencies . . . . . 21 B2. Annual Cost of Gas Heat in...

47

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

48

Efficient, Low-cost Microchannel Heat Exchanger  

? Buildings (chillers, cooling towers, heat pump water heaters) ... ? Renewable energy (concentrated solar power, residential solar hot water,

49

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water...

50

Residential space heating cost: geothermal vs conventional systems  

SciTech Connect

The operating characteristics and economies of several representative space heating systems are analyzed. The analysis techniques used may be applied to a larger variety of systems than considered herein, thereby making this document more useful to the residential developer, heating and ventilating contractor, or homeowner considering geothermal space heating. These analyses are based on the use of geothermal water at temperatures as low as 120/sup 0/F in forced air systems and 140/sup 0/F in baseboard convection and radiant floor panel systems. This investigation indicates the baseboard convection system is likely to be the most economical type of geothermal space heating system when geothermal water of at least 140/sup 0/F is available. Heat pumps utilizing water near 70/sup 0/F, with negligible water costs, are economically feasible and they are particularly attractive when space cooling is included in system designs. Generally, procurement and installation costs for similar geothermal and conventional space heating systems are about equal, so geothermal space heating is cost competitive when the unit cost of geothermal energy is less than or equal to the unit cost of conventional energy. Guides are provided for estimating the unit cost of geothermal energy for cases where a geothermal resource is known to exist but has not been developed for use in residential space heating.

Engen, I.A.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Solar Water Heating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

publication provides basic informa- publication provides basic informa- tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica- tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. Solar water heaters, sometimes called

52

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 of 18 Notes: Using the Northeast as an appropriate regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming...

53

Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Heat exchanger Exergoeconomic lifecycle cost optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering lifecycle cost analysis during the design phase of thermal systems gives the design effort more worth. Furthermore thermodynamic exergetic optimization is proven to be useful method for determining the most lifecycle cost optimal design of ... Keywords: entropy generation, exergy destruction, heat exchanger, operating cost, optimization, thermodynamics

Liaquat Ali Khan; Ali El-Ghalban

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Consumer Winter Heating Oil Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Using the Northeast as a regional focus for heating oil, the typical oil-heated household consumes about 680 gallons of oil during the winter, assuming that weather is "normal." The previous three winters were warmer than average and generated below normal consumption rates. Last winter, consumers saw large increases over the very low heating oil prices seen during the winter of 1998-1999 but, outside of the cold period in late January/early February they saw relatively low consumption rates due to generally warm weather. Even without particularly sharp cold weather events this winter, we think consumers are likely to see higher average heating oil prices than were seen last winter. If weather is normal, our projections imply New England heating oil

56

Consumer Natural Gas Heating Costs  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Notes: Mild weather has minimized residential gas consumption over most of the past 3 winters. Unlike heating oil, average increases in natural gas prices last winter were small....

57

Aquifer thermal energy storage costs with a seasonal heat source.  

SciTech Connect

The cost of energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system from a seasonal heat source was investigated. This investigation considers only the storage of energy from a seasonal heat source. Cost estimates are based upon the assumption that all of the energy is stored in the aquifer before delivery to the end user. Costs were estimated for point demand, residential development, and multidistrict city ATES systems using the computer code AQUASTOR which was developed specifically for the economic analysis of ATES systems. In this analysis the cost effect of varying a wide range of technical and economic parameters was examined. Those parameters exhibiting a substantial influence on ATES costs were: cost of purchased thermal energy; cost of capital; source temperature; system size; transmission distance; and aquifer efficiency. ATES-delivered energy costs are compared with the costs of hot water heated by using electric power or fuel-oils. ATES costs are shown as a function of purchased thermal energy. Both the potentially low delivered energy costs available from an ATES system and its strong cost dependence on the cost of purchased thermal energy are shown. Cost components for point demand and multi-district city ATES systems are shown. Capital and thermal energy costs dominate. Capital costs, as a percentage of total costs, increase for the multi-district city due to the addition of a large distribution system. The proportion of total cost attributable to thermal energy would change dramatically if the cost of purchased thermal energy were varied. It is concluded that ATES-delivered energy can be cost competitive with conventional energy sources under a number of economic and technical conditions. This investigation reports the cost of ATES under a wide range of assumptions concerning parameters important to ATES economics. (LCL)

Reilly, R.W.; Brown, D.R.; Huber, H.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A model for improvement of water heating heat exchanger designs for residential heat pump water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat pump water heaters are a promising technology to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. A key component is the water heating heat exchanger. (more)

Weerawoot, Arunwattana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Reducing home heating and cooling costs  

SciTech Connect

This report is in response to a request from the House Committee on Energy and Commerce that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) undertake a neutral, unbiased analysis of the cost, safety, and health and environmental effects of the three major heating fuels: heating oil, natural gas, and electricity. The Committee also asked EIA to examine the role of conservation in the choice of heating and cooling fuel. To accommodate a wide audience, EIA decided to respond to the Committee`s request in the context of a report on reducing home heating and cooling costs. Accordingly, this report discusses ways to weatherize the home, compares the features of the three major heating and cooling fuels, and comments on the types of heating and cooling systems on the market. The report also includes a worksheet and supporting tables that will help in the selection of a heating and/or cooling system.

Not Available

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Energy-efficient water heating  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how to reduce the amount of hot water used in faucets and showers, automatic dishwashers, and washing machines; how to increase water-heating system efficiency by lowering the water heater thermostat, installing a timer and heat traps, and insulating hot water pipes and the storage tank; and how to use off-peak power to heat water. A resource list for further information is included.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hot tips on water heating  

SciTech Connect

Water-heater manufacturers responded to the call for energy conservation with innovations and efficiency standards for the home, business, and plant. Conventional tank-type water heaters offer better design and insulation, but the heat-pump water heater offers the highest efficiency. Available in add-on units and integral units, they now represent up to 40% of manufacturers' sales. Other advances are the desuperheater devices which recapture air-conditioner waste heat, solar-water-heating systems, instantaneous water heaters, and industrial heat-recovery systems for process water. 1 figure. (DCK)

Forker, J.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Investigation of a novel faade-based solar loop heat pipe water heating system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar thermal is one of the most cost-effective renewable energy technologies, and solar water heating is one of the most popular solar thermal systems. Based (more)

Wang, Zhangyuan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

New and Underutilized Technology: Solar Water Heating | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heating Solar Water Heating New and Underutilized Technology: Solar Water Heating October 7, 2013 - 9:02am Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for solar water heating within the Federal sector. Benefits Solar water heating uses solar thermal collectors to heat water. Application Solar water heating is applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Solar water heating is best in regions with high insolation. Key Factors for Deployment The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 requires 30% of hot water demand in new Federal buildings and major renovations to be met with solar water heating equipment providing it is life-cycle cost effective. Federal agencies must consider collector placement location to optimize

64

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

65

Water Heating | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heating Water Heating Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Avg.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 69.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote

66

OpenEI - Water Heating  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgdatasetstaxonomyterm560 en Residential Energy Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) http:en.openei.orgdatasetsnode59

Provides total and average...

67

Discussions on Disposal Forms of Auxiliary Heat Source in Surface Water Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents two common forms of auxiliary heat source in surface water heat pump system and puts forward the idea that the disposal forms affect operation cost. It deduces operation cost per hour of the two forms. With a project calculation, it illuminates that the post-located auxiliary heat source cheaper and superior to the fore-located one.

Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, X.; Li, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems May 30, 2012 - 3:40pm Addthis Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper, because it is a good thermal conductor and has greater resistance to corrosion. Types of Heat Exchangers Solar water heating systems use three types of heat exchangers: Liquid-to-liquid A liquid-to-liquid heat exchanger uses a heat-transfer fluid that

69

Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating  

SciTech Connect

This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heating Research Water Heating Research to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Water Heating Research on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Water Heating Research Lighting Research Sensors & Controls Research Energy Efficient Buildings Hub

71

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

72

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Assessment Study Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump systems, composed of multiple water-source heat pumps, a boiler, and a cooling tower operating in a closed water loop are a key segment of the commercial building heat pump market. This type of system provides a low-first-cost, versatile, and energy-efficient approach to space conditioning commercial buildings that have simultaneous heating and cooling loads.

1991-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

73

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. |...

74

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters Addthis Related Articles Tankless Demand Water Heater Basics Solar Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater...

75

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters May 4, 2012 - 5:21pm Addthis A diagram of a heat pump water heater. A diagram of a heat pump water heater. What does this mean for me? Heat pump water heaters can be two to three times more energy efficient than conventional electric storage water heaters. Heat pump water heaters work in locations that remain in the 40º-90ºF range year-round. Most homeowners who have heat pumps use them to heat and cool their homes. But a heat pump also can be used to heat water -- either as stand-alone water heating system, or as combination water heating and space conditioning system. How They Work Heat pump water heaters use electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. Therefore, they can be two to

76

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ........................... 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 243 151 34 40 18 78.7 48.9 11.1 13.0 5.7 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 202 139 31 29 Q 54.8 37.6 8.5 7.9 Q 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 300 240 31 21 7 42.5 34.1 4.4 3.0 1.1 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 250 182 40 11 Q 41.5 30.2 6.6 1.9 Q 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 236 169 41 8 19 35.4 25.2 6.2 1.2 2.8 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 241 165 54 7 16 36.3 24.8 8.1 1.0 2.4 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 199 130 42 11 16 35.0 22.8 7.5 1.9 2.8 Over 500,000 ............................. 198

77

Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Released: September, 2008 Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ............................. 2,037 1,378 338 159 163 42.0 28.4 7.0 3.3 3.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ........................... 249 156 35 41 18 78.6 49.1 11.0 12.9 5.6 5,001 to 10,000 .......................... 218 147 32 31 7 54.8 37.1 8.1 7.9 1.7 10,001 to 25,000 ........................ 343 265 34 25 18 43.8 33.9 4.4 3.2 2.3 25,001 to 50,000 ........................ 270 196 41 13 Q 40.9 29.7 6.3 2.0 2.9 50,001 to 100,000 ...................... 269 186 45 13 24 35.8 24.8 6.0 1.8 3.2 100,001 to 200,000 .................... 267 182 56 10 19 35.4 24.1 7.4 1.3 2.6 200,001 to 500,000 .................... 204 134 43 11 17 34.7 22.7 7.3 1.8 2.9 Over 500,000 .............................

78

Utility solar water heating workshops  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to explore the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM measure. Expected benefits from the workshops included an increased awareness and interest by utilities in solar water heating as well as greater understanding by federal research and policy officials of utility perspectives for purposes of planning and programming. Ultimately, the project could result in better information transfer, increased implementation of solar water heating programs, greater penetration of solar systems, and more effective research projects. The objective of the workshops was satisfied. Each workshop succeeded in exploring the problems and opportunities for utility participation with solar water heating as a DSM option. The participants provided a range of ideas and suggestions regarding useful next steps for utilities and NREL. According to evaluations, the participants believed the workshops were very valuable, and they returned to their utilities with new information, ideas, and commitment.

Barrett, L.B. (Barrett Consulting Associates, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Solar Water Heat | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Solar Water Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSolarWaterHeat&oldid26719...

80

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program EWEB - Residential Solar Water Heating Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate $7,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Up to 75% of system cost after rebate Provider Eugene Water and Electric Board Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB) offers residential customers a loan and cash discount program called, "The Bright Way To Heat Water." The program is designed to promote the installation of solar water heaters and solar pool heating systems. It began in May 1990 as part of a demand-side management initiative. The loans have been offered since May 1995. EWEB provides all funding for both loans and cash discounts. Customers may

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

Clyne, R.

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

83

Solar heating of buildings and domestic hot water  

SciTech Connect

Design criteria and cost analysis methods are presented for the sizing and justification of solar heat collectors for augmentation of potable water heaters and space heaters. Sufficient information is presented to enable engineers to design solar space and water heating systems or conduct basic feasibility studies preparatory to design of large installations. Both retrofit and new installations are considered. (WDM)

Beck, E.J. Jr.; Field, R.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat to water in a storage tank. Heat-transfer fluids, such as antifreeze, protect the solar collector from freezing in cold weather. Liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers have...

85

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

more efficient system. When considering a water heater model for your home, estimate its energy efficiency and annual operating cost. Then, compare costs with other more andor...

86

Heat Pump Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a...

87

Waste heat from kitchen cuts hot water electricity 23%  

SciTech Connect

Heat recovered from the Hamburger Hamlet's kitchen in Bethesada, Maryland and used to pre-heat the million gallons of hot water used annually reduced hot water costs 23% and paid off the investment in 1.5 years. Potomac Electric initiated the installation of an air-to-water heat pump in the restaurant kitchen above the dishwasher at a cost of about $5300, with the restaurant obliged to reimburse the utility if performance was satisfactory. Outside water recirculates through storage tanks and the ceiling heat pump until it reaches the required 140/sup 0/F. The amount of electricity needed to bring the preheated water to that temperature was $3770 lower after the installation. Cooled air exhausted from the heat pump circulates throughout the kitchen.

Barber, J.

1984-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Piedmont EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Piedmont EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program...

89

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

90

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating Tips: Water Heating May 2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more. Water heating is the second largest energy expense in your home. It typically accounts for about 18% of your utility bill. There are four ways to cut your water heating bills: use less hot water, turn down the thermostat on your water heater, insulate your water heater, or buy a new, more efficient model. Water Heating Tips Install aerating, low-flow faucets and showerheads. Repair leaky faucets promptly; a leaky faucet wastes gallons of

91

Estimating Costs and Efficiency of Storage, Demand, and Heat...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

| Chart credit ENERGY STAR Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Water...

92

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature are based

93

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lower Water Heating Temperature Lower Water Heating Temperature Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature Addthis Project Level Easy Energy Savings $12-$30 annually for each 10ºF reduction Time to Complete 2 hours Overall Cost $0 Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Turning down your water heater temperature can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto.com/BanksPhotos Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140ºF, most households usually only require them to be set at 120ºF, which also slows mineral buildup and corrosion in your water heater and pipes. Water heated at 140ºF also poses a safety hazard-scalding. Savings resulting from turning down your water heater temperature are based

94

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Nonprofit Residential State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential: 30% of system cost or $3,000, whichever is less Small Commercial: 30% of system cost or $7,500, whichever is less Schools, Religious, Non-profit, Public Facilities and Civic and County Facilities: 50% of system cost or $30,000, whichever is less Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential and Small Business: $14.50 per therm Schools, Religious, Non-profit, Public Facilities and Civic and County

95

Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program Minnesota Power - Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Single-family unit: $2,000 Two- to three-family units: $4,000 Multi-family units (four or more): $10,000 Businesses: $25,000 Program Info Start Date 03/2010 Expiration Date 12/31/2013 State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 25% of costs Provider Minnesota Power Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings; $10,000 for buildings

97

Heating and cooling of municipal buildings with waste heat from ground water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of using waste heat from municipal water wells to replace natural gas for heating of the City Hall, Fire Station, and Community Hall in Wilmer, Texas was studied. At present, the 120/sup 0/F well water is cooled by dissipating the excess heat through evaporative cooling towers before entering the distribution system. The objective of the study was to determine the pumping cycle of the well and determine the amount of available heat from the water for a specified period. This data were correlated with the heating and cooling demand of the City's buildings, and a conceptual heat recovery system will be prepared. The system will use part or all of the excess heat from the water to heat the buildings, thereby eliminating the use of natural gas. The proposed geothermal retrofit of the existing natural gas heating system is not economical because the savings in natural gas does not offset the capital cost of the new equipment and the annual operating and maintenance costs. The fuel savings and power costs are a virtual trade-off over the 25-year period. The installation and operation of the system was estimated to cost $105,000 for 25 years which is an unamortized expense. In conclusion, retrofitting the City of Wilmer's municipal buildings is not feasible based on the economic analysis and fiscal projections as presented.

Morgan, D.S.; Hochgraf, J.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

GEOCITY: a computer code for calculating costs of district heating using geothermal resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEOCITY is a computer simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree days, population size and density, resource temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. From this input data the model designs the transmission and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system, including the production and disposal of the geothermal water. GEOCITY consists of two major submodels: the geothermal reservoir model and the distribution system model. The distribution system model calculates the cost of heat by simulating the design and the operation of the district heating system. The reservoir model calculates the cost of energy by simulating the discovery, development and operation of a geothermal resource and the transmission of this energy to a distribution center.

McDonald, C.L.; Bloomster, C.H.; Schulte, S.C.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water-loop heat pump (WLHP) systems are reliable, versatile, energy-efficient alternatives to conventional systems such as packaged rooftop or central chiller systems. These systems offer low installed costs, unparalleled design flexibility, and an inherent ability to recover heat in a variety of commercial and multifamily residential buildings for both new construction and retrofit markets.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR Solar water heaters are more efficient the gas or electric heaters. | Chart credit ENERGY STAR What does this mean for me? Solar water heaters cost more to purchase and install but may save you money in the long run. Estimate the annual operating costs and compare several solar water heaters to determine whether it is worth investing in a more efficient system. Solar water heating systems usually cost more to purchase and install than conventional water heating systems. However, a solar water heater can

102

Water Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous)...

103

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While conventional heat pump water heater designs are limited to using toxic ammonia water ...

104

Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

Essebaggers, Jan (39 Honeyman Dr., Succasunna, NJ 07876)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Retrofits for Improved Heat Rate and Availability: Circulating Water Heat Recovery Retrofits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Circulating water heat recovery is a means of directly increasing the thermal efficiency of a power plant. If only fuel savings are considered, the economic benefit is often only marginal. However, when increased megawatt output and heat-rate improvements are included in the economic analysis, such retrofits can be attractive, with break-even fuel costs sometimes approaching $1/million Btu.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

106

The Influence of Availability Costs on Optimal Heat Exchanger Size  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimizing heat exchangers based on second law rather than first law considerations ensures that the most efficient use of available energy is being made. Techniques for second-law optimizing heat exchangers have been developed recently that are straightforward and simple. The main difficulty lies in determining the proper cost of irrreversibility that is to be used in the optimization process. This paper demonstrates how this issue can be handled by including the irreversibility cost in a dimensionless parameter that represents the ratio of annual ownership costs to annual operating costs that include irreversibility costs. In this way, each heat exchanger designer can estimate the costs of irreversibilities for his particular system, and use the generalized method for determining the optimal heat exchanger size.

Witte, L. C.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Infographic Energy Saver 101: Water Heating Infographic Looking for ways to save money on water heating? Energy Saver 101: Water Heating infographic lays out evergything you...

108

Building Technologies Office: Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative Search Search Help Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative EERE Building Technologies Office Utility Solar Water Heating Initiative...

109

Category:Solar Water Heating Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Water Heating Incentives Jump to: navigation, search Category for Solar Water Heating Incentives. Pages in category "Solar Water Heating Incentives" The following 200 pages...

110

Santa Clara Water & Sewer- Solar Water Heating Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water & Sewer Utilities Department supplies,...

111

Georgia Power- Residential Solar and Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate (Georgia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Georgia Power customers may be eligible for rebates up to $250 each toward the installation costs of a 50 gallon or greater solar water heater or heat pump water heater. The solar water heater or...

112

Solar Water Heating FTA, 024922m FTA solwat heat.pdf  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Federal Technology Alert A series of energy efficient technology guides prepared by the New Technology Demonstration Program Solar Water Heating Well-Proven Technology Pays Off in Several Situations Solar water heating is a well-proven and readily available technology that directly substitutes renewable energy for conventional water heating. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), one of a series on new energy- efficient technologies and renewable energy technologies, describes the various types of solar water heating systems, the situations in which solar water heating is likely to be cost- effective, considerations in selecting and designing a system, and basic steps for installing a system. There are a variety of different types

113

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Performance of Solar Water Heater With Natural Ci rculperformance of solar thermos i phon water heaters with heatSolar Jubilee, Phoenix, AZ, June 2-6, 1980 THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Manufacturing cost of flame heated thermionic converters. Topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of thermionic converters has been estimated in support of the cost calculations for thermionic topping of central station powerplants. These calculations supersede the previous calculations made in 1975 and use a design concept similar to the current configuration of flame-heated converters. The cost of converters was estimated by obtaining quotations from manufactureres whenever possible. The selling cost was found to be $110 per kilowatt.

LaRue, G.; Miskolczy, G.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ind Heat WS Code - Cost Comparison Worksheet for Induction Heating, Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Induction Heating for Melting for Aluminum / Steel Cost Comparison Worksheet is a tool that enables the comparison of induction heating for metals melting with more conventional melting technologies such as gas crucible, electric resistance, and electric arc furnaces. Note that this analysis only considers melting of scrap metal, as this application would appear to be the most practical and cost-effective utilization of the induction heating technology. A cost comparison is provided for the two most ...

2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

116

Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Long Island Power Authority - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,500 or 50% of installed cost; $2,000 for systems purchased by 12/31/13 Program Info Funding Source LIPA Efficiency Long Island Program Start Date December 2010 State New York Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $20 per kBTU (based on SRCC collector rating) Bonus Incentive for systems purchased by 12/31/13: 2 Collector system: $500 bonus rebate 1 Collector system: $250 bonus rebate Provider Long Island Power Authority '''''Note: For system purchased by December 31, 2013, LIPA is providing a

117

Energy and cost analysis of residential heating systems  

SciTech Connect

Several energy-saving design changes in residential space-heating systems were examined to determine their energy-conservation potential and cost effectiveness. Changes in conventional and advanced systems (such as the gas heat pump) were considered. The energy and cost estimates were developed from current literature, conversations with heating and equipment manufacturers and dealers, and discussions with individuals doing research and testing on residential space-heating equipment. Energy savings as large as 26, 20, 57% were estimated for design changes in conventional gas, oil, and electric space-heating systems, respectively. These changes increased capital cost of the three systems by 27, 16, and 26%, respectively. For advanced gas and electric systems, energy savings up to 45 and 67%, respectively, were calculated. The design changes needed to produce these energy savings increased capital costs 80 and 35%. The energy use and cost relationships developed for the space heating systems were used as input to the ORNL residential energy-use simulation model to evaluate the effect of space-heating improvements on national energy use to the year 2000. Results indicated a large reduction in national energy use if improved conventional and advanced systems were made available to consumers and if consumers minimized life-cycle costs when purchasing these systems.

O' Neal, D.L.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Standing Technical Committee Standing Technical Committee Water Heating Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder's Meeting February 29, 2012 - Austin, Texas 2 STC Chairman Responsibilities * To maintain the Water Heating Strategic Plan (living document) * To work with stakeholders to identify research activities that resolve gaps & barriers towards achieving Water Heating Strategic Goals * To work with stakeholders to prioritize gaps leading to future BA research efforts * To serve as a collection point for BA research activities and outside research * To facilitate collaboration among BA researchers and the marketplace 3 Water Heating as a Significant End Use According to DOE RECS data, residential water heating represents 20% of the energy delivered to U.S. households. 4 Water Heating Strategic Goals

120

Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) Energy Cost Calculator for Commercial Heat Pumps (5.4 >=< 20 Tons) October 8, 2013 - 2:22pm Addthis Vary equipment size, energy cost, hours of operation, and /or efficiency level. INPUT SECTION Input the following data (if any parameter is missing, calculator will set to default value). Defaults Project Type New Installation Replacement New Installation Condenser Type Air Source Water Source Air Source Existing Capacity * ton - Existing Cooling Efficiency * EER - Existing Heating Efficiency * COP - Existing IPLV Efficiency * IPLV - New Capacity ton 10 tons New Cooling Efficiency EER 10.1 EER New Heating Efficiency COP 3.2 COP New IPLV Efficiency IPLV 10.4 IPLV Energy Cost $ per kWh $0.06 per kWh

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

122

Be Sun-sible? about Heating Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Be "Sun-sible" about Heating Water Curriculum: Solar Power; (Electromagnetic radiation, conductionconvection, efficiency, Energy transformation, thermodynamics) Grade level: K-4...

123

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, L. Earle, D. Christensen, J. Maguire, and E. Wilson National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy...

124

Section E: WATER HEATING - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

2001 Residential Energy Consumption Survey Form EIA-457A (2001)--Household Questionnaire OMB No.: 1905-0092, Expiring February 29, 2004 24 Section E: WATER HEATING

125

Heat Pump Water HeatersLaboratory Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI conducted laboratory tests of several heat pump water heaters to assess their performance and energy efficiency. Among U.S. heat pump water heaters tested were new products from A. O. Smith, General Electric (GE), and Rheem. These units are designed to be integral, drop-in replacements for standard electric water heaters. Additionally, EPRI tested the Japanese-based Eco-cute heat pump water heater from Daikin, which is a split unit with an outdoor heat pump using CO2 as the refrigerant and an indoor...

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

126

Water-heating dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator ...

127

Innovative heat exchangers for solar water heaters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The performance of two innovative collector-loop heat exchangers used in pumped circulation solar water heaters was investigated experimentally and numerically, and TRNSYS simulation models were (more)

Soo Too, Yen Chean

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program (Arizona) Southwest Gas Corporation - Smarter Greener Better Solar Water Heating Program (Arizona) < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government General Public/Consumer Industrial Local Government Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate 50% of system cost Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $15.00/therm Provider Southwest Gas Corporation '''''Note: Effective July 15, 2013, Southwest Gas is no longer accepting applications for the current program year. Systems installed during the current program year will not be eligible for a rebate in the next program

129

Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair Solar Water Heating System Maintenance and Repair May 30, 2012 - 2:35pm Addthis Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Rooftop solar water heaters need regular maintenance to operate at peak efficiency. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar energy systems require periodic inspections and routine maintenance to keep them operating efficiently. Also, from time to time, components may need repair or replacement. You should also take steps to prevent scaling, corrosion, and freezing. You might be able to handle some of the inspections and maintenance tasks on your own, but others may require a qualified technician. Ask for a cost estimate in writing before having any work done. For some systems, it may

130

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill October 26, 2009 - 3:49pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Sometimes it surprises me to see that the most popular pages on the site are the ones about solar water heaters and demand (or tankless) water heaters. But considering that water heating can account for around 12% of a family's utility bill-the biggest chunk after space heating and cooling-it really shouldn't be that surprising that you want to know how to heat your water more efficiently. Obviously, not everyone is in a position to go out and buy a new water heater, but we can all do something to use less water and save on our bills. Whether you're looking for no-cost habit changes, low-cost purchases or

131

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2001. Residential Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) DevelopmentKelso, J. 2003. Incorporating Water Heater Replacement into2005. Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters: Energy Efficiency

Franco, Victor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Windjammer solar-water-heating system. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the Windjammer Solar-Water-Heating System tests showed that it was not as an efficient system as a comparable conventional system for converting solar energy into heat energy. However, it was determined that the innovative mode used less electric back-up energy for water heating. Reduced fossil fuel energy consumption being the ultimate objective of a solar water heating, the principle employed has been shown to be a workable energy saving concept. The differential mode of temperature control emerged as the more efficient mode of operation for the innovative system and under comparable conditions is projected to be nearly equivalent to the conventional solar system. Although the concept has proven workable, the costs feasible, and the potential for considereable improvements exists, additional research and development is needed to advance the design into its most practical application.

Windham, J.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Definition: Solar Water Heating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Solar Water Heating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Solar Water Heating A low-energy intensive system that uses solar rays to heat water. It is a viable option in developing countries[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Solar water heating (SWH) or solar hot water (SHW) systems comprise several innovations and many mature renewable energy technologies that have been well established for many years. SWH has been widely used in Australia, Austria, China, Cyprus, Greece, India, Israel, Japan and Turkey. In a "close-coupled" SWH system the storage tank is horizontally mounted immediately above the solar collectors on the roof. No pumping is required as the hot water naturally rises into the tank through thermosiphon flow.

134

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Heat Pump Water Heating Modeling in EnergyPlus  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Eric Wilson Craig Christensen March 1, 2012 2 Modeling Issues Results Motivation Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling... 3 Gap: Existing analysis tools cannot accurately model HPWHs with reasonable runtime. 4 What have we achieved so far? Laboratory Evaluations 14 x Field Monitoring 5 Closing the Gap Laboratory Evaluations 6 sec timestep hourly timestep 14 x Field Monitoring CARB 6 Why is modeling important? * Performance varies: Can't just use EF * System interaction o HPWH affects building heating and cooling o Space conditions affect HPWH performance 7 Modeling Goals * Manage Risks o Accuracy o Run time o Occupant satisfaction * Flexibility to explore the effects of:

136

City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program City of Sunset Valley - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $2,000 Program Info Funding Source General Funds State Texas Program Type Local Rebate Program Rebate Amount 30% of installed cost Provider City of Sunset Valley The City of Sunset Valley offers rebates to local homeowners who install solar water heating systems on their properties. The local rebate acts as an add-on to the solar water heating rebates that are offered by Austin Energy to its electric customers. The Sunset Valley rebate is set at 30% of the installed system cost, up to a maximum rebate of $2,000 per homeowner, supplementing the

137

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

distributor, and installer costs are used to calculate the costs of different water heater designs. Consumer operating expenses are calculated based on the modeled energy...

138

Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

Winiarski, David W.

2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Building America Standing Technical Committee - Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Standing Technical Committee Strategic Plan, v2012a Revised: January 2012 Committee Chair: 2011, 2012 Marc Hoeschele mhoesch@davisenergy.com 530-753-1100 x23 ARBI Page 2 Background on Residential Water Heating According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), annual residential water heating totals 2.11 quads of energy annually, or 20% of the energy delivered to residential buildings 1 . Over the past 70 years, gas and electric storage water heaters have been the predominant water heater type in the United States 2 . Recently, gas tankless water heaters have made inroads in market share with current industry projected gas tankless sales estimated at 400,000+ annually, and an

140

Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pump Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Demonstration Project Building America Stakeholder Meeting Ron Domitrovic Ammi Amarnath 3/1/2012 Austin, TX 2 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. HPWH Field Demonstration: Research Objectives * Assess heat pump water heater technology by measuring efficiency. * Provide credible data on the performance and reliability of heat pump water heaters. * Assess user satisfaction in a residential setting. 3 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Demonstration Host Utilities Target: 40 Units per Utility Installed and Potential Sites by Climate Zone Source: Department of Energy (DOE), Building America climate regions 4 © 2011 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Installation Locations-Southern Company Region

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Service Water Heating |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Service Water Heating The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide...

142

Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

Focus Marketing Services

1999-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

143

Heat Pump Water Heaters for Commercial Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reviews the technology of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) for commercial building applications. The report discusses the technical and conceptual background of heat pump water heaters, laboratory testing as performed at EPRI's laboratory, and implications of the test results. It provides analysis of the climactic applicability, financial scenarios, the air-cooling benefit or detriment of HPWH technology.

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solar-assisted heat pump system for cost-effective space heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of heat pumps for the utilization of solar energy is studied. Two requirements for a cost-effective system are identified: (1) a special heat pump whose coefficient of performance continues to rise with source temperature over the entire range appropriate for solar assist, and (2) a low-cost collection and storage subsystem able to supply solar energy to the heat pump efficiently at low temperatures. Programs leading to the development of these components are discussed. A solar assisted heat pump system using these components is simulated via a computer, and the results of the simulation are used as the basis for a cost comparison of the proposed system with other solar and conventional systems.

Andrews, J W; Kush, E A; Metz, P D

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

includes two components: the price of the water depending on the specific source , and the cost of electricity required to pump the water from the source into the...

146

DOE Office of Indian Energy Foundational Course on Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DIRECT USE FOR BUILDING HEAT & HOT WATER Presented by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Course Outline 2 What we will cover...  About the DOE Office of Indian Energy Education Initiative  Course Introduction  Solar Thermal and Solar Ventilation Air Pre-Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Biomass Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Geothermal Building Heat - Resources, Technology, Examples & Cost, and References  Additional Information & Resources Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs is responsible for assisting Tribes with energy planning and development, infrastructure, energy costs, and electrification of Indian

147

Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loan Program (North Carolina) Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Loan Program (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water...

148

Fort Pierce Utilities Authority - Solar Water Heating Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fort Pierce Utilities Authority - Solar Water Heating Rebate (Florida) Fort Pierce Utilities Authority - Solar Water Heating Rebate (Florida) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings...

149

Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rebate Program (North Carolina) Lumbee River EMC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program (North Carolina) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water...

150

Austin Energy - Solar Water Heating Rebate | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Savings Austin Energy - Solar Water Heating Rebate Austin Energy - Solar Water Heating Rebate Eligibility...

151

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards Eligibility...

152

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina) Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies...

153

Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version Download...

154

FirstEnergy (West Penn Power) - Residential Solar Water Heating...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FirstEnergy (West Penn Power) - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Pennsylvania) FirstEnergy (West Penn Power) - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Pennsylvania)...

155

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

156

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) Provides...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) Provides total and average annual residential energy consumption for water heating in U.S. households in 2005, measured in...

157

Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating...

158

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost of underground water has also been considered. The economics of the heat pump and other cooling and heating sources has been compared and then several simple methods to improve the thermal economics of the underground water heat pump system have been put forward.

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Prototype solar heating and hot water systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is a collection of two quarterly status reports from Colt, Inc., covering the period from October 1, 1977 through June 30, 1978. Colt is developing two prototype solar heating and hot water systems consisting of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, hot water, and auxiliary energy. The two systems are being installed at Yosemite, California and Pueblo, Colorado.

Not Available

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

HECDOR: a heat exchanger cost and design optimization routine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An update is presented on a series of four computer codes developed by the Bureau of Mines. The programs were developed to evaluate design parameters and cost of heat exchangers. The major differences in three of the programs were concerned with pumping costs; the first (N = 1) used both fluids, the second (N = 2) used tube side fluid, and the third (N = 3) used shell side fluid as a base for prime parameters. All three assumed no change in phase. The fourth program (N = 4) assumed a change of phase on the shell side.

Turner, S.E.; Madsen, W.W.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Comparing maintenance costs of geothermal heat pump systems with other HVAC systems: Preventive maintenance actions and total maintenance costs  

SciTech Connect

Total annual heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) maintenance costs were determined for 20 schools in the Lincoln, Nebraska, Public School District. Each school examined provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and relies on one of the following heating and cooling systems to provide the majority of space conditioning: vertical-bore, geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACC/GHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCC/GSB). A precursor to this study examined annual costs associated with repair, service, and corrective maintenance activities tracked in a work order database. This follow-up study examines costs associated with preventive maintenance (PM) activities conducted by the district. Annual PM costs were 5.87 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (63.14 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for ACC/GHWB schools, followed by 7.14 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (76.86 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for GHP, 9.82 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (105.39 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for WCC/ GSB, and 12.65 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (136.30 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for WCC/GHWB. The results of the two analyses are combined to produce an estimate of total annual maintenance costs, by system type, for the 20 schools. Total annual maintenance costs were 8.75 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (94.20 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for ACC/GHWB schools, followed by 9.27 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (99.76 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for GHP, 13.54 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (145.49 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for WCC/GSB, and 18.71 {cents}/yr-ft{sup 2} (201.61 {cents}/yr-m{sup 2}) for WCC/GHWB. It should be noted that these costs represent only the trends seen in the maintenance database of the Lincoln School District. Because of differences in the number of schools using each system type, varying equipment age, and the small total number of schools included in the study, the maintenance costs presented here may not be representative of the maintenance costs seen for similar equipment in other locations.

Martin, M.A.; Madgett, M.G.; Hughes, P.J.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Heat pump water heaters. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A survey of the eleven manufacturers of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the United States is presented. Product characteristics and application guidelines, including economic comparisons to other means of water heating, are summarized. A survey of forty-five utilities, identified as having conducted field tests of HPWHs, is also presented. Based on the experiences of these utilities, experimental designs, instrumentation schemes, and data reduction methods are recommended. A brief assessment of utility load profile impacts illustrates that HPWHs can provide peak load reductions compared to electric resistance water heaters. Specific recommendations are made for further research and development of HPWHs.

Dobyns, J.E.; Blatt, M.H.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Design manual for solar heating of buildings and domestic hot water  

SciTech Connect

This manual presents design and cost analysis methods for sizing and payback estimating of solar heat collectors for augmentation of portable water heaters and space heaters. Sufficient information is presented to enable almost anyone to design solar space and water heating systems or conduct basic feasibility studies preparatory to design of large installations. Both retrofit and new installations are considered. (MOW)

Field, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recovery Steam Generators Water Treatment System Electricalapplicable), heat recovery steam generators, water treatmentMW Combustion Turbines Steam Turbine Generators Heat

Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Combined heat recovery and make-up water heating system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cogeneration plant is described comprising in combination: a first stage source of hot gas; a duct having an inlet for receiving the hot gas and an outlet stack open to the atmosphere; a second stage recovery heat steam generator including an evaporator situated in the duct, and economizer in the duct downstream of the evaporator, and steam drum fluidly connected to the evaporator and the economizer; feedwater supply means including a deaerator heater and feedwater pump for supplying deaerated feedwater to the steam drum through the economizer; makeup water supply means including a makeup pump for delivering makeup water to the deaerator heater; means fluidly connected to the steam drum for supplying auxiliary steam to the deaerator heater; and heat exchanger means located between the deaerator and the economizer, for transferring heat from the feedwater to the makeup water, thereby increasing the temperature of the makeup water delivered to the deaerator and decreasing the temperature of the feedwater delivered to the economizer, without fluid exchange.

Kim, S.Y.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

O&M First! Actions You Can Take to Reduce Heating Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fact Sheet Actions You Can Take to Reduce Heating Costs Heating accounts for a significant energy load and usually presents a number of opportunities to improve performance and...

167

Return temperature influence of a district heating network on the CHP plant production costs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The aim of this Project is to study the influence of high return temperatures in district heating on the costs for heat and power (more)

Sallent, Roger

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Innovative Miniaturized Heat Pumps for Buildings: Modular Thermal Hub for Building Heating, Cooling and Water Heating  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Georgia Tech is using innovative components and system design to develop a new type of absorption heat pump. Georgia Techs new heat pumps are energy efficient, use refrigerants that do not emit greenhouse gases, and can run on energy from combustion, waste heat, or solar energy. Georgia Tech is leveraging enhancements to heat and mass transfer technology possible in microscale passages and removing hurdles to the use of heat-activated heat pumps that have existed for more than a century. Use of microscale passages allows for miniaturization of systems that can be packed as monolithic full-system packages or discrete, distributed components enabling integration into a variety of residential and commercial buildings. Compared to conventional heat pumps, Georgia Techs design innovations will create an absorption heat pump that is much smaller, has higher energy efficiency, and can also be mass produced at a lower cost and assembly time.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products or systems that heat, cool and heat domestic water, which are also referred to as integrated systems, have been available for several years. The concept is simple and appeals to consumers. This paper presents methods for evaluating the potential savings by using an integrated system that heats water by desuperheating discharge gas in the refrigeration cycle. The methods may be applied for any specific location, and their accuracy will depend on the accuracy of building loads and water usage estimates. Power demand can also be affected by electric water heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks.

Cawley, R.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

Rudd, A.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Inexpensive solar-wood water heating combinations  

SciTech Connect

A promising batch heater recently built and now being tested consists of lengths of eight-inch galvanized culvert pipe painted with semiselective black coating, hooked in series and tied in as part of a passive closed loop, unpressurized solar-wood water heating combination. One 10-foot length of eight-inch culvert contains 14.6 gallons of water. Eight-inch culvert provides a near optimum surface area per unit volume ratio, resulting in quicker, more efficient solar water heating. Moreover, the proposed arrangement minimizes the mixing of hot with cold water as warm water is used, often a problem with many types of batch heaters. Details for constructing this type of batch heater are provided. The system is an unpressurized, closed loop set-up, which means that the same liquid circulates continually from solar heater to wood heater to storage tank heat exchanger. The collector design is a variation on the inverted batch heater which takes its inspiration from a number of solar designers of similar units and introduces several additional measures to take advantage of the wood heating connection and to improve the design based on operating experience.

Poitras, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems May 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional change in length (or sometimes in volume, when specified) of a material for a unit change in temperature Viscosity - resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow) Thermal capacity - the ability of matter to store heat Freezing point - the temperature below which a liquid turns into a

175

#tipsEnergy: Saving on Home Heating Costs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

tipsEnergy: Saving on Home Heating Costs tipsEnergy: Saving on Home Heating Costs November 23, 2012 - 3:37pm Addthis Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications...

176

List of Solar Water Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Water Heat Incentives Solar Water Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 920 Solar Water Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-920) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) Corporate Tax Credit Vermont Commercial Industrial Photovoltaics Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal Process Heat Solar Water Heat No APS - GEOSmart Financing Program (Arizona) Utility Loan Program Arizona Residential Solar Water Heat Photovoltaics No APS - Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Residential Anaerobic Digestion Biomass Daylighting Geothermal Electric Ground Source Heat Pumps Landfill Gas

177

Service Water Heat Exchanger Testing Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report will assist the Service Water Heat Exchanger (SWHX) test engineer in designing specific test methods which define and constrain the analysis, operational and measurement strategies for each specific SWHX application. The resulting test methods will provide the necessary assurance that the results of tests are sufficiently representative of the true capability of the SWHX.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program Rock Hill Utilities - Water Heater and Heat Pump Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Water Heater: up to $275 Heat Pump Replacement: $400 Provider Rock Hill Utilities Through the SmartChoice program, Rock Hill Utilities offers rebates for water heater and heat pump replacements. Information on financing for heat pumps can also be found on the web site listed above. If both the water heater and heat pump are purchased then the customer may qualify for the Great Rate program. The Great Rate program will add a 25% discount to a

179

AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

Akyurt, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

"PART 1: ENERGY/WATER CONSUMPTION AND COST DATA"  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cost (Thou. )","Facility Gross Square Feet (Thou.)","Gallons per Gross Square Foot" "Buildings & Facilities Subject to Water Goal",,0,0,0,"ERROR" ,,,,,"Percent"...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Optimization Online - Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Feb 21, 2011 ... Robust Energy Cost Optimization of Water Distribution System with Uncertain Demand. Alexander Goryashko(ale_gory ***at*** rambler.ru)

182

Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water Knox County Detention Facility Goes Solar for Heating Water August 16, 2010 - 12:30pm Addthis An array of solar collectors | Photo courtesy of Trane An array of solar collectors | Photo courtesy of Trane Maya Payne Smart Former Writer for Energy Empowers, EERE What are the key facts? Recovery Act grant funds solar farm to heat 14,000 gallons of water a day Estimated to save $60,000 a year 174 tons of CO2 emissions avoided annually Hot water demand soars at the six-building Knox County Detention Facility in Tennessee. It's open 24/7 with 1,036 inmate beds and 4,500 meals served daily-and don't forget the laundry. Naturally, county officials sought an alternative to costly water heating. Their solution: a $1.88 million solar thermal system, among

184

Cold-Climate Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems: Cost/Benefit Analysis and Opportunities for Improvement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To determine potential for reduction in the cost of saved energy (COSE) for cold-climate solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems, COSE was computed for three types of cold climate water heating systems. For each system, a series of cost-saving measures was considered: (1) balance of systems (BOS): tank, heat exchanger, and piping-valving measures; and (2) four alternative lower-cost collectors. Given all beneficial BOS measures in place, >50% reduction of COSE was achievable only with selective polymer collectors at half today's selective collector cost. In all three system types, today's metal-glass selective collector achieved the same COSE as the hypothesized non-selective polymer collector.

Burch, J.; Hillman, T.; Salasovich, J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Heating Technologies to someone by E-mail Water Heating Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Water Heating Technologies on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Technology Deployment Technology Deployment List Solid-State Lighting

186

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program Gulf Power - Solar Thermal Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Provider Energy Efficiency '''''This program reopened on October 3, 2011 for 2012 applications. Funding is limited and must be reserved through online application before the installation of qualifying solar water heating systems. See Gulf Power's [http://www.gulfpower.com/renewable/solarThermal.asp Solar Water Heating] web site for more information.''''' Gulf Power offers a Solar Thermal Water Heating rebate to customers who install water heaters. This program started after the original pilot

187

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo...

188

KIUC - Solar Water Heating Loan Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with zero-interest loans for solar water heating systems. The loan is available for installations of new systems, or to replace solar water heating systems that are over 15...

189

KIUC - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

800 rebate for each solar water heating system installed. The rebate is available for installations of new systems, or to replace solar water heating systems that are over 15...

190

Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to...

191

Evaluating the costs of desalination and water transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working paper FNU-41 revised Many regions of the world are facing formidable freshwater scarcity. Although there is substantial scope for economizing on the consumption of water without affecting its service level, the main response to water scarcity has been to increase the supply. To a large extent, this is done by transporting water from places where it is abundant to places where it is scarce. At a smaller scale, and without a lot of public and political attention, people have started to tap into the sheer limitless resource of desalinated water. This study looks at the development of desalination and its costs over time. The unit costs of desalinated water for five main processes are evaluated, followed by regressions to analyze the main influencing factors to the costs. The unit costs for all processes have fallen considerably over the years. This study suggests that a cost of 1 $/m 3 for seawater desalination and 0.6 $/m 3 for brackish water would be feasible today. The costs will continue to decline in the future as technology progresses. In addition, a literature review on the costs of water transport is conducted in order to estimate the total cost of desalination and the transport of desalinated water to selected water stress cities. Transport costs range from a few cents per cubic meter to over a dollar. A 100 m vertical lift is about as costly as a 100 km horizontal transport (0.05-0.06$/m 3). Transport makes desalinated water prohibitively expensive in highlands and continental interiors, but not elsewhere.

Yuan Zhou A; Richard S. J. Tol B

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Evaluating the costs of desalination and water transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] Many regions of the world are facing formidable freshwater scarcity. Although there is substantial scope for economizing on the consumption of water without affecting its service level, the main response to water scarcity has been to increase the supply. To a large extent, this is done by transporting water from places where it is abundant to places where it is scarce. At a smaller scale and without a lot of public and political attention, people have started to tap into the sheer limitless resource of desalinated water. This study looks at the development of desalination and its costs over time. The unit costs of desalinated water for five main processes are evaluated, followed by regressions to analyze the main influencing factors to the costs. The unit costs for all processes have fallen considerably over the years. This study suggests that a cost of $1/m 3 for seawater desalination and $0.6/m 3 for brackish water would be feasible today. The costs will continue to decline in the future as technology progresses. In addition, a literature review on the costs of water transport is conducted in order to estimate the total cost of desalination and the transport of desalinated water to selected water stress cities. Transport costs range from a few cents per cubic meter to over a dollar. A 100 m vertical lift is about as costly as a 100 km horizontal transport ($0.050.06/m 3). Transport makes desalinated water prohibitively expensive in highlands and continental interiors but not elsewhere.

Yuan Zhou; Richard S. J. Tol

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Table WH1. Total Households Using Water Heating Equipment, 2005 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table WH1. Total Households Using Water Heating Equipment, 2005 Million U.S. Households Fuels Used (million U.S. households) Number of Water Heaters Used

194

Progress Energy Carolinas - SunSense Commercial Solar Water Heating...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fed. Government, Industrial, Institutional, Local Government, Nonprofit, Schools, State Government Eligible Technologies Solar Water Heat Active Incentive No Implementing...

195

NREL Evaluates Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.

Not Available

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Abstract: Isochoric Heat Capacity of Light and Heavy Water at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isochoric Heat Capacity of Light and Heavy Water at Subcritical and Supercritical Conditions. IM Abdulagatov, JW Magee ...

197

Heat transfer and condensation of water vapour from humid air in compact heat exchangers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, an experimental and simulation study of heat transfer in water-to-air compact-plate heat exchanger is presented. A compact-plate heat exchanger made of polypropylene, (more)

Saraireh, Mohammad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads are high and the cooling season is long. Because commercial kitchens and laundry facilities have simultaneous water heating and cooling needs, they are excellent applications for heat pump water heaters. Typical heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) operate at an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of approximately 3.0 for water heating alone. Space conditioning benefits of about 0.67 Btu are delivered at no additional cost for each Btu of water heating output. In situations in which this cooling output is valued, the dual thermal outputs for heating and cooling make heat pump water heaters particularly attractive. The comfort value of added cooling in overheated facilities and the resulting increase in employee and customer satisfaction are frequently cited as additional benefits. This paper describes currently available heat pump water heating equipment and offers guidelines for successful applications in commercial facilities. The results of field test programs involving more than 100 units in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and other areas are incorporated. Initial conclusions are drawn from a reliability database, and interviews with utility applications specialists and manufacturers are discussed. Design tools are reviewed, including a new comprehensive computer simulation model. Emphasis is placed on identifying sound candidates for installations and on application and design considerations. A brief survey is provided of environmental implications of heat pump water heaters and new developments in heat pump water heater equipment.

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Efficiency of Steam and Hot Water Heat Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency of Steam and Hot Water Heat Distribution Systems Gary Phetteplace September 1995- tion medium (steam or hot water) and temperature for heat distribution systems. The report discusses the efficiency of both steam and hot water heat distribution systems in more detail. The results of several field

200

City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate < Back Eligibility Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 450 Provider City of Tallahassee Utilities The City of Tallahassee Utilities offers a $450 rebate to homeowners* and homebuilders who install a solar water-heating system. This rebate may be applied to a first-time installation or to the replacement of an older solar water-heating system. Homebuilders may also apply for the rebate when installing a solar water heater on a new home. Pool heating systems are not eligible for the rebate. The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Washington) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 05/01/2012 State District of Columbia Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program Provider Northwest Energy Efficiency Project The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is

203

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Cost of Increased Energy Efficiency for Residential Water Heaters Speaker(s): Alex Lekov Date: March 22, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Julie Osborn This presentation describes the analysis of the costs of increased energy efficiency for residential water heaters. Here, we focus on the cost and efficiency data for electric and gas-fired water heaters. This data formed the basis of the Technical Support Document for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Final Rule on Water Heaters. The engineering analysis uses computer simulation models to investigate the efficiency improvements due to design options and combinations thereof. The analysis covers four polyurethane foam insulation types based on non-ozone-depleting substances as blowing

204

Santa Clara Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program Santa Clara Water and Sewer - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Local Government Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Commercial Heating & Cooling Program Info State California Program Type Leasing Program Provider City of Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utility In 1975, the City of Santa Clara established the nation's first municipal solar utility. Under the Solar Water Heating Program, the Santa Clara Water and Sewer Utilities Department supplies, installs and maintains solar water heating systems for residents and businesses. In addition, the city has also installed solar energy equipment for a number of its own facilities. Solar equipment is available from the city for heating swimming pools,

205

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the collector and heat exchanger (Uc and Uhel ~Constant tNational Standard, "Solar Heat Exchangers," ANSI/ASME SES 1,connecting pipes header heat exchanger insulation maximum

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

A capital cost comparison of commercial ground-source heat pump systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of the report is to compare capital costs associated with the three designs of ground source heat pumps. Specifically, the costs considered are those associated with the heat source/heat sink or ground source portion of the system. In order to standardize the heat rejection over the three designs, it was assumed that the heat pump loop would operate at a temperature range of 85{degree} (to the heat pumps) to 95{degree} (from the heat pumps) under peak conditions. The assumption of constant loop temperature conditions for all three permits an apples-to-apples comparison of the alternatives.

Rafferty, K.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates Residential Solar Water Heating Rebates < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Solar Heating Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,900 Program Info Funding Source New Hampshire Renewable Energy Fund (REF) Start Date 04/21/2010 Expiration Date When funding is exhausted State New Hampshire Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500, $1,700 or $1,900, depending on annual estimated system output Provider New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission New Hampshire offers a rebate for residential solar water-heating systems and solar space-heating systems. The rebate is equal to $1,500 for systems with an annual estimated output of 5.5 MMBTU to 19.9 MMBTU; $1,700 for

208

GEOCITY: a computer model for systems analysis of geothermal district heating and cooling costs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEOCITY is a computer-simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating/cooling using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating/cooling based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The basis for our geothermal-energy cost analysis is the unit cost of energy which will recover all the costs of production. The calculation of the unit cost of energy is based on life-cycle costing and discounted-cash-flow analysis. A wide variation can be expected in the range of potential geothermal district heating and cooling costs. The range of costs is determined by the characteristics of the resource, the characteristics of the demand, and the distance separating the resource and the demand. GEOCITY is a useful tool for estimating costs for each of the main parts of the production process and for determining the sensitivity of these costs to several significant parameters under a consistent set of assumptions.

Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

searc searc e er tra A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida searc e er tra Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Laboratory House Building America Technical Update 2013 ACI National Home Performance Conference April 29- 30 , 2013 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Re h Institut of the Univ sity of Cen l Florida FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Grounds, Florida (east coast) 2009 -Present (Currently fourth testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida

210

Solar Water Heating Incentive Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solar Water Heating Incentive Program Solar Water Heating Incentive Program Solar Water Heating Incentive Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Swimming Pool Heaters Water Heating Maximum Rebate Varies by sector, location, technology, and electric or gas provider; see below for details Program Info Start Date October 2003 State Oregon Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies by sector, water heating fuel, and electric or gas provider; see below for details Provider Energy Trust of Oregon Beginning in the fall of 2003, Energy Trust of Oregon's Solar Water Heating (SWH) Incentive Program offers incentives to customers of Pacific Power, PGE, NW Natural Gas and Cascade Natural Gas who install solar water or pool

211

THERMOSIPHON WATER HEATERS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11 ector connecting pipes header heat exchanger insulationLt total connecting pipe length, m (ft) total number of heat

Mertol, Atila

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Sensible Heat Observations Reveal Soil-Water Evaporation Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil-water evaporation is important at scales ranging from microbial ecology to large-scale climate. Yet routine measurements are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in soil-water evaporation. ...

J. L. Heitman; R. Horton; T. J. Sauer; T. M. DeSutter

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

214

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System Siting Your Solar Water Heating System May 30, 2012 - 2:46pm Addthis Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Solar water heaters should be placed facing due south. Before you buy and install a solar water heating system, you need to first consider your site's solar resource, as well as the optimal orientation and tilt of your solar collector. The efficiency and design of a solar water heating system depends on how much of the sun's energy reaches your building site. Solar water heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Even if you don't live in a climate that's warm and sunny most of the time -- like the southwestern United States -- your site still might have an adequate solar resource. If your building site has unshaded areas and

215

Control system for electric water heater with heat pump external heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system for an electric water heater operatively associated with an external heat source, such as a heat pump. The water heater includes a water storage tank provided with an electric tank heating unit having a tank thermostat which closes in response to water temperature in the tank, allowing a flow of current through the tank heating unit so as to turn it on to heat the water, and which opens when the tank thermostat has been satisfied, interrupting the current flow so as to turn the tank heating unit off. The control system as responsive to the initial current surge through the tank heating unit when the tank thermostat closes to interrupt the current flow to the tank heating unit so as to maintain the heating unit off and to turn on the external heat source and maintain it on until the tank thermostat opens. The initial current surge cleans the contacts of the tank thermostat by burning off any insulating oxide residues which may have formed on them. The control system includes means responsive to abnormal conditions which would prevent the external heat source from heating water effectively for turning off the external heat source and turning on the tank heating unit and maintaining the external heat source off and the tank heating unit on until the tank thermostat is satisfied.

Shaffer Jr., J. E.; Picarello, J. F.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

216

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

SciTech Connect

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Cost benefits from applying advanced heat rejection concepts to a wet/dry-cooled binary geothermal plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optimized ammonia heat rejection system designs were carried out for three water allocations equivalent to 9, 20, and 31% of that of a 100% wet-cooled plant. The Holt/Procon design of a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant for the Heber site was used as a design basis. The optimization process took into account the penalties for replacement power, gas turbine capital, and lost capacity due to increased heat rejection temperature, as well as added base plant capacity and fuel to provide fan and pump power to the heat rejection system. Descriptions of the three plant designs are presented. For comparison, a wet tower loop was costed out for a 100% wet-cooled plant using the parameters of the Holt/Procon design. Wet/dry cooling was found to increase the cost of electricity by 28% above that of a 100% wet-cooled plant for all three of the water allocations studied (9, 20, and 31%). The application selected for a preconceptual evaluation of the BCT (binary cooling tower) system was the use of agricultural waste water from the New River, located in California's Imperial Valley, to cool a 50-MWe binary geothermal plant. Technical and cost evaluations at the preconceptual level indicated that performance estimates provided by Tower Systems Incorporated (TSI) were reasonable and that TSI's tower cost, although 2 to 19% lower than PNL estimates, was also reasonable. Electrical cost comparisonswere made among the BCT system, a conventional 100% wet system, and a 9% wet/dry ammonia system, all using agricultural waste water with solar pond disposal. The BCT system cost the least, yielding a cost of electricity only 13% above that of a conventional wet system using high quality water and 14% less than either the conventional 100% wet or the 9% wet/dry ammonia system.

Faletti, D.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program Lakeland Electric - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date June 2010 State Florida Program Type Other Incentive Provider Lakeland Electric Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar equipment vendor, Regenesis Lakeland, LLC, to install solar water heaters on participating customers' homes. Lakeland Electric bills the customer $34.95 per month regardless of use. Each solar heater is metered and equipped with a heating element timer as a demand management feature. The $34.95 monthly charge is a bulk energy

219

Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services May 29, 2012 - 7:04pm Addthis Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems evaluated by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Certified Solar Collectors and Systems Solar Rating and Certification Corporation Information on solar collectors and pool heating systems certified under the various Solar Rating and Certification Corporation's rating programs.

220

Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Beaches Energy Services - Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per customer Rebates will not exceed purchase price Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Solar Water Heater: $500 Provider Beaches Energy Services Beaches Energy Services offers a solar water heating rebate to their residential customers. This $500 rebate applies to new systems which are properly installed and certified. New construction and solar pool heating systems do not qualify for the rebate payment. Systems must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor and must be FSEC certified. Rebates will not

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Water Heating Products and Services | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services Water Heating Products and Services May 29, 2012 - 7:04pm Addthis Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Choosing an efficient water heater will help you save money and Energy. | Photo Credit Energy Department Use the following links to get product information and locate professional services for water heating. Product Information Solar Pool Heating Systems Florida Solar Energy Center Listing of solar pool heating systems evaluated by the Florida Solar Energy Center. Certified Solar Collectors and Systems Solar Rating and Certification Corporation Information on solar collectors and pool heating systems certified under the various Solar Rating and Certification Corporation's rating programs.

222

Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

Two Stage Vapor Compression Heat Pump with Solution Circuits: Catering to Simultaneous Chilling and Water Heating Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The benefits of using a two stage vapor compression heat pump with ammonia water solution circuits (VCHSC) to simultaneously provide chilled water for air conditioning and hot water for various uses are reviewed. The performance results for a two stage VCHSC are summarized. Experimental results indicate that the two stage VCHSC can achieve cooling coefficient of performances as high as 1.04 while pumping heat through a lift of 194F (108C). Comparison is made with a system consisting of a vapor compressor chiller and a gas fired furnace. The basis for comparison being primary energy usage, energy cost and initial cost of the systems. Energy saving at various operating conditions is estimated. In some cases, energy saving could be as high as 31%. Based on the national average energy prices in 1991 and the projected prices for 1995, suitable applications for the two stage VCHSC have been identified.

Rane, M. V.; Radermacher, R.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Field Monitoring of a Geothermal Heat Pump Water Heater: Unicoi County High School, Erwin, Tennessee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A geothermal heat pump water heater (HPWH) system -- installed to preheat water entering a 250-gallon gas-fired water heater (GWH) at a Tennessee high school -- reduced water-heating costs by 34 percent per year, compared to the base case GWH system. This report provides results from field monitoring of the geothermal HPWH system, tested in three distinct operating modes for five months. The program goal was to assess the energy and economic benefits of the GWH system with and without the geothermal HPWH...

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail High Water Heating Bills on Lockdown at Idaho Jail August 19, 2010 - 12:05pm Addthis The Blaine County Public Safety Facility houses between 60 and 80 prisoners and roughly 30 staffers. | Photo courtesy of Blaine The Blaine County Public Safety Facility houses between 60 and 80 prisoners and roughly 30 staffers. | Photo courtesy of Blaine Lindsay Gsell What does this project do? The new solar thermal hot water system will provide nearly 70 percent of the BTUs required for heating 600,000 gallons of water for the jail annually, saving the county more than $4,000 a year in electricity costs at current rates. In Hailey, Idaho, one 330,000 square foot building - the Blaine County Public Safety Facility - accounts for the county's highest operational

226

Advanced Heat Pump Water Heating Technology: Testing Commercial and Residential Systems in the Laboratory and Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) provide electric water heating at a much greater overall efficiency than conventional electric resistance systems. In the residential market, approximately half of all water heaters are electric resistance; these systems can be replaced by HPWHs in most applications with expected savings of 30%60%. In commercial applications, most systems presently use natural gas or another fuel in direct combustion. Emerging HPWH systems are now able to provide water heating ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

227

Cost-effective solar collectors using heat pipes. Interim progress report No. 1, September 1977-March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is the demonstration of high performance, cost effective non-concentrating solar collectors using heat pipes. The end products will be directly applicable for efficient use with absorption and Rankine cycle chillers. Evacuated tubular solar collectors were selected as the only economical non-concentrating approach capable of efficient operation of chillers. The General Electric TC family of collectors was chosen because of their superior performance and compatibility with heat pipe integration. The system was designed and specified. This work included the integration of the heat pipe with the evacuated tubular solar collector and the pumped loop heat removal mechanism. To date, two heat pipe fluid-envelope combinations look attractive: water-aluminum bearing steel and ethanol-low carbon steel. The jury is still out on the ability for the water-aluminum bearing steel to survive freezing cycles and for ethanol-low carbon steel to withstand predicted 400/sup 0/C stagnation temperatures. Full scale cost analysis was not completed for either case. Two 4' x 4' panels, each with ten tubular collectors fitted with heat pipes, were erected at Thermacore to test various aspects of the heat pipe and its integration into the collector-pumped loop system.

Ernst, D.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

TRNSYS simulation of solar water heating system in Iraq  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to model and verify a direct solar water heating system in Baghdad, Iraq using TRNSYS software to meet the demand of hot water for 25 persons. This is achieved by using 10 m2 of a flat plate collector and 600 ... Keywords: Baghdad-Iraq, TRNSYS, solar, water heating

M. N. Mohammed; M. A. Alghoul; Kh. Abulqasem; Alshrif. Mustafa; Kh. Glaisa; P. Ooshaksaraei; M. Yahya; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Title Determining Benefits and Costs of Improved Water Heater Efficiencies Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-45618 Year of Publication 2000 Authors Lekov, Alexander B., James D. Lutz, Xiaomin Liu, Camilla Dunham Whitehead, and James E. McMahon Document Number LBNL-45618 Date Published May 4 Abstract Economic impacts on individual consumers from possible revisions to U.S. residential water heater energy-efficiency standards are examined using a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing a water heater and operating it over its lifetime. This approach makes it possible to evaluate the economic impacts on individual consumers from the revised standards. The methodology allows an examination of groups of the population which benefit or lose from suggested efficiency standards. The results show that the economic benefits to consumers are significant. At the efficiency level examined in this paper, 35% of households with electric water heaters experience LCC savings, with an average savings of $106, while 4% show LCC losses, with an average loss of $40 compared to a pre-standard LCC average of $2,565. The remainder of the population (61%) are largely unaffected.

232

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

1983-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

Space heating systems in the Northwest: energy usage and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The question of energy usage and cost of providing space heat in the Northwest is discussed. Though space heating needs represents only 18% of the U.S.'s total energy consumption, it nevertheless appears to offer the greatest potential for conservation and near term applications of alternate energy sources. Efficiency and economic feasibility factors are considered in providing for space heating demands. These criteria are presented to establish energy usage, cost effectiveness and beneficial conservation practices for space heating of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Four Northwestern cities have been chosen whose wide range of climate conditions are used to formulate the seasonal fuel and capital cost and hence the annual heating cost covering a broad spectrum of heating applications, both the traditional methods, the newer alternate forms of energy, and various methods to achieve more efficient utilization of all types.

Keller, J.G.; Kunze, J.F.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Space heating systems in the Northwest: energy usage and cost analysis  

SciTech Connect

The question of energy usage and cost of providing space heat in the Northwest is discussed. Though space heating needs represents only 18% of the U.S.'s total energy consumption, it nevertheless appears to offer the greatest potential for conservation and near term applications of alternate energy sources. Efficiency and economic feasibility factors are considered in providing for space heating demands. These criteria are presented to establish energy usage, cost effectiveness and beneficial conservation practices for space heating of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings. Four Northwestern cities have been chosen whose wide range of climate conditions are used to formulate the seasonal fuel and capital cost and hence the annual heating cost covering a broad spectrum of heating applications, both the traditional methods, the newer alternate forms of energy, and various methods to achieve more efficient utilization of all types.

Keller, J.G.; Kunze, J.F.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

can be cost effective in all regionsfor most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most...

236

Advances in the Research of Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the progress of many recently correlative research works on the heat pump water heater (HPWH) and on solar-assisted heat pump water heaters. The advances in the research on compressor development, alternative refrigerant technology for a compressor HPWH are separately summarized. A new study on frosting/defrosting of an air source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) is also discussed. The trends of some new technologies of HPWH are analyzed.

Shan, S.; Wang, D.; Wang, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Cost of Heat Exchanger Fouling in the U. S. Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fouling of heat exchangers costs the U.S. industries hundreds of millions of dollars every year in increased equipment costs, maintenance costs, energy losses and losses in production. The designer of heat exchangers usually allows for fouling by using a fouling factor in the design which results in additional capital cost of the heat exchanger. As fouling deposits build up in a heat exchanger, its performance will start to deteriorate and less energy will be transferred through the unit. A plot is provided that gives the percent decrease in heat flux, for a constant driving temperature difference, as a function of the clean overall heat transfer coefficient and the fouling factor. Another plot gives the increase in surface area due to fouling for the same heat transfer rate and driving temperature difference, as a function of the clean overall heat transfer coefficient and the fouling factor. The overall heat transfer market was divided into four sectors: the chemical, petroleum, electric utility and other industries. The 1982 U.S. sales of all industrial heat exchangers, excepting boilers and automotive radiators, was about 285,000 units amounting to about $1.6 billion. The total heat duty of all the heat exchangers in industrial operation, including electric utilities, was estimated at 11.7 Quads. If this represented the amount of heat transferred through clean heat exchangers, the decrease in energy transferred due to fouling or the cost of fouling in terms of energy lost was estimated at 2.9 Quads annually. The cost of fouling, in providing for additional surface area to compensate for a decrease in heat transfer, was conservatively estimated at $180 million in 1982.

Rebello, W. J.; Richlen, S. L.; Childs, F.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Analysis of the performance and space-conditioning impacts of dedicated heat-pump water heaters  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the development and testing of the newly-marketed dedicated heat pump water heater (HPWH), and an analysis is presented of its performance and space conditioning impacts. This system utilizes an air-to-water heat pump, costs about $1000 installed, and obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of about 2.0 in laboratory and field tests. Since a HPWH is usually installed indoors and extracts heat from the air, its operation is a space conditioning benefit if an air conditioning load exists and a penalty if a space heating load exists. To investigate HPWH performance and a space conditioning impacts, a simulation has been developed to model the thermal performance of a residence with resistance baseboard heat, air conditioning, and either heat pump or resistance water heating. The building characteristics are adapted for three US geographical areas (Madison, Wisconsin; Washington, DC; and Ft. Worth, Texas), and the system is simulated for a year with typical weather data. For each city, HPWH COPs are calculated monthly and yearly. In addition, the water heating and space conditioning energy requirements of HPWH operation are compared with those of resistance water heater operation to determine the relative performance ratio (RPR) of the HPWH. The annual simulated RPRs range from 1.5 to 1.7, which indicate a substantial space heating penalty of HPWH operation in these cities.

Morrison, L.; Swisher, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Residential Energy Consumption for Water Heating (2005) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Water Heating (2005) for Water Heating (2005) Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average annual residential energy consumption for water heating in U.S. households in 2005, measured in both physical units and Btus. The data is presented for numerous categories including: Census Region and Climate Zone; Housing Unit Characteristics (type, year of construction, size, income, race, age); and Water Heater and Water-using Appliance Characteristics (size, age, frequency of use, EnergyStar rating). Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords Energy Consumption Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Consumption.for_.Water_.Heating.Phys_.Units_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 67.6 KiB)

240

Recovery Act-Funded Water Heating Projects | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Performance (an efficiency measure) of up to 8. These next generation R-744 heat pump water heaters will be targeted for commercial use where cooling load is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) < Back...

242

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of 750 is...

243

Energy Saving Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater - Energy ...  

ORNLs new absorption heat pump and water heater technology offers substantial energy savings and can reduce the use of fossil fuels by buildings. While ...

244

Available Technologies: Heat-powered Water Pump and Purifier  

Berkeley Lab engineer Leif Steinhour has developed a heat-powered pump that purifies water while moving the fluid. The technology requires no moving ...

245

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY.GOV - Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 Here at the Energy Department, we are working with our National Laboratories, private companies and...

246

NREL Develops Heat Pump Water Heater Simulation Model (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

A new simulation model helps researchers evaluate real-world impacts of heat pump water heaters in U.S. homes.

Hudon, K.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Economical Analysis of a Groundwater Source Heat Pump with Water Thermal Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper is based on a chilled and heat source for the building which has a total area of 140000m2 in the suburb of Beijing. By comparing the groundwater source heat pump of water thermal storage (GHPWTS) with a conventional chilled and heat source scheme in economical, technical, and environmental aspects, it is determined that the scheme of the groundwater source heat pump has better energy efficiency than others. The GHPWTS can take full advantage of the heat source from groundwater and benefit of electricity difference pricing during a day. Its character is a combination of a strength and another strength. It is the lowest cycle cost of all chide and heat source schemes. The GHPWTS has the best economic benefit and runs stably and reliably. Its advantage is clearly compared with other schemes. There is a real value for the project that is similar to the characteristic of this project and the condition of the water source.

Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Our winters of discontent: Addressing the problem of rising home-heating costs1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on fossil fuels by using solar energy, reducing residential energy demand, and promoting district heating. 1ERG/200602 Our winters of discontent: Addressing the problem of rising home-heating costs1 Larry Residential space heating is a necessity in northern countries such as Canada. With over 70 percent

Hughes, Larry

249

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for geothermal district heating cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called GEOCITY has been developed to systematically calculate the potential cost of district heating using hydrothermal geothermal resources. GEOCITY combines climate, demographic factors, and heat demand of the city, resource conditions, well drilling costs, design of the distribution system, tax rates, and financial factors into one systematic model. The GEOCITY program provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heat from a geothermal resource. Both the geothermal reservoir and distribution system are simulated to model the complete district heating system. GEOCITY consists of two major parts: the geothermal reservoir submodel and the distribution submodel. The reservoir submodel calculates the unit cost of energy by simulating the exploration, development, and operation of a geothermal reservoir and the transmission of this energy to a distribution center. The distribution submodel calculates the unit cost of heat by simulating the design and operation of a district heating distribution system. GEOCITY calculates the unit cost of energy and the unit cost of heat for the district heating system based on the principle that the present worth of the revenues will be equal to the present worth of the expenses including investment return over the economic life of the distribution system.

Huber, H.D.; McDonald, C.L.; Bloomster, C.H.; Schulte, S.C.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Water Consumption from Freeze Protection Valves for Solar Water Heating Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conference paper regarding research in the use of freeze protection valves for solar domestic water heating systems in cold climates.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Analysis of Air- Analysis of Air- Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Jeffrey Munk Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Acknowledgements * Tennessee Valley Authority - David Dinse * U.S. Department of Energy * Roderick Jackson * Tony Gehl * Philip Boudreaux * ZEBRAlliance 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Overview * Electric Water Heating Options - Conventional Electric Water Heaters - Heat Pump Water Heaters * Air-Source * Ground-Source - Solar Thermal Water Heater * Variable Speed Heat Pumps - Energy Use Analysis - Measured Performance - Operational Characteristics 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentation_name Water Heating Options

252

Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best 8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? Critical Question #8: When are Heat Pump Water Heaters the Best Solution? What do we know about actual performance compared to promised performance? What is the best way to manage the space conditioning impacts on a home? Is there an easy decision tree for deciding if this is the best solution for a particular home (Climate? Utility prices? Accessibility? Physical space constraints? Workforce?)? cq8_residential_hpwh_costs_maguire.pdf cq8_hpwh_performance_colon.pdf cq8_hpwhs_multifamily_weitzel.pdf More Documents & Publications Track A - Energy Systems Innovations Illustrative Calculation of Economics for Heat Pump and "Grid-Enabled" Water Heaters Standing Technical Committee Working Sessions

253

Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the United States  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the US Jeff Maguire 4/30/13 Outline * Why HPWHs? * US Water Heating Market * Overview of HPWHs * Model Description * Results o HPWH Performance o Energy Savings Potential o Breakeven Cost 2 Heat Pump Water Heaters Save $300 a year over standard electric? Save $100 a year over standard gas? Heat Pump Electric Gas 3 Questions about HPWHs * Are HPWHs a good replacement for typical gas and electric storage water heaters? o In different locations across the country? o In conditioned/unconditioned space? o Source energy savings?

254

Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction Solar Water Heating Requirement for New Residential Construction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Hawaii Program Type Building Energy Code Provider Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism In June 2008, Hawaii enacted legislation, [http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2008/bills/SB644_CD1_.htm SB 644], with the intent to require solar water-heating (SWH) systems to be installed on all single-family new home construction, with a few exceptions. This legislation had several errors that were corrected by legislation passed during the 2009 legislative session. In June 2009, HB 1464 was signed by the governor and addressed the errors in the previous

255

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date 11/30/2009 Expiration Date 03/31/2013 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $286/system Provider Duquesne Light Company Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying system. Various equipment, installation, contractor, and warranty requirements apply, as summarized above and described in more detail in program documents. Customers must

256

Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program Lake Worth Utilities - Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $450 Rebates must not exceed purchase price Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider City of Lake Worth Utilities The City of Lake Worth Utilities (CLWU), in conjunction with Florida Municipal Power Agency, offers rebates to customers who purchase and install a solar water heating system for residential use. A rebate of $450 per system is available to eligible applicants. Eligible equipment must be located on customer premises within the CLWU service territory, and must

257

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program Valley Electric Association - Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info State Nevada Program Type Utility Loan Program Provider Valley Electric Association Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA partnered with Great Basin College to train and certify installers, creating jobs in the community, and also with Rheem Manufacturing and a local licensed contractor to install the units. A site visit is performed to determine the best installation and system design for each member. Members have the option of

258

Feasibility of geothermal space/water heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California. Final report, September 1976--September 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of a study to determine the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of geothermal district heating for Mammoth Lakes Village, California are reported. The geothermal district heating system selected is technically feasible and will use existing technology in its design and operation. District heating can provide space and water heating energy for typical customers at lower cost than alternative sources of energy. If the district heating system is investor owned, lower costs are realized after five to six years of operation, and if owned by a nonprofit organization, after zero to three years. District heating offers lower costs than alternatives much sooner in time if co-generation and/or DOE participation in system construction are included in the analysis. During a preliminary environmental assessment, no potential adverse environmental impacts could be identified of sufficient consequence to preclude the construction and operation of the proposed district heating system. A follow-on program aimed at implementing district heating in Mammoth is outlined.

Sims, A.V.; Racine, W.C.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A Consumer's Guide: Heat Your Water with the Sun (Brochure)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel, a solar water heater can be more economi- cal over the life of the system than heating water with electricity, fuel oil, propane, or even natural gas. That's because the...

260

Assessment and Demonstration of Advanced Heat Pumps for Commercial Building Water Heating Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) are an alternative to electric resistance or natural gas for domestic water heating. HPWHs are less common than other water heating technologies, but offer the potential for improved energy efficiency and potential for reduction of net CO2 emissions. New products, mainly for residential application, have been introduced to the American market over the last 2 years, which have been previously reviewed by EPRI. This report focuses on commercial applications and provides initi...

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho) Idaho) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Idaho) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 05/01/2012 State Idaho Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is also eligible for the rebate. All program requirements for equipment and installation must be met in order to receive rebates. Incentives are

262

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oregon) Oregon) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Oregon) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 5/1/2012 State Oregon Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program Provider Northwest Energy Efficiency Project The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is also eligible for the rebate. All program requirements for equipment and installation must be met in order to receive rebates. Incentives are

263

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Montana) Montana) Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate Program (Montana) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info Start Date 5/1/2012 State Montana Program Type Non-Profit Rebate Program Provider Northwest Energy Efficiency Project The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of $750 is offered for qualifying heat pump water heater units. New units must replace an existing electric water heater and must be installed by a Smart Water Heat oriented contractor. New construction is also eligible for the rebate. All program requirements for equipment and installation must be met in order to receive rebates. Incentives are

264

Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Drain Water Heat Recovery | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to shower, wash dishes, or wash clothing) to preheat cold water entering the water heater or going to other water fixtures. This reduces the amount of energy needed for water...

266

#tipsEnergy: Saving on Home Heating Costs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Saving on Home Heating Costs Saving on Home Heating Costs #tipsEnergy: Saving on Home Heating Costs November 23, 2012 - 3:37pm Addthis Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs #tipsEnergy: Saving on Home Heating Costs A feature on the Energy Department's Twitter account, #tipsEnergy highlights ways to save energy and money at home. Once a month, we ask you to share your energy-saving tips so the larger energy community can learn from you, and we feature some of the best tips in a Storify. Storified by Energy Department · Fri, Nov 23 2012 12:37:07 As we head into December, the cold weather season is officially upon us, and nowhere is that more evident than on your utility bills. Home heating and cooling uses more energy than any other

267

Energy Basics: Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for optimum operation in either summer or winter. Homeowners primarily install geothermal heat pumps-which draw heat from the ground during the winter and from the indoor air...

268

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat to a water heating load. The tests, conducted for Georgia Power Company, examined both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the heat pumps and the overall water heating systems. The results provide valuable insight into the actual operating characteristics of heat pump water heaters and useful guidelines for system design and operation. The capacity and efficiency of the units agreed with manufacturers' specifications. COP values ranged from 2 .6 to 3.0 for water heating only, and from 4.1 to 5.0 when space cooling benefit was included. It was concluded that heat pump water heaters can provide economical water heating and space conditioning. However, application sites must be selected within certain constraints and a minimum level of operating control and maintenance must be observed.

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Cost effective solar hot water system for econo-travel motor hotel located at Hampton, VA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 2708 Mercury Boulevard, Hampton, Virginia. The description of the system along with the final cost breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Research and Development Roadmap for Water Heating Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although water heating is an important energy end-use in residential and commercial buildings, efficiency improvements in recent years have been relatively modest. However, significant advancements related to higher efficiency equipment, as well as improved distribution systems, are now viable. DOE support for water heating research, development and demonstration (RD&D) could provide the impetus for commercialization of these advancements.

Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Gagne, Claire [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Lutz, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

HEATING OF OIL WELL BY HOT WATER CIRCULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEATING OF OIL WELL BY HOT WATER CIRCULATION Mladen Jurak Department of Mathematics University.prnic@ina.hr Abstract When highly viscous oil is produced at low temperatures, large pressure drops will significantly decrease production rate. One of possible solu- tions to this problem is heating of oil well by hot water

Rogina, Mladen

274

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tubesheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tubesheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tubesheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch therebetween. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Johnson, F. Thomas (Baldwin Boro, PA); Orr, Richard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the savings realized by water conservation or efficiencythe benefits and costs of water conservation or efficiencycost savings from water conservation requires knowing the

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Residential Energy Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) Expenditures for Water Heating (2005) Dataset Summary Description Provides total and average household expenditures on energy for water heating in the United States in 2005. The data was collected as part of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). RECS is a national survey that collects residential energy-related data. The survey collected data from 4,381 households in housing units statistically selected to represent the 111.1 million housing units in the United States. Data were obtained from residential energy suppliers for each unit in the sample to produce the data. Source EIA Date Released September 01st, 2008 (6 years ago) Date Updated January 01st, 2009 (6 years ago) Keywords Energy Expenditures Residential Water Heating Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2005_Total.Expenditures.for_.Water_.Heating_EIA.Sep_.2008.xls (xls, 70.1 KiB)

277

Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) Entergy New Orleans - Residential Solar Water Heating Program (Louisiana) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate Residential Solutions: $1000/improvement Program Info Start Date 1/1/2011 State Louisiana Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount kWh savings(annual) x $0.34/kWh Provider Energy Smart Solutions Center Entergy New Orleans offers a Solar Water Heater Rebate pilot program designed to help residential customers make energy efficiency improvements. Rebates will be offered on a first-come, first-served basis and reflected on the invoice as a discount. All systems must be OG 300 rated and incentive amount is based on kWh savings. Walk-through energy assessments

278

Experiment System Analysis of an Indirect Expansion Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump Radiant Floor Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar assisted water source heat pump for Radiant Floor Heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system with heat pipe vacuum tube solar collector as heating source and radiant floor as terminal device is proposed in the paper. The Mathematics Model of dynamic ... Keywords: solar energy, water source heat pump, radiant floor heating systems, system dynamic COP

Qu Shilin; Ma Fei; Liu Li; Yue Jie

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Cost estimate for muddy water palladium production facility at Mound  

SciTech Connect

An economic feasibility study was performed on the ''Muddy Water'' low-chlorine content palladium powder production process developed by Mound. The total capital investment and total operating costs (dollars per gram) were determined for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg in 1-kg increments. The report includes a brief description of the Muddy Water process, the process flow diagram, and material balances for the various production batch sizes. Two types of facilities were evaluated--one for production of new, ''virgin'' palladium powder, and one for recycling existing material. The total capital investment for virgin facilities ranged from $600,000 --$1.3 million for production batch sizes of 1--10 kg, respectively. The range for recycle facilities was $1--$2.3 million. The total operating cost for 100% acceptable powder production in the virgin facilities ranged from $23 per gram for a 1-kg production batch size to $8 per gram for a 10-kg batch size. Similarly for recycle facilities, the total operating cost ranged from $34 per gram to $5 per gram. The total operating cost versus product acceptability (ranging from 50%--100% acceptability) was also evaluated for both virgin and recycle facilities. Because production sizes studied vary widely and because scale-up factors are unknown for batch sizes greater than 1 kg, all costs are ''order-of-magnitude'' estimates. All costs reported are in 1987 dollars.

McAdams, R.K.

1988-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Tips: Water Heating | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2, 2012 - 4:53pm Addthis Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water. Insulate your water heater to save energy and money, or choose an on-demand hot water heater to save even more....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Water-Heating Dehumidifier - Energy Innovation Portal  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar ... When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a ...

282

Life Cycle cost Analysis of Waste Heat Operated Absorption Cooling Systems for Building HVAC Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of waste heat operated vapour absorption air conditioning system (VARS) incorporated in a building cogeneration system is presented and discussed. The life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) based on present worth cost (PWC) method, which covers the initial costs, operating costs, maintenance costs, replacement costs and salvage values is the useful tool to merit various cooling and power generation systems for building applications. A life cycle of 23 years was used to calculate the PWC of the system for annual operating hours of 8760 and the same is compared with the electric based vapour compression chiller (VCRS) of same capacity. The life cycle cost (LCC) of waste heat operated absorption chiller is estimated to be US $ 1.5 million which is about 71.5 % low compared to electric powered conventional vapour compression chiller. From the analysis it was found that the initial cost of VARS system was 125 % higher than that of VCRS, while the PWC of operating cost of VARS was 78.2 % lower compared to VCRS. The result shows that the waste heat operated VARS would be preferable from the view point of operating cost and green house gas emission reduction.

Saravanan, R.; Murugavel, V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thermal and cost goal analysis for passive solar heating designs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Economic methodologies developed over the past several years for the design of residential solar systems have been based on life cycle cost (LCC) minimization. Because of uncertainties involving future economic conditions and the varied decision making processes of home designers, builders, and owners, LCC design approaches are not always appropriate. To deal with some of the constraints that enter the design process, and to narrow the number of variables to those that do not depend on future economic conditions, a simplified thermal and cost goal approach for passive designs is presented. Arithmetic and graphical approaches are presented with examples given for each. Goals discussed include simple payback, solar savings fraction, collection area, maximum allowable construction budget, variable cost goals, and Btu savings.

Noll, S.A.; Kirschner, C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Modeling of Performance, Cost, and Financing of Concentrating Solar, Photovoltaic, and Solar Heat Systems (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 in Boulder, Colorado, discusses the modeling, performance, cost, and financing of concentrating solar, photovoltaic, and solar heat systems.

Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christiansen, C.

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

286

Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat Pipe Topical  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress towards the development of a heat pipe for use in the Low Cost High Performance Thermoelectric Generator Program is reported for the period May 15, 1975 through June 1975. (TFD)

Not Available

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Potential application of Madison formation waters for community heating in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

It is suggested that the most practical early application of the Madison waters is in community space heating with the local hot waters considered as a municipal commodity. The general design of such a community system is discussed along with its cost, means of financing, and life expectancy. Legal questions and state statutes that are pertinent are cited and the life expectancy of the entire Madison resource and equipment to expoit the resource are considered. (MHR)

Freeman, R.A.; Meier, R.F.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Cost Estimates of Electricity from a TPV Residential Heating System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system was built using a 12 to 20 kWth methane burner which should be integrated into a conventional residential heating system. The TPV system is cylindrical in shape and consists of a selective Yb2O3 emitter

Gnther Palfinger; Bernd Bitnar; Wilhelm Durisch; Jean?Claude Mayor; Detlev Grtzmacher; Jens Gobrecht

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards Maricopa Assn. of Governments - PV and Solar Domestic Water Heating Permitting Standards < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Installer/Contractor Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Heating & Cooling Water Heating Program Info State Arizona Program Type Solar/Wind Permitting Standards Provider Maricopa Association of Governments In an effort to promote uniformity, the Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) approved standard procedures for securing necessary electrical/building permits for residential (single-family) and commercial PV systems. These procedures are a part of the MAG Building Code Standards. The standards address requirements for the solar installation, plans,

290

Peak Demand Reduction with Dual-Source Heat Pumps Using Municipal Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to examine a dual-source (air and/or water-coupled) heat pump concept which would reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental electrical resistance heating (strip heaters). The project examined two system options: switching on demand between completely air-source and completely water-coupled or using a concurrent partial water-coupled and partial air-coupled mode operation. The water supply for the water-coupled mode of operation would be the municipal water system. An estimate of the economic worth of this system concept was made by examining the incremental cost to install such a system against the expected savings associated with these systems.

Morehouse, J. H.; Khan, J. A.; Connor, L. N.; Pal, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests  

SciTech Connect

Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Residential solar heating at no cost to the homeowner  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method making solar heating economically desireable by choosing the types of systems and levels of fuel savings that permit a well-designed simple system to be installed with no cash outlay on the part of the homeowner and no increase in the cash flow experienced. In some cases, the cash flow may actually be reduced. The method assists installers in determining where efforts can most profitably be placed and suggests that they are a part of the overall financing scheme, since they can frequently locate the proper lending agency to finance the projects. Limited experience has already shown the methods herein described to be useful. Solar heating should increase in importance as more installers employ the suggested methods of selecting installations and of financing them.

Newton, A.B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency Questions? Our energy efficiency and renewable energy experts will answer your questions about ways to save money and incorporate renewable energy into your home during our Earth Day Google+ Hangout on April 22 at 3 pm ET. Submit your questions on Twitter, G+ and YouTube using #askEnergy,

294

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology Hot New Advances in Water Heating Technology April 18, 2013 - 1:15pm Addthis Learn how a cooperative R&D agreement with the Energy Department's Oak Ridge National Laboratory helped contributed to the success of GE's GeoSpring Hybrid Water Heater -- one of the most efficient electric heat pump water heaters on the market today. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Got Energy Efficiency Questions? Our energy efficiency and renewable energy experts will answer your questions about ways to save money and incorporate renewable energy into your home during our Earth Day Google+ Hangout on April 22 at 3 pm ET. Submit your questions on Twitter, G+ and YouTube using #askEnergy,

295

GHPs Save Heating Cost and Improve Air Quality in Poultry Farm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: 40-50' wide, 400-500' length § Bird density: 1 square foot/bird, 20,000 birds1 GHPs Save Heating Cost and Improve Air Quality in Poultry Farm per house § Heating and cooling required § Intensive ventilation to maintain air

296

Low-cost site-assembled solar collector designs for use with heat pumps  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four low cost solar collector designs have been produced for use in solar assisted heat pump systems. Three principles guided the design: the use of air as the heat transfer medium, the use of on-site easy-to-install construction rather than modularized prefabricated construction, and the collection of solar energy at reduced temperatures.

Andrews, J W; Wilhelm, W

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater Estimating the Cost and Energy Efficiency of a Solar Water Heater May 30, 2012 - 3:09pm Addthis Solar water...

298

Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" 5. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane" "All Buildings ................",4657,3239,1546,1520,110,62,130 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2348,1456,795,574,"Q","Q","Q" "5,001 to 10,000 ..............",1110,778,317,429,"Q","Q","Q" "10,001 to 25,000 .............",708,574,265,274,14,9,31

299

Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating  

SciTech Connect

Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it produces hot water by extracting heat from the air it tends to dehumidify and cool the room in which it is placed. Moreover, it tends to spread the water heating load across utility non-peak periods. Thus, electric utilities with peak load issues could justify internal programs to promote this technology to residential and commercial customers. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to the manner in which water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance, serviceability, product size, and installation costs. Thus, the principal drivers for penetrating markets are demonstrating reliability, leveraging the dehumidification attributes of the HPWH, and creating programs that embrace life-cycle cost principles. To supplement this, a product warranty with scrupulous quality control should be implemented; first-price reduction through engineering, perhaps by reducing level of energy efficiency, should be pursued; and niche markets should be courted. The first step toward market penetration is to address the HPWH's performance reliability. Next, the manufacturers could engage select utilities to aggressively market the HPWH. A good approach would be to target distinct segments of the market with the potential for the highest benefits from the technology. Communications media that address performance issues should be developed. When marketing to new home builders, the HPWH could be introduced as part of an energy-efficient package offered as a standard feature by builders of new homes within a community. Conducting focus groups across the United States to gather input on HPWH consumer values will feed useful data back to the manufacturers. ''Renaming'' and ''repackaging'' the HPWH to improve consumer perception, appliance aesthetics, and name recognition should be considered. Once an increased sales volume is achieved, the manufacturers should reinvest in R&D to lower the price of the units. The manufacturers should work with ''do-it-yourself'' (DIY) stores to facilitate introduction of th

Ashdown, BG

2004-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Comparison of natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermosyphon heat exchangers are used in indirect solar water heating systems to avoid using a pump to circulate water from the storage tank to the heat exchanger. In this study, the authors consider the effect of heat exchanger design on system performance. They also compare performance of a system with thermosyphon flow to the same system with a 40W pump in the water loop. In the first part of the study, the authors consider the impact of heat exchanger design on the thermal performance of both one- and two-collector solar water heaters. The comparison is based on Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) OG300 simulations. The thermosyphon heat exchangers considered are (1) a one-pass, double wall, 0.22 m{sup 2}, four tube-in-shell heat exchanger manufactured by AAA Service and Supply, Inc., (the Quad-Rod); (2) a two-pass, double wall, 0.2 m{sup 2}, tube-in-shell made by Heliodyne, Inc., but not intended for commercial development; (3) a one-pass, single wall, 0.28 m{sup 2}, 31 tube-in-shell heat exchanger from Young Radiator Company, and (4) a one-pass single-wall, 0.61 m{sup 2}, four coil-in-shell heat exchanger made by ThermoDynamics Ltd. The authors compare performance of the systems with thermosyphon heat exchangers to a system with a 40 W pump used with the Quad-Rod heat exchanger. In the second part of the study, the effects of reducing frictional losses through the heat exchanger and/or the pipes connecting the heat exchanger to the storage tank, and increasing heat transfer area are evaluated in terms of OG300 ratings.

Davidson, J.; Liu, W.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program Ocala Utility Services - Solar Hot Water Heating Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per account Program Info State Florida Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $450 per system Provider Ocala Utility Services The Solar Water Heater Rebate Program is offered to residential retail electric customers by the City of Ocala Utility Services. Interested customers must complete an application and receive approval from the Ocala Utility Services before installing equipment. The application can be found on the [http://www.ocalafl.org/COO3.aspx?id=947 program web site.] The system must be installed by a licensed Florida contractor on the customer's

303

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

304

Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs Water District Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Boise, Idaho Coordinates 43.6135002°, -116.2034505° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

305

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina) Gas, Heat, Water, Sewerage Collection and Disposal, and Street Railway Companies (South Carolina) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State South Carolina Program Type Generating Facility Rate-Making Siting and Permitting Provider South Carolina Public Service Commission This legislation applies to public utilities and entities furnishing natural gas, heat, water, sewerage, and street railway services to the public. The legislation addresses rates and services, exemptions, investigations, and records. Article 4 (58-5-400 et seq.) of this

306

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems Building Codes and Regulations for Solar Water Heating Systems June 24, 2012 - 1:50pm Addthis Photo Credit: iStockphoto Photo Credit: iStockphoto Before installing a solar water heating system, you should investigate local building codes, zoning ordinances, and subdivision covenants, as well as any special regulations pertaining to the site. You will probably need a building permit to install a solar energy system onto an existing building. Not every community or municipality initially welcomes residential renewable energy installations. Although this is often due to ignorance or the comparative novelty of renewable energy systems, you must comply with existing building and permit procedures to install your system.

307

City of Tallahassee Utilities - Solar Water Heating Rebate |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

water heater on a new home. Pool heating systems are not eligible for the rebate. The homeowner must allow the City of Tallahassee to conduct an energy audit on the home in order...

308

Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in the home to use for water heating. The table shows information for eight Department of Energy climate zones. In Zone 1, which encompasses the Southern tip of Florida and Hawaii,...

309

GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

310

South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

311

Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

312

Questar Gas- Residential Solar Assisted Water Heating Rebate Program (Idaho)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Questar gas provides incentives for residential customers to purchase and install solar water heating systems on their homes. Rebates of $750 per system are provided to customers of Questar who...

313

Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance - Smart Water Heat Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is offering a rebate program for homeowners who purchase and install an eligible heat pump water heater. A rebate of 1,000 is...

314

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel, Chesapeake, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 4725 W. Military Highway, Chesapeake, Virginia, is presented. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Savings Project: Lower Water Heating Temperature | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Although some manufacturers set water heater thermostats at 140F, most households usually only require them to be set at 120F, which also slows mineral buildup and...

317

Infrared Thermography applied to measurement of Heat transfer coefficient of water in a pipe heated by Joule effect  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Internal sources of heat are due to convection from flow of the heat transfer fluid through the pipes. Heat (material, diameter, spacing, and burial depth), (4) system flow rates, (5) heat transfer fluid properties · heat transfer fluid = 42% propylene glycol @ a flow rate of 350 gpm · heat pump model = Water Furnace

318

Cost reduction of the Sun Challenger batch solar water heater: Final report  

SciTech Connect

A variety of materials and methods were investigated as a means to reduce the cost of the Sun Challenger Solar Collector. Three prototypes were constructed and tested using lower-cost methods. Test results are summarized, including heat gain, heat loss, and collection efficiency. Costs and benefits are also presented and summarized.

Stickney, B.L.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2006 California Water Rate Survey. 2006. Black & VeatchRegional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use in Cost-Benefit5 Calculated Marginal Rates for

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Heat exchanger and water tank arrangement for passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water storage tank in the coolant water loop of a nuclear reactor contains a tubular heat exchanger. The heat exchanger has tube sheets mounted to the tank connections so that the tube sheets and tubes may be readily inspected and repaired. Preferably, the tubes extend from the tube sheets on a square pitch and then on a rectangular pitch there between. Also, the heat exchanger is supported by a frame so that the tank wall is not required to support all of its weight. 6 figures.

Gillett, J.E.; Johnson, F.T.; Orr, R.S.; Schulz, T.L.

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Table HC14.8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table HC14.8 Water Heating Characteristics by West Census Region, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Water Heating Characteristics Mountain Pacific West Census Region

322

Table WH10. Consumption Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Main Water Heating Fuel Used (physical units/number of household members) Electricity Table WH10. Consumption Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used, 2005

323

Table WH11. Expenditures Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Main Water Heating Fuel Used (Dollars/number of household members) Electricity Table WH11. Expenditures Intensity by Main Water Heating Fuel Used, 2005

324

Heat pump water heater and method of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Austin Energy- Solar Water Heating Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Austin Energy offers its residential, commercial, and municipal customers up front rebates or a low interest loan for the purchase and installation of solar hot water heaters. Because the program...

327

NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

Not Available

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Passive preheating of water-heater feed water (using attic heat)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Baseboard convectors were installed in a house attic to preheat water prior to entering the home water heater. The system was monitored and not found to be cost effective. (LEW)

Knudsen, E.T. Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Apparatus and method for controlling a heat pump water heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling the operation of an add-on heat pump water heater unit is disclosed. A combination of a thermally conductive tube having a flattened portion and a thermostat mounted thereto is utilized to sense the temperature level of water in a tank to which the heater unit is connected. The tube and thermostat are additionally insulated from the ambient. A circulating pump is provided and connected to the water thermostat such that the pump is energized only when it is necessary to operate the heat energy adding unit.

Whitwell, R. J.; Schafer, J. P.

1984-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

330

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it`s true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

Rafferty, K.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Simulation Study of Heat Transportation in an Aquifer about Well-water-source Heat Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of groundwater reinjection, pumping and heat transportation in an aquifer plays an important theoretical role in ensuring the stability of deep-well water reinjection and pumping as well as smooth reinjection. Based on the related conception of underground hydrogeology and the rationale of seepage flow mechanics, a geologic conceptual model of doublet reinjection and a seepage flow model of heat transportation are proposed in this paper. The temperature distribution in the temperature field was obtained by a coupled method of the heat transportation equation and groundwater seepage flow equation fitting for the seepage-affected section. The temperature changes in aquifer and heat storage efficiency are analyzed under different working conditions. All the work referenced above provided references for the popularization and evaluation of well-water source heat pump.

Cong, X.; Liu, Y.; Yang, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Design, cost, and performance comparisons of several solar thermal systems for process heat. Volume III. Receivers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The receiver subsystem converts reflected solar radiation into thermal power by heating a working fluid. The objective of the task described was to estimate the cost and performance of the receiver subsystem for parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and central receivers over a wide range of temperatures and power levels for thermal power applications. This volume presents the fundamental design philosophy employed, the constraints identified, the tradeoffs performed and the cost and performance results obtained for each receiver in the study matrix.

Woodard, J.B. Jr.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Incremental cost of electricity used as backup for passive heated homes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The impact of passive technologies on a north-central US utility has been studied. A method of utility cost and fuel use analysis, developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, was used to compute the long run incremental costs and incremental fuel use required for supplementary electricity to houses with Trombe walls or with direct gain features. For comparison, a reference house with no passive features and a house with an energy conservation design were also analyzed. The results show that the total long run incremental cost to the utility of providing supplementary power to the passive houses costs no more than the cost to supply electricity to heat the reference house or the conservation house. An analysis of the annual homeowner costs for the various types of heating systems suggests that the Trombe wall technology is not promising for use in this climate. The passive technologies, as modelled in this study reduced the requirements for conventional energy by about 10% (7 to 10 kilojoules/year). For all of the house types studied, the use of electricity for heating, instead of oil or gas, reduced the overall (utility plus residential) use of oil or gas by only about 30 to 40% even out through the 1990's.

Martorella, J; Bright, R; Davitian, H

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

336

Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis: Independent Review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

Not Available

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Investigation of heat exchanger flow arrangement on performance and cost in a geothermal binary cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of an idealized geothermal binary-fluid-cycle energy conversion system is shown to be a function of the temperatures of brine and working fluid leaving the heat exchanger. System power output, heat exchanger area required and initial well and heat exchanger costs are determined for counterflow, single and multi-pass parallel-counterflow exchangers. Results are presented graphically as functions of the brine and working fluid exit temperatures from the exchanger. Use of the system analysis developed is illustrated by showing quantitatively the advantage of the counterflow over the other flow arrangements considered.

Giedt, W.H.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Integrated modelling of risk and uncertainty underlying the cost and effectiveness of water quality measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present an overview of the most important sources of uncertainty when analysing the least cost way to improve water quality. The estimation of the cost-effectiveness of water quality measures is surrounded by environmental, economic ... Keywords: Cost-effectiveness, Integrated modelling, Risk, Uncertainty, Water quality

Roy Brouwer; Chris De Blois

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Transitioning water to an enhanced heat-conducting phase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water can be transitioned to an enhanced heat-conducting phase by supercooling only the water at the bottom of a container. The temperature gradient across the 4 cm in the center of an 8 cm long column of water with a 397 mW heat source at the top was lowered from 32oC to 0.75oC when the temperature at the bottom of the column was lowered from 1.2 oC to -5.6oC. The effective thermal conductivity of the water was increased from ~0.607 W/mK to ~24 W/mK. This result demonstrates that water has a high effective thermal conducting phase that has not been previously reported.

Brownridge, James D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Study on the Mode of Power Plant Circulating Water Waste Heat Regenerative Thermal System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power Plant Circulating Water (PPCW) waste heat recycling is an important way of increasing a power plants primary energy ratio. According to the PPCW waste heat regenerative thermal system, the authors propose two modes of heat pump heat regenerative ... Keywords: heat pump, power plant circulating water (PPCW), waste heat recycling, energy saving

Bi Qingsheng; Ma Yanliang; Yang Zhifu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Heating of Oil Well by Hot Water Circulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When highly viscous oil is produced at low temperatures, large pressure drops will significantly decrease production rate. One of possible solutions to this problem is heating of oil well by hot water recycling. We construct and analyze a mathematical model of oil-well heating composed of three linear parabolic PDE coupled with one Volterra integral equation. Further on we construct numerical method for the model and present some simulation results.

Mladen Jurak; Zarko Prnic

2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

344

High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

2013-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

345

GROUND WATER PROTECTION ISSUES WITH GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Closed loop vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps are grouted to facilitate heat transfer and prevent ground water contamination. The grout must exhibit suitable thermal conductivity as well as adequate hydraulic sealing characteristics. Permeability and infiltration tests were performed to assess the ability of cementitious grout to control vertical seepage in boreholes. It was determined that a superplasticized cement-sand grout is a more effective borehole sealant than neat cement over a range of likely operational temperatures. The feasibility of using non-destructive methods to verify bonding in heat exchangers is reviewed.

ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar system was installed into a new buildng and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This final report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH products) installed in existing homes in the northeast region of the United States.

Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Comparing Maintenance Costs of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems with other HVAC Systems in Lincoln Public Schools: Repair, Service, and Corrective Actions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four, new, elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACUGHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCCYGHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCUGSB). Preventative maintenance and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.88 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr. Because of tax-exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R{sup 2}=O.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain.

Martin, M.A.; Durfee, D.J.; Hughes, P.J.

1999-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

349

Solar heating/cooling and domestic hot-water systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing awareness of global warming forces policy makers and industries to face two challenges: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and securing stable energy supply against ever-increasing world energy consumption, which is projected to increase by ... Keywords: buildings heating, domestic hot-water, energetical analysis, renewable energy sources, solar cooling technologies, solar energy collection, solar thermal systems

Ioan Srbu; Marius Adam

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Performance analysis of dedicated heat-pump water heaters in an office building  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation is made of the performance of two generic dedicated heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in supplying the domestic hot water (DHW) needs of a medium-sized office building in Colorado. Results are based on preliminary data measurements, and assumptions are made to compensate for a faulty flow meter. A stand-alone heat pump plumbed to a conventional tank obtains a coefficient of performance (COP) of 2.4 but only delivers load water temperatures of about 41/sup 0/C (105/sup 0/F) because of the 15,142 L/day (4000 gal/day) recirculating loop flow. An industrial-grade stand-alone HPWH will replace this unit. An integral heat pump/tank unit is being tested, but results are not available because of compressor starting problems. Recirculating loop losses account for 75% of the energy delivered by the HPWHs. These losses could be reduced by 75% if the recirculating loop were insulated, thus reducing the DHW fuel costs by 50%. The insulation expense could be paid in less than 3 years by savings in DHW fuel costs.

Morrison, L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Energy-Efficient Water Heating Program for the Residential Sector.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the power surplus period of the late 1980's, Bonneville sponsored market research which provided an understanding of the market environment in the water heating end-use. The major areas of investigation included market trends, consumer purchasing practices, unit price, and availability of energy-efficient models. In 1988, Bonneville conducted a series of meetings with utilities operating water heater programs. Discussions focused on utility program concerns and the appropriate role for Bonneville as the region seeks efficiency in residential water heating. The design of the Program is based to a large degree on the experiences gained by regional utilities operating water heater incentive programs. In addition, an analysis of incentive programs operated outside the region has been helpful in the development of a regional program. Bonneville is a member of the Appliance Efficiency Group (AEG), formerly the Northwest Appliance Efficiency Group, and participates in discussions on water heating issues as they relate to the Pacific Northwest. The work done with the Appliance Efficiency Group has provided additional input in the development of the Program. This Program has been developed using a Public Involvement Process. A draft program strategy was made available to the public for comment during April 1990. The comments received were considered in the development of this document.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

The Influence of Different Inflow Water Rate and Temperature on Heat Exchange Performance of Underground Heat Pump  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

in the paper, the influence of different inflow water rate and temperature on heat exchange performance of underground heat pump were discussed by experiment, two vital parameters was defined to measure the properties of ground heat exchanger: Energy ... Keywords: heat pump, underground tube, influential factors, parameters

Zheng Min; Li Bai-yi

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S. climate zones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NREL evaluates energy savings potential of heat pump water heaters in homes throughout all U.S in the U.S. market--to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated

354

Update on maintenance and service costs of commercial building ground-source heat pump systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An earlier paper showed that commercial ground-source heat pump systems have significantly lower service and maintenance costs than alternative HVAC systems. This paper expands on those results by adding 13 more buildings to the original 25 sites and by comparing the results to the latest ASHRAE survey of HVAC maintenance costs. Data from the 38 sites are presented here including total (scheduled and unscheduled) maintenance costs in cents per square foot per year for base cost, in-house, and contractor-provided maintenance. Because some of the new sites had maintenance costs that were much higher than the industry norm, the resulting data are not normally distributed. Analysis (O'Hara Hines 1998) indicated that a log-normal distribution is a better fit; thus, the data are analyzed and presented here as log-normal. The log-mean annual total maintenance costs for the most recent year of the survey ranged from 6.07 cents per square foot to 8.37 cents per square foot for base cost and contractor-provided maintenance, respectively.

Cane, D.; Garnet, J.M.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Energy test method development for electric heat pump water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Modifications are proposed for the current US Department of Energy test procedures for water heaters in order to make them applicable to electric heat pump water heaters. The modifications are in the areas of definitions and technical procedures. The latter include the test conditions, test procedures and measurements, and calculations. Reasons for making these modifications and laboratory test data are provided to support the modifications in the technical procedures. The main modifications include: (1) lowering the water supply temperature from 70/sup 0/F to 55/sup 0/F, (2) lowering the tank thermostat setting from 160/sup 0/F to 145/sup 0/F to maintain the same 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, (3) measuring the power input instead of using the nameplate rating as in the case for an electric water heater, and (4) measuring the recovery efficiency instead of calculating it by using the standby losses in the case for an electric water heater.

Wan, C.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

OPTIMIZED CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR A TYPICAL WATER LOOP HEAT PUMP SYSTEM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Water Loop Heat Pump (WLHP) System has been widely utilized in the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) industry for several decades. There is no (more)

Lian, Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Reduced heat flow in light water (H2O) due to heavy water (D2O)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The flow of heat, from top to bottom, in a column of light water can be decreased by over 1000% with the addition of heavy water. A column of light water cools from 25 C to 0 C in 11 hours, however, with the addition of heavy water it takes more than 100 hours. There is a concentration dependence where the cooling time increases as the concentration of added (D2O) increases, with a near maximum being reached with as little as 2% of (D2O) added. This phenomenon will not occur if the water is mixed after the heavy water is added.

William R. Gorman; James D. Brownridge

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solar Water Heating: What's Hot and What's Not  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A handful of electric utilities in the United States now pay incentives to their customers to install solar water heaters or are developing programs to do so. The solar water heater incentives are part of a broader utility demand-side management program designed to reduce system demand during peak summer hours. Solar hot water has the potential to generate significant savings during periods of high solar intensity. For summer peaking utilities, these periods of high solar intensity coincide with the overall system peak. This paper discusses the basics of analyzing solar water heaters as a demand-side management measure. In addition, four utility solar water heater incentive programs are studied in detail. The paper describes each program and notes the stage of development. Where such information is available, incentive amounts and cost-effectiveness calculations are included.

Stein, J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technical and economic assessments are given of solar water heaters, both circulating, and of air-based and liquid-based solar space heating systems. Both new and retrofit systems are considered. The technical status of flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors and of thermal storage is also covered. Non-technical factors are also briefly discussed, including the participants in the use of solar heat, incentives and deterrents. Policy implications are considered as regards acceleration of solar use, goals for solar use, means for achieving goals, and interaction of governments, suppliers, and users. Government actions are recommended. (LEW)

Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O.G.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Low-Cost Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Mild Climates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In FY99, Solar Heating and Lighting set the goal to reduce the life-cycle cost of saved-energy for solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems in mild climates by 50%, primarily through use of polymer technology. Two industry teams (Davis Energy Group/SunEarth (DEG/SE) and FAFCO) have been developing un-pressurized integral-collector-storage (ICS) systems having load-side heat exchangers, and began field-testing in FY04. DEG/SE?s ICS has a rotomolded tank and thermoformed glazing. Based upon manufacturing issues, costs, and poor performance, the FAFCO team changed direction in late FY04 from an un-pressurized ICS to a direct thermosiphon design based upon use of pool collectors. Support for the teams is being provided for materials testing, modeling, and system testing. New ICS system models have been produced to model the new systems. A new ICS rating procedure for the ICS systems is undergoing testing and validation. Pipe freezing, freeze protection valves, and overheating have been tested and analyzed.

Burch, J.; Christensen, C.; Merrigan, T.; Hewett, R.; Jorgensen, G.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Heat Pump Water Heater Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heater Basics Water Heater Basics Heat Pump Water Heater Basics August 19, 2013 - 2:59pm Addthis Illustration of a heat pump water heater, which looks like a tall cylinder with a small chamber on top and a larger one on the bottom. In the top chamber are a fan, a cylindrical compressor, and an evaporator that runs along the inside of the chamber. Jutting out from the exterior of the bottom chamber is a temperature and pressure relief valve. This valve has a tube called a hot water outlet attached to the top. Below the valve is the upper thermostat, a small square outside the cylinder that is attached to a curved tube inside the heater. Resistance elements run from the upper thermostat to the similarly shaped lower thermostat. Below the lower thermostat is a drain valve with a cold water inlet attached to the top. Inside the cylinder is an anode, a series of thin tubes running through the bottom chamber to a coiled tube called a condenser. Insulation runs along the inside of the cylinder.

366

COST IMPACT OF SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT COMPLIANCE FOR COMMISSION-REGULATED WATER UTILITIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(NRRI) with funding provided by participating member commissions of the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC). The views and opinions of the authors do not necessarily state or reflect the views, opinions, or policies of the NRRI, the NARUC, or NARUC member commissions. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This study was prepared for state public utility commissioners and their staff in response to the growing concern about the effect of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) on water utilities under their jurisdiction. Compliance with the SDWA is expected to have a significant impact on water utilities and the rates they charge for service. A sensitivity analysis was developed for this report using a hypothetical water company to identify the costs associated with alternative treatment processes. A total of eighteen different treatment processes are considered, from conventional treatment to granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and reverse osmosis. Capital costs for these processes range from $100,000 to $3.25 million for a water plant with a designed capacity of one million

Patrick C. Mann; Janice A. Beecher

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Jump to: navigation, search Name Expansion and Improvement of Solar Water Heating Technology in China Project Management Office Place Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip 100038 Sector Buildings, Solar Product The programme focuses on the development of high-quality and attractive-looking model designs for integrating solar water heaters (SWH) into buildings in China. Coordinates 39.90601°, 116.387909° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.90601,"lon":116.387909,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

368

Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation Brillion-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in Standard electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in Heat Pump mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that Hybrid DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Simplified Optimum Sizing and Cost Analysis for Compact heat Exchanger in VHTR  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the optimum size of the compact heat exchanger has been developed based on its weight and pumping power for the reference design of 600 MWt very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) system. Alloy 617 was selected as a construction material. The optimum size and a number of configurations for the reference design of the VHTR with an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) were investigated and our initial calculations indicated that it has an unrealistically too large aspect ratio of the length and height due to its small-sized channels, which might cause manifolding problems and a large number of parallel modules with high thermal stress. The flow area and channel diameter were then adjusted to achieve a smaller aspect ratio in this paper. Achievement of this aspect ratio resulted in higher cost, but the cost increase was less than would have occurred by simply reducing the flow area by itself. The appropriate channel diameter is estimated to be less than 5.00 mm for the reference system. The effect of channel waviness enhanced the compactness and heat transfer performance, but unfavorably increased the aspect ratio. Therefore, the waviness should be carefully determined based on performance and economics. In this study, the waviness of the IHX is recommended to be selected between 1.0 and 2.5. Calculations show that reducing the duty dramatically decreases the aspect ratio, indicating that the compact heat exchanger is easy to be optimally designed for low duty, but many modules are required for high duty operation proportional to the operating power. Finally, the effect of working fluids was investigated, and it reveals that using carbon dioxide instead of helium in the secondary side reduces the size and cost by about 20% due to the lower pumping power in spite of its lower heat transfer capability by a factor of 4.

Chang Oh; E. S. Kim; S. Sherman

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

371

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Richmond, Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report is presented of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 5408 Williamsburg Road, Richmond, Virginia. The description of the system is given along with the final cost breakdown, expected performance data and expected payback time for the installed system is estimated to be approximately five (5) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Richmond, Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report is presented of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 5408 Williamsburg Road, Richmond, Virginia. The description of the system is given along with the final cost breakdown, expected performance data and expected payback time for the installed system is estimated to be approximately five (5) years instead of the 6.65 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACM Manual will derate tankless water heater performance by multiplying the rated EF by a 0.92 factor performance of water heaters. These measures include: · Air release valve to prevent pump cavitating · Check to allow air bleeding of the system In addition to the new install

374

Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE`s ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Materials Development Program, Ceramic Technology Project addendum to program plan: Cost effective ceramics for heat engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a new thrust in the Ceramic Technology project. This effort represents an expansion of the program and an extension through FY 1997. Moderate temperature applications in conventional automobile and truck engines will be included along with high-temp. gas turbine and low heat rejection diesel engines. The reliability goals are expected to be met on schedule by end of FY 1993. Ceramic turbine rotors have been run (in DOE's ATTAP program) for 1000 h at 1370C and full speed. However, the cost of ceramic components is a deterrrent to near-term commercialization. A systematic approach to reducing this cost includes the following elements: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, system design studies, standards development, and testing and data base development. A draft funding plan is outlined. 6 figs, 1 tab.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Grid-Interactive Renewable Water Heating Economic and Environmental Value Grid-interactive renewable water heaters have smart controls that quickly change their charge rate and charge level, factoring in renewable generation and other critical needs of the grid; thereby significantly reducing carbon emissions and bringing a new dimension of conservation and efficiency to the electric grid. The Steffes grid-interactive renewable water heater controller provides utilities with an affordable and effective way to integrate renewable generation into the grid while providing uninterrupted hot water to the consumer. In recent years, many states have set Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) to reduce the need for traditional fossil fuel-based power generation, thereby improving our environment and decreasing

377

Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters B. Sparn, K. Hudon, and D. Christensen Prepared under Task Nos. WTN9.1000, ARRB.2204 Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52635 September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

378

Air-to-Water Heat Pumps With Radiant Delivery in Low-Load Homes  

SciTech Connect

Space conditioning represents nearly 50% of average residential household energy consumption, highlighting the need to identify alternative cost-effective, energy-efficient cooling and heating strategies. As homes are better built, there is an increasing need for strategies that are particularly well suited for high performance, low load homes. ARBI researchers worked with two test homes in hot-dry climates to evaluate the in-situ performance of air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) systems, an energy efficient space conditioning solution designed to cost-effectively provide comfort in homes with efficient, safe, and durable operation. Two monitoring projects of test houses in hot-dry climates were initiated in 2010 to test this system. Both systems were fully instrumented and have been monitored over one year to capture complete performance data over the cooling and heating seasons. Results are used to quantify energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and system performance using different operating modes and strategies. A calibrated TRNSYS model was developed and used to evaluate performance in various climate regions. This strategy is most effective in tight, insulated homes with high levels of thermal mass (i.e. exposed slab floors).

Backman, C.; German, A.; Dakin, B.; Springer, D.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Florida Florida A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Side by Side Testing of Water Heating Systems Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting Austin , Texas March 1st, 2012 Carlos J. Colon carlos@fsec.ucf.edu FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Hot Water Systems (HWS) Laboratory FSEC Cocoa, Florida 3 2009 -Present (Currently in third testing rotation) FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER - A Research Institute of the University of Central Florida Underground Circulation Loop * Solar circulation Loop 140+ feet of ½" copper tubing * Encased in PVC tubing with R-2.4 insulation * ICS to 50 gallon storage tank path need to

380

Impacts of motor vehicle operation on water quality - Clean-up Costs and Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

preventing water pollution from motor vehicles would be muchgroundwater pollution; motor-vehicle transportation;the environmental costs of motor vehicle transportation in

Nixon, Hilary; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Technical activities report: Heat, water, and mechanical studies  

SciTech Connect

Topics in the heat studies section include: front and rear face reflector shields at the C-pile; process tube channel thermocouples; water temperature limits for horizontal rods; slug temperature and thermal conductivity calculations; maximum slug-end cap temperature; boiling consideration studies; scram time limit for Panellit alarm; heat transfer test; slug stresses; thermal insulation of bottom tube row at C-pile; flow tests; present pile enrichment; electric analog; and measurement of thermal contact resistance. Topics in the water studies section include: 100-D flow laboratory; process water studies; fundamental studies on film formation; coatings on tip-offs; can difference tests; slug jacket abrasion at high flow rates; corrosion studies; front tube dummy slugs; metallographic examination of tubes from H-pile; fifty-tube mock-up; induction heating facility; operational procedures and standards; vertical safety rod dropping time tests; recirculation; and power recovery. Mechanical development studies include: effect of Sphincter seal and lubricant VSR drop time; slug damage; slug bubble tester; P-13 removal; chemical slug stripper; effect of process tube rib spacing and width; ink facility installation; charging and discharging machines; process tube creep; flapper nozzle assembly test; test of single gun barrel assembly; pigtail fixture test; horizontal rod gland seal test; function test of C-pile; and intermediate test of Ball 3-X and VSR systems.

Alexander, W.K.

1951-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

382

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill 15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill October 26, 2009 - 3:49pm Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Sometimes it...

383

Parabolic-Trough Solar Water Heating--FTA, 022798m FTA trough...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Parabolic-Trough Solar Water Heating--FTA, 022798m FTA trough Parabolic-Trough Solar Water Heating--FTA, 022798m FTA trough Federal Technology Alert covers parabolic-trough solar...

384

Evaluation and demonstration of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized services for new and rehabilitated multifamily buildings. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The general objective of this research was aimed at developing sufficient technical and economic know-how to convince the building and design communities of the appropriateness and energy advantages of decentralized space and water heating for multifamily buildings. Two main goals were established to guide this research. First, the research sought to determine the cost-benefit advantages of decentralized space and water heating versus centralized systems for multifamily applications based on innovative gas piping and appliance technologies. The second goal was to ensure that this information is made available to the design community.

Belkus, P. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (US); Tuluca, A. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of houses with a high perfor- mance heat pump as well as resistance, gas, and oil heated houses with a high#12;THE EFFECT OF LOCATION OF THE PREDICTED PERFORMANCE OF A HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER Laboratory testing and field testing have shown that a heat pump water heater (HPWH) uses about half the electrical

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

386

Mechanisms of heat exchange between water and rock in karst conduits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanisms of heat exchange between water and rock in karst conduits M. D. Covington,1 A. J water quality, have explored the mechanisms for heat transport and heat exchange in surface streams flux can be significant. In contrast, convective heat exchange through the conduit air is often

Saar, Martin O.

387

Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

Bloomquist, R.G. [Washington, State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wegman, S. [South Dakota Utilities Commission (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Cost-effective solar collectors using heat pipes. Interim progress report No. 3, October 1978-June 1979  

SciTech Connect

The heat pipe collector system design was re-evaluated as a new system, as compared to previous evaluation where the heat pipe was an interchangeable component in the standard TC-101 system. Collector hardware components were finalized, including production costs. Heat pipe fluid-vessel testing continued indoors and outdoors in the solar panel. A prototpe production processing station has been designed which shows that the labor content of processing individual heat pipes can be reduced to 15 seconds with a total cost of $1.50.

Ernst, D.M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Direct Use for Building Heat and Hot Water Presentation Slides and Text Version  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Download presentation slides from the DOE Office of Indian Energy webinar on direct use for building heat and hot water.

391

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE OF THE COST OF PRODUCING ENRICHED OXYGEN-18 WATER BY DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect

An order of magnitude estimate was made a determine the cost of producing oxygen-18 enriched water by the equilibrium distillation of water. Three isotopic purities and two production rates were considered. Costs varied from per gram for 3% oxygen-18 enriched water produced at a rate of 100 grams per day to 5 per gram for 99% oxygen-18 water produced at a rate of one gram per day. (auth)

Drury, J.S.; Klima, B.B.

1958-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

392

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 Low Low - - Cost Cost Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 IIPS Number 16910 Ward TeGrotenhuis, Susie Stenkamp, Curt Lavender Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Richland, WA HFCIT Kick Off Meeting February 2007 2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective: Project objective: Create a low cost Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

393

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--November 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--May 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, November 15, 1996--January 14, 1997  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of this project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

National and Regional Water and Wastewater Rates For Use inCost-Benefit Models and Evaluations of Water Efficiency Programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calculating the benefits and costs of water conservation orefficiency programs requires knowing the marginal cost of the water andwastewater saved by those programs. Developing an accurate picture of thepotential cost savings from water conservation requires knowing the costof the last few units of water consumed or wastewater released, becausethose are the units that would be saved by increased water efficiency.This report describes the data we obtained on water and wastewater ratesand costs, data gaps we identified, and other issues related to using thedata to estimate the cost savings that might accrue from waterconservation programs. We identified three water and wastewater ratesources. Of these, we recommend using Raftelis Financial Corporation(RFC) because it: a) has the most comprehensive national coverage; and b)provides greatest detail on rates to calculate marginal rates. The figurebelow shows the regional variation in water rates for a range ofconsumption blocks. Figure 1A Marginal Rates of Water Blocks by Regionfrom RFC 2004Water and wastewater rates are rising faster than the rateof inflation. For example, from 1996 to 2004 the average water rateincreased 39.5 percent, average wastewater rate increased 37.8 percent,the CPI (All Urban) increased 20.1 percent, and the CPI (Water andSewerage Maintenance) increased 31.1 percent. On average, annualincreases were 4.3 percent for water and 4.1 percent for wastewater,compared to 2.3 percent for the All Urban CPI and 3.7 percent for the CPIfor water and sewerage maintenance. If trends in rates for water andwastewater rates continue, water-efficient products will become morevaluable and more cost-effective.

Fisher, Diane C.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Combined heat and power for drinking water production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ABB Kraftwerke AG, of Mannheim, Germany, is presently involved in two huge projects aimed at supplying electric power and drinking water in the Arabian Gulf. To limit fuel consumption as much as possible, electricity and water are produced in CHP plants. These plants are powered either by gas turbines equipped with HRSGs, or by conventional boilers feeding controlled extraction-condensing steam turbines. The selection of one of the two systems depends mainly on the type of fuel available (oil or natural gas), on the power/water loads through the year and other local factors. The gas turbine-based CHP systems can be setup in a shorter time and feature a slightly higher overall efficiency. The steam turbine solution, once the plant is commissioned, needs less maintenance. In the final analysis, operating costs of the two solutions are equivalent.

Chellini, R.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

Dieckmann, John T. (Belmont, MA); Nowicki, Brian J. (Watertown, MA); Teagan, W. Peter (Acton, MA); Zogg, Robert (Belmont, MA)

1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

399

Residential heating and cooling energy cost implications associated with window type: Revision  

SciTech Connect

We present a comparative study in which residential heating and cooling energy costs are analyzed as a function of window glazing type, with a particular emphasis on the performance of windows having low-emittance coatings. The DOE-2.1B energy analysis simulation program was used to generate a data base of the heating and cooling energy requirements of a prototypical single-family ranch-style house. Algebraic expressions derived by multiple regression techniques permitted a direct comparison of those parameters that characterize window performance: orientation, size, conductance, and solar transmission properties. We use these equations to discuss the energy implications of conventional double- and triple-pane window designs and newer designs in which number and type of substrate, low-emittance coating type and location and gas fill are varied. Results are presented for the heating-dominated climate of Madison, WI, and cooling-dominated locations of Lake Charles, LA, and Phoenix, AZ. The analysis shows the potential for substantial savings but suggests that both heating and cooling energy should be examined when evaluating the performance of different fenestration systems. Coating and substrate properties and the location of the coating in the glazing system are shown to have moderate effects as a function of orientation and climate. In addition, with the low-conductance glazing units, the window frame becomes a contributor to overall residential energy efficiency. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Residential heating and cooling energy cost implications associated with window type  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study is presented in which residential heating and cooling energy costs are analyzed as a function of window glazing type, with a particular emphasis on the performance of windows having low-emittance coatings. The DOE-2.1B energy analysis simulation program was used to generate a data base of the heating and cooling energy requirements of a prototypical single-family ranch-style house. Algebraic expressions derived by multiple regression techniques permitted a direct comparison of those parameters that characterize window performance: orientation, size, conductance, and solar transmission properties. These equations are used to discuss the energy implications of conventional double- and triple-pane window designs and newer designs in which number and type of substrate, low-emittance coating type and location and gas fill are varied. Results are presented for the heating-dominated climate of Madison, WI, and cooling-dominated locations of Lake Charles, LA, and Phoenix, AZ. The analysis shows the potential for substantial savings but suggests that both heating and cooling energy should be examined when evaluating the performance of different fenestration systems. Coating and substrate properties and the location of the coating in the glazing system are shown to have moderate effects as a function of orientation and climate. In addition, with the low-conductance glazing units, the window frame becomes a contributor to overall residential energy efficiency.

Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A spatially-distributed cost-effectiveness analysis framework for controlling water pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the aim of comparing various agro-environmental measures to control pesticide pollution in surface waters, we propose a methodological framework for spatially-distributed cost-effectiveness analysis. We use the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) ... Keywords: Bio-economic modelling, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Integrated modelling, Pesticides, SWAT

Jean-Marie Lescot; Paul Bordenave; Kevin Petit; Odile Leccia

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate and compare several generic depreciation methods to assess the effectiveness of possible policy measures with respect to the depreciation schedules for investments in combined heat and power plants in the United States. We assess the different depreciation methods for CHP projects of various sizes (ranging from 1 MW to 100 MW). We evaluate the impact of different depreciation schedules on the tax shield, and the resulting tax savings to potential investors. We show that a shorter depreciation cycle could have a substantial impact on the cost of producing power, making cogeneration more attractive. The savings amount to approximately 6-7 percent of capital and fixed operation and maintenance costs, when changing from the current system to a 7 year depreciation scheme with switchover from declining balance to straight line depreciation. Suggestions for further research to improve the analysis are given.

Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cost-effective control systems for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology has been defined to arrive at control recommendations for a variety of climate control system designs, applications and regions, and the results are presented in two parts. Part I consists of a literature and market-place survey, involving control strategies, functions, sensors, actuators, and the controllers themselves. Part II represents the bulk of the study effort - an attempt to simulate and evaluate system performance for several representative residential and commercial heating and cooling designs and thus to derive improved performance techniques within cost-effective control systems. (MHR)

Pejsa, J. H.; Bassett, W. W.; Wenzler, S. A.; Nguyen, K. H.; Olson, T. J.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground and water source heat pump systems have very attractive performance characteristics when properly designed and installed. These systems typically consist of a water-to-air or water-to-water heat pump linked to a closed loop vertical or horizontal ground-coupling, an open groundwater loop, or a surface water loop. This paper discusses system performance characteristics, component selection procedures presently being used, improvements currently being considered and future possibilities for improved efficiency and reliability. Optimum designs require proper matching of the heat pump unit to the water circulation system, the building space heating/cooling load and water heating requirements. General trends resulting from system and component choices will be discussed. Water heating methods with these heat pumps will be considered.

Kavanaugh, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Fluidized bed heat exchanger with water cooled air distributor and dust hopper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluidized bed heat exchanger is provided in which air is passed through a bed of particulate material containing fuel. A steam-water natural circulation system is provided for heat exchange and the housing of the heat exchanger has a water-wall type construction. Vertical in-bed heat exchange tubes are provided and the air distributor is water-cooled. A water-cooled dust hopper is provided in the housing to collect particulates from the combustion gases and separate the combustion zone from a volume within said housing in which convection heat exchange tubes are provided to extract heat from the exiting combustion gases.

Jukkola, Walfred W. (Westport, CT); Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY); Van Dyk, Jr., Garritt C. (Bethel, CT); McCoy, Daniel E. (Williamsport, PA); Fisher, Barry L. (Montgomery, PA); Saiers, Timothy L. (Williamsport, PA); Karstetter, Marlin E. (Loganton, PA)

1981-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

406

Cost-effective solar collectors using heat pipes. Interim progress report No. 2, April 1978-September 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heat pipe fluid-vessel combinations continued to be life tested at design and stagnation conditions for time periods exceeding 14,000 hours. Additional testing was carried out at the lower end of the environment temperature range by freeze-thaw testing of several water heat pipes. Additional fluids search work resulted in developing a procedure to purify trimethylborate. Eight trimethylborate heat pipes were fabricated and installed in a modified GE TC-100 solar panel. Solar performance tests were performed on the heat pipe collector and a standard TC-100 collector. Heat pipe collector performance exceeded 90% of the TC-100. A source of water compatible steel, NP454, was identified as was an experimental tubing manufacturer. The current availability of NP454 and the successful demonstration of antifreeze mechanisms lays the ground work for testing a heat pipe collector using water heat pipes.

Ernst, D.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Solar space- and water-heating system at Stanford University. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Application of an active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating solar system for the Central Food Services Building is discussed. The closed-loop drain-back system is described as offering dependability of gravity drain-back freeze protection, low maintenance, minimal costs, and simplicity. The system features an 840 square-foot collector and storage capacity of 1550 gallons. The acceptance testing and the predicted system performance data are briefly described. Solar performance calculations were performed using a computer design program (FCHART). Bidding, costs, and economics of the system are reviewed. Problems are discussed and solutions and recommendations given. An operation and maintenance manual is given in Appendix A, and Appendix B presents As-built Drawings. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, John W. (Sag Harbor, NY)

1983-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

410

Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

Andrews, J.W.

1980-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

411

Effects of a shortened depreciation schedule on the investment costs for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion Turbines Steam Turbine Generators Heat Recoveryi.e. combustion turbine, steam turbine (if applicable), heat

Kranz, Nicole; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Bluefield, West Virginia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 3400 Cumberland Road, Bluefield, West Virginia. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately five (5) years instead of the 7.73 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Woodbrdge, VA. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 13317 Gordon Boulevard, Woodbridge, Virginia is given. The description of the system along with the final breakdown, performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately four (4) years instead of the 7.2 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. As called for in the proposal to DOE, the success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Cost effective solar hot water system for Econo-Travel Motor Hotel located at Bluefield, West Virginia. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final report of a cost effective solar hot water heating system installed on the Econo-Travel Motor Hotel at 3400 Cumberland Road, Bluefield, West Virginia. The description of the system along with the final breakdown performance data and payback time are given. The payback time for the installed system will be approximately five (5) years instead of the 7.73 years estimated for the proposal. The additional savings is due to the reduction in the peak demand charge since the electric hot water heaters are not required to operate at the same time each morning as the dryers used for the laundry. The success of the system will be determined by the reduction in the utility cost and reduced use of our fossil fuels. The results shown in the hotel's monthly electricity bills indicate that this goal has been accomplished.

Not Available

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Comparing maintenance costs of geothermal heat pump systems with other HVAC systems in Lincoln public schools: Repair, service, and corrective actions  

SciTech Connect

The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four new elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service, and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACC/GHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCC/GHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCC/GSB). Preventative maintenance and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.884{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07{cents}/ft{sup 2}-yr. Because of tax exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R{sup 2} = 0.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain.

Martin, M.A.; Durfee, D.J.; Hughes, P.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide-Based Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Carbon Dioxide-Based Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

417

Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas-Fired Absorption Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project on AddThis.com...

418

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Rebate < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate $1,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $0.40/annual kWh saved (on average $800 to $1,000) Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to its residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may choose either the cash rebate or a zero-interest loan. Cash rebates of up to $1,000 are available for approved systems. The rebate

419

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan Ashland Electric Utility - Bright Way to Heat Water Loan < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Maximum Rebate not specified Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount not specified Provider Ashland Electric Utilities Department The City of Ashland Conservation Division offers a solar water heating program to residential electric customers who currently use an electric water heater. Under "The Bright Way to Heat Water Program," qualified home owners may take advantage of the City's zero-interest loan program or a cash rebate. Customers choosing a loan repay it as part of their monthly utility bill. Interested customers are provided site evaluations, consumer

420

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Four Heat Pump Water Heater Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water heating represents the second-largest load in residential buildings in the United States, and also a large load in many commercial and industrial buildings. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) continues research on heat pump water heater (HPWH) systems, which provide high-efficiency electric water heating using the heat pump cycle. In this study, four systems, representing both residential and commercial applications, were tested in the laboratory and/or in the field. An A.O. Smith ...

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones. The analysis shows that the low-temperature radiant floor heating system is more suitable for natural gas- condensing water boilers. It is more comfortable, more economical, and can save more energy than other heating systems.

Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Impact of the national energy plan on solar economics. [Economic analysis of solar space heating and solar water heating by state  

SciTech Connect

The National Energy Plan (NEP) sets as a goal the use of solar energy in two and a half million homes in 1985. A key provision of the NEP (as well as congressional alternatives) provides for the subsidization of solar equipment. The extent to which these subsidies (income tax credits) might offset the impact of continued energy price control is examined. Regional prices and availability of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, and electricity) were compiled to obtain a current and consistent set of energy prices by state and energy type. These prices are converted into equivalent terms ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) which account for combustion and heat generation efficiencies. Projections of conventional fuel price increases (or decreases) are made under both the NEP scenario and a projected scenario where all wellhead price controls are removed on natural gas and crude oil production. The economic feasibility (life-cycle cost basis) of solar energy for residential space heating and domestic hot water is examined on a state-by-state basis. Solar system costs are developed for each state by fraction of Btu heating load provided. The total number of homes, projected energy savings, and sensitivity to heating loads, alternative energy costs and prices are included in the analysis.

Ben-David, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.; Schulze, W.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Marginal Cost Pricing and the New LADWP Water Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industry is its capital intensity. For the water industryis 3 to 4 times the capital intensity of the telephone andits extraordinary capital intensity, investment and pricing

Hanemann, W. Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

15 Ways to Save on Your Water Heating Bill | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

it surprises me to see that the most popular pages on the site are the ones about solar water heaters and demand (or tankless) water heaters. But considering that water heating can...

425

Minimizing Energy Costs Through Water Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantity of steam required by a pulp and paper mill, as well as the quantity of power generated can effectively be optimized by managing the water cycles in the mill. This approach addresses the process systems within the mill and investigates the unit operations associated with the systems to optimize them. A byproduct of any water reduction program is a reduction in the steam use of the mill. Invariably, this results in an imbalance in the steam distribution, which can require rebalancing the turbogenerators. Process simulation is used to execute the heat and mass balances required at all stages of the analysis. The result is a rapid analysis that pinpoints deficient unit operations and offers a capital spending plan that outlines the necessary process changes. The usual result is a better process with less waste and pollution, improved yield, increased capacity, lower operating costs and reduced energy demands. A case study is presented: a 1990 study that significantly decreases waster usage and allowed additional pulp production while reducing total stream generation and increasing power production.

Wilson, P. H.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Design and Experiments of a Solar Low-temperature Hot Water Floor Radiant Heating System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solar low-temperature hot water floor radiant heating system combines solar energy heating with floor radiant heating. This kind of environmental heating way not only saves fossil resources and reduces pollution, but also makes people feel more comfortable. First, the authors devised an experimental scheme and set up the laboratory. Second, we collected a great deal of data on the system in different situations. Finally, we conclude that such heating system is feasible and one of the best heating methods.

Wu, Z.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Ingredients for energy conservation: water cooled luminaires and the heat pump  

SciTech Connect

The energy crisis has focused attention on all aspects of building energy usage--particularly heating and cooling energy. The possibility of utilizing water-cooled luminaires in an area of high relative humidity is explored. Heating is done by a water source heat pump utilizing the water from the luminaires as source for the heat pump. The energy usage of the heat pump system is then compared with the energy usage of other heat reclaim systems thereby demonstrating the energy conservation capabilities of the system.

Dowless, E.C.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system including investment, operating fee and pay-back time. The results show that waste water resource heat pump air-conditioning system has a low investment, low operating fee and short payback time.

Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Tips: Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heat Pumps Heat Pumps Tips: Heat Pumps June 24, 2013 - 5:48pm Addthis Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps can be a cost-effective choice in moderate climates, especially if you heat your home with electricity. Heat pumps are the most efficient form of electric heating in moderate climates. Because they move heat rather than generate heat, heat pumps can provide equivalent space conditioning at as little as one quarter of the cost of operating conventional heating or cooling appliances. A heat pump does double duty as a central air conditioner by collecting the heat inside your house and pumping it outside. There are three types of heat pumps: air-to-air, water source, and geothermal. They collect heat from the air, water, or ground outside your

430

Thermal performance and economics of solar space and hot water heating system on Long Island, New York. [F-chart method  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A practical method for designing solar space and water heating systems, called the ''f-chart'' method, is described with the results calculated for Long Island, New York. The solar heating systems to be considered consist of a solar collector which uses either liquid or air, an energy storage which can be either a water tank or a pebble bed, and an auxiliary energy source which supplies heat when solar energy is not available. Solar heated water from storage can be used either for space heating or for preheating the domestic hot water. The results of the ''f-chart'' analysis can simply be expressed as follows. For the thermal performance, Annual Load Fraction Supplied by Solar Energy versus Collector Area, and for the economic performance, Life Cycle Cost Savings versus Collector Area.

Auh, P C

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the factors emphasized by Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), a national consensus-based standard under the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) for developing sustainable or high performance buildings, is water efficiency. A LEED registered project can attain up to five points under water efficiency upon successful integration of various techniques to conserve water. Many techniques are available to conserve water and grey water reuse is one option considered by many LEED registered projects. In spite of widespread popularity, some of the sustainable techniques including grey water reuse, which is recommended by the USGBC and various agencies engaged in green building constructions, are not viable in many parts of the United States due to their effects on construction cost and project schedules. Even though a project could get one or multiple points upon successful implementation of a grey water reuse system and conserving potable water, the following factors may have a positive or negative effect on the design teams decision to implement a grey water reuse system: capital cost, maintenance cost, LEED credits, local plumbing codes, project schedule, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment, filtration, overflow protection, grey water storage tanks, etc. also add to the cost of construction. Ninety percent of the projects claim that project schedule is not affected by the implementation of a grey water reuse system in a green building project. The factors which prevent the project team from implementing a grey water reuse system include capital cost, maintenance cost, local plumbing codes, local water conservation issues, complexity of the system, etc. LEED credits and the spirit of sustainability are the factors which have a positive effect on the design teams decision to implement a grey water reuse system.

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters  

SciTech Connect

Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Solar Hot Water for Your Home  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brochure describing the cost-saving and energy-saving benefits of using solar heated water in your home.

American Solar Energy Society

2001-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

435

ArkansasEnergy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table A.11 shows the estimated annual energy costs, including heating, cooling, water heating, and lighting per home that result from meeting the requirements in the 2006,...

436

Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Emerging Technologies » Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Gas-Fired Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into carbon gas-fired absorption heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to increase water heating energy efficiency over conventional gas storage water heaters by 40%. Project Description This project seeks to develop a natural gas-fired water heater using an absorption heat. The development effort is targeting lithium bromide aqueous solutions as a working fluid in order to avoid the negative implications of using more toxic ammonia. Project Partners Research is being undertaken through a Cooperative Research and Development

437

Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama. [Includes engineering drawings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Information is provided on the solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center. The solar space heating and hot water facility and the project involved in its construction are described in considerable detail and detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are included. The facility was designed to provide 85 percent of the hot water and 85 percent of the space heating requirements. Two important factors concerning this project for commercial demonstration are the successful use of silicon oil as a heat transfer fluid and the architecturally aesthetic impact of a large solar energy system as a visual centerpoint. There is no overheat or freeze protection due to the characteristics of the silicon oil and the design of the system. Construction proceeded on schedule with no cost overruns. It is designed to be relatively free of scheduled maintenance, and has experienced practically no problems.

Not Available

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Energy and cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen combined heat and power system for remote power supply using a computer simulation  

SciTech Connect

A simulation program, based on Visual Pascal, for sizing and techno-economic analysis of the performance of solar-hydrogen combined heat and power systems for remote applications is described. The accuracy of the submodels is checked by comparing the real performances of the system's components obtained from experimental measurements with model outputs. The use of the heat generated by the PEM fuel cell, and any unused excess hydrogen, is investigated for hot water production or space heating while the solar-hydrogen system is supplying electricity. A 5 kWh daily demand profile and the solar radiation profile of Melbourne have been used in a case study to investigate the typical techno-economic characteristics of the system to supply a remote household. The simulation shows that by harnessing both thermal load and excess hydrogen it is possible to increase the average yearly energy efficiency of the fuel cell in the solar-hydrogen system from just below 40% up to about 80% in both heat and power generation (based on the high heating value of hydrogen). The fuel cell in the system is conventionally sized to meet the peak of the demand profile. However, an economic optimisation analysis illustrates that installing a larger fuel cell could lead to up to a 15% reduction in the unit cost of the electricity to an average of just below 90 c/kWh over the assessment period of 30 years. Further, for an economically optimal size of the fuel cell, nearly a half the yearly energy demand for hot water of the remote household could be supplied by heat recovery from the fuel cell and utilising unused hydrogen in the exit stream. Such a system could then complement a conventional solar water heating system by providing the boosting energy (usually in the order of 40% of the total) normally obtained from gas or electricity. (author)

Shabani, Bahman; Andrews, John; Watkins, Simon [School of Aerospace Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Commonwealth Solar Hot Water Residential Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Heating Water Heating Maximum Rebate 3,500 per building or 25% of total installed costs Program Information Funding Source Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust Fund Start Date...

440

Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in water-based nanofluids at low pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In this ...

Kim, Sung Joong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "water heating costs" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Case for utility involvement in solar-domestic water heating  

SciTech Connect

Credibility of system performance over an extended period of time is still a major concern for prospective buyers of solar-collector systems. Although Congress has enacted solar legislation with the intention of assisting homeowners in the adoption of solar energy, it apparently did not consider which organizational entities could best address the concerns of the consumer and accelerate the adoption of solar energy for domestic hot water heating. This article points out that legislation which does not encourage full participation by utilities in the marketing of solar energy has produced very low adoption rates compared to the size of the solar market potential. It also describes some of the empirical results of one utility company's efforts with a large-scale solar demonstration program, and presents some findings for the investor-owned utility industry to consider before Congress takes additional legislative action in this area. 11 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Smackey, B.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, July 15, 1996--September 14, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report very briefly summarizes project objectives, results, and current activities. The goals of the project are: (1) to develop guidelines for the design and use of thermosypohon side-arm heat exchangers in solar domestic water heating systems, and (2) to establish appropriate modeling and testing criteria for evaluating the performance of systems using this type of heat exchanger. Results include the experimental study of thermosyphon heat exchangers, which led to modeling equations that correlate the overall heat transfer coefficient-area product (UA) to mixed convection regime parameters. Current activities include the development and evaluation of a side-arm heat exchanger computer model and modification of the experimental facility for fundamental heat exchanger studies.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, May 15, 1996--July 14, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report very briefly summarizes study results and includes an experimental plan developed for the fundamental study of heat transfer in thermosyphon side-arm heat exchangers. The study will investigate the influence of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers on the thermosyphon flow side of the heat exchanger, and the influence of the flow rate on the forced flow side of the heat exchanger. Detailed temperature, flow rate, and pressure data will be obtained for four, seven, and nine tube-in-shell heat exchanger designs. Correlations will be developed for the heat transfer and friction coefficients, and a semi-empirical model will be developed to predict the performance of thermosyphon heat exchangers in solar water heaters.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Natural convection heat exchangers for solar water heating systems. Technical progress report, February 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This progress report describes the thermodynamic testing and modeling of a thermosyphon heat exchanger used in solar water heating systems. Testing of a four tube-in-shell thermosyphon heat exchanger was performed in two parts. The first portion of the test increased the collector fluid while the storage tank remained isothermal. After the collector fluid temperature was raised to 95 C, the second part of the test allowed the storage tank to gain heat. The test was performed for two collector flow rates. Measured values included collector side forced flow rate, temperature differences across the heat exchanger, vertical temperature distribution in the storage tank, vertical water temperature profile in the heat exchanger, and pressure drop on the thermosyphon side of the heat exchanger. The overall heat transfer coefficient-area product (UA) values obtained confirmed that models which assume UA depends solely on thermosyphon flow rate do not adequately characterize thermosyphon heat exchangers. This is because heat transfer in thermosyphon exchangers occurs in the mixed convection, rather than forced flow, regime. A linear regression equation was developed to better predict UA using the Prandtl, Reynolds, and Grashof numbers and dimensionless parameters based on fluid properties calculated for the average hot and cold leg temperatures. 9 figs.

Davidson, J.H.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

A survey of potential low-cost concentrator concepts for use in low-temperature water detoxification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several different concentrator concepts have been considered for use in the detoxification of chemically contaminated water. The reactions of interest are predominantly photocatalytic in nature and are driven by low concentrations (between 1 and 50 suns) of UV radiation in the 300- to 385-nm wavelength range. Optical performance characteristics of these concentrators are thus somewhat different compared to concentrators developed for industrial process heat and electrical energy production. Relaxed optical tolerances might lead to reductions in concentrator cost that, when integrated into overall field system cost, could make the solar-driven process competitive with current UV lamp technology. Aspects of the concentrator system that might realize cost reductions include the concentrating element, the support structure, the tracking and drive system, the manufacturing processes, and the installation procedures. Several ideals have been resurrected from earlier research in the Solar Thermal Program where the need for more stringent optical performance requirements led to a decline or even an end to further investigation. In light of this new application, the most promising of these ideas are presented, including a description and a discussion of the cost and performance trade-offs. In addition, the results of recent investigate research on several of these concepts will be presented. The concepts include a low-cost parabolic trough, the inflatable line-focus concentrator, and the holographic concentrator. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Wendelin, T.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hybrid geothermal heat pump systems offer many of the benefits of full geothermal systems but at lower installed costs. A hybrid geothermal system combines elements of a conventional water loop heat pump system in order to reduce the geothermal loop heat exchanger costs, which are probably the largest cost element of a geothermal system. These hybrid systems have been used successfully where sufficient ground space to install large heat exchangers for full geothermal options was unavailable, or where the...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

448

Economic costs of conventional surface-water treatment: A case study of the Mcallen northwest facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional water treatment facilities are the norm for producing potable water for U.S. metropolitan areas. Rapidly-growing urban populations, competing demands for water, imperfect water markets, and uncertainty of future water supplies contribute to high interests in alternative sources of potable water for many U.S. municipalities. In situations where multiple supply alternatives exist, properly analyzing which alternative is the most-economically efficient over the course of its useful life requires a sound economic and financial analysis of each alternative using consistent methodology. This thesis discusses such methodology and provides an assessment of the life-cycle costs of conventional water treatment using actual data from an operating surface-water treatment facility located in McAllen, Texas: the McAllen Northwest facility. This facility has a maximum-designed operating capacity of 8.25 million gallons per day (mgd), but due to required shutdown time and other limitations, it is currently operating at 78% of the designed capacity (6.44 mgd). The economic and financial life-cycle costs associated with constructing and operating the McAllen Northwest facility are analyzed using a newly-developed Excel 2 spreadsheet model, CITY H O ECONOMICS . Although specific results are applicable only to the McAllen Northwest facility, the baseline results of $771.67/acre-foot (acft)/ yr {$2.37/1,000 gallons/yr} for this analysis provide insight regarding the life-cycle costs for conventional surface-water treatment. The baseline results are deterministic (i.e., noninclusive of risk/uncertainty about datainput values), but are expanded to include sensitivity analyses with respect to several critical factors including the facilitys useful life, water rights costs, initial construction costs, and annual operations and maintenance, chemical, and energy costs. For example, alternative costs for water rights associated with sourcing water for conventional treatment facilities are considered relative to the assumed baseline cost of $2,300/ac-ft, with results ranging from a low of $653.34/ac-ft/yr (when water rights are $2,000/ac-ft) to a high of $1,061.83/ac-ft/yr (when water rights are $2,600/ac-ft). Furthermore, modifications to key data-input parameters and results are included for a more consistent basis of comparison to enable comparisons across facilities and/or technologies. The modified results, which are considered appropriate to compare to other similarly calculated values, are $667.74/ac-ft/yr {2.05/1,000 gallons/yr}.

Rogers, Callie Sue

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Table HC11.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water Heating Characteristics Middle Atlantic New England Northeast Census Region U.S. Housing Units (millions) Census Division Total Northeast Energy Information ...

450

"Table HC11.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Water Heating Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division"...

451

Table B37. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings...

452

Table CE4-6.1u. Water-Heating Energy Consumption and Expenditures ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table CE4-6.1u. Water-Heating Energy Consumption and Expenditures by Household Member and Usage Indicators, 2001 Usage Indicators RSE Column Factor:

453

Table WH3. Total Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels Used ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table WH3. Total Consumption for Water Heating by Major Fuels Used, 2005 Physical Units Electricity (billion kWh) Natural Gas (billion cf) Fuel Oil

454

Table WH5. Total Expenditures for Water Heating by Major Fuels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Table WH5. Total Expenditures for Water Heating by Major Fuels Used, 2005 Billion Dollars Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil LPG U.S. Households

455

Table HC12.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Midwest Census ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water Heating Characteristics East North Central West North Central Midwest Census Region U.S. Housing Units (millions) Census Division Total Midwest

456

Table HC2.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Water Heating Characteristics Attached 2 to 4 Units 5 or More Units Mobile Homes Apartments in Buildings Housing With--Units (millions) Energy Information Administration

457

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007 -- Mechanical and Service Water Heating...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

provides an overview of the mechanical and service water heating requirements of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007. Estimated Length: 1 hour, 32 minutes Presenters: Mark Hydeman,...